CN110905512A - Open stope mining method for gently inclined medium-thickness ore body - Google Patents

Open stope mining method for gently inclined medium-thickness ore body Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110905512A
CN110905512A CN201911158516.8A CN201911158516A CN110905512A CN 110905512 A CN110905512 A CN 110905512A CN 201911158516 A CN201911158516 A CN 201911158516A CN 110905512 A CN110905512 A CN 110905512A
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China
Prior art keywords
ore
mining
stope
mountain
removal
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CN201911158516.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
高志荣
赵文奇
刘财林
高文革
张亭
贾青春
焦满岱
周健强
张睿
孟慧媚
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Northwest Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
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Northwest Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
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Priority to CN201911158516.8A priority Critical patent/CN110905512A/en
Publication of CN110905512A publication Critical patent/CN110905512A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/22Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for ores, e.g. mining placers

Abstract

The invention discloses a gentle dip medium thickness ore body open stope mining method, which comprises ore block constituent elements, mining and cutting engineering arrangement, a bottom structure and stoping work which are sequentially circulated according to the steps of drilling and blasting → stope ventilation → ore removal until stope finishing, ore pillar recovery and goaf treatment; the invention ensures that the operators do not operate under the empty area by using rock drilling, mountain climbing, ore removal cross drift and the like, and fully ensures the safety of the operators; secondly, ore caving and ore removal are carried out by utilizing the upward fan-shaped medium-length holes, so that the mining efficiency is greatly improved, and the production capacity of a single mining field can reach 300 plus 500 t/d; and thirdly, the room pillars and the reserved pillars can be recovered row by adopting a medium-length hole retreating mode, mineral resources are recovered to the maximum extent, and the comprehensive recovery rate of ore blocks can reach more than 90%.

Description

Open stope mining method for gently inclined medium-thickness ore body
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of underground mine mining, and particularly relates to a gentle dip medium-thickness ore body open stope mining method.
Background
The slowly inclined medium-thick and thick ore bodies are the ore bodies which are acknowledged to be difficult to mine in the mining industry, the inclination angle of the ore bodies is slow, the caving ore cannot be completely discharged at the bottom by the dead weight, the ore removal must use conveying equipment, the exposed area of a roof of a stope is large, the management is difficult, and the potential safety hazard is more prominent.
At present, mining methods such as a room-and-column method, a sublevel caving method, a chassis funnel method and the like are widely adopted in China, but the room-and-column method has the advantages of permanent loss and small application range of ore pillars, the room-and-column method requires that surrounding rocks on a top plate are relatively stable, and the true thickness of an ore body cannot be too large; the sublevel caving method has large mining-cutting ratio and high mining cost; the bottom structure of the chassis funnel method is complex, the mining efficiency is low and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a gentle dip medium-thickness ore body open stoping method to solve the problems in the prior art.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: a gentle dip medium-thickness ore body open stoping method comprises the following steps:
step 1) ore block constituent elements: dividing an ore body into mining middle sections along the vertical direction, wherein the height of each mining middle section is 50m, each mining middle section is divided into 2-3 mining subsections, the height of each mining subsection is 16-25m, in each mining middle section, ore blocks are arranged along the trend of the ore body, the length of each ore block is 60m, the width of each ore block is 10-15m, each ore block is divided into an ore room and a pillar, the length of each ore room is 45-48m along the trend of the ore body, and the length of each pillar is 12-15m perpendicular to the direction of the ore body;
step 2), cutting engineering: arranging a vein-penetrating upper mountain in the middle of a stud, digging to a transportation return air tunnel along a footwall of an ore body, arranging a transportation return air tunnel in the footwall of an upper layered ore body, arranging a rock drilling upper mountain and a run-out upper mountain on the footwall of a chamber, digging to the transportation return air tunnel, digging out an ore cross tunnel at the interval of 8-10m between the vein-penetrating upper mountain and the run-out upper mountain, communicating the ore cross tunnel with the rock drilling upper mountain, arranging an ore pass on the sides of the tunnel at the communication position of the transportation return air tunnel and the vein-penetrating upper mountain, arranging a cutting tunnel at the bottom of the chamber along the trend of the ore body, arranging a cutting raise in the middle of the cutting tunnel, forming cutting grooves by blasting from the middle to two ends and forming a V-shaped ore collecting trench by using the cutting grooves as free surfaces;
step 3) stoping work
Rock drilling and blasting: using an YGZ-90 rock drill to drill upward fan-shaped medium-length holes in the upward rock drilling mountain, wherein the angle of each side hole is 45-50 degrees, the aperture is 60-65 mm, 2-3 rows of blast holes are blasted each time, and ores fall to a V-shaped ore collection trench;
ventilation of a stope: the stope adopts a local fan to perform enhanced ventilation, fresh air flows through rock drilling and mountain climbing, vein piercing and mountain climbing and ore removal cross drift to enter the stope, and is discharged through a transportation return air roadway after cleaning the dirty air on the working surface;
ore removal: after blasting ventilation of the stope, carrying out shoveling loading on ores in a ore removal cross roadway by a shoveling conveyor, then transporting the ores to a stope ore chute through ore removal and upward hill climbing, and sequentially circulating according to the steps of drilling blasting → stope ventilation → ore removal until stope;
step 4), ore pillar recovery and goaf treatment: triangular ore pillars between the pillars and the V-shaped ore collecting trenches are recovered row by row in a fan-shaped medium-length hole retreating mode, and a goaf is plugged into a roadway communicated with the goaf.
Furthermore, two rock drilling upward mountains are arranged in the step 2), one ore removal upward mountain is arranged, the ore removal upward mountain is arranged at the middle position of the ore room, the rock drilling upward mountain is respectively arranged at the left side and the right side of the ore removal upward mountain, and the rock drilling upward mountain and the ore removal upward mountain are spaced.
Further, a grid sieve is arranged at the upper part of the ore pass in the ore removal in the step 3), the ore removal lumpiness is controlled within 500mm, and ore blocks with the lumpiness larger than 500mm are subjected to secondary treatment in an ore removal cross drift in an explosion mode.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the rock drilling and mountain climbing, ore removal cross drift and the like are utilized to ensure that operators do not operate under the empty area, so that the safety of the operators is fully ensured; secondly, ore caving and ore removal are carried out by utilizing the upward fan-shaped medium-length holes, so that the mining efficiency is greatly improved, and the production capacity of a single mining field can reach 300 plus 500 t/d; and thirdly, the room pillars and the triangular pillars can be recovered row by adopting a medium-length hole retreating mode, mineral resources are recovered to the maximum extent, and the comprehensive recovery rate of ore blocks can reach more than 90%.
The triangular ore pillar can be fully recycled, has no requirement on the stability degree of surrounding rocks of the top and bottom plates of the ore body, and solves the problems of permanent loss and small application range of the ore pillar by a room-pillar method; the construction of vein penetration, rock drilling, ore removal and upward movement arranged in the mining-preparation engineering is simple, the ore removal efficiency of a single ore block can reach 300 plus 500t/d, the construction amount of the mining-preparation engineering is relatively large, the vein penetration, the rock drilling, the ore removal and upward movement and the roadway cutting are performed, the ore rocks generated in the engineering can be used as the by-product ore, the tunneling cost is not additionally increased, and the problems of large mining-preparation ratio and high mining cost of a sublevel caving method are solved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a top view of an open stope mining method of a gently inclined medium-thickness ore body according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side view of the mining method of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the bottom structure of the gentle dip medium thickness ore body open stope mining method of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. a stud; 2. threading the vessels and going up the mountain; 3. a mine removal cross drift; 4. a transport return airway; 5. drilling rock and climbing; 6. ore removal and mountain climbing; 7. ore pass; 8. a bottom pillar; 9. cutting the raise; 10. cutting a roadway; 12. v-shaped ore collection trench; 13. a triangular pillar.
Detailed Description
The present invention is described in further detail below with reference to the attached drawing figures.
As shown in fig. 1, fig. 2 and fig. 3, a method for mining a gently inclined medium-thickness ore body in an open stope comprises the following steps:
step 1) ore block constituent elements: dividing an ore body into mining middle sections along the vertical direction, wherein the height of each mining middle section is 50m, each mining middle section is divided into 2-3 mining subsections, the height of each mining subsection is 16-25m, in each mining middle section, ore blocks are arranged along the trend of the ore body, the length of each ore block is 60m, the width of each ore block is 10-15m, each ore block is divided into an ore room and a pillar, the length of each ore room is 45-48m along the trend of the ore body, and the length of each pillar is 12-15m perpendicular to the direction of the ore body;
step 2), cutting engineering: arranging a vein-penetrating upper mountain in the middle of a stud, digging to a transportation return air tunnel along a footwall of an ore body, arranging a transportation return air tunnel in the footwall of an upper layered ore body, arranging a rock drilling upper mountain and a run-out upper mountain on the footwall of a chamber, digging to the transportation return air tunnel, digging out an ore cross tunnel at the interval of 8-10m between the vein-penetrating upper mountain and the run-out upper mountain, communicating the ore cross tunnel with the rock drilling upper mountain, arranging an ore pass on the sides of the tunnel at the communication position of the transportation return air tunnel and the vein-penetrating upper mountain, arranging a cutting tunnel at the bottom of the chamber along the trend of the ore body, arranging a cutting raise in the middle of the cutting tunnel, forming cutting grooves by blasting from the middle to two ends and forming a V-shaped ore collecting trench by using the cutting grooves as free surfaces;
step 3) stoping work
Rock drilling and blasting: using an YGZ-90 rock drill to drill upward fan-shaped medium-length holes in the upward rock drilling mountain, wherein the angle of each side hole is 45-50 degrees, the aperture is 60-65 mm, 2-3 rows of blast holes are blasted each time, and ores fall to a V-shaped ore collection trench;
ventilation of a stope: the stope adopts a local fan to perform enhanced ventilation, fresh air flows through rock drilling and mountain climbing, vein piercing and mountain climbing and ore removal cross drift to enter the stope, and is discharged through a transportation return air roadway after cleaning the dirty air on the working surface;
ore removal: after blasting ventilation of the stope, carrying out shoveling loading on ores in a ore removal cross roadway by a shoveling conveyor, then transporting the ores to a stope ore chute through ore removal and upward hill climbing, and sequentially circulating according to the steps of drilling blasting → stope ventilation → ore removal until stope;
step 4), ore pillar recovery and goaf treatment: triangular ore pillars between the pillars and the V-shaped ore collecting trenches are recovered row by row in a fan-shaped medium-length hole retreating mode, and a goaf is plugged into a roadway communicated with the goaf.
After a large underground mining lead-zinc ore is completed in a deep development project, the dip angle of an ore body is found to be slow through ore prospecting produced in a pit, the angle of the ore body is generally 10-15 degrees, the change is larger compared with that of a steeply inclined ore body at the upper part,
in order to ensure that the mine capacity is not reduced, certain requirements are made on the capacity of the mining method, and the production capacity of single ore blocks is not lower than 300 t/d; and the grade of the deep ore body is reduced, the mining method has small mining and cutting engineering quantity, and the tunneling engineering quantity is controlled to reduce the production cost, so that the profit level of the mine is not reduced.
In order to meet the requirements and solve the problem of the mining boundary of the slowly inclined medium-thick ore body, the invention provides an open stope mining method of the slowly inclined medium-thick ore body, which specifically comprises the following steps:
step 1) block constituent elements
By utilizing the existing development engineering, the ore blocks are arranged along the trend of the ore body, the length of the ore block is 60m, the width of the ore block is about 13m of the thickness of the ore body, the length of an ore room is 45m, and the stud is left for 15 m.
Step 2) cutting process
Arranging a vein-penetrating upper mountain 2 in the middle of a stud 1, digging to a transport return air tunnel 4 along a footwall of an ore body, arranging the transport return air tunnel 4 on the footwall of an upper layered ore body, arranging a rock-drilling upper mountain 5 and a run-out upper mountain 6 on the footwall of a chamber, digging to the transport return air tunnel 4, digging out an ore cross tunnel 3 in the middle of the vein-penetrating upper mountain 2 and the run-out upper mountain 6 at an interval of 8m so as to be communicated with the rock-drilling upper mountain 5, arranging an ore chute 7 on the edge of the tunnel at the position where the transport return air tunnel 4 is communicated with the vein-penetrating upper mountain 5, arranging a cutting tunnel 10 at the bottom of the chamber along the trend of the ore body, arranging a cutting raise 9 in the middle of the cutting tunnel 10, forming a cutting groove by blasting from the middle to two ends by taking the cutting raise 9 as a blasting free surface, and forming a V-shaped ore collecting trench 12 by taking the cutting groove;
after the project is finished and the bottom structure is formed, the formal extraction stage is started.
Step 3) stoping work
Rock drilling and blasting: using an YGZ-90 rock drill to drill upward fan-shaped medium-length holes in the upward direction of the rock drill, wherein the angle of the side hole is 45-50 degrees, the aperture is 60-65 mm, using a BQ-100 type explosive loader to charge, detonating a non-electric detonating tube, blasting 2-3 rows of blast holes each time, and enabling ores to fall to a V-shaped ore collecting trench 12;
ventilation of a stope: the stope adopts a local fan to perform enhanced ventilation, fresh air flows through a rock drilling mountain 5, a vein-penetrating mountain 2 and a mine removal cross lane 3 to enter the stope, and dirty air on a working face is cleaned and then is discharged through a transportation air return lane 4;
ore removal: after blasting ventilation of a stope, carrying ores to a stope ore pass shaft 7 through a wire-through shaft 6 and a wire-through shaft 2 after shoveling and loading in a ore removal cross drift by a WJD-2 type trackless diesel carry scraper, arranging a grid sieve on the upper part of the ore pass shaft 7 to control the ore removal lumpiness to be within 500mm, carrying out secondary treatment in the ore removal cross drift 3 with the lumpiness larger than 500mm by adopting a blasting mode, circulating in sequence according to the steps of drilling and blasting → stope ventilation → ore removal until stope recovery is finished, and counting to ensure that the production capacity of a single ore block is about 400 t/d;
step 4) pillar recovery and goaf treatment
Adopting an YGZ-90 rock drill to drill upward sector-shaped medium-length holes with the aperture of 60-65 mm on a triangular ore pillar 13 between the stud 1 and the V-shaped ore collecting trench 12, charging by using a BQ-100 type explosive loader, detonating by using a non-electric detonator, blasting 1-2 rows of blast holes each time, and retreating and row-by-row recycling;
all projects are arranged on the ore body footwall and are not in the collapse influence range, so the goaf treatment measures are to plug two sides and get through the veins and go up the hill 2 after the ore block stoping is finished.
Through statistics, the geological reserve of the ore block is 17.97 ten thousand tons, the comprehensive grade of lead and zinc is 3.6 percent, the actual ore extraction amount is 16.52 ten thousand tons, the extraction grade is 3.25 percent, the average ore extraction amount per day is about 400 tons, the comprehensive recovery rate is 91.93 percent, the loss rate is 8.07 percent, and the dilution rate is 9.72 percent.
The test stope shows that the technical indexes obtained by the method in the mining of the gently inclined medium-thickness ore body achieve the expected target, the problems existing in the existing mining method are solved, and the method has popularization and application values.
The method is mainly suitable for the gently inclined medium-thick ore body with the ore body thickness of 10-15m and the ore body inclination angle below 15 degrees, has the outstanding characteristics of safety and high efficiency, has no requirement on the stability degree of the surrounding rock of the top and bottom plates of the ore body, has wide application range in the exploitation of the gently inclined medium-thick ore body, and can also carry out deformation adjustment aiming at the specific occurrence state of the ore body, and the statistics shows that the comprehensive loss rate of the ore blocks is 8-10 percent and the dilution rate is 10-12 percent.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention and is not intended to limit the present invention, and various modifications and changes may be made by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. The open stoping method of the gently inclined medium-thickness ore body is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1) ore block constituent elements: dividing an ore body into mining middle sections along the vertical direction, wherein the height of each mining middle section is 50m, each mining middle section is divided into 2-3 mining subsections, the height of each mining subsection is 16-25m, in each mining middle section, ore blocks are arranged along the trend of the ore body, the length of each ore block is 60m, the width of each ore block is 10-15m, each ore block is divided into an ore room and a pillar, the length of each ore room is 45-48m along the trend of the ore body, and the length of each pillar is 12-15m perpendicular to the direction of the ore body;
step 2), cutting engineering: arranging a vein-penetrating upper mountain in the middle of a stud, digging to a transportation return air tunnel along a footwall of an ore body, arranging a transportation return air tunnel in the footwall of an upper layered ore body, arranging a rock drilling upper mountain and a run-out upper mountain on the footwall of a chamber, digging to the transportation return air tunnel, digging out an ore cross tunnel at the interval of 8-10m between the vein-penetrating upper mountain and the run-out upper mountain, communicating the ore cross tunnel with the rock drilling upper mountain, arranging an ore pass on the sides of the tunnel at the communication position of the transportation return air tunnel and the vein-penetrating upper mountain, arranging a cutting tunnel at the bottom of the chamber along the trend of the ore body, arranging a cutting raise in the middle of the cutting tunnel, forming cutting grooves by blasting from the middle to two ends and forming a V-shaped ore collecting trench by using the cutting grooves as free surfaces;
step 3) stoping work
Rock drilling and blasting: using an YGZ-90 rock drill to drill upward fan-shaped medium-length holes in the upward rock drilling mountain, wherein the angle of each side hole is 45-50 degrees, the aperture is 60-65 mm, 2-3 rows of blast holes are blasted each time, and ores fall to a V-shaped ore collection trench;
ventilation of a stope: the stope adopts a local fan to perform enhanced ventilation, fresh air flows through rock drilling and mountain climbing, vein piercing and mountain climbing and ore removal cross drift to enter the stope, and is discharged through a transportation return air roadway after cleaning the dirty air on the working surface;
ore removal: after blasting ventilation of the stope, carrying out shoveling loading on ores in a ore removal cross roadway by a shoveling conveyor, then transporting the ores to a stope ore chute through ore removal and upward hill climbing, and sequentially circulating according to the steps of drilling blasting → stope ventilation → ore removal until stope;
step 4), ore pillar recovery and goaf treatment: triangular ore pillars between the pillars and the V-shaped ore collecting trenches are recovered row by row in a fan-shaped medium-length hole retreating mode, and a goaf is plugged into a roadway communicated with the goaf.
2. The method for the open stope mining of the gently inclined medium-thickness ore body according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: two pieces of rock drilling and upward climbing are arranged in the step 2), one piece of ore removal and upward climbing is arranged, the ore removal and upward climbing is arranged in the middle of the chamber, and the two pieces of rock drilling and upward climbing are respectively arranged on the left side and the right side of the ore removal and upward climbing.
3. The method for the open stope mining of the gently inclined medium-thickness ore body according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: and 3) arranging a grid sieve at the upper part of the ore pass in the ore removal in the step 3), controlling the ore removal lumpiness to be within 500mm, and carrying out secondary treatment on ore blocks with the lumpiness larger than 500mm in an ore removal cross roadway in an explosion mode.
CN201911158516.8A 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 Open stope mining method for gently inclined medium-thickness ore body Pending CN110905512A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111677509A (en) * 2020-06-01 2020-09-18 南华大学 Cooperative mining method for inclined thick and large ore body

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