CN1279145C - Process and apparatus for preparing coal gas by using bulky biomass materials - Google Patents

Process and apparatus for preparing coal gas by using bulky biomass materials Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1279145C
CN1279145C CN 200410041865 CN200410041865A CN1279145C CN 1279145 C CN1279145 C CN 1279145C CN 200410041865 CN200410041865 CN 200410041865 CN 200410041865 A CN200410041865 A CN 200410041865A CN 1279145 C CN1279145 C CN 1279145C
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China
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coal gas
gas
built
vapourizing furnace
gasification
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN 200410041865
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CN1603388A (en
Inventor
张进平
乔旭
崔咪芬
汤吉海
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Nanjing Tech University
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Nanjing Tech University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]
    • Y02E20/18Integrated gasification combined cycle [IGCC], e.g. combined with carbon capture and storage [CCS]

Abstract

The present invention discloses a technology and a device using fluffy biomass raw materials to prepare coal gas. The technology comprises the steps of raw material pretreatment, raw material gasification, separation for removing slag, coal gas purification and coal gas transportation; the device comprises a raw material pretreating system, a coal gas generating system, a coal gas purifying system and a coal gas transporting and storing system. The built-in fast fluidized bed gasification furnace adopted by the present invention has the characteristics of high production intensity, high gasification efficiency, low tar content in coal gas, good operational stability, etc. The gasification reaction is completed at the pneumatic conveying speed; a built-in separator realizes the fast circulation of the biomass raw materials in the gasification furnace; the coal gas purification adopts a method combining water washing and organic solvent washing, which has the characteristics of high removal rate of tar, small change fluctuation of tar oil content in coal gas, etc. The technology and the device of the present invention can continuously gasify the fluffy biomass raw materials; the coal gas produced by gasification can be used as a gas source of a fuel gas generator and can be used for supplying gas to surrounding resident users by a pipeline network.

Description

Utilize the fluff type biomass material to prepare the device of coal gas
Technical field
The present invention relates to biomass material and prepare coal gas craft and equipment, particularly relate to and utilize the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas craft, the invention still further relates to the device of this technology.
Background technology
The generalized biomass are meant the hydrocarbon polymer that is produced by photosynthesis.Pressing the quality of biomass material divides, biomass material can be divided into compact-type and fluff type two big classes: the compact-type biomass material mainly comprises agricultural crop straws such as forest zone logging residue, Chinese sorghum, corn, cotton, and the fluff type biomass material mainly comprises farming stalks such as straw, wheat straw, rice husk.China is large agricultural country, and farm crop are based on wheat, paddy rice, so the fluff type biomass material accounts for suitable vast scale in China's biomass resource.
How developing fluff type biomass resource (straw, wheat straw, rice husk, wood chip etc.) effectively and rationally is the key subjects that we face.Domestic gasifying biomass generally adopts the downdraft vapourizing furnace, and this type of furnace is relatively good to compact-type biomass material gasification result, and not ideal enough for fluff type biomass material result of use.For pulverulent materials such as wood chip, wood powders the report that adopts the external circulation fluidized bed vapourizing furnace is arranged, but have defectives such as furnace type structure complexity, poor stability.Wet process is generally adopted in the purification of coal gas, and scavenging process produces a large amount of tar sewage that contain, and causes second environmental pollution.
Summary of the invention
But the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of efficient height, cost low, pollute less continuous gasification fluff type biomass material and prepare coal gas craft.
Another object of the present invention provides the isolated plant of above-mentioned technology.
The objective of the invention is to realize by following measure:
A kind of fluff type biomass material that utilizes prepares coal gas craft, may further comprise the steps:
(1) pre-treatment of raw material: the fluff type biomass material is through pulverizing or be chopped into the fragment of 3-10mm;
(2) gasification of raw material: send into vapourizing furnace through pretreated biomass material fragment, biomass material generates coal gas with gasifying medium generation part redox reaction in vapourizing furnace, gasification reaction carries out in 600 ℃~1000 ℃ temperature ranges, and making the abundant cracking of tar, temperature controlling realizes by the add-on of regulating gasifying medium amount and raw material;
(3) separate, slag tap: the coal gas of high temperature that contains ash content and a small amount of tar of being drawn by vapourizing furnace enters tripping device, and lime-ash adopts the wet method mode of slagging tap that the lime-ash after moistening is discharged gasification system after separating, and the coal gas behind the separation lime-ash enters purification system;
(4) gas purification: the coal gas after the separation is lowered the temperature by washing, can remove ash content and part tar in the coal gas simultaneously; Residual a small amount of tar adopts the organic solvent washing method to remove in the coal gas behind the water washing cleaning; Solvent after using in the purification system recycles after reclaiming;
(5) transmission ﹠ distribution of coal gas: send into gas chamber by the coal gas of purification system output and store standby or as the source of the gas of gas electricity generator, also can pass through the peritropous resident's air feed of pipe network.
The described fluff type biomass material that utilizes prepares coal gas craft, and wherein gasifying medium is an air, and unit is Nm 3Gasification air amount and unit be that the ratio of volume and weight of the raw material add-on of kg is controlled at 1.05~1.15: 1, fluidizing gas velocity is 1.4~2.5m/s.
The described fluff type biomass material that utilizes prepares coal gas craft, and wherein the used organic solvent of gas purification can be heavy oil or heavy fuel oil (HFO), and the solvent cycle amount is 3~5m 3/ h.
A kind of device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas comprises raw materials pretreatment system, gas generating system, gas cleaning system, coal gas conveying storage system.
The described device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas, wherein gas generating system adopts built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace.
The described device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas, be provided with integral separator in the wherein built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace, the dipleg of integral separator has adopted the flutter valve sealed structure that contains one or more mobile wings, the sealing structure only allows solid materials dirty and do not allow gas to scurry into, and the mobile wing of flutter valve can be according to the buildup situation automatic open close in the dipleg.
The described device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas, wherein integral separator links to each other with the coal gas fairlead of sufficient length in the vapourizing furnace, and coal gas fairlead process vapourizing furnace is drawn vapourizing furnace behind the high-temperature zone.
The described device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas, wherein gas cleaning system is made of water washing device and organic solvent washing device.
The described device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas, wherein the water washing device is made of bubble tower, one or several washing tower.
The described device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas, wherein the organic solvent washing device is made of Venturi meter.
Processing step key of the present invention is the gasification of biomass material and the purification of coal gas, and the key equipment of gasification is built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace.
Advantage of the present invention:
(1) the built-in fast fluidized bed gasification furnace structure of the present invention's employing is simple, and the body of heater overall cost is cheap, easy construction, body of heater long service life; Closed circulation stage purification technology is adopted in gas purification in the technology, and the micro-tar in the coal gas after washing adopts solvent method to remove, and solvent recycles after recycling, the purification efficiency height, and production cost is low.
(2) integral separator is realized the Rapid Cycle of fluff type biomass material in the vapourizing furnace, biomass gasification reaction is finished under high gas speed 1.4~2.5m/s (greater than the raw material particle velocity) condition, gasification furnace heat transfer, mass transfer velocity is fast, unit gasification space production intensity is big, and the vapourizing furnace operational stability is good; The dipleg of integral separator has adopted single-blade or multiple wing valve seal structure, and the sealing structure only allows solid materials dirty and do not allow gas to scurry into, and the valve wing can guarantee the separating effect of integral separator according to the buildup situation automatic open close in the dipleg; The solid materials of the not gasification that integral separator is collected returns the vapourizing furnace bottom by dipleg to be continued to participate in reaction, has reduced vapourizing furnace and has flown the charcoal amount, and the charcoal transformation efficiency of biomass material has improved the utilization ratio of biomass greater than 95%.The 5-10 that the built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace production intensity that the present invention adopts is common fluidized-bed gasification furnace doubly, carbon content is less than 20% in the lime-ash, the material carbon transformation efficiency is greater than 95%, the caloric power of gas that produces greater than 5800kJ/Nm 3
(3) because temperature is too high, be easy to slagging scorification, temperature is low excessively, be difficult for effecting reaction, the gas quality of preparation is poor, one aspect of the present invention is by regulating the feed rate control gasification reaction temperature of gasification air amount and raw material, on the other hand the vapourizing furnace main body is adopted metallic substance and non-metallic material structure combining, be that steel construction is adopted on top, the bottom adopts non-metallic refractory to construct, and makes this vapourizing furnace gasification zone wide, and the gasification reaction temperature is even, the furnace heat transfer mass transfer velocity is fast, can effectively prevent the slagging scorification problem that causes because of local superheating.
(4) coal gas of vapourizing furnace generation adopts the fairlead of certain-length to draw vapourizing furnace behind the vapourizing furnace high-temperature zone, coal gas has enough residence time to make the tar in the coal gas obtain abundant cracking in fairlead, the coal-tar middle oil content of vapourizing furnace outlet coal gas is low, and the main flammable composition in the coal gas is: CO, H 2, CH 4, C mH nDeng.The method that gas purification adopts washing and organic solvent washing to combine is undertaken by bubble tower-first washing tower-second washing tower-4 grades of purification process of organic solvent washing device (Venturi meter); Solvent method is removed micro-tar technology and is had characteristics such as running cost is low, tar clearance height, and the coal-tar middle oil content of the coal gas after the purification is less than 30mg/Nm 3, can satisfy the requirement of gas electricity generator requirement or pipe-line transportation fully.
(5) coal gas that produced of the present invention gasification can be used as the source of the gas of gas electricity generator; also can pass through the peritropous resident's air feed of pipe network; it is the effective way that solves the superfluous problem of a large amount of fluff type biomass materials in rural area; applying of this technology for promoting rural area renewable biomass reasonable resources utilization; the protection environment; improve the rural energy supply, the quality of life that improves the peasant has huge social and economic benefit.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a process flow sheet of the present invention.
Fig. 2 be the present invention adopt contain the vertical built-in fast fluidized bed gasification furnace structure synoptic diagram that draws formula coal gas fairlead down.
Fig. 3 is the double-vane valve seal structural representation that the present invention adopts.
Fig. 4 be the present invention adopt contain the built-in fast fluidized bed gasification furnace structure synoptic diagram that draws formula coal gas fairlead under the spiral.
Fig. 5 is the single-blade valve seal structural representation that the present invention adopts.
Embodiment
In conjunction with the accompanying drawings specific embodiments of the present invention is further described:
Embodiment 1
In conjunction with the accompanying drawings 1,2,3, technology of the present invention is: the fluff type biomass material is ground into the particle of 8-10mm with shredding unit, adds material bin 2 by promoting spiral 1, sent into the bottom of built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace 4 again by screw feeder 3; Air is sent in the stove from inlet mouth 27, controls the gasification reaction temperature at 800 ℃~900 ℃ by the feed rate of regulating gasification air amount and raw material, and the ratio of control gasification air amount (Nm3) and raw material add-on (kg) is 1.15.Fluidizing gas velocity is 2.5m/s in the vapourizing furnace, and biomass material is boiling state in vapourizing furnace and the part redox reaction takes place gasifying medium (air), produces coal gas.Entrained solids material and cindery coal gas enter built-in cyclonic separator 20, the solid materials that captures through cyclonic separator 20 returns the vapourizing furnace bottom by the double-vane valve seal structure 22 of dipleg 21 to be continued reaction (double-vane valve seal structure 22 is connected dipleg 21 lower ends by fin 26 by hinge 24, the inner conical device 25 in addition in dipleg 21 lower ends, lime-ash after the separation and solid materials fall into dipleg 21, solid materials runs up to certain altitude in dipleg, the pressure that material produces fin during greater than the restoring force of fin self fin open automatically, material flows out thus, in dipleg material more after a little while, fin 26 is returned to sealed state under the own wt effect).The coal gas that vapourizing furnace produces contains impurity such as part lime-ash draws through coal gas fairlead 23 that (coal gas fairlead 23 adopts and draws formula under vertical, draw behind the high-temperature zone of vapourizing furnace 4 from built-in cyclonic separator 20, coal gas fairlead 23 keeps certain length in vapourizing furnace, make tar under high temperature action, carry out abundant cracking), send into external cyclone water-separator 5, isolated lime-ash enters ash bin 6, lime-ash in the ash bin is discharged continuously by spiral tapping machine 7 after moistening, the coal gas of high temperature that is come out by cyclonic separator 5 is introduced into bubble tower 8, utilize the water in the bubble tower to remove part of ash and tar in the coal gas, enter first washing tower 9 again, second washing tower 10 continues the washing cooling, remove tar and dust, enter organic solvent washing device (Venturi meter) 12 at last and further go out micro-tar in the coal gas by heavy oil.Heavy oil enters storage tank 13 after separating, the heavy oil of recovery is sent into washing system by pump 11 and recycled, solvent cycle amount 5m 3/ h, the tar content in the coal gas after the purification is less than 30mg/Nm 3Coal gas after the purification is sent into gas chamber 16 by roots blower 14 after water seal 15, the coal gas in the gas chamber can be used as the source of the gas of gas electricity generator 17, also can be by pipe network to resident's 18 air feed.
Embodiment 2
In conjunction with the accompanying drawings 1,4,5, technology of the present invention is: the fluff type biomass material is ground into the particle of 3-5mm with shredding unit, adds material bin 2 by promoting spiral 1, sent into the bottom of built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace 4 again by screw feeder 3; Air is sent in the stove from inlet mouth 27, controls the gasification reaction temperature at 700 ℃~800 ℃ by the feed rate of regulating gasification air amount and raw material, and the ratio of control gasification air amount (Nm3) and raw material add-on (kg) is 1.05.Fluidizing gas velocity is 1.4m/s in the vapourizing furnace, and biomass material is boiling state in vapourizing furnace and the part redox reaction takes place gasifying medium (air), produces coal gas.Entrained solids material and cindery coal gas enter built-in cyclonic separator 20, the solid materials that captures through cyclonic separator 20 returns the vapourizing furnace bottom by the single-blade valve seal structure 22 of dipleg 21 to be continued reaction (single-blade valve seal structure 22 is connected dipleg 21 lower ends by fin 26 by hinge 24, the inner conical device 25 in addition in dipleg 21 lower ends, lime-ash after the separation and solid materials fall into dipleg 21, solid materials runs up to certain altitude in dipleg, the pressure that material produces fin 26 is during greater than the restoring force of fin self, fin is opened automatically, material flows out thus, in dipleg material more after a little while, fin 26 is returned to sealed state under the own wt effect).The coal gas that vapourizing furnace produces contains impurity such as part lime-ash draws through coal gas fairlead 23 that (coal gas fairlead 23 adopts and draws formula under the spirals, behind the high temperature of built-in cyclonic separator 20, draw via vapourizing furnace 4, coal gas fairlead 23 keeps certain length in vapourizing furnace, make tar under high temperature action, carry out abundant cracking), send into external cyclone water-separator 5, isolated lime-ash enters ash bin 6, lime-ash in the ash bin is discharged continuously by spiral tapping machine 7 after moistening, the coal gas of high temperature that is come out by cyclonic separator 5 is introduced into bubble tower 8, utilize the water in the bubble tower to remove part of ash and tar in the coal gas, enter first washing tower 9 again, second washing tower 10 continues the washing cooling, remove tar and dust, enter organic solvent washing device (Venturi meter) 12 at last and further go out micro-tar in the coal gas by the 180# heavy fuel oil (HFO).Heavy fuel oil (HFO) enters storage tank 13 after separating, the heavy fuel oil (HFO) of recovery is sent into washing system by pump 11 and recycled, solvent cycle amount 3m 3/ h, the tar content in the coal gas after the purification is less than 27mg/Nm 3Coal gas after the purification is sent into gas chamber 16 by roots blower 14 after water seal 15, the coal gas in the gas chamber can be used as gas electricity generator 17, also can be by pipe network to resident's 18 air feed.

Claims (4)

1, a kind of device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas, this device comprises raw materials pretreatment system, gas generating system, gas cleaning system, coal gas conveying storage system, wherein gas generating system adopts built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace, it is characterized in that being provided with built-in cyclonic separator in the built-in fast fluidized bed vapourizing furnace; The dipleg of built-in cyclonic separator has adopted the flutter valve sealed structure that contains one or more mobile wings, the sealing structure only allow solid materials by and do not allow gas to scurry into, the movable wing of flutter valve can be according to the buildup situation automatic open close in the dipleg.
2, the device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas according to claim 1 is characterized in that built-in cyclonic separator links to each other with the coal gas fairlead of sufficient length in the vapourizing furnace, and coal gas fairlead process vapourizing furnace is drawn vapourizing furnace behind the high-temperature zone.
3, the device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas according to claim 1 is characterized in that gas cleaning system is combined with the organic solvent washing device by the water washing device to form.
4, the device that utilizes the fluff type biomass material to prepare coal gas according to claim 3 is characterized in that the organic solvent washing device is made of Venturi meter.
CN 200410041865 2004-09-03 2004-09-03 Process and apparatus for preparing coal gas by using bulky biomass materials Expired - Fee Related CN1279145C (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101319752B (en) * 2007-06-06 2010-06-02 曾自旺 Biomass gasification centralized safety and early warning air supplying system

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102653687A (en) * 2011-03-03 2012-09-05 天津大明恒运再生能源利用科技有限公司 Process for preparing high-purity combustible gas by utilizing biomass fuel
CN102260538B (en) * 2011-06-24 2013-04-17 华中科技大学 Method and device for air-floatation flow-state high-temperature heat-transfer gasification of biomass
CN105299622A (en) * 2014-05-27 2016-02-03 上海毅知实业有限公司 Method for combusting biomass synthetic fuel
CN104449793A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-25 广州迪森热能技术股份有限公司 Biomass liquefaction system
CN106701197A (en) * 2016-12-27 2017-05-24 广东国能中林实业有限公司 Tar removal structure of biomass gasifying furnace and application method of tar removal structure

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101319752B (en) * 2007-06-06 2010-06-02 曾自旺 Biomass gasification centralized safety and early warning air supplying system

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