CN1145531A - Method and appts. for making silicon chip - Google Patents

Method and appts. for making silicon chip Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1145531A
CN1145531A CN 96110121 CN96110121A CN1145531A CN 1145531 A CN1145531 A CN 1145531A CN 96110121 CN96110121 CN 96110121 CN 96110121 A CN96110121 A CN 96110121A CN 1145531 A CN1145531 A CN 1145531A
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grinding
wafer
abrasive
upper
silicon
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CN 96110121
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1096108C (en )
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田中惠一
加贺谷修
畠中彻
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三菱麻铁里亚尔硅材料株式会社
三菱麻铁里亚尔析式会社
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02002Preparing wafers
    • H01L21/02005Preparing bulk and homogeneous wafers
    • H01L21/02008Multistep processes
    • H01L21/0201Specific process step
    • H01L21/02024Mirror polishing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B37/00Lapping machines or devices; Accessories
    • B24B37/04Lapping machines or devices; Accessories designed for working plane surfaces
    • B24B37/07Lapping machines or devices; Accessories designed for working plane surfaces characterised by the movement of the work or lapping tool
    • B24B37/08Lapping machines or devices; Accessories designed for working plane surfaces characterised by the movement of the work or lapping tool for double side lapping
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28DWORKING STONE OR STONE-LIKE MATERIALS
    • B28D1/00Working stone or stone-like materials, e.g. brick, concrete or glass, not provided for elsewhere; Machines, devices, tools therefor
    • B28D1/003Multipurpose machines; Equipment therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28DWORKING STONE OR STONE-LIKE MATERIALS
    • B28D5/00Fine working of gems, jewels, crystals, e.g. of semiconductor material; apparatus or devices therefor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02002Preparing wafers
    • H01L21/02005Preparing bulk and homogeneous wafers
    • H01L21/02008Multistep processes
    • H01L21/0201Specific process step
    • H01L21/02019Chemical etching

Abstract

在本发明中,把切片后的硅片插入托盘14的圆孔15中,把硅片夹持在上磨具13与下磨具12之间,并分别使上磨具13及下磨具12以规定速度转动。 In the present invention, the wafer sliced ​​is inserted into the circular hole 15 of the tray 14, the silicon wafer 13 sandwiched between the upper and the lower abrasive grinding wheel 12 and the grinding wheel 13, respectively the upper and the lower grindstone 12 is rotated at a predetermined speed. 由此而同时对硅片两面进行磨削。 Thereby simultaneously grinding both surfaces of the wafer. 此时上磨具13以规定荷重压在硅片上,同时下降例如100μm。 At this time, the abrasive 13 to a predetermined weight of charge on a silicon wafer, for example, while the decrease 100μm. 向上磨具13的开口部13B供给磨削液,把硅片温度控制为一定值。 Upwardly opening portion 13 of the abrasive grinding fluid supply 13B, the wafer temperature is controlled to a constant value. 所供给的磨削液在上、下磨具13、12离心力作用下通过各磨具13、12磨削面的槽而不断地供给到硅片两面的整个范围中。 Grinding fluid is supplied at the upper and lower abrasive 13,12 centrifugal force continuously supplied to the entire range of the wafer through the slot on both sides of the grinding surface of each grinding wheel 13,12.

Description

硅片的制造方法及其装置 Wafer manufacturing method and apparatus

本发明是关于制造高集成度器件的大直径硅片的方法与制造装置,特别是,对硅片的表里两面同时进行磨削的制造技术。 The present invention is a method and apparatus for producing highly integrated devices manufactured on large diameter silicon wafer, in particular it is that for front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer fabrication techniques simultaneously grinding.

在硅片的制造方法中,是先用不锈钢制的内周刃对圆柱形单晶硅棒进行切割而得到硅晶片,再在研磨机上用自由磨粒研磨其两表面,以除去切片工艺中所产生的凹凸不平与损伤并提高其平行度的。 In the method for producing silicon wafers, it is to be cut with the inner periphery of a cylindrical single crystal silicon rod blade made of stainless steel obtained silicon wafer, and then on a mill with its two free abrasive polishing surface, to remove the slicing process in the and irregularities resulting damage and improve their parallelism. 这种硅片要用腐蚀法除去研磨加工时形成的损伤层(加工变质层),再用化学机械抛光法进行镜面加工。 Such use silicon etching damage layer is removed (affected layer) formed during the polishing process, and then chemical mechanical polishing method for a mirror finish.

然而,要除去因研磨加工而产生的表面损伤层,作为用腐蚀法的蚀刻加工余量(留量)会增大到例如20μm的程度,因此必须有30μm以上的加工余量。 However, to remove the damaged surface layer generated by grinding, by etching as an etching allowance (the remaining amount) will be increased to a level of, for example, 20μm, so allowance must be more than 30μm. 其结果是使腐蚀面的凹凸(平面度)也增大到例如1μm的程度。 The result is a corrosion of the uneven surface (flatness) is also increased to a level of, for example, 1μm. 进而,腐蚀后的研磨量也变成例如10μm以上,使得平面度变坏(例如,像图13中所示的为TTV(Totalthickness variation)2.81μm的程度)。 Further, the amount of polishing after etching has become more than 10μm, for example, so that deterioration of flatness (e.g., an extent of 2.81μm TTV (Totalthickness variation) as shown in FIG. 13).

近年来,硅片直径150mm与200mm者已经普及,还在继续开发300mm的硅片,而且正在使器件高集成化,例如在2001年开始实际使用的1G位的DRAM中其线宽尺度与焦点深度分别为0.18μm与0.7μm。 In recent years, a diameter of 150mm and 200mm silicon wafers have already spread, 300mm wafer continues to develop, but the device is highly integrated, for example, 1G-bit DRAM begins in 2001 in which the actual use of the line width and the depth of focus scale They were 0.18μm and 0.7μm. 为此所要求的平面度必须达到SFQD(Site,Front surface-reference,site least squares,deviation)的26×32mm面积上为0.12μm的平面度(参见“THE NATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP FORSEMICONDUCTORS”,1994年,SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION出版;第113页),而且,晶片直径越大,即使一点点曲率也会使其翘曲量变大而成为严重的问题。 To the flatness required for this must reach SFQD (Site, Front surface-reference, site least squares, deviation) is an area of ​​26 × 32mm flatness of 0.12μm (see "THE NATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP FORSEMICONDUCTORS", in 1994, SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION publication; page 113), and, the larger the diameter of the wafer, so even a little curvature becomes large warpage also become a serious problem. 即,凹凸翘曲不仅在硅片的制造阶段产生,在器件加工的成膜、乾腐蚀、热处理时也会发生。 That is, not only produces irregularities in the manufacturing stage warping of the silicon wafer, the device forming processing, dry etching, can also occur during the heat treatment. 于是,若使用翘曲小的硅片,在各阶段中的翘曲就能为特定值。 Thus, the use of silicon warpage warpage in each stage can be a specific value. 即,在把例如外径300mm硅片置于平盘上测定其翘曲时,由于硅片在自重下变形外观上的翘曲降到一半以下,只能作为翘曲小的硅片的制造方法进行管理。 That is, when the measured warpage in the wafer, for example, an outer diameter of 300mm was placed on a flat plate, since the silicon wafer warpage deformation on the appearance of its own weight down to less than half, only as a method for producing a silicon wafer warpage management.

为了使平面度更加提高,考虑取代对切片加工后的晶片表面的研磨加工,而使用损伤在3μm以下的磨削加工,进而,切片后的厚度对于150mm直径的硅片薄700μm,对200mm硅片为800μm,300mm硅片则薄900μm。 In order to further improve the flatness, considering substituted polishing wafer surface after the slicing, grinding and use damage 3μm or less, and further, the thickness of 700μm sliced ​​to thin wafers of 150mm diameter, 200mm wafers of is 800μm, 300mm wafer is thin 900μm.

可是,迄今所使用的磨床具有圆环状磨削刃,并如图14中所示地,只对安置固定在真空吸盘31上的硅片32进行单面(图中的上面)进行磨削。 However, hitherto used grinding machines having an annular grinding blade, and as shown in FIG. 14, only the wafer placed on the vacuum chuck 31 is fixed to one surface 32 (upper surface in the drawing) grinding.

即,如图14A所示,把硅片32置于真空吸盘31上;在对此硅片32进行单面磨削时,如图14B中所示,当用真空吸盘31将硅片32下面真空吸附后由于如上所述硅片32极薄,就被吸到了真空吸盘31一边,使上述的下面变成了平坦表面。 That is, as shown in FIG. 14A, the wafer 32 is placed on the vacuum chuck 31; when this silicon wafer 32 in the single-sided grinding, as shown in FIG. 14B, when the silicon wafer 31 by vacuum suction vacuum below 32 Since the silicon wafer 32 as described above adsorption is extremely thin, it is attracted to the vacuum chuck 31 while the flat surface into the above-described below. 点划线33表示磨削面,于是就如图14C所示,磨削后释放了真空吸盘31的真空吸附,硅片32的吸附面(下面)就恢复原来的形状而使磨削面反面成为凸状。 Dot chain line 33 represents a ground surface, so they 14C, the vacuum chuck after grinding to release the vacuum suction 31, the suction surface of the silicon wafer 32 (below) to restore the original shape of the grinding surface becomes negative convex. 即,进行真空吸附的切割面成了被复制的反面。 That is, the opposite cut surface became copied vacuum suction. 进而,在把磨削面真空吸附而磨削其反面时,其凹部在释放真空吸附之后被复制成了凸部,就把切片的形状残存在硅片的表里面上。 Further, when the vacuum suction grinding surface of grinding the reverse side, which recess is copied become a convex portion after release of the vacuum suction, the shape of the slice put on a table remains inside the silicon wafer. 因此,磨削后还必须作轻度研磨加工(参见本申请人的申请特开平6-104229号公报),就不能充分取得由磨削而减小损伤层的效果。 Therefore, the ground must be lightly polished (see the present applicant Application Laid-Open Publication No. 6-104229), the effect can not be sufficiently achieved by the grinding damage layer decreases.

为此,在本申请人申请的特开昭62-964000公报中公开了在对刚性大的坯料端面进行磨削加工后,进行切割加工把硅片进行切片,再真空吸附其磨削面而磨削其切割加工面的方法,使用这种方法可以制出平行度好而且凹凸度小的硅片。 To this end, disclosed in the rigidity of the grinding billet end face, for cutting the wafer slicing Sho 62-964000 Laid-Open Publication the present applicant, and then vacuum suction surface and which grinding mill the method of cutting its cutting face, this method can be made small and a good parallelism of the wafer unevenness.

此外,对于外径200mm的大口径坯料用内周刃进行切割加工时,其内周刃的刃厚为0.38μm,而由于没有对外径300mm的大直径坯料进行切割用的大直径不锈钢板,故不能进行内周刃切割加工。 Further, the outer diameter of large diameter for the blank were 200mm inner peripheral cutting edge, the blade thickness of the inner peripheral edge is 0.38 m, and the outer diameter of the large diameter because there is no blank were 300mm stainless steel plate was cut with a large diameter, so It can not be the inner peripheral cutting edge. 因此,实际上要使用线锯。 So, in fact, to use wire saw. 线锯的线径为0.18μm,能使锯缝损耗(切断加工余量)小,成品率提高。 Wire saw wire diameter 0.18 m, can kerf loss (cutting allowance) is small, the yield is improved. 然而,线锯的切断面由于线的振动会产生比内周刃的切割面大的凹凸,而且由于在切割中需要线锯反向送进而造成台阶。 However, wire saw cutting plane lines will generate vibration greater than the inner circumferential edge of the cutting surface unevenness, and since the wire saw cutting required reverse feed caused by the step. 另外,在切割中线径会因磨损而变细,故会如图15中所示地使硅片34的最终切割部分变厚,从而在硅片34的两个面34a与34b上形成锥度。 Further, in the cutting diameter due to wear thinner, it will be as shown in Figure 15 the final cutting portion 34 of the thick silicon wafer, the silicon wafer 34 is such that two surfaces 34a and 34b are formed in the taper. 因而,在将线锯面真空吸附而进行磨削加工时,轴向结晶面会对指定角度偏斜0.02°~0.05°左右。 Accordingly, when the vacuum suction jigsaw surface grinding process, the axial skew angle specified crystal plane be approximately 0.02 ° ~ 0.05 °.

为了制造1G位以上的高集成器件,对硅片的里面进行研磨,提高了里面基准的平面度,还由此而使得粒子的发生在1/10以下。 In order to manufacture more highly integrated device 1G bits, the wafer is polished on the inside, which improves the flatness of a reference, thereby further such that particles 1/10 occurs. 为此,在上述特开平6-104229号公报中公开了进行里面半抛光或两面同时研磨的技术。 To this end, there is disclosed a technique for simultaneously grinding both surfaces of semi-gloss or in the above-described in JP 6-104229.

考虑到上述的只单面进行磨削时有以下的不妥之处。 Have the following inadequacies when only one-sided view of the above grinding. 即,在硅片的两面上残留有切割面复制痕迹,不能转换成研磨加工。 I.e., on both sides of a silicon wafer cut surface remains replication marks, can not be converted into the grinding. 另外,由于其后的腐蚀与化学机械研磨的加工余量变大,难于获得所要求的平面度。 Further, due to corrosion and subsequent chemical mechanical polishing allowance becomes large, it is difficult to obtain the required flatness. 而且,难以做到使两面的加工度一致,又易于发生翘曲。 Moreover, it is difficult to achieve the degree of processing both sides of the same, but also prone to warping.

本发明的目的是提供一种取代研磨加工的两面磨削方法与装置,使之能制出特别是在制造1G位以上的高集成器件时合乎要求的高平面度硅片。 Object of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus for grinding both surfaces substituted grinding process, so that it can be produced when a desirable particularly in the manufacture of more highly integrated device 1G-bit high flatness silicon. 其目的还在于提供一种能减小腐蚀加工余量,减低研磨量的两面磨削方法及装置。 It is another object to provide a method and device for grinding both surfaces can reduce corrosion allowance, reduce the amount of polishing. 进而,本发明的目的还在于提供一种防止硅片裂纹的两面磨削方法及装置。 Further, an object of the present invention is to provide a method and device for grinding both surfaces of the silicon wafer to prevent cracks.

本发明是一种硅片制造方法,它包括将单晶硅棒进行切割的制成硅片的切片工序,以及对该硅片表里两面同时磨削的两面同时磨削工序。 The present invention is a method for producing a silicon wafer, which comprises the step of producing single crystal silicon rod is sliced ​​wafer cut, and while simultaneously grinding both surfaces of the wafer front and back surfaces of the grinding step.

本发明的上述两面同时磨削工序中,把硅片夹持在两面磨削装置的上、下磨具之间,在对硅片表里两面同时进行磨削时向该硅片的表里面的整个范围供给磨削液。 The double-sided simultaneous grinding step of the present invention, the both surfaces of the silicon wafer clamped on the grinding apparatus, between the abrasive, while the opposite surfaces of the wafer are ground simultaneously to a silicon wafer table inside full grinding liquid is supplied.

进而,本发明还在上述同时两面磨削工序中对硅片的表里面的温度进行控制。 Further, the present invention is also the above-mentioned table while controlling the temperature of both surfaces of the silicon wafer inside the grinding step.

而且,本发明在上述两面同时磨削工序后对硅片进行腐蚀而除去磨削损伤,再对硅片两面进行研磨。 Further, the present invention is to remove the double-sided simultaneous grinding damage after grinding step of etching the wafer, and then the wafer is polished on both sides.

于是,本发明提供一种硅片制造装置,它设有在把硅片夹持在板状上磨具与下磨具之间的状态下同时磨削硅片表里面的两面磨削装置,以及控制两面磨削时硅片表里面温度的温度控制装置。 Accordingly, the present invention provides an apparatus for producing a silicon wafer, which is provided inside the table while grinding both surfaces of the wafer at the wafer grinding apparatus clamped between the plate and the lower abrasive grinding wheel condition, and table wafer temperature control means which control the temperature of both surfaces of the grinding.

本发明的上述温度控制装置通过在两面磨削装置中对磨削中的硅片表里面整个范围内供给磨削液而控制其温度。 It said temperature control apparatus of the present invention, the temperature of which is controlled by supplying grinding liquid on the grinding table inside the wafer on both sides of the entire range of the grinding apparatus.

进而,本发明的上述温度控制装置是包括上述上、下磨具的各内周面所构成的液腔、在上述上、下磨具上分别形成的供磨削液从各自磨削面流出用的磨削液通道以及向上述液腔与上述磨削液通道供应磨削液的磨削液供给装置而构成。 Further, the temperature control apparatus according to the present invention comprising the above grinding fluid supply liquid chamber at the inner circumferential surface of each grinding wheel is constituted, on the upper and lower outflow of the grinding wheel are formed from the respective grinding surface and a grinding path of the grinding liquid supplying means for supplying a grinding fluid to the fluid chamber and fluid passage constituting the above-described grinding fluid.

另外,本发明的上述两面磨削装置的结构包括:上磨具与下磨具,它们相互平行地水平配置,以相对表面作为磨削面,并对在上述磨削面上的上述硅片的表里面分别进行磨削。 Further, the structure of the double-sided grinding apparatus of the present invention comprises: an upper and a lower abrasive grinding wheel, are arranged horizontally in parallel to each other, opposite surface to a ground surface, and said wafer on the grinding surface of the above-described inside the grinding table respectively.

相对运动装置,用于使上述上磨具及上述硅片在水平面内作相对运动,并且上述下磨具及上述硅片在水平面内作相对运动,和使上述上磨具对安置在上述下磨具上的硅片进行按压的施压装置。 Relative movement means for the upper wafer and said grindstone relative movement in the horizontal plane, and the lower grindstone and said wafer relative movement in the horizontal plane, so that the upper and the lower abrasive grinding disposed on silicon wafer with the pressure device is pressed.

本发明中,上述硅片保持在设有外周齿的托盘上,并在上述上、下磨具的各自中央部位上设置开口部。 The present invention, the wafer held on the tray is provided with an outer peripheral teeth, and said, opening portions provided on the respective central portion of the grinding wheel.

上述相对运动装置的结构包括:中心齿轮,它设在上述开口部内与上述托盘的外周齿啮合,环状内齿圈,它设在上述上磨具及下磨具的外面并与上述托盘的外周齿啮合,使上述托盘在绕上述中心齿轮回转时作公转与自转,使上述中心齿轮及上述环状内齿圈转动的驱动机构。 The above-described configuration relative movement means includes: a sun gear, which is provided in the opening portion with the outer peripheral teeth engaging the tray, the annular ring, it is provided outside the upper and the lower abrasive grinding wheel and the outer periphery of the tray toothing, so that the tray for the revolution and rotation during rotation about said sun gear, so that the sun gear and ring gear drive mechanism within the annular rotatable.

此外,本发明还设置夹持住上述托盘的在上述中心齿轮侧的端部的上下面的上、下一对间隔件。 Further, the present invention is provided on the upper end of the clamped portion of the tray in the central side of the gear below, next to the spacer.

下面,说明本发明的作用。 Next, operation of the present invention.

由于不进行研磨,与研磨加工后的硅片相比可以得到高平面度的硅片。 Due to polishing, and polishing the wafer after processing the wafer can be obtained as compared to a high flatness. 结果,与研磨硅片相比,本硅片的腐蚀加工余量减小。 As a result, compared with the silicon wafer polishing, this wafer etching allowance is reduced. 此时的腐蚀面的凹凸也比进行研磨时的小。 Irregular etching of the surface at this time is small than polished. 进而使以后工序的研磨中,只要很小的研磨量即可。 Thereby enabling the subsequent polishing step, the polishing amount can be small as long.

若再把本发明与只进行单面磨削的情况相比,在其硅片表面上不残留复制切割面而形成的凹凸。 If the present invention is then compared with the case where only one surface grinding, in which the wafer surface without leaving replication irregularities formed by the cutting face. 于是,磨削后的硅片不必研磨就能进行腐蚀。 Thus, the wafer can be polished after grinding is not necessary for etching. 此外,因研磨加工而产生的损伤只剩下其1/10左右,使腐蚀加工余量变小,可显著地防止因腐蚀工艺而造成的平面度下降,由于以两面磨削为特征,故无须把用作加工弹性体的硅片时的基准面置于材料(硅片)一侧。 Further, due to damage resulting from grinding only about 1/10 of the corrosion allowance becomes smaller, can be significantly prevented due to corrosion processes caused by decreased plane, since the grinding both surfaces is characterized, there is no need when the plane is used as a wafer processing of elastomeric material placed (wafer) side. 其磨削基准面是由在装置侧的磨削面(定盘面)的活动假想面(实际作用面)构成的。 A ground plane which is at the ground surface side of the apparatus (fixed disk) virtual surface activity (actual action face) thereof. 然而,是因材料的刚性而变化的。 However, because of the rigid material vary. 现在以硅片表面形状为正弦曲线表面的模式来研究各种精加工工艺。 Now the surface shape of the surface of the silicon wafer sinusoidal model to study various finishing process.

如图8A所示,切割出的硅片30的表面分别有凹凸,此凹凸如图8B及8C中所示,是由“厚度成分”与“纹波成分”构成的。 8A, the surface of the wafer 30 are cut out of the unevenness, this unevenness as shown in FIG 8B and 8C, is "the thickness of the component" and the "ripple component" configuration. 而且,纹波成分为晶片表里面的中间线。 Furthermore, the ripple component is a wafer table inside the middle line.

对图8D的硅片30进行单面加工使其厚度一致(参见图8E)后,则如图8F所示,就会形成相似于非加工侧的凹凸面的表面(在此称之为里面复制)。 After one surface of the silicon wafer 30 processed to conform FIG. 8D thickness (see FIG. 8E), is shown in Figure 8F, will form similar to non-processed surface side of the concavo-convex surface (referred to herein as replicate inside ).

此外,在对硅片两面加压,并在两面上同时加工后(参见图8G),厚的部分的两面被加工(参见图8H),厚度成分的凹凸虽被除去,但在其反面,由于硅片是弹性体,故在加工后加工压力释放后,就会有如图8I中所示的仍然残存有纹波成分的危险。 Further, the pressure on both surfaces of the silicon wafer, and processed at the same time (see FIG. 8G), both sides of the thick portion of the workpiece (see FIG. 8H) on both sides, although the uneven thickness of the component to be removed, but on the reverse side, since a silicon elastomer, the pressure is released after processing it after processing, there still remains a risk will ripple component as shown in FIG. 8I.

如上所述,使用本发明的硅片制造方法,由于是两面进行磨削的,故能够制造出高平行度、高平面度的硅片来。 As described above, the present invention is a method for producing a silicon wafer, since the grinding is performed on both sides, it is possible to manufacture a high parallelism, high flatness to the wafer. 而且,在进行加工时能防止上、下磨具温度上升,做到在整个硅片领域内磨削量一致,使整个硅片平坦地形成并且不产生翘曲。 Further, during the processing can be prevented, temperature rise at the grinding wheel, the grinding amount be consistent over the entire wafer area so that the whole wafer is formed flat and not warped. 这样,在两面磨削后,通过腐蚀而除去磨削损伤并进行单面镜面研磨,就能制造出单面研磨的硅片来。 Thus, after both surfaces of grinding, the grinding is removed by etching one surface mirror-polished and damaged, can be manufactured by grinding one surface of a silicon wafer. 另外,通过在两面磨削后的晶片表里两面同时进行两面研磨,就能够制成两面研磨的硅片。 Further, by polishing both sides of the front and rear surfaces simultaneously grinding both surfaces of the wafer, polished on both sides it can be made of silicon.

进而,由于两面磨削后的硅片的损伤层小,使用加工速度慢的化学机械研磨也能除去损伤层,通过里面半抛光或者表里两面同时进行研磨,就能除去磨削损伤并且能经济地制出两面研磨的硅片来。 Furthermore, since little damage layer on both sides of a silicon wafer after grinding processing using slow chemical mechanical polishing can remove a damaged layer, inside or semi-polished by grinding the opposite surfaces simultaneously, the grinding can be removed and damage can be economically be made to the both surfaces of the silicon wafer polished.

图1是本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置的整体结构图,其中示出了上侧磨具处于上升位置的状态。 FIG 1 is an overall configuration diagram of both sides of the grinding apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, showing a state in which the upper side of the grinding wheel in the raised position.

图2是本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置的整体结构图,其中示出上侧磨具处于下降位置状态。 FIG 2 is an overall configuration diagram of an embodiment both sides of the grinding apparatus of the embodiment of the present invention, showing the upper side of the grinding wheel in the lowered position state.

图3是本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置的主要部分立体图。 FIG. 3 is a partial perspective view of both sides of the grinding apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.

图4是本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置的主要部分平面图。 FIG 4 is a plan view of a main part on both sides of the grinding apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.

图5是本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置的主要部分纵断面图。 FIG 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a main part on both sides of the grinding apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.

图6是上侧磨具平面。 FIG 6 is a plane upper abrasive.

图7是下侧磨具平面图。 FIG. 7 is a side plan view of the grinding wheel.

图8A~8I是说明硅片的平面度提高的说明图。 FIG 8A ~ 8I is an explanatory view of flatness of the wafer improved described.

图9A与图9B分别是说明现有技术与本发明的制造工序的流程图。 9A and 9B are a flowchart illustrating a manufacturing process of the prior art and the present invention.

图10是表示本发明一实施例两面磨削结果的曲线图。 FIG 10 is a graph showing the results of Example grinding both surfaces of an embodiment of the present invention.

图11是表示本发明一实施例两面磨削结果的曲线图。 FIG 11 is a graph showing the results of Example grinding both surfaces of an embodiment of the present invention.

图12是表示本发明一实施例两面磨削结果的表面状态的模式图。 FIG 12 is a schematic view showing the surface state of the both sides of the grinding results of the present invention according to a first embodiment.

图13是表示过去的硅片表面状态的与图5同样的模式图。 5 and FIG. 13 is a schematic view similar surface state of the silicon wafer of FIG past.

图14A、14B与14C是表示将硅片真空吸附后对其进行单面磨削时的表面状态的模式图。 14A, 14B, and 14C are schematic diagrams showing the surface state of the wafer when subjected to vacuum suction-sided grinding.

图15是成锥形的硅片略图。 FIG 15 is slightly tapered silicon FIG.

下面,参照附图说明本发明的一实施例。 The following describes with reference to an embodiment of the present invention.

图1是本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置的整体结构图,其上侧磨具处于退让状态的上升位置,图2是本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置的整体结构图,表示其上侧磨具处于下降的磨削状态,图3是表示本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置主要部分的立体图,图4是表示本发明一实施例的两面磨削装置主要部分的平面图,图5是表示本发明一实施例两面磨削装置主要部分的平面图。 FIG 1 is an overall configuration diagram of both sides of the grinding apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, the upper side grinding wheel in the raised position retreated state, and FIG. 2 is an overall configuration diagram of both sides of the grinding apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, showing the upper abrasive grinding in a lowered state, FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing a main part of both sides of the grinding apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 4 is a plan view showing a main part of both surfaces of a grinding apparatus of the present embodiment of the invention, FIG. 5 is a plan view showing essential parts of the both surfaces of a grinding apparatus embodiment of the present invention.

此两面磨削装置是把保持在托盘(托盘装置)14上的硅片1的表里两面分别用圆板状的上侧磨具(上定盘)13与下侧磨具(下定盘)12同时进行磨削。 This both surfaces of the grinding apparatus is held in the tray (pallet) on the opposite surfaces of the wafer 141 respectively by a disk-shaped grindstone on the side (upper surface plate) 13 and the lower grindstone (lower surface plate) 12 At the same time grinding. 驱动上磨具13上下移动并绕轴线转动,另一方面则驱动下磨具12使之绕其轴线转动。 Driving the grinding wheel 13 moves up and down about the axis of rotation and, on the other hand the grinding wheel 12 is driven so as to rotate about its axis.

装置本体3上通过轴承16支持着铅直方向延伸的下盘驱动轴5,使其可自由转动,此下盘驱动轴5的直径较小的下端部5a成为同轴一体地安装图中未示的皮带轮的皮带轮安装部。 Supporting the apparatus body 3 by a bearing 16 extending in the vertical direction of the drive shafts 5, so as to be freely rotatable, in this case a small diameter drive shafts. 5A lower portion 5 is integrally mounted coaxial not shown in FIG. pulley pulley mounting portion. 通过皮带(图中未示出)把图中未示的驱动电动机的转动上传给上述皮带轮,就能使下盘驱动轴5绕其轴线转动。 Via a belt (not shown) the rotation of the driving motor (not shown) to upload the said pulley, the drive shaft can make the disc 5 is rotated about its axis. 上端有中心齿轮12A的中心齿轮驱动轴4可自由回转地支持在上述下盘驱动轴5上。 Upper end 12A of the sun gear shaft the sun gear 4 rotatably supported on the lower plate of the drive shaft 5. 中心齿轮驱动轴4沿铅直方向延伸,其下端部成为同轴一体地安装图中未示的皮带轮的皮带轮安装部,通过皮带(未示出)把图中未示的驱动电动机的转动传给该皮带轮,从而使中心齿轮驱动轴4绕其轴线转动。 The sun gear of the drive shaft 4 extends in the vertical direction, the lower end portion of the pulley mounting portion becomes coaxially integrally mounted to a pulley (not shown) through a belt (not shown) the rotation of the driving motor (not shown) passed to the pulley, the sun gear such that rotation of the drive shaft 4 about its axis.

另外,具有齿轮26的驱动轴25可自由转动地支持在装置本体3上,通过齿轮26使后述的环状内齿轮(内齿圈)17转动,通过图中未示的驱动电动机使驱动轴25绕其自身轴线转动。 Further, the drive shaft 25 having a gear 26 rotatably supported on the apparatus body 3, the rotation of the annular gear so that said gear 26 (ring gear) 17 driven by a motor (not shown) of the drive shaft 25 rotating about its own axis. 进而,由此驱动电动机与使中心齿轮驱动轴4转动的驱动电动机等构成了驱动机构。 Further, whereby the drive motor and the drive shaft 4 is rotated so that the sun gear of the driving motor or the like drive mechanism. 圆盘状支座(下盘)11通过圆盘状间隔件24固定在上述下盘驱动轴5上,下述的圆盘状下磨具12水平地固定在此支座11上。 A disc-shaped carrier (the plate) 11 by a disk-shaped spacer member 24 is fixed to the lower drive shafts 5, the level of the disk-shaped grindstone 12 is mounted thereto below the seat 11.

另外,附图标记2表示上盘,上盘2成水平状态地支持在固定于上述装置本体3上的驱动装置(例如油缸)9的杆9a上。 Further, reference numeral 2 represents a disk, 2 in the horizontal state on the disc drive device to support means fixed to the main body 3 (e.g., cylinder) of the upper rod 9a 9. 圆板状上磨具13通过连接件7及上磨具间隔件6成水平状态地安装在该上盘2的下面。 The disk-shaped grinding wheel 13 below the connecting member 7 and the abrasive member 6 is horizontal spacer mounted on the disk 2. 与上磨具13成一体的圆盘状上磨具间隔件6相对于上盘2可自由转动地被支承,且在上磨具间隔件6的外周上形成外周齿6a。 Integral with the grinding wheel on the grinding wheel 13 into a disk-shaped spacer 6 and with the grinding wheel on an outer periphery of the spacer teeth 6a formed on the outer periphery of the disc 2 to 6 may be rotatably supported. 若使上述油缸9的活塞杆9a收进,就能使上磨具13上升(图1的状态),若使活塞杆9a伸出则使上磨具13下降,就能与下磨具12一起对硅片1加压(图2的状态)。 Ruoshi above cylinder piston rod 9a of income, can make the grinding wheel 13 is raised (the state of FIG. 1), when the piston rod 9a extending the upper grindstone 13 is lowered, together with the grindstone 12 can pressing a silicon wafer 1 (the state in FIG. 2). 这样,借助于施压装置(在本例中是使用油缸9的升降装置)就把上磨具13设置成可上下移动的状态。 Thus, by means of a pressing device (in the present example is the use of the lifting device cylinder 9) to put on the grinding wheel 13 is provided so as to be vertically movable state. 进而,还可以采用例如由齿条,小齿轮等构成的滑动机构来取代用油缸9构成的升降装置。 Further, for example, a slide mechanism may also be composed of a rack pinion or the like substituted with a cylinder 9 lifting device configuration employed.

驱动电动机8固定在上盘2上,齿轮10同轴一体地固定在驱动电动机8的转轴(输出轴)8a上。 The drive motor 8 fixed to the upper plate 2, the gear 10 coaxially integrally fixed to the shaft 8 of the drive motor (output shaft) 8a. 此齿轮10与上述上磨具间隔件6的外周齿6a啮合。 This gear 10 engages the external peripheral teeth 6 and 6a the upper abrasive interval. 借此,通过上磨具间隔件6而把驱动电动机8的转动传到上磨具13上,从而使上磨具13绕其轴线转动。 Accordingly, the abrasive member 6 by the driving motor rotates intervals transmitted on the grindstone 138 so that the grinding wheel 13 rotates about its axis.

在上述中心齿轮12A与环状内齿圈17之间配置多个(本例中为3个)圆板状的托盘14,托盘外周上形成的外周齿分别与中心齿轮12A及环状内齿圈17的内周齿啮合,即,上述托盘14相对于中心轮12A及环状内齿圈17是作为行星齿轮而运动的。 A plurality (three in this embodiment) between the ring gear 17 of the disk-shaped tray 14, the outer peripheral teeth formed on the outer periphery of the tray and the inner ring are respectively the sun gear and a ring 12A in the central and annular gear 12A the inner periphery of the toothing 17, i.e., the tray 14 relative to the center wheel gear 12A and an inner ring gear 17 as planetary motion. 各托盘14上分别设置可容纳1片硅片1的收容孔15。 Are provided on the respective tray 14 can accommodate a wafer receiving hole 15 1. 这些硅片1装在各自的上述托盘14的收容孔15中,并以其下表面分别在下磨具12可滑动地设置。 The wafer 1 is mounted on the respective receiving hole 14 of the tray 15, and the lower grindstone 12 are respectively slidably disposed in its lower surface. 而且,使托盘14的厚度比硅片1的厚度要小。 Further, the thickness of the tray 14 than the thickness of the wafer 1 is small. 此外,这些硅片1的上表面也成为与上磨具13相互可自由滑动的状态。 Further, the upper surface of the wafer 1 and the grindstone also becomes 13 are slidably state. 上磨具13的中央部有开口部13B,下磨具12上也有与上述开口部13B同样的开口部12B,上下磨具13、12的外径与内径彼此大致相等,是球墨铸铁制成的薄壁圆板。 The abrasive portion 13 of the central opening portion 13B, the grindstone 12 have 12B, the upper and lower outer and inner diameter grinding wheel 13, 12 are substantially equal to each other similar to the opening portion of the opening portion 13B, it is made of ductile iron thin-walled circular plate.

如上所述地,把硅片1安装并保持在这些上磨具13与下磨具12之间,并同时对其表里两面进行磨削。 As described above, the wafer 1 is mounted and held between the upper 13 and the lower abrasive grinding wheel 12, and simultaneously grinding the opposite surfaces thereof. 即,硅片1是保持在有外周齿的托盘14上的,而在托盘14上形成能插入硅片1的收容孔(圆孔)15。 That is, the wafer 1 is held on the outer peripheral teeth of the tray 14, is formed can be inserted into the receiving hole (circular hole) 15 of the wafer 1 on the tray 14. 而托盘14的外周齿在与中心齿轮12啮合的同时,还啮合在环状内齿圈17的内周齿上。 And an outer peripheral teeth tray 14 while meshing with the sun gear 12 further engages the annular ring 17 on the inner peripheral teeth. 环状内齿圈17比下磨具12的外径大,配置成包围着下磨具12的状态。 The annular ring 17 outer diameter ratio of the grinding wheel 12, the grinding wheel is configured to surround the 12 state. 进而,虽然在本例中是设置3个各保持一个硅片1的托盘14,并同时对3个硅片1进行两面磨削的,但是并不局限于此。 Further, in the present embodiment is provided with three trays each holding a wafer 141, and the three wafers simultaneously grinding both surfaces 1, but is not limited thereto. 此外,在上磨具13的磨削面(下面)与下磨具12的磨削面(上面)上,各形成多条径向及周向延伸的放射槽及圆周槽。 Further, in the grinding surface (lower surface) of the grinding wheel 13 on the grinding surface of the grinding wheel 12 (above), each forming a plurality of radially and circumferentially extending grooves and circumferential radiation grooves.

下面,对上述两面磨削装置的主要部分的详细结构加以说明。 Hereinafter, the structure will be described in detail a main part of the double-sided grinding apparatus.

如图1~图5所示,附图标记12是载置作为被磨削物的硅片1的下磨具。 As shown in FIG. 1 to FIG. 5, reference numeral 12 is mounted as the object to be ground wafer 1 under the grindstone. 此下磨具12为中央形成圆形开口部(中心孔)12B的圆盘体,载置固定于上述支座11之上,附图标记21a是安装在下盘驱动轴5上的间隔支持件,此间隔体支持件21a插套在上述中心齿轮驱动轴4上。 Under this abrasive disk body 12 is formed a central circular opening (center hole) 12B that, mounted on said holder is fixed to 11, reference numeral 21a is attached to the lower support member on the drive shafts of the spacer 5, this spacer socket support member 21a on the sun gear shaft 4. 而且,此间隔体支持件21a不与下盘驱动轴5一同转动。 Further, the spacer member 21a supports the lower disc is not rotated together with the drive shaft 5.

附图标记12C表示安置在上述间隔体支持件21上的下间隔体,各托盘14的在中心齿轮12A侧的端部就安置在此下间隔体12C之上,而与其大体同形状的上间隔体13A则安置在此下间隔体12C的上面,并靠上间隔体13A的自重把上述托盘14的中心齿轮12A侧的端部夹持在它与下间隔体12C之间而构成的。 Reference numeral 12C denotes a spacer disposed in said support member on the lower spacer 21, an end portion of the sun gear 12A side of each tray 14 positioned on top of this spacer at 12C, while its shape is substantially the same interval the body 13A is positioned above the body of the spacer 12C, and by its own weight on the spacer 13A, the end portion 12A side of the sun gear 14 of the tray is clamped between it and the spacer 12C constituted. 各间隔体12C、13A可自由转动地嵌插在中心齿轮12A上。 Each spacer 12C, 13A is rotatably fitted in the sun gear 12A. 借助于上述结构,各托盘14在从上磨具13的开口部13B上方供入的后述的磨削液(参见图2及图5的粗线箭头)的压力作用下就不会产生弯曲。 With the above construction, the grinding liquid under pressure (see the bold arrows in FIG. 2 and FIG. 5) of the trays 14 from above the opening in the upper portion 13B of the grinding wheel 13 is fed to said bending is not generated. 上间隔体13A的重量应为不致妨碍各托盘14的后面所述的行星轨道运动的大小。 13A should not impede the weight of each size of the tray 14 behind the planetary orbital movement of the spacer.

上磨具13可以如上所述地上下自由运动地设置,并能以规定的荷重把上述托盘14上所保持的硅片1压接在下磨具12上。 13 may be grinding tools as described above are arranged vertically movable, and can be predetermined load to the wafer 14 of the tray 1 held pressed against the lower grindstone 12. 此外,从上磨具13的上方向其开口部13B,如图2中箭头所示地供给磨削液(例如纯水),并设置喷嘴等磨削液供给装置(图中未示)。 Further, the direction of the grinding wheel 13 from its opening portion 13B, 2 grinding liquid is supplied as shown by an arrow (e.g., water) as shown, and the grinding liquid supplying means is provided (not shown) nozzles.

上述上磨具间隔件6、上磨具13、下磨具12、支座11及间隔件24的各内周面与下盘驱动轴5的上面、间隔体支持件21a及上下各间隔体13A、12C的外周面所围成的空间则成为规定容积的液腔(空间)W。 The upper abrasive spacers 6, the grinding wheel 13, the grinding wheel 12, bearing 11 and the respective inner circumferential surface of the lower disc 24 of the drive shaft above the spacer, the spacer 21a and the support member 5 of the upper and lower spacers 13A , the outer peripheral surface 12C of the space surrounded by the liquid chamber to a predetermined volume (space) W.

下面就上磨具间隔件6及上、下磨具13、12的详细结构,以磨削液通道为重点加以说明。 Here the grinding wheel and the spacer member 6, the detailed structure of the grinding wheel 13, 12 in order to focus the grinding liquid passage will be described.

首先,如图1所示,在上磨具间隔件6上形成上下方向贯通的多个(图中只示出2个)贯通孔18,它们在上述上磨具间隔件16的周向有规则地布置(在本例中为等间隔)。 First, as shown in FIG. 1, the vertical direction in the plurality of spacers are formed on the grinding wheel penetrating 6 (only shown in FIG. 2) through holes 18, 16 of the circumferential member are spaced above the grinding wheel on a regular arranged (in the present example equal intervals).

如图1与图6中所示,在上磨具13上面内周侧形成环状槽19。 1, the annular groove 19 is formed as shown in FIG. 6 in the upper side of the grinding wheel 13 weeks. 此环状槽19的形成位置与上述上磨具间隔件6贯通孔18的位置重叠。 This position of the annular groove 19 is formed in the through hole 18 of member 6 overlaps with the position of the upper abrasive interval. 此外,还在上磨具13的上面分别形成一端与上述环状槽19相通,并成放射状地延伸到上磨具13外径方向大致中间部位的多个(本例中为8条)放射槽20。 Further, also the upper surface 13 of the grinding wheel 19 are respectively formed at one end communicating with the annular groove, and a plurality of radially extending to a substantially central portion on the grinding wheel 13 the outer diameter direction (in this example 8) radial grooves 20. 放射槽20的另一端分别与上下方向贯通上磨具13的贯通孔21连通。 The other end of the radial grooves 20 are vertically penetrating the upper through hole 13 communicates the grinding wheel 21.

另外,如图1及图7中所示,在下磨具12的下面形成从其内壁放射状延伸的多个放射槽23。 Further, as shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 7, the grinding wheel 12 below the lower plurality of radial grooves extending radially from the inner wall 23 is formed. 各放射槽23从下磨具12内周部延伸到径向的大约中间部位,各放射槽23的一端分别与上下贯通下磨具12的多个贯通孔22连通。 Each of the radial grooves 23 extending from the inner peripheral portion of the grinding wheel 12 radially to approximately the middle portion, one end of each of the radial grooves 23 are communicated with the grindstone 12 up and down through the plurality of through holes 22.

在图2及5中,以粗箭头示出磨削液的流动状态。 2 and in FIG. 5, the thick arrows show the flow of grinding liquid state. 即,从上磨具13的上方供至上述液腔W的磨削液,从上、下磨具13、12间的硅片1的外周侧供至其上下面,在上、下磨具13、12的水平面内转动时产生的离心力作用下,此磨削液被供向上、下磨具13、12的外周侧。 That is, for the grindstone 13 from above the grinding liquid to said liquid chamber W from the silicon wafer 13, 12 between the abrasive side of an outer periphery of the supply to upper and lower surfaces, the upper and lower abrasive 13 , the centrifugal force generated during rotation of the horizontal plane 12, the grinding liquid is supplied upwardly, the lower side of the outer periphery of the grinding wheel 13, 12. 因此,将磨削液供给到硅片1上下面全域上。 Therefore, the grinding fluid is supplied to the silicon wafer 1 below over the entire domain.

另外,磨削液也供应到上磨具间隔件6的多个贯通孔18中,所供的磨削液流过上磨具13的环状槽19、放射槽20及贯通孔21而供应到硅片1上面的大约中央部位上。 Further, the grinding liquid is also supplied to a plurality of spacer 6 on the abrasive member in the through hole 18, the grinding fluid flow supplied through the annular groove 13 of the grinding wheel 19, the radial grooves 20 and the through-hole 21 is supplied to the approximately center portion on a top silicon wafer. 进而,供应到上述液腔W中的磨削液则通过下磨具12的放射槽23及贯通孔22而供至硅片1下面的大体中央的部位上。 Furthermore, grinding liquid supplied to said liquid chamber W is adopted in the abrasive portion 23 and a generally central through-hole 22 and supplied to the wafer 1 following radial grooves 12. 借此,就能可靠地控制整个硅片1的温度。 Accordingly, the temperature control can be reliably across the wafer 1.

这样,为了使用该两面磨削装置对硅片的表里两面进行磨削而把切割后的硅片1插入托盘14的收容孔15中,在上磨具13与下磨具12之间夹住硅片1,分别以规定速度使上磨具13与下磨具12在水平面内转动。 Thus, in order to use both sides of the grinding apparatus for grinding the opposite surfaces of the silicon wafer is cut and the wafer 1 is inserted into the receiving hole 14 of the tray 15, the abrasive grinding wheel 13 sandwiched between the bottom 12 and in wafers 1, respectively, at a predetermined speed of the grinding wheel 13 the upper and the lower grindstone 12 is rotated in a horizontal plane. 此时,上磨具13在规定荷重下压在硅片1上,同时只下降规定的量值(例如,100μm)。 At this time, the grinding wheel 13 at a predetermined pressure load on the wafer 1, while only a predetermined magnitude decrease (e.g., 100μm). 在此时,从上磨具13上不断地供给磨削液,使硅片1的温度控制保持在一定值(例如,25℃)上。 At this time, the grinding liquid is supplied continuously from the grinding tools 13, control the temperature of the wafer 1 is held at a constant value (e.g., 25 ℃) on. 磨削液从液腔W经各磨削面的槽(放射槽与圆周槽)而不断地供至硅片1的中心部。 The grinding liquid from each liquid chamber W via the groove of the grinding surface (radial grooves and circumferential grooves) and continuously supplied to the center portion of the wafer 1. 于是,就把硅片中心部的温度也保持在一定值上。 Then, put the wafer temperature is also maintained at the central portion of a certain value. 从上述说明可知,温度控制装置是由上述磨削液供给装置(喷嘴等)与上述磨削液通道及液腔W构成的。 Seen from the above description, by the temperature control device is a grinding fluid supply means (nozzles) and said grinding fluid passage and the liquid chamber constituted W.

详细地进行说明则是,首先,把硅片1分别装入各托盘14的收容孔15中,将其安置在下磨具12上,从上面压下上磨具13使其与各硅片1的上面相接。 Is to be described in detail, First, the silicon wafer 1 were charged in the receiving hole 14 in each tray 15, which is disposed on the lower grinding wheel 12, the grinding wheel 13 from above so that the pressure of each of the wafer 1 contact above. 然后,如上所述,把磨削液供给到硅片1的上下表面上,同时使中心齿轮12A及环状内齿圈17分别在图4中箭头方向上转动,则各托盘14就会在图4中箭头方向上各自转动。 Then, as described above, the grinding fluid is supplied to the upper and lower surfaces of the silicon wafer 1, while the sun gear 12A and an inner annular ring gear 17 are rotated in the direction of the arrow in FIG. 4, each tray 14 will be in the FIG. each rotating in the direction indicated by arrow 4. 借此,硅片1在水平面内描画出行星轮道,同时它们的下表面被下磨具12的上面(磨削面)摩擦而在下磨具12上进行磨削。 Thus, the wafer 1 depicting a planet wheel track in a horizontal plane, while the lower surface thereof above the abrasive (grinding surface) 12 of the lower friction on the grinding wheel 12 for grinding. 进而,通过使上磨具13在下磨具12的反方向上转动,用上磨具13的下面(磨削面)摩擦硅片1的上表面而进行磨削。 Further, by making the grinding wheel 13 is rotated in the reverse direction on the lower grindstone 12, and use the upper surface (ground surface) friction wafer 1 and below the grinding wheel 13 is grinding.

通过上述的说明可以明了,相对运动装置是由中心齿轮12A、中心齿轮驱动轴4、环状内齿圈17及驱动电动机8等构成的。 Can be appreciated by the above description, the relative movement means. 12A is a sun gear, a sun gear shaft 4, the ring gear 17 constituting the driving motor 8 and the like. 而此相对运动装置与上磨具13及下磨具12等则构成了两面磨削装置。 And relative movement means and the grinding wheel 13 and the grinding wheel 12 and the like constitute the grinding device on both sides.

图9A及9B分别是说明现有技术制造工序与本发明工序的流程图。 9A and 9B are a flowchart illustrating a manufacturing process of the prior art and the process of the present invention.

过去,在制造硅片时,首先,把单晶硅坯料切割(步骤S1),再把切成的硅片磨边(步骤S2),再把这样得到的多个硅片按厚度参差之大小进行分类(分选成组,步骤S3),进行这种分组的理由是其厚度越整齐一致,越能缩短后述的加工时间,对于以其厚度分选出来的每批厚度一致的硅片同时进行研磨(步骤S4)、然后洗净(步骤S5)。 In the past, the production of silicon wafers, first, the silicon single crystal blank cut (step Sl), then cut into silicon edging (step S2), a plurality of silicon wafers thus obtained were then mixed according to the size of a thickness classification (sorting into groups, a step S3), the reason for such grouping is the thickness uniformity uniform, the processing time can be shortened to be described later, simultaneously to the sorting out of its thickness uniform wafer thickness for each batch grinding (step S4), and then washed (step S5). 这种洗净是为了从硅片上除去研磨剂与在研磨时球墨铸铁制的上下磨具磨损产生的大量铁及铁离子而进行的强力清洗。 This cleaning is to remove large amounts of strong cleaning iron and iron ions in the abrasive grinding spheroidal graphite cast iron and the upper and lower abrasive wear and tear resulting from the silicon wafer carried out. 然后,用强碱界面活性剂洗净硅片(步骤S6)、再通过部分腐蚀(Chemical Comer Rounding)除去由上述的磨边而产生的损伤,再在洗净后进行腐蚀。 Then, with a strong base wafer cleaning surfactant (step S6), then, further washed by partially etching the etching (Chemical Comer Rounding) was removed by the damage generated by the edging.

与其相对地,在本发明中则如图9B中所示地,在例如用线锯进行切片(步骤S10)及磨边后(步骤S11),不进行上述的分选成组,而是同时地进行两面磨削(步骤S12)。 Corresponding thereto, in the present invention is shown in FIG 9B, after (step S11), for example, slicing (step S10), and milling with a wire saw, not sorted into the above groups, but simultaneously for two-sided grinding (step S12). 不必进行分选成组是由于两面同时磨削能同时对硅片的两面进行磨削可在短时间内达到两面的平行度。 Need not be sorted into groups because both sides simultaneous grinding of both surfaces of the silicon wafer can be simultaneously grinding both surfaces of parallelism can be achieved in a short time.

由于不用研磨剂,故如上所述研磨后立即进行清洗也就不必要了。 Because they are not abrasive, it is cleaned immediately after grinding as described above also unnecessary. 在洗净后(步骤S13)进行CCR与洗净。 After washing for washing with CCR (step S13). 再对硅片的里面用半抛光法或对两面同时进行化学机械法研磨而除去磨削损伤层。 And then the inside of the silicon wafer to remove the damaged layer by grinding or polishing both sides of a semi simultaneously a chemical mechanical polishing method. 这种两面同时化学机械研磨是用分别有砂布的上下一对定盘实现的,而不用如上所述的两面同时磨削装置的上磨具与下磨具。 Such chemical mechanical polishing simultaneously both sides respectively with the pair of platen emery cloth achieve, and on both sides at the same time as described above without grinding abrasive means with the lower abrasive. 不使用过去的研磨加工与腐蚀工序,而是用里面半抛光或两面同时研磨,能够高精度地加工硅片。 Is not used in polishing and etching the last step, but with half the inside or both sides polished simultaneously polished, the wafer can be processed with high accuracy.

进而,并不限于上述的不经过腐蚀工序的制造方法,也可以使洗净(步骤S13)以后的工序使用与过去相同的工序。 Further, the production method is not limited to the above without the step of etching, cleaning may be made (step S13) and subsequent steps in the past using the same procedure.

图10表示上磨具13的降下速度(上磨具的下降量/加工时间)与该时刻负荷的关系。 Lowering the grinding wheel speed (decrease the amount of the abrasive / processing time) and the time of the load 13 represented in FIG 10. 此时,下磨具12、上磨具13的转速分别为,例如77转/分、51转/份。 In this case, the grindstone 12, the rotational speed of the grinding wheel 13, respectively, for example, 77 r / min, 51 rpm / parts. 负荷小(例如120+30kgf=○)时,花费进行规定量磨削的时间,负荷中(165+30kgf=Δ)、大(210+30kgf=□)的情况,磨削时间适宜。 The load is small (e.g. 120 + 30kgf = ○), the time it takes for a predetermined amount of grinding, a load of (165 + 30kgf = Δ), a large (210 + 30kgf = □) case, the grinding time suitable. 然而,若比大的情况再加大荷重时,在此转速等条件下硅片上会产生裂纹。 However, if the ratio is large then increase the load, speed and other conditions in which cracks are generated on a silicon wafer.

图11是使用相同的装置,使负荷一定(165+30kgf)而变更上磨具13与下磨具12的转速进行两面磨削的结果。 FIG 11 is the same means, with the load constant (165 + 30kgf) changed the results for both sides of the rotational speed grinding abrasive grindstone 12 13. 下磨具12及上磨具13的转速,○为下磨具12为45转/分,上磨具13为28转/分的情形,而●则为60转/分,38转/分,Δ为77转/分,51转/分,▲为87转/分,57转/分等情形。 Rotational speed and the grindstone 12 of the grinding wheel 13, grinding wheel 12 for the next ○ 45 rev / min, 13 of the abrasive 28 rpm / min the case, and ● was 60 r / min, 38 rev / min, Δ 77 rev / min, 51 rev / min, ▲ 87 rev / min, 57 rpm / classification situation. 从磨削所需时间与裂纹的观点来看,●与Δ示出了良好的结果。 Aspect of the grinding time required from the point of view of the crack, ● Δ and shown good results.

如以上所述,使用这种实施例的两面磨削与研磨加工后的硅片比较,可以获得高平面度的硅片。 As described above, the use of this comparative wafers were polished on both surfaces with grinding machining Example embodiment, silicon can be obtained a high flatness. 如图12所示,例如能使TTV为0.66μm(静电容量型表面平面度测定器=用ADE的测定值)。 As shown in FIG 12, for example, can TTV is 0.66 m (electrostatic capacity type flatness measuring surface = the measured value for the ADE). 其结果,与研磨晶片相比减小了腐蚀加工余量,例如可以达到2μm。 As a result, the wafer with the polishing allowance of corrosion is reduced compared, for example, can reach 2μm. 而且,这种场合的腐蚀面的凹凸,与进行研磨加工场合相比能变小,例如可以是0.1μm。 Further, the etched surface irregularities of this case, as compared with the case can be polished becomes smaller, for example, be 0.1μm. 进而,后续工序的研磨只要2μm左右的极小研磨量就可以了,能很容易地使SFQD达到0.1μm的程度。 Furthermore, the subsequent polishing step is extremely small polishing amount of about 2μm long as it can easily make SFQD extent of 0.1μm.

在把本发明与单面磨削的场合比较时,可见其硅片表面上不残存复制在切割面上的凹凸。 When comparing the present invention with the case of single-sided grinding, replication does not remain visible on the cut surface irregularities on the wafer surface thereof. 于是,就可以在磨削后的硅片不进行研磨加工的情况下进行腐蚀。 Thus, etching can be performed in the case of grinding the wafer back grinding process is not performed. 而且,由于损伤量仅为研磨加工的损伤量的1/10,使腐蚀加工余量变小,能明显地防止因腐蚀而产生的平面度变劣。 Further, since the amount of damage damage was only 1/10 of polishing, etching allowance so small, the flatness can significantly be prevented due to corrosion resulting from deterioration. 而且,在本实施例中,还可以有能通过磨削液除去磨削面上切屑的效果。 Further, in the present embodiment, there may also be removed by grinding liquid surface grinding swarf effect.

本发明由于有以上说明的结构,能收到下述的效果。 Since the present invention has the structure described above, the following effects can be received.

本发明的制造方法,与进行研磨加工场合相比,特别是制造1G位以上的高集成器件时所要求的高平面度硅片,减少腐蚀加工余量,还能减小腐蚀面的凹凸。 When the process of the present invention, as compared with a case of grinding, more particularly for manufacturing highly integrated device 1G bits required high flatness silicon, reducing corrosion allowance, also reduces the unevenness of the etched surface. 在研磨工序中,只要很小的研磨量就可以了。 In the polishing step, as long as a small amount of polishing it. 也不需要在研磨后进行费事的洗净工作。 No need for laborious cleaning work after grinding. 与仅进行单面磨削相比,不需要进行洗净与研磨加工。 As compared with only one-sided grinding, polishing and cleaning is not required.

此外,还能防止硅片温度上升而保持温度一致,能在整个领域中保持硅片厚度与残留损伤一致,使整个平面平坦地形成而减小翘曲。 Further, the wafer can be prevented while keeping the temperature of the temperature rise, the thickness of the wafer can be maintained consistent throughout the residual damage in the art, so that the entire surface is formed flat and reduced warpage.

进而,由于两面磨削后的硅片损伤层小,用加工速度慢的化学机械研磨也能除去损伤层,通过里面的半抛光或对表里两面同时进行研磨,能除去磨削损伤层并经济地制出两面研磨的硅片。 Further, since the silicon layer was little damage to both surfaces of grinding, it can be removed by chemical mechanical polishing slow damage layer, through which the semi-polishing or grinding the opposite surfaces simultaneously, to remove the damaged layer and grinding economy grinding the both surfaces of the silicon produced.

本发明的制造装置,能够容易地实现上述的制造方法,而且借助于相对运动装置,通过使上磨具与下磨具转动并使夹持硅片的托盘作行星运动,除了能对硅片的两面进行一致的磨削之外,还能使磨削装置小型化。 Manufacturing apparatus of the present invention, it is possible to easily realize the above manufacturing method and apparatus by means of a relative movement, by the upper and the lower abrasive grinding wheel to rotate and the wafer holding tray in a solar motion, in addition to the silicon wafer consistent grinding both surfaces outside, but also the size of the grinding apparatus.

另外,借助于温度控制装置,能够从上、下磨具的内周侧,并从上、下磨具的磨削面分别向硅片的端面侧以及中央部供磨削液,而且磨削液在上磨具及下磨具的离心力的作用下供应到硅片上下面的整个领域上,由此而能对硅片里表面的整个温度可靠地进行控制、具有使两面残留损伤一致翘曲变小的优点。 Further, by means of the temperature control device, it can be from the upper and lower side of the inner periphery of the grinding wheel, and from the grinding surface of the grinding wheel for grinding liquid respectively and the central portion toward the end face side of the silicon wafer, and the grinding liquid supplied at a centrifugal force acts on the grinding wheel and the grinding wheel over the whole field on the underlying silicon, thereby capable of controlling the temperature of the entire surface of the silicon chip reliably, has a consistent warpage sides residual damage small advantages.

进而,由于用上下间隔件夹持住托盘的在中心齿轮侧的端部,故能防止因磨削液压力而造成的托盘翘曲。 Further, since the gear-side end portion clamped in the upper and lower center of the tray spacer member, it is possible to prevent the tray due to the pressure caused by a grinding liquid warpage.

Claims (10)

  1. 1.一种硅片的制造方法,包括:将单晶硅棒切割而制成硅片的切片工序;对该硅片的表里两面同时进行磨削的两面同时磨削工序。 1. A method for producing a silicon wafer, comprising: cutting a single crystal silicon rod is made of a silicon wafer slicing step; for simultaneously grinding both surfaces grinding step while the front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer.
  2. 2.如权利要求1中所述的硅片制造方法,其特征在于,在上述两面同时磨削工序中,把硅片夹持在两面磨削装置的上磨具与下磨具之间,在对硅片的表里面同时进行磨削时,向该硅片的表里面整个范围供给磨削液。 2. The wafer manufacturing method according to claim 1, wherein, in the double-sided simultaneous grinding step, the silicon wafer is sandwiched between both sides of the grinding wheel and the abrasive grinding apparatus, in when the wafer is ground inside the table at the same time, wafer table to which the entire range of the grinding liquid is supplied.
  3. 3.如权利要求1或2中所述的硅片制造方法,其特征在于,在上述两面同时磨削工序中,对硅片表里面的温度进行控制。 A method for producing a silicon wafer according to 1 or 2 as claimed in claim 3, wherein, in the double-sided simultaneous grinding step, the temperature inside the wafer table is controlled.
  4. 4.如权利要求1至3中任一项中所述的硅片制造方法,其特征在于,在上述两面同时磨削工序后,对硅片进行腐蚀而除去磨削损伤,进而再对硅片的两面进行研磨。 4. The wafer manufacturing method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that, while the grinding step, the silicon wafer is etched in the double-sided grinding to remove damaged silicon wafer which can then the two sides polished.
  5. 5.一种硅片制造装置,它设有在把硅片夹持在板状上磨具与下磨具之间的状态下同时磨削硅片表里面的两面磨削装置,以及控制在进行两面磨削时硅片表里面温度的温度控制装置。 A silicon manufacturing apparatus, which is provided in the wafer holder on the plate between the grinding wheel and the grinding wheel while the grinding state in which both surfaces of the wafer table grinding apparatus, and a control is performed table wafer temperature control means when the temperature inside the grinding both surfaces.
  6. 6.如权利要求5中所述的硅片制造装置,其特征在于,上述温度控制装置是在两面磨削装置中通过对磨削中的硅片表里面的整个范围供给磨削液而控制其温度的。 6. The wafer manufacturing apparatus according to claim 5, wherein said temperature control means on both sides by supplying grinding liquid in the grinding apparatus for grinding the entire range of the wafer tables in the inside thereof and a control temperature.
  7. 7.如权利要求6中所述的硅片制造装置,其特征在于,上述温度控制装置是包括上述上磨具与上述下磨具的各内周面构成的液腔,在上述上磨具与上述下磨具上分别形成的供磨削液从各自磨削面流出用的磨削液通道,以及向上述液腔与上述磨削液通道供应磨削液的磨削液供给装置构成的。 7. The silicon manufacturing apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said temperature control means including a liquid chamber with the upper abrasive inner circumferential surface of the grinding tool configuration, and in the upper abrasive for abrasive grinding liquid are formed on the lower outflow from the respective grinding surface with grinding liquid passages, and a grinding fluid supply means for supplying grinding liquid to the liquid chamber and the above-described grinding fluid passage thereof.
  8. 8.如权利要求5至7中任一项所述的硅片制造装置,其特征在于,上述两面磨削装置的构成包括:上磨具与下磨具,它们相互平行地水平配置,以相对的表面作为磨削面,并对在上述磨削面上的上述硅片的表里面分别进行磨削,相对运动装置,用于使上述上磨具及上述硅片在水平面内作相对运动,并且上述下磨具及上述硅片在水平面内作相对运动,以及使上述上磨具对安置在上述下磨具上的硅片进行按压的施压装置。 8. The apparatus for manufacturing a silicon wafer according to any of claims 5-7, characterized in that, on both sides constituting the grinding means comprises: upper and lower abrasive grinding wheel, are arranged parallel to each other horizontally, relative to surface as the grinding surface, and in said wafer table inside the grinding surface of the grinding, respectively, relative movement means for the upper wafer and said grindstone relative movement in the horizontal plane, and the lower wafer and said grindstone relative movement in the horizontal plane, and causing the upper abrasive of the abrasive is disposed on said wafer for pressing the pressing means.
  9. 9.如权利要求5至8中任一项所述的硅片制造装置,其特征在于,上述硅片被保持在设有外周齿的托盘上,而在上述上磨具及上述下磨具的各自的中央部位上设置开口部,上述相对运动装置的构成包括,中心齿轮,它设在上述开口部内与上述托盘的外周齿成啮合状态,环状内周齿轮,它设置在上述上磨具及上述下磨具的外面并与上述托盘上的外周齿啮合,并使上述托盘在绕上述中心齿轮回转的情况下实现公转及自转,以及使上述中心齿轮及上述环状内齿轮转动的驱动机构。 Wafer manufacturing apparatus according to any one of 5 to 8 as claimed in claim 9, wherein said wafer is held on the tray is provided with outer peripheral teeth, while the upper and the lower abrasive grindstone an opening portion, the relative movement means of respective central portion constituted comprising, a sun gear, which is provided in the opening portion and the outer peripheral teeth into the tray engaged state, the inner annular periphery of the gear, which is provided at the upper and abrasive and the outer surface of the grinding wheel with the outer peripheral teeth engaging on the tray, and the tray rotation and revolution to achieve in the case of rotation about the center of the gear, and so that the sun gear and driving means within said ring gear to rotate.
  10. 10.如权利要求5至9中任一项所述的硅片制造装置,其特征在于,还设置夹持住上述托盘的在上述中心齿轮侧的端部的上下面的上下一对间隔体。 10. The silicon manufacturing apparatus according to any one of claims 5-9, wherein further provided on the upper and lower ends of the clamped portion of said tray in said side of the sun gear of the following spacer body.
CN 96110121 1995-07-03 1996-07-03 Appts. for making silicon chip CN1096108C (en)

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DE19626396A1 (en) 1997-01-16 application

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