CN115462290A - Sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening growth cycle - Google Patents

Sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening growth cycle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN115462290A
CN115462290A CN202210989604.8A CN202210989604A CN115462290A CN 115462290 A CN115462290 A CN 115462290A CN 202210989604 A CN202210989604 A CN 202210989604A CN 115462290 A CN115462290 A CN 115462290A
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sweet potato
seedling
seedlings
potato seedlings
rooting
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CN115462290B (en
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罗志勇
黄剑
朱子建
孙彤
杨育健
李建祥
符运海
周运志
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Ledong Guangling Nanfan Service Co ltd
Changjiang Guangling Agricultural Technology Co ltd
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Ledong Guangling Nanfan Service Co ltd
Changjiang Guangling Agricultural Technology Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/27Pulp, e.g. bagasse
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/06Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/12Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with a carbocyclic ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/14Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom six-membered rings
    • A01N43/16Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom six-membered rings with oxygen as the ring hetero atom
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • A01N43/36Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings
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    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/72Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with nitrogen atoms and oxygen or sulfur atoms as ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/80Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with nitrogen atoms and oxygen or sulfur atoms as ring hetero atoms five-membered rings with one nitrogen atom and either one oxygen atom or one sulfur atom in positions 1,2
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N45/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, containing compounds having three or more carbocyclic rings condensed among themselves, at least one ring not being a six-membered ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N47/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid
    • A01N47/08Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid the carbon atom having one or more single bonds to nitrogen atoms
    • A01N47/28Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N<
    • A01N47/36Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N< containing the group >N—CO—N< directly attached to at least one heterocyclic ring; Thio analogues thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01PBIOCIDAL, PEST REPELLANT, PEST ATTRACTANT OR PLANT GROWTH REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OR PREPARATIONS
    • A01P21/00Plant growth regulators
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01PBIOCIDAL, PEST REPELLANT, PEST ATTRACTANT OR PLANT GROWTH REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OR PREPARATIONS
    • A01P3/00Fungicides

Abstract

The invention provides a sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening the growth cycle, which comprises the following steps: selecting and disinfecting sweet potato seedlings; (2) Placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, sequentially soaking in 3-6ppm, 10-16ppm and 25-30ppm liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solutions, air drying, uniformly coating the cut surfaces of the sweet potato seedlings with a solid rooting matrix, placing the cut surfaces in a seedbed, and forcing the roots under the conditions of controlled illumination intensity, illumination time and temperature; (3) Mixing pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder, and adding the composite antibacterial powder to obtain sound seedling soil; (4) Planting sweet potato seedlings in a seedling culture medium, sequentially covering strong seedling soil and fine sand, and covering a film; and (5) obtaining the seedling after the height of the seedling is more than or equal to 15 cm. The sweet potato seedling cultivation method effectively shortens the seedling period, has high seedling quality, vigorous root system growth and high emergence rate, and provides important technical guarantee for improving the quality of large-scale sweet potato cultivation.

Description

Sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening growth cycle
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agricultural planting, in particular to a sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening the growth period.
Background
Sweet potatoes, known as Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., which are vine-vine sprawl plants belonging to the genus Dioscorea of the family Dioscoreaceae, annual or perennial family. With the growing range of sweet potatoes becoming wider, the sweet potatoes are not only important grain crops which are second only to crops of rice, wheat and corn, but also important chemical raw material crops and energy crops.
The traditional sweet potato seedling cultivation method mainly takes asexual seedling cultivation such as sweet potato root tuber and vine cuttage as main materials, most of the method is realized by farmers through self-cultivation and serial change and scattered cultivation, and the cultivation technology and management of sweet potato seedlings are unreasonable, so that the problems of low root tuber germination rate, long seedling period, insufficient root system growth, low emergence rate, poor seedling quality and the like are caused, and the large-scale quick cultivation of the sweet potato seedlings is difficult to realize, thereby seriously limiting the high-efficiency cultivation and popularization of good sweet potato varieties. Therefore, the sweet potato seedling cultivation method with short seedling period and high seedling quality is provided, and important technical guarantee is provided for improving the overall cultivation efficiency of sweet potatoes and optimizing the cultivation quality of sweet potatoes, so that the application and popularization of sweet potato resources in chemical industry and energy industry are facilitated, and the industrial development of sweet potato planting is promoted.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the invention provides a sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening the growth period.
The technical scheme of the invention is realized as follows:
the invention provides a sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening the growth period, which comprises the following steps:
step 1: selecting and disinfecting sweet potato seedlings: selecting root tuber with quality of 100-150g and no plant diseases and insect pests as sweet potato seedling; soaking in disinfectant for 6-10min, and naturally drying for 6-8 hr;
step 2: and (3) seedling rooting-promoting treatment: placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, respectively adopting liquid sodium naphthalene acetate rooting liquid with the concentration of 3-6ppm, 10-16ppm and 25-30ppm to sequentially soak for 50-60min, 25-35min and 8-10min, taking out and airing, uniformly coating the section of the sweet potato seedlings with a solid rooting matrix to form a thin layer, placing the thin layer in a seedbed, controlling the illumination intensity to be 8000-10000lx, the illumination time to be 10-12h/d, and accelerating the roots at the temperature of 25-27 ℃ for 2-3d;
and 3, step 3: preparing strong seedling soil: taking pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder according to the mass ratio (6-9): (3-6): (2-4): (0.5-1.5), adding composite bacteriostatic powder accounting for 0.1-0.2% of the mass of the pond sludge, and uniformly stirring to obtain strong seedling soil;
and 4, step 4: seedling culture: culturing the sweet potato seedlings processed in the step 2 in a seedling culture medium with the culture density of 100-115 blocks/m 2 Sequentially covering the strong seedling soil and the fine sand prepared in the step (3) and covering a film;
and 5: seedling stage management: and after the seedlings come out of the soil and grow to be more than or equal to 8cm, uncovering the film, and after the seedlings grow to be more than or equal to 15cm, obtaining the seedlings, and transplanting and planting the seedlings.
Further explaining, in the step 2, the solid rooting matrix comprises, by weight, 0.05-0.1 part of thidiazuron, 0.3-0.5 part of gibberellin, 35-40 parts of a sucrose solution with the mass concentration of 50% -55%, 8-10 parts of activated carbon and 4-6 parts of plant gel.
Further, in the step 2, the concentrations of the liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting liquid are 5ppm, 14ppm and 26ppm respectively.
Further explaining, in the step 3, the composite bacteriostatic powder is prepared by mixing 20-30wt% fludioxonil wettable powder and 10-15wt% hymexazol wettable powder, wherein the mass ratio of the fludioxonil wettable powder to the hymexazol wettable powder is 1.
Further, the disinfectant is 600-800 times of 70% thiophanate methyl or 600-800 times of 80% carbendazim.
Further, the mass ratio of pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder in the strong seedling soil is 8:4:3:1.
further explaining, in the step 4, the covering thickness of the strong seedling soil is 2-4cm.
Further explaining, the seedling raising substrate is formed by mixing biogas residues, bagasse, perlite, laterite and vermiculite according to a mass ratio of 5.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: the method adopts the sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solution with different concentrations to soak and treat under the dark condition, and simultaneously coats the seedlings by using the solid rooting substrate in a solid-liquid combined root forcing treatment mode, so as to improve the rooting rate and the growth rate of the sweet potato seedlings, accelerate the germination time and promote the root system development in the seedling stage, and improves the seedling emergence rate and the growth rate of the sweet potato seedlings in a surface layer covering mode by using the optimally prepared strong seedling soil to combine with the substrate, thereby achieving the purpose of shortening the cultivation period of the sweet potato seedlings.
Detailed Description
In order to better understand the technical content of the invention, specific examples are provided below to further illustrate the invention.
The experimental methods used in the examples of the present invention are all conventional methods unless otherwise specified.
The materials, reagents and the like used in the examples of the present invention can be obtained commercially without specific description.
Example 1-sweet potato seedling cultivation method, comprising the steps of:
(1) Selecting and disinfecting sweet potato seedlings: selecting root tuber with quality of 100-115g and no plant diseases and insect pests as sweet potato seedling; soaking for 6min by using a disinfectant with a 700-fold liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl, and naturally airing for 6h;
(2) Preparing liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting liquid and a solid rooting matrix:
respectively preparing liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting liquid with the concentration of 3ppm, 10ppm and 25 ppm;
taking the following components in parts by weight: 0.05 part of thidiazuron, 0.3 part of gibberellin, 35 parts of sucrose solution with the mass concentration of 50%, 8 parts of activated carbon and 4 parts of plant gel, and preparing a solid rooting matrix;
(3) And (3) seedling rooting-promoting treatment: placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, sequentially soaking in 3ppm, 10ppm and 25ppm liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solutions for 60min, 35min and 10min, taking out, airing, uniformly coating the cut surfaces of the sweet potato seedlings with a prepared solid rooting matrix to form a thin layer, placing the thin layer in a seedbed, controlling the illumination intensity to be 8000lx, the illumination time to be 10h/d, and accelerating the roots for 3d at the temperature of 25 ℃;
(4) Preparing strong seedling soil and a seedling substrate:
the seedling strengthening soil is as follows: taking pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder, and mixing the materials in a mass ratio of 6:3:2:0.5, adding composite bacteriostatic powder accounting for 0.1 percent of the mass of the pond sludge, and uniformly stirring; the composite bacteriostatic powder is prepared by mixing 20wt% fludioxonil wettable powder and 10wt% hymexazol wettable powder, wherein the mass ratio of the fludioxonil wettable powder to the hymexazol wettable powder is 1;
the seedling raising substrate comprises: mixing biogas residues, bagasse, perlite, laterite and vermiculite according to a mass ratio of 5;
(5) Seedling culture: culturing the sweet potato seedlings subjected to root promotion treatment in a seedling culture medium with the culture density of 105 blocks/m 2 After the cultivation is finished, strong seedling soil and fine sand prepared in the step (3) are sequentially covered, the covering thickness of the strong seedling soil is 2-3cm, and the fine sand covers the surface of the strong seedling soil completely, and then a film is covered;
(6) Seedling stage management: and after the seedlings come out of the soil and grow to be more than or equal to 8cm, uncovering the film, and after the seedlings grow to be more than or equal to 15cm, obtaining the seedlings, transplanting and planting.
Example 2-sweet potato seedling cultivation method, comprising the following steps:
(1) Selecting sweet potato seedlings and sterilizing: selecting 135-150g root tubers without diseases and insect pests as sweet potato seedlings; soaking 80% carbendazim 700 times of disinfectant for 10min, and naturally drying for 8h;
(2) Preparing liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting liquid and a solid rooting matrix:
respectively preparing liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting liquid with the concentration of 6ppm, 16ppm and 30 ppm;
taking the following components in parts by weight: 0.1 part of thidiazuron, 0.5 part of gibberellin, 40 parts of sucrose solution with the mass concentration of 55%, 10 parts of activated carbon and 6 parts of plant gel, and preparing a solid rooting matrix;
(3) And (3) seedling rooting-promoting treatment: placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, sequentially soaking in 6ppm, 16ppm and 30ppm liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solutions for 50min, 25min and 8min, taking out and airing, uniformly coating the cut surfaces of the sweet potato seedlings with a prepared solid rooting matrix to form a thin layer, placing the thin layer in a seedbed, controlling the illumination intensity to be 10000lx, the illumination time to be 12h/d, and forcing roots for 3d under the condition of 27 ℃;
(4) Preparing strong seedling soil and a seedling substrate:
the seedling strengthening soil is as follows: taking pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder according to a mass ratio of 9:6:4:1.5, adding composite bacteriostatic powder accounting for 0.2 percent of the mass of the pond sludge, and uniformly stirring; the composite bacteriostatic powder is prepared by mixing 30wt% fludioxonil wettable powder and 15wt% hymexazol wettable powder in a mass ratio of 1;
the seedling culture substrate is as follows: mixing biogas residues, bagasse, perlite, laterite and vermiculite according to a mass ratio of 5;
(5) Seedling culture: culturing the sweet potato seedlings subjected to root promotion treatment in a seedling culture medium with the culture density of 115 blocks/m 2 After the cultivation is finished, sequentially covering the strong seedling soil and the fine sand prepared in the step (3), wherein the covering thickness of the strong seedling soil is 3-4cm, and the fine sand is covered with a film on the premise of completely covering the surface of the strong seedling soil;
(6) Seedling stage management: and after the seedlings come out of the soil and grow to be more than or equal to 8cm, uncovering the film, and after the seedlings grow to be more than or equal to 15cm, obtaining the seedlings, transplanting and planting.
Example 3-sweet potato seedling cultivation method, comprising the steps of:
(1) Selecting sweet potato seedlings and sterilizing: selecting root tuber with the mass of 120-130g and no plant diseases and insect pests as sweet potato seedlings; soaking in a disinfectant solution with a volume of 700 times that of 80% carbendazim for 8min, and naturally airing for 7h;
(2) Preparing liquid sodium naphthalene acetate rooting liquid and a solid rooting matrix:
respectively preparing liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting liquid with the concentration of 5ppm, 14ppm and 26 ppm;
taking the following components in parts by weight: 0.08 part of thidiazuron, 0.4 part of gibberellin, 38 parts of a sucrose solution with the mass concentration of 53%, 9 parts of activated carbon and 5 parts of plant gel, and preparing a solid rooting matrix;
(3) And (3) seedling rooting-promoting treatment: placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, sequentially soaking in 5ppm, 14ppm and 26ppm liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solutions for 55min, 30min and 10min, taking out, airing, uniformly coating the cut surfaces of the sweet potato seedlings with a prepared solid rooting matrix to form a thin layer, placing the thin layer in a seedbed, controlling the illumination intensity to be 9000lx, the illumination time to be 11h/d, and accelerating the roots for 3d under the condition of 26 ℃;
(4) Preparing strong seedling soil and a seedling substrate:
the seedling strengthening soil is as follows: taking pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder according to a mass ratio of 8:4:3:1, mixing, adding composite bacteriostatic powder accounting for 0.15 percent of the mass of the pond sludge, and uniformly stirring; the composite bacteriostatic powder is prepared by mixing 25wt% fludioxonil wettable powder and 15wt% hymexazol wettable powder, wherein the mass ratio of the fludioxonil wettable powder to the hymexazol wettable powder is 1;
the seedling culture substrate is as follows: mixing biogas residues, bagasse, perlite, laterite and vermiculite according to a mass ratio of 5;
(5) Seedling culture: culturing the sweet potato seedlings subjected to root promotion treatment in a seedling culture medium with the culture density of 110 blocks/m 2 After the cultivation is finished, sequentially covering the strong seedling soil and the fine sand prepared in the step (3), wherein the covering thickness of the strong seedling soil is 2-3cm, and the fine sand is covered with a film on the premise of completely covering the surface of the strong seedling soil;
(6) Seedling stage management: and after the seedlings come out of the soil and grow to be more than or equal to 8cm, uncovering the film, and after the seedlings grow to be more than or equal to 15cm, obtaining the seedlings, transplanting and planting.
Comparative example-cultivation experiment of the Effect of different root-promoting treatments on the growth of sweet Potato seedlings
Comparative example 1-the sweet potato seedling cultivation method of example 3, the formulation of the solid rooting matrix is: placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, soaking the sweet potato seedlings in the liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solution with different concentrations, taking out the sweet potato seedlings, airing the sweet potato seedlings, and directly using the sweet potato seedlings for seedling cultivation.
Comparative example 2-the sweet potato seedling cultivation method as in example 3, the seedling rooting-promoting treatment conditions were adjusted as follows: placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, soaking the sweet potato seedlings in the liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solution with different concentrations, taking out the soaked sweet potato seedlings and airing the soaked sweet potato seedlings, placing the sweet potato seedlings in a seedbed without being coated with a solid rooting matrix, controlling the illumination intensity to be 9000lx, the illumination time to be 11h/d and the temperature to be 26 ℃ and forcing the sweet potato seedlings to root for 3d.
Comparative example 3-the sweet potato seedling cultivation method of example 3, under dark conditions, soaking the sweet potato seedlings for 95min with 15ppm of liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solution with constant concentration, taking out and airing, uniformly coating the cut surfaces of the sweet potato seedlings with a solid rooting matrix to form a thin layer, placing the thin layer in a seedbed, and forcing the roots for 3d under the conditions that the illumination intensity is 9000lx, the illumination time is 11h/d, and the temperature is 26 ℃.
Comparative example 4-the sweet potato seedling cultivation method of example 3, the formulation of the solid rooting matrix is: is prepared by mixing 3 parts of sucrose solution with the mass concentration of 53 percent, 9 parts of active carbon and 5 parts of plant gel.
According to the different sweet potato seedling cultivation methods of the above example 3 and the comparative examples 1 to 4, the experimental treatment is set to 1 to 5, the experimental sample is the same batch of sweet potato 'Lingjiahaoshu' of the same variety, the sweet potato seedling cultivation experiment is performed in Changjiang county, hainan, the growth condition of the sweet potato seedlings is regularly observed and counted, the germination time, the emergence rate and the growth rate of the seedling cultivation seedlings and the root growth after the seedlings grow for 14d are counted, and the results are as the following table 1:
Figure BDA0003803368940000061
as can be seen from the above table, the sweet potato seedlings cultivated by the sweet potato seedling cultivation method of the embodiment 3 have short germination time and high emergence rate, and meanwhile, the root systems grow and develop well, and the growth rate is obviously improved; the method is obviously superior to comparative examples 1-4, wherein in comparative example 3, the root growth of the sweet potato seedlings is obviously delayed and the emergence rate is obviously reduced by soaking the sweet potato seedlings with the liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solution with single constant concentration, and in comparative examples 2 and 4, the root promoting treatment is carried out by coating the solid rooting matrix, so that the growth rate and the root development of the seedlings are favorably and further accelerated, and the emergence rate and the emergence quality are improved.
Comparative example-cultivation experiment of influence of different seedling-raising substrates on growth of sweet potato seedlings
Comparative example 5-the sweet potato seedling cultivation method of example 3, the seedling substrate was not covered with the allocated strong seedling soil;
comparative example 6-the sweet potato seedling cultivation method as in example 3, before sweet potato seedling cultivation, the seedling raising substrate and the strong seedling soil were mixed in a mass ratio of 5.
The seedling emergence rate, the seedling formation time, and the root growth of the seedlings according to the above-mentioned sweet potato seedling cultivation methods of comparative examples 5 and 6 were as follows:
Figure BDA0003803368940000071
as can be seen from the table above, the growth rate of the seedlings of the comparative examples 5 and 6 is obviously reduced compared with that of the example 3, and the emergence rate is low; in the comparative example 5, the seedling raising substrate is not covered by the prepared strong seedling soil, so that the germination time of the sweet potato seedlings is obviously prolonged, and the growth period is longer; the combination of the strong seedling soil and the matrix which are optimally prepared is beneficial to improving the growth speed of sweet potato seedling cultivation and shortening the seedling cultivation period, and the comparison between the embodiment and the comparative example 6 shows that the mode of overlapping and covering the strong seedling soil and the seedling cultivation matrix on the surface layers is more beneficial to the growth of the root system of the sweet potato seedlings compared with the mode of simply mixing and combining.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like that fall within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included therein.

Claims (8)

1. A sweet potato seedling cultivation method capable of shortening the growth cycle is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1: sweet potato seedling selection and disinfection: selecting root tuber with quality of 100-150g and no plant diseases and insect pests as sweet potato seedling; soaking in disinfectant for 6-10min, and naturally drying for 6-8 hr;
step 2: and (3) seedling rooting-promoting treatment: placing sweet potato seedlings in the dark, respectively adopting liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting solutions with the concentrations of 3-6ppm, 10-16ppm and 25-30ppm to sequentially soak for 50-60min, 25-35min and 8-10min, taking out and airing, uniformly coating the section of the sweet potato seedlings with a solid rooting substrate to form a thin layer, placing the thin layer in a seedbed, controlling the illumination intensity to be 8000-10000lx, the illumination time to be 10-12h/d and accelerating the roots at the temperature of 25-27 ℃ for 2-3d;
and step 3: preparing strong seedling soil: taking pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder according to the mass ratio (6-9): (3-6): (2-4): (0.5-1.5), adding composite bacteriostatic powder accounting for 0.1-0.2% of the pond sludge by mass, and uniformly stirring to obtain strong seedling soil;
and 4, step 4: seedling culture: culturing the sweet potato seedlings treated in the step 2 in a seedling culture medium with the culture density of 100-115 blocks/m 2 Sequentially covering the strong seedling soil and the fine sand prepared in the step (3) and covering a film;
and 5: seedling stage management: and after the seedlings come out of the soil and grow to be more than or equal to 8cm, uncovering the film, and after the seedlings grow to be more than or equal to 15cm, obtaining the seedlings, transplanting and planting.
2. The method for cultivating sweet potato seedlings to shorten the growth period as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in the step 2, the solid rooting matrix comprises, by weight, 0.05-0.1 part of thidiazuron, 0.3-0.5 part of gibberellin, 35-40 parts of a sucrose solution with the mass concentration of 50% -55%, 8-10 parts of activated carbon and 4-6 parts of plant gel.
3. The cultivation method of sweet potato seedlings for shortening the growth cycle as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in the step 2, the concentrations of the liquid sodium naphthaleneacetate rooting liquid are 5ppm, 14ppm and 26ppm respectively.
4. The method for cultivating sweet potato seedlings to shorten the growth period as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in the step 3, the composite bacteriostatic powder is prepared by mixing 20-30wt% fludioxonil wettable powder and 10-15wt% hymexazol wettable powder in a mass ratio of 1.
5. The method for cultivating sweet potato seedlings to shorten the growth period as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the disinfectant is 70% of thiophanate methyl 600-800 times liquid or 80% of carbendazim 600-800 times liquid.
6. The cultivation method of sweet potato seedlings for shortening the growth cycle as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the mass ratio of pond sludge, wormcast, attapulgite powder and silkworm chrysalis powder in the strong seedling soil is 8:4:3:1.
7. the method for cultivating sweet potato seedlings to shorten the growth period as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in the step 4, the covering thickness of the strong seedling soil is 2-4cm.
8. The method for cultivating sweet potato seedlings to shorten the growth period as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the seedling raising substrate is formed by mixing biogas residues, bagasse, perlite, laterite and vermiculite according to a mass ratio of 5.
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