CN1515850A - Unit solar energy heat pump air conditioner and hot water system - Google Patents

Unit solar energy heat pump air conditioner and hot water system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1515850A
CN1515850A CNA031506259A CN03150625A CN1515850A CN 1515850 A CN1515850 A CN 1515850A CN A031506259 A CNA031506259 A CN A031506259A CN 03150625 A CN03150625 A CN 03150625A CN 1515850 A CN1515850 A CN 1515850A
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China
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heat
water
solar
solar energy
heating
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CNA031506259A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1235007C (en
Inventor
王如竹
旷玉辉
许煜雄
吴静怡
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上海交通大学
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B27/00Machines, plant, or systems, using particular sources of energy
    • F25B27/002Machines, plant, or systems, using particular sources of energy using solar energy
    • F25B27/005Machines, plant, or systems, using particular sources of energy using solar energy in compression type systems

Abstract

The present invention relates to a directly-expanded type solar heat pump air conditioning and water-heating system, the directly-expanded type solar heat pump and ice cold-storage air conditioner are combined organically, and it is mainly formed from solar heat collector/evaporator, compressor, condenser, electronic expansion valve, four-way reverse valve, heat water storage tank, hot water tank, air conditioner tail end cover and system control component. The solar heat collector/evaporator adopts the plate type heat collector which has no cover plate and whose bottom is heat insulated and whose surface is coated with solar spectrum absorbing material, and the energy storage device adopts a closed pressure-bearing heat storage water tank whose interior is equipped with high-effective heat exchange equipment which can store heat in winter and can store ice in summer.

Description

Directly-expanding solar heat-pump air conditioner and hot-water heating system

Technical field:

The present invention relates to a kind of solar energy heat utilization system, relate in particular to a kind of directly-expanding solar heat-pump air conditioner and hot-water heating system, belong to heat supply of energy class and air-conditioning technical field.

Background technology:

In recent years, along with the fast development of Building Trade in China, the heating of building and air-conditioning power consumption constantly enlarge.According to statistics, the building energy consumption of China accounts for 1/4 of national total energy consumption, occupies the power consumption first place.The consumption of the energy has not only aggravated the in short supply day by day and exhausted of fossil fuel, and severe contamination environment.Satisfy ever-increasing energy for building demand, and be unlikely influence other departments with can demand or do not aggravate serious pollution situation, best bet is to implement building energy conservation.Utilizing the solar energy thermal technology to satisfy building is the field of at present tool realistic meaning and exploitation prospect to the demand of heating, air-conditioning and hot water.The application of solar energy thermal technology in building mainly contains various ways such as passive solar house, the direct heating of solar energy, solar heat pump, solar absorption or absorption type air-conditioning.Wherein, passive solar house has specific (special) requirements to architectural design; applicability and flexibility are relatively poor, and the direct heating system of solar energy general huger, the interdependent rate of solar energy is low, economic performance is poor, all is difficult in China's urban and rural buildings applying of in addition scale at present.Because adopt existing solar thermal collector and adsorbent refrigerator, the solar absorption air-conditioning can only move under the single-action operating mode usually, make actual heating performance coefficient COP than economic benefits and social benefits COP low 50%.For example, (Wang Ruzhu, fourth state are good etc. for document " up-to-date refrigeration and air-conditioning technical ", Science Press 2002,9:113~116) just point out, two relatively large solar energy absorption type air conditioning systems (100kW) that China's the enforcement period of the ninth five-year plan implements, investment is up to surplus 200 ten thousand yuan, and actual COP is limited in below 0.6~0.7, technical and economic performance is very poor, has fundamentally limited it and has promoted the use of.In addition, the adsorption-type solar air-conditioning still is in the Primary Study stage at present, also must overcome problems such as running is intermittent, low, the cold anharmonic ratio of system effectiveness is little, could be really in addition practical application.

Solar heat pump has overcome the shortcoming of above-mentioned solar heating and air-conditioning system, solar energy thermal technology and electric heat pump technology are combined, greatly reduce the heat collector operating temperature, and improved the evaporating temperature of heat pump, thereby have higher collector efficiency and a heat pump performance coefficient, and compact conformation, applicability are strong, technical and economic performance is also better, go on the industrialized development road for solar airconditioning an effective way is provided.But conventional non-direct expanding solar heating pump exists structure more complicated, heat collection device to be difficult to, function singleness integrated with building structure, the not high shortcoming of the annual utilization rate of equipment, it is applied also be subjected to certain restriction.

Summary of the invention:

The objective of the invention is at the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of novel directly-expanding solar heat-pump air conditioner and hot-water heating system are provided, solar heat pump is combined with ice-storage air-conditioning, integrate multiple functions such as winter heating, summer air-conditioning and annual domestic hot-water supply, make that structure is compact more, applicability is better, utilization rate of equipment and installations is high, energy-saving effect is more remarkable, and make heat collection device be easy to realize integrated with building structure.

For realizing such purpose, in the technical scheme of the present invention, adopt the direct expanding solar heating pump system form, be about to solar thermal collector directly as the evaporimeter of heat pump, the absorption process of solar energy and the evaporation process of cold-producing medium are finished in same equipment.Under summer ice-reserving operating mode, solar energy heating/evaporimeter will be used as the nocturnal radiation radiator, and the condenser of double as heat pump makes refrigerant vapour obtain condensation at this by radiation and heat convection.Whole system comprises solar energy heating/evaporimeter, compressor, condenser, electric expansion valve, four-way change-over valve, accumulation of heat (cold) groove, domestic hot-water's case, gas-liquid separator, reservoir, device for drying and filtering, pipeline and valve member etc.Solar energy heating/evaporator outlet links to each other with the air entry of compressor through four-way change-over valve, gas-liquid separator, the exhaust outlet of compressor is connected with the condenser coil air inlet, the outlet of condenser coil is connected with the import of heat exchange coil through four-way change-over valve, the liquid outlet of heat exchange coil links to each other with reservoir, link to each other with the inlet of thermal-arrest/evaporimeter through check valve, device for drying and filtering, electric expansion valve respectively then, form the closed circulation passage of cold-producing medium.Condenser coil is arranged in and is used to produce 40~60 ℃ domestic hot-water in the boiler, and heat exchange coil then is arranged in accumulation of heat (cold) groove, and part heat (cold) amount is used for room heating (air-conditioning), and another part heat (cold) amount is stored in the water tank as standby.Condenser coil and heat exchange coil are equipped with bypass line, and adopt magnetic valve to be controlled.The upper and lower end of accumulation of heat (cold) groove is respectively equipped with confession, backwater is taken over, thereby can be connected with air-conditioner tail end equipment capable.The import and export of air heat exchanger is in parallel with solar energy heating/evaporimeter by three-way solenoid valve respectively, as the auxiliary evaporator or the condenser of heat pump.

The present invention adopts and is easy to realize integrated plate type solar thermal-arrest/evaporimeter with building structure.Absorber can adopt copper aluminium composite welding plate or full aluminothermy to press the inflation plate, and the top does not have cover plate, around reaching, the bottom suitably is incubated, and surface spraying spectral absorption material, the pipeline bearing requirements is at 15~20 kgf/cm 2More than.Because this solar energy heating/evaporation structure is simple, light matter and thin body,, be particularly suitable for multilayer or skyscraper so be easy to tilt to be installed on the roof or vertically be mounted on the south orientation external wall.Under summer ice-reserving operating mode, solar energy heating/evaporimeter uses as nocturnal radiation heat radiation/condenser again.

The present invention adopts enclosed pressure-bearing hot water storage tank, arranging copper pipe heat exchanger efficiently in the water tank, is refrigerant passage in the pipe, carries out heat exchange by free convection and heat conduction and water, utilize winter the sensible heat of water to realize accumulation of heat, utilize summer the latent heat (comprising a part of sensible heat) of water to realize cold-storage.

The present invention adopts the direct expanding solar heating pump system form, make the operating temperature of heat collector remain consistent with the evaporating temperature of cold-producing medium, and near environment temperature, collector efficiency and heat pump performance coefficient (collector efficiency generally can reach 60%~80%, and heat pump COP generally can surpass 3) have been improved greatly.The present invention adopts and is easy to realize integrated, cheap flat thermal-arrest/evaporimeter with building structure, and the thermal-arrest cost is very low, has greatly improved the economic performance of system.The present invention can utilize air as source heat pump heat under the situation of overcast and rainy or solar radiation relative deficiency, has guaranteed the continuity and the stability of winter heating, and does not consume other high-grade energy.The present invention can utilize late into the night electric power to carry out cold-storage operation to satisfy the needs of air conditioner load on daytime in summer, has not only improved utilization rate of equipment and installations, to have satisfied building multiple with can demand, and helps urban electric power and avoid the peak hour.

The present invention integrates multiple functions such as winter heating, summer air-conditioning and annual domestic hot-water supply, have plurality of advantages such as applicability is good, utilization rate of equipment and installations is high, energy-saving effect is remarkable, the life-span is long, technical and economic performance is better, be a kind of building energy composite energy system of novel environmental type, be applicable to the vast urban and rural buildings of China.

Description of drawings:

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of system architecture of the present invention and winter heating operating mode.

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of ice-reserving operating mode in summer of the present invention.

Among Fig. 1, Fig. 2,1 is solar energy heating/evaporimeter, and 2 is four-way change-over valve, 3 is gas-liquid separator, and 4 is compressor, and 5 is condenser coil, 6 are life boiler, and 7 is magnetic valve, and 8 is heat exchange coil, 9 are accumulation of heat (cold) groove, and 10 is check valve, and 11 is reservoir, 12 is Filter dryer, 13 is electric expansion valve, and 14 is three-way solenoid valve, and 15 is air cooling heat exchanger.

The specific embodiment:

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing technical scheme of the present invention is described in further detail.

System architecture of the present invention as shown in Figure 1.Whole system is made up of solar energy heating/evaporimeter 1, four-way change-over valve 2, gas-liquid separator 3, frequency-changeable compressor 4, condenser coil 5, domestic hot-water's case 6, heat exchange coil 8, accumulation of heat (cold) groove 9, reservoir 11, device for drying and filtering 12, electric expansion valve 13, air cooling heat exchanger 15 and refrigeration pipe and valve member etc.The outlet of solar energy heating/evaporimeter 1 links to each other with the air entry of frequency-changeable compressor 4 through four-way change-over valve 2, gas-liquid separator 3, the exhaust outlet of frequency-changeable compressor 4 is connected with the air inlet of condenser coil 5, the outlet of condenser coil 5 is connected through the import of four-way change-over valve 2 with heat exchange coil 8, the liquid outlet of heat exchange coil 8 links to each other with reservoir 11, drying filter 12, electric expansion valve 13 link to each other with the inlet of thermal-arrest/evaporimeter 1 respectively then, thereby form the closed circulation passage of cold-producing medium.Wherein, condenser coil 5 is arranged in domestic hot-water's case 6, is used to produce 40~60 ℃ domestic hot-water, and heat exchange coil 8 then is arranged in accumulation of heat (cold) groove 9, and condenser coil 5 and heat exchange coil 8 are equipped with bypass line, adopt magnetic valve 7 to carry out break-make control on the pipeline.The upper and lower part of accumulation of heat (cold) groove 9 is established an adapter respectively and is connected with confession, the water return pipeline of air-conditioner tail end equipment capable, forms the forced circulation loop of water by water pump.Air cooling heat exchanger 15 is as the auxiliary equipment of solar energy heating/evaporimeter 1, and its import and export is in parallel with solar energy heating/evaporimeter 1 by a three-way solenoid valve 14 respectively.

Under the heating operating mode in the winter time, the systemic circulation course of work is described below: daytime, cold-producing medium flows in solar energy heating/evaporimeter 1 after electric expansion valve 13 throttlings, evaporate by absorbing solar radiant energy, with after the centrifugation of gas-liquid separator 3 makes refrigerant vapour be sucked by compressor 4, the water that the high temperature and high pressure steam that produces at first is discharged in condenser coil 5 and the domestic hot-water's case 6 carries out heat exchange, part steam obtains condensation, after this moist steam flows into the heat exchange coil 8 continuation condensations in the accumulation of heat tank 9 again, part heat is used for room heating, another part is then stored, condensed liquid refrigerant is through check valve 10, reservoir 11, device for drying and filtering 12 and electric expansion valve 13 flow back to solar energy heating/evaporimeter 1 reuptakes solar energy, thereby finishes once circulation.At night,, then, needn't start compressor 4 by the direct heat-obtaining from accumulation of heat tank 9 of air conditioning terminal circulation if the water temperature in the accumulation of heat tank 9 is enough high.But if the shortage of heat that stores daytime is to satisfy night the needs of (or overcast and rainy) continuous heating, then three-way solenoid valve 14 is opened bypass line, utilizes the auxiliary thermal source device of air cooling heat exchanger 15 as system, to satisfy the comfortableness requirement of room heating.

Fig. 2 is an ice-reserving operating mode schematic diagram in summer of the present invention.

Commutation by four-way change-over valve 2, solar energy heating/evaporimeter 1 is used as nocturnal radiation heat radiation/condenser, the import of heat loss through radiation/condenser 1 links to each other through the outlet of four-way change-over valve 2 with condenser coil 5, meanwhile accumulation of heat tank 9 is as the ice cold-storage groove, the outlet of heat exchange coil 8 then couples together through the air inlet of four-way change-over valve 2 with gas-liquid separator 3, and the annexation between the remaining part remains unchanged.

Under summer ice-reserving operating mode, the systemic circulation course of work is as follows: night, the refrigerant vapour that comes out from compressor 4 at first flows into condenser coil 5, the partial condensation by the heating domestic hot-water, moist steam flows into nocturnal radiation heat radiation/condenser 1 through four-way change-over valve 2 then, continue condensation by convection current and heat loss through radiation, the liquid refrigerant that obtains is through check valve 10, reservoir 11, device for drying and filtering 12 and electric expansion valve 13 flow in the heat exchange coil 8, evaporate by the heat that absorbs water in the cold-storage groove 9, make the continuous decline of water temperature until freezing point, an ice part that makes is for air-conditioning use at night, another part stores in the ice groove for air-conditioning use on daytime, cold-producing medium after the evaporation is sucked by compressor 4 again through gas-liquid separator 3, compression, thus once circulation finished.If the ice amount that stores night is enough to satisfy the needs of air-conditioning on daytime, then can utilize the air conditioning terminal circulation directly from Ice Storage Tank 9, to extract cold, needn't start source pump.If night, the ice-reserving quantity not sufficient was then opened the bypass line of three-way solenoid valve 14, adopt the auxiliary condenser of air cooling heat exchanger 15, to guarantee the needs of room air conditioner on daytime as system.

Under transition season hot water operating mode, reduce the internal circulating load of cold-producing medium by the frequency that reduces compressor 4, while opens solenoid valve 7, make refrigerant vapour whole condensations in condenser coil 5 be used to produce hot water, and condensed refrigerant liquid flow directly in the reservoir 11 through the bypass pipe of heat exchange coil 8.

Aspect system's control, the present invention mainly adopts following Several Measures: 1) adopt four-way change-over valve to carry out the conversion of summer in winter operating mode; 2) adopt the electronic expansion valve controls compressor air suction degree of superheat, and,, thereby make whole system can keep efficient, stable operation all the time by the motor speed of Frequency Converter Control compressor according to the situation of change of meteorological condition; 3), adopt differential temperature controller to start the aperture of reserve air cooling heat exchanger and control three-way solenoid valve according to the variation of accumulation of energy medium temperature and meteorological condition; 4) in the winter time under the operating mode, temperature controller is used to control the keying of magnetic valve on its bypass line in the boiler, promptly when the hot water temperature reaches design temperature, opens bypass line.Under transition season operating mode, this temperature controller then is used to control the start and stop of compressor, promptly when the hot water temperature reaches design temperature, and the compressor autostop.

Claims (3)

1, a kind of directly-expanding solar heat-pump air conditioner and hot-water heating system, it is characterized in that solar energy heating/evaporimeter (1) outlet is through four-way change-over valve (2), gas-liquid separator (3) links to each other with the air entry of frequency-changeable compressor (4), the exhaust outlet of compressor (4) is connected with the air inlet of condenser coil (5), the outlet of condenser coil (5) is connected through the import of four-way change-over valve (2) with heat exchange coil (8), the liquid outlet of heat exchange coil (8) links to each other with reservoir (11), distinguish drying filter (12) then, electric expansion valve (13) links to each other with the inlet of solar energy heating/evaporimeter (1), form the closed circulation passage of cold-producing medium, condenser coil (5) is arranged in domestic hot-water's case (6), heat exchange coil (8) then is arranged in accumulation of heat/cold trap (9), and condenser coil (5) and heat exchange coil (8) are equipped with bypass line, adopt magnetic valve (7) to carry out break-make control on the pipeline, on accumulation of heat/cold trap (9), the bottom is established the confession of an adapter and air-conditioner tail end equipment capable respectively, water return pipeline links to each other, the advancing of air cooling heat exchanger (15), outlet is in parallel with solar energy heating/evaporimeter (1) by three-way solenoid valve (14) respectively.
2, directly-expanding solar heat-pump air conditioner as claimed in claim 1 and hot-water heating system, it is characterized in that described solar energy heating/evaporimeter (1) adopts no cover plate, bottom insulation, surface spraying solar light spectrum absorption material flat plate collector, winter the double as heat pump evaporimeter, summer is then as the hold concurrently condenser of heat pump of nocturnal radiation radiator.
3, directly-expanding solar heat-pump air conditioner as claimed in claim 1 and hot-water heating system is characterized in that described accumulation of heat/cold trap (9) adopts enclosed pressure-bearing hot water storage tank, arrange copper pipe heat exchanger in the water tank, are refrigerant passage in the pipe, accumulation of heat in winter, cool-storage in summer.
CN 03150625 2003-08-28 2003-08-28 Unit solar energy heat pump air conditioner and hot water system CN1235007C (en)

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