CN108124803A - A kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab - Google Patents

A kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108124803A
CN108124803A CN201711428537.8A CN201711428537A CN108124803A CN 108124803 A CN108124803 A CN 108124803A CN 201711428537 A CN201711428537 A CN 201711428537A CN 108124803 A CN108124803 A CN 108124803A
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crab
water
iii phase
culture pond
brackish water
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CN108124803B (en
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杨富亿
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Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology of CAS
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Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

A kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab, it is related to a kind of method that salt cultivates III phase son crab.The present invention is can not to realize the technical issues of III phase son crab is cultivated to solve current inland fresh water area.The present invention:First, the place selection of culture pond;2nd, slope shape circular groove is dug;3rd, water source is established;4th, high-quality agreeable to the taste bait is cultivated;5th, juvenile crab is put;6th, supplement feed;7th, water is supplemented.The present invention is directed to develop and use salt marshes underground brackish water resource ecology to cultivate III phase son crab, create favorable conditions for 1 age Growth, solve the problems, such as the self-sufficiency or partly self-supporting of scale commodity crab aquaculture 1 age crab species.The method of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding III phase son crab by the present invention carries out the cultivation of 28 days, and the III phase son crab average size cultivated by juvenile crab can reach 60.67mg/ only, and survival rate reaches 25.79%.The present invention is applied to cultivate III phase son crab.

Description

A kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of methods that salt cultivates III phase son crab.
Background technology
In recent years, with the fast development of wetland crab farming, the demand of 1 age crab species is continuously increased.Jilin Western imperial natural pond salt marshes (national marsh Unified number is 220882-037) are saved, are located in Huo Lin rivers downstream flood plain, always 15.19 ten thousand hm of area2, be Jilin Province's commodity crab main culturing area, 3.67 ten thousand hm of cultured area at present2, the year of 1 age crab species Requirement is more than 1,000,000 kg, will be bought from Liaoning Panjin, and transportation cost is more than 1,500,000 yuan, and survival rate is less than 80%.By This is as it can be seen that solve the problems, such as the self-sufficiency of 1 age crab species or partly self-supporting, it has also become the key and urgency of area's commodity crab aquaculture cost efficiency It needs.
It is from juvenile crab cultivation to the process of commodity crab:The age crab species of the phase son crab of the phase son crab of the phase son crab of juvenile crab → I → II → III → 1 → commodity crab.In the history of life of river crab, III phase son crab is juvenile crab to the important stage of development between 1 age crab species, 1 age crab species It cultivates all since III phase son crab.Therefore, solve the problems, such as that 1 age crab species are self-supporting or partly self-supporting, the cultivation of III phase son crab are The crucial first step.
From the point of view of the water environment suitable for life, the phase son crab of the phase son crab of the phase son crab of juvenile crab → I → II → III, gradually from salt content The brackish water environment of 7g/L~8g/L is down to the fresh water environment of below 1g/L.The cultivation of previous III phase son crab, only coastal area Crab seedling rearing production unit can just accomplish that inland fresh water area can not also be realized.It is shown according to hydrological data, Long Zhao salt marshes area Underground shallow layer brackish water resource very abundant, salt content are 2g/L~6g/L, are particularly suitable for juvenile crab, I phase and II phase son crab Life.Therefore, imperial natural pond salt marshes are provided with the possibility of completion " the phase son crab of the phase son crab of juvenile crab → I → II → III phase son crab ".
Invention content
The present invention is can not to realize the technical issues of III phase son crab is cultivated to solve current inland fresh water area, and is provided A kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab.
The method of the salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding III phase son crab of the present invention carries out according to the following steps:
First, the place selection of culture pond:Area is selected as 0.5hm2~1hm2Natural sabkha wetland Region as young crab Culture pond;Half meter lower than ground level of topography of the natural salt marshes or more;The very water of the natural salt marshes is planted It is more than 80% to be coated cover degree;The underground shallow layer brackish water water yield of well of the natural salt marshes reaches 100m3/24h;
2nd, slope shape circular groove is dug:The annular ditch of a circle is dug close to pool side inside culture pond;The annular ditch is slope Shape and from the center of culture pond to pool side tilt, horizontal by 6 °~8 °;The width of the annular ditch along the horizontal plane is 5m ~10m, the depth of water of annular ditch lowest part is 1m~1.2m;
3rd, water source is established:A shallow well and deep well are respectively dug outside culture pond and close to the region of culture pond, respectively The water in well is extracted as brackish water water source and water source of fresh water;The depth of the shallow well is 10m, and the depth of deep well is 60m~100m;
4th, high-quality agreeable to the taste bait is cultivated:It is 15cm, Ran Houshi that brackish water to the vegetation-covered area depth of water is filled into culture pond Enter decomposed muck 7.5t/hm2~9t/hm2, 1 decomposed muck is applied again after 5 days~7 days, and dosage halves, and filling depth is 10cm's Brackish water;
5th, juvenile crab is put:As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass 3000/L of > in the water body of culture pond, i.e., Juvenile crab can be put into culture pond, the density for putting juvenile crab is 7.5kg/hm2~15kg/hm2
6th, supplement feed:After juvenile crab is put in a suitable place to breed, wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods biomass variety in water body are monitored, works as water body When middle wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤3000/L, 1 soya-bean milk 20 of respectively splashing in the daily morning and afternoon~ 30kg/hm2;As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤2000/L in water body, man-made feeds are fed, feed people The amount of work feed be when feeding man-made feeds in culture pond juvenile crab total weight 5%~8%;
7th, water is supplemented:After juvenile crab shell metamorphosis is I phase son crab, filling brackish water 15cm, fresh water 5cm;When metamorphosis is II After phase son crab, filling brackish water 10cm, fresh water 15cm;After metamorphosis is III phase son crab, fresh water 40cm is filled.
Underground shallow layer is referred within the 10m of underground.
The man-made feeds of the present invention are No. 0 mixed feed of river crab, are bought from the photosynthetic Xie Ye Co., Ltds of Panjin.
The method of the present invention can complete the process of " the phase son crab of the phase son crab of juvenile crab → I → II → III phase son crab ", be 1 age crab species Cultivation create favorable conditions so that inland fresh water area can also realize the cultivation of III phase son crab.
The present invention is directed to develop and use salt marshes underground brackish water resource ecology to cultivate III phase son crab, trained for 1 age crab species It educates and creates favorable conditions, solve the problems, such as the self-sufficiency or partly self-supporting of scale commodity crab aquaculture 1 age crab species.
The method of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding III phase son crab by the present invention carries out the cultivation of 28 days, by The III phase son crab average size that juvenile crab is cultivated can reach 60.67mg/ only, and survival rate reaches 25.79%.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of the culture pond of the present invention, and 1 is culture pond, and 2 be slope shape circular groove, and 3 be vegetation-covered area;
Fig. 2 is the A-A sectional views of Fig. 1, and 2 be slope shape circular groove, and 4 be the water surface.
Specific embodiment
Specific embodiment one:Present embodiment is a kind of side of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab Method specifically carries out according to the following steps:
First, the place selection of culture pond:Area is selected as 0.5hm2~1hm2Natural sabkha wetland Region as young crab Culture pond;Half meter lower than ground level of topography of the natural salt marshes or more;The very water of the natural salt marshes is planted It is more than 80% to be coated cover degree;The underground shallow layer brackish water water yield of well of the natural salt marshes reaches 100m3/24h;
2nd, slope shape circular groove is dug:The annular ditch of a circle is dug close to pool side inside culture pond;The annular ditch is slope Shape and from the center of culture pond to pool side tilt, horizontal by 6 °~8 °;The width of the annular ditch along the horizontal plane is 5m ~10m, the depth of water of annular ditch lowest part is 1m~1.2m;
3rd, water source is established:A shallow well and deep well are respectively dug outside culture pond and close to the region of culture pond, respectively The water in well is extracted as brackish water water source and water source of fresh water;The depth of the shallow well is 10m, and the depth of deep well is 60m~100m;
4th, high-quality agreeable to the taste bait is cultivated:It is 15cm, Ran Houshi that brackish water to the vegetation-covered area depth of water is filled into culture pond Enter decomposed muck 7.5t/hm2~9t/hm2, 1 decomposed muck is applied again after 5 days~7 days, and dosage halves, and filling depth is 10cm's Brackish water;
5th, juvenile crab is put:As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass 3000/L of > in the water body of culture pond, i.e., Juvenile crab can be put into culture pond, the density for putting juvenile crab is 7.5kg/hm2~15kg/hm2
6th, supplement feed:After juvenile crab is put in a suitable place to breed, wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods biomass variety in water body are monitored, works as water body When middle wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤3000/L, 1 soya-bean milk 20 of respectively splashing in the daily morning and afternoon~ 30kg/hm2;As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤2000/L in water body, man-made feeds are fed, feed people The amount of work feed be when feeding man-made feeds in culture pond juvenile crab total weight 5%~8%;
7th, water is supplemented:After juvenile crab shell metamorphosis is I phase son crab, filling brackish water 15cm, fresh water 5cm;When metamorphosis is II After phase son crab, filling brackish water 10cm, fresh water 15cm;After metamorphosis is III phase son crab, fresh water 40cm is filled.
Specific embodiment two:The present embodiment is different from the first embodiment in that:Annular described in step 2 The width of ditch along the horizontal plane is 8m, and the depth of water of annular ditch lowest part is 1.1m.Other are same as the specific embodiment one.
Specific embodiment three:The present embodiment is different from the first and the second embodiment in that:Described in step 3 The depth of deep well is 80m.Other are the same as one or two specific embodiments.
Specific embodiment four:Unlike one of present embodiment and specific embodiment one to three:It is put in step 5 The density of juvenile crab is 10kg/hm2.One of other and specific embodiment one to three are identical.
Specific embodiment five:Unlike one of present embodiment and specific embodiment one to four:It is thrown in step 6 Feed man-made feeds amount be when feeding man-made feeds in culture pond juvenile crab total weight 7%.Other with specific embodiment one to One of four is identical.
The present invention is verified with tests below:
Experiment one:This experiment is a kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab, is specifically pressed What following steps carried out:
First, the place selection of culture pond:Area is selected as 0.82hm2Be located at Technique in Western Jilin Province Long Zhao salt marshes area cattle heart Set protects culture pond of the wetland Region as young crab, Saline-Sodic soil, 0~40cm soil body salt content 4.26g/kg, underground shallow layer (8m) brackish water salt content 3.82g/L, underground deep layer (52m) fresh water salt content 0.63g/L;The ground of the natural salt marshes Half meter lower than ground level of gesture or more;The very water vegetation coverage of the natural salt marshes is more than 80%;The mineral salt The underground shallow layer brackish water water yield of well of natural pond wetland reaches 100m3/24h;
2nd, slope shape circular groove is dug:The annular ditch of a circle is dug close to pool side inside culture pond;The annular ditch is slope Shape and from the center of culture pond to pool side tilt, horizontal by 7 °;The width of the annular ditch along the horizontal plane is 8m, annular The depth of water of ditch lowest part is 1.1m;
3rd, water source is established:A shallow well and deep well are respectively dug outside culture pond and close to the region of culture pond, respectively The water in well is extracted as brackish water water source and water source of fresh water;The depth of the shallow well is 10m, and the depth of deep well is 80m;
4th, high-quality agreeable to the taste bait is cultivated:It is 15cm, Ran Houshi that brackish water to the vegetation-covered area depth of water is filled into culture pond Enter decomposed muck 8t/hm2, 1 decomposed muck is applied again after 5 days~7 days, and dosage halves, the brackish water that filling depth is 10cm;
5th, juvenile crab is put:As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass 3000/L of > in the water body of culture pond, i.e., Juvenile crab can be put into culture pond, the density for putting juvenile crab is 12.2kg/hm2
6th, supplement feed:After juvenile crab is put in a suitable place to breed, wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods biomass variety in water body are monitored, works as water body When middle wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤3000/L, respectively splash in the daily morning and afternoon 1 soya-bean milk 25kg/ hm2;As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤2000/L in water body, man-made feeds are fed, feed man-made feeds Amount be when feeding man-made feeds in culture pond juvenile crab total weight 7%;
7th, water is supplemented:After juvenile crab shell metamorphosis is I phase son crab, filling brackish water 15cm, fresh water 5cm;When metamorphosis is II After phase son crab, filling brackish water 10cm, fresh water 15cm;After metamorphosis is III phase son crab, fresh water 40cm is filled.
Using the method for experiment 1, tested in 2017, wherein target area stocking size on June 3rd, 2017 is The juvenile crab 10kg of 160000/kg, 1,950,000/hm of breeding density2(12.2kg/hm2).Salt marshes underground brackish water training in 2017 III phase son crab effect Sampling Survey is educated the results detailed in Table 1.
Table 1
As shown in Table 1, salt marshes underground brackish water is carried out using the method for experiment 1 and cultivates III phase son crab, warp The cultivation of 28 days is crossed, is 60.67mg/ by the III phase son crab average size that juvenile crab is cultivated, survival rate 25.79%, water body Salt content gradually tends to fresh water environment, the III phase son crab cultivated and meanwhile also by the adaptability of fresh water environment tame, this is just The cultivation of 1 age crab species creates good sharp condition in next step.A kind of thus salt marshes underground brackish water ecology training of the present invention The method for educating III phase son crab is practicable.

Claims (5)

  1. A kind of 1. method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab, it is characterised in that salt marshes lower half it is salty The method that Ecology cultivates III phase son crab carries out according to the following steps:
    First, the place selection of culture pond:Area is selected as 0.5hm2~1hm2Cultivation of the natural sabkha wetland Region as young crab Pond;Half meter lower than ground level of topography of the natural salt marshes or more;The very water vegetation of the natural salt marshes is covered Cover degree is more than 80%;The underground shallow layer brackish water water yield of well of the natural salt marshes reaches 100m3/24h;
    2nd, slope shape circular groove is dug:The annular ditch of a circle is dug close to pool side inside culture pond;The annular ditch for slope shape and It is tilted from the center of culture pond to pool side, horizontal by 6 °~8 °;The width of the annular ditch along the horizontal plane for 5m~ 10m, the depth of water of annular ditch lowest part is 1m~1.2m;
    3rd, water source is established:A shallow well and deep well are respectively dug outside culture pond and close to the region of culture pond, is extracted respectively Water in well is as brackish water water source and water source of fresh water;The depth of the shallow well is 10m, the depth of deep well for 60m~ 100m;
    4th, high-quality agreeable to the taste bait is cultivated:It is 15cm that brackish water to the vegetation-covered area depth of water is filled into culture pond, is then applied rotten Ripe muck 7.5t/hm2~9t/hm2, 1 decomposed muck is applied again after 5 days~7 days, and dosage halves, and filling depth is the half salty of 10cm Water;
    5th, juvenile crab is put:As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass 3000/L of > in the water body of culture pond, you can to Juvenile crab is put in culture pond, the density for putting juvenile crab is 7.5kg/hm2~15kg/hm2
    6th, supplement feed:After juvenile crab is put in a suitable place to breed, wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods biomass variety in water body are monitored, when being taken turns in water body When worm, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤3000/L, respectively splash in the daily morning and afternoon 1 20~30kg/ of soya-bean milk hm2;As wheel animalcule, cladocera and Copepods total biomass≤2000/L in water body, man-made feeds are fed, feed man-made feeds Amount be when feeding man-made feeds in culture pond juvenile crab total weight 5%~8%;
    7th, water is supplemented:After juvenile crab shell metamorphosis is I phase son crab, filling brackish water 15cm, fresh water 5cm;When metamorphosis is young for II phase After crab, filling brackish water 10cm, fresh water 15cm;After metamorphosis is III phase son crab, fresh water 40cm is filled.
  2. 2. a kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab according to claim 1, feature It is 8m to be the width of annular ditch along the horizontal plane described in step 2, and the depth of water of annular ditch lowest part is 1.1m.
  3. 3. a kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab according to claim 1, feature The depth for being the deep well described in step 3 is 80m.
  4. 4. a kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab according to claim 1, feature It is 10kg/hm to be the density that juvenile crab is put in step 52
  5. 5. a kind of method of III phase of salt marshes underground brackish water biological breeding son crab according to claim 1, feature Be the amount that man-made feeds are fed in step 6 be when feeding man-made feeds in culture pond juvenile crab total weight 7%.
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