CN106242064A - A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method - Google Patents

A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106242064A
CN106242064A CN201610781195.7A CN201610781195A CN106242064A CN 106242064 A CN106242064 A CN 106242064A CN 201610781195 A CN201610781195 A CN 201610781195A CN 106242064 A CN106242064 A CN 106242064A
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water
ecological
enclosure
lake
fish
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李志威
余帆洋
张明珠
庞志研
孟庆强
钟铮
刘浩
韩洁春
张金瑞
胡凯浩
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GUANGZHOU WATER SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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GUANGZHOU WATER SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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Priority to CN201610781195.7A priority Critical patent/CN106242064A/en
Publication of CN106242064A publication Critical patent/CN106242064A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • C02F3/322Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae use of algae
    • C02F3/325Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae use of algae as symbiotic combination of algae and bacteria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G33/00Cultivation of seaweed or algae
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • C02F3/327Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae characterised by animals and plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • C02F3/341Consortia of bacteria
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/10Dams; Dykes; Sluice ways or other structures for dykes, dams, or the like
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/10Dams; Dykes; Sluice ways or other structures for dykes, dams, or the like
    • E02B3/106Temporary dykes
    • E02B3/108Temporary dykes with a filling, e.g. filled by water or sand
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention belongs to Water Ecological Recovery technical field, disclose a kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method.Described method is: construct ecological enclosure district in Lakeside Zone appropriate area, then ecological enclosure district is captured individual bigger Fish in water body by the fishing net mode of drawing in the net, tea bran of splashing again kills individual less Fish, fish roe and snail, short raw Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, hornwort and three kinds of plant seedlings of watermifoil are selected to transplant after completing above-mentioned cleaning, wait transplanting plant growing 1~after 2 months, the aquatile seedling including Cipangopaludina chinensis, bivalves, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ophicephalus argus is thrown in ecological enclosure water body, in the most backward ecological enclosure, water body throws in high-effective service, completes to repair.The method Effect of Ecological Restoration of the present invention is obvious, and easy to maintenance, uses the Lakeside Zone water quality of the method reparation of the present invention typically to can reach surface water IV class standard, and application prospect is good.

Description

A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method
Technical field
The invention belongs to Water Ecological Recovery technical field, be specifically related to a kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecology and repair Compound recipe method.
Background technology
Currently, China's water pollution situation is the severeest, and lake ecosystem is impaired, and body eutrophication is serious, and water body is saturating Lightness is the highest, and Water Ecological Recovery is the important method of water prevention and cure of pollution.Lakeside Zone is the important component part of lake ecosystem, Also it is the ecological protective screen of Hu Ku protection.Lakeside Zone restoration of the ecosystem refers to the restoration of the ecosystem of storehouse, lake land inland water ecotone, between buffer strip And transition region between the water body of storehouse, lake, its core space is the luffing district between storehouse, lake high water level and low water level.But, many urban humans Work lake has the flood control multi-functional such as moisturizing and ecoscape, the demand such as Chang Yin controls flood and drains flooded fields, water transfer moisturizing concurrently, presents water body exchange The high water-base fluid features such as amount is big, the water body time of staying is short, range of stage is big, considerably increase Lakeside Zone or even whole Lake Water The difficulty of body restoration of the ecosystem.
Chinese scholar has carried out some explorations for the Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method of zones of different and type.Publication No. The patent application of CN102550260A discloses a kind of method of ecological construction of upright revetment-type lakeside zone, by arranging by frame The Fixed-order ladder type of frame, web plate and a spike composition is plant floating bed, sets up water plant district, arranges timber anti-ware layer, hanging cable The wave layer that disappears of netting pocket composition, hang removable foam block and disappear wave layer, finally cancel anti-ware layer and disappear wave layer and the removable wave that disappears The scheme of layer, it is applicable to the Lakeside Zone restoration of the ecosystem of river,lake and reservior hard water front;The patent of Publication No. CN104314041A Application disclose a kind of disappear wave and promote sedimentation Lakeside Zone ecology improving technology, Lakeside Zone lay under water the sediment trapping ridge and The combination of bamboo raft floating bed, to reduce flow rate of water flow, to promote that existence is taken root in sedimentation, beneficially Aquatic Higher Plants, creates one Be conducive to sedimentation, algae trapping and make the physical environment of the nutrient accumulation purifications such as nitrogen phosphorus, thus preferably stability lagoon Bank ecological system, it is achieved the target of water correction, it is applicable to promote that the ecology of the lake hard revetment band of sedimentation is repaiied Multiple;The patent application of Publication No. CN105152344A discloses arid area lakeside wetland alternation of wetting and drying restoration of the ecosystem system System, uses biological rope to repair district and lakeside wetland and repairs the alternation of wetting and drying Ecosystem restoration system of district's composition, its biological rope be by Inner circular core and circular fiber layer that hydrophilic chemistries synthetic fibers are made are made, and lakeside wetland is repaired district's plantation very water and planted Thing, terrestrial plant, and by arranging intake-outlet and backflow water pump so that lakeside wetland is repaired district and is in the shape of alternation of wetting and drying State, lake water enters lakeside wetland after the preliminary purification that biological rope repairs district and repairs district, effectively solves lakeside, arid area The problem poor with wetland water and soil conservation also removes lake water pollutant.The patent application of Publication No. CN103588301A discloses A kind of lake protection Submerged plant communities is rebuild and purification of water quality control method, first to the water in lake protection Ecological Restoration Area The purification of water quality ability of raw plant and Plant population change rule be monitored analyze, determine several have high intensity purify and existence The water plant of ability is as pioneer;It is then determined that described pioneer is belonging respectively to sociales in which kind of in season, by not Reasonably combined structure lake protection Submerged plant communities with sociales in season;Last in described lake protection Ecological Restoration Area Scale quick cultivating pioneer, it is achieved the purification to water quality controls.The patent application of Publication No. CN103774607A is public Open a kind of Lakeside Zone Wa Tangdui island Sediment rehabilitation method.By on Wa Tanghedui island, Sediment rehabilitation district, at wetland sewage inlet District arranges the sediment deposition pool of multiple series connection, is arranged the plant oxidation pool of multiple connection in the middle part of wetland by serpentine channel, Wetland effluent district arranges multiple plants landscape pool, is piled by lake mud at the bottom of the ridge, the pool spoir of original fish pond group and the pool in the system of storehouse, the pool Dotted, have multiple island in shoal, gentle slope, make originally by mutually closing fish pond group of mean people's scale that independent fish pond is constituted Storehouse, pool system, becomes like storehouse, the pool arm of lake water reticulation system being interconnected on a large scale that the island, the pool in " archipelago lake " combines.With existing Having similar technique to compare, method is the easiest, reduced investment, and ecology, environmental protection, view and economic benefit that technology application produces are aobvious Write.
But above prior art there is also following weak point: first, the scope of application and condition are the most single, above-mentioned skill What art was respectively directed to is vertical type revetment-type, hard revetment band, arid area Lakeside Zone and possesses Wa Tanghedui island condition Lakeside Zone restoration of the ecosystem, however (southern rainy for other types (such as ramp type shore protection, soft revetment) or other areas District) city man-made lake and natural lake for, big especially for many water surface areas, water front is longer, the city of high water-base fluid For city's man-made lake and natural lake, Lakeside Zone restoration of the ecosystem still suffers from many technical problems and fails to solve.Secondly, to Lakeside Zone The understanding of ecosystem is comprehensive not, has by microorganism attachment (biological rope), terrestrial, humidogene, very water, floating leaf in above-mentioned technology And the biological method such as Submerged plant communities reconstruction carries out restoration of the ecosystem and purifies water, but have ignored Fish, dwell in the end The link of the aquatic animal regulation and control such as thing, single dependence microorganism or water plant absorb removes water body nitrogen phosphorus, it is difficult to set up complete Aquatic ecosystem food chain structure and maintain lasting effects of purification quality, its reason is the understanding to whole ecosystem The most comprehensive.Again, prior art work progress is complex loaded down with trivial details, as plant floating bed in notch cuttype, anti-ware layer, the wave layer that disappears, outstanding Hanging removable foam block to disappear the setting of wave layer, district and lakeside wetland reparation are repaired with bamboo raft floating bed, biological rope in the sediment trapping ridge under water District arranges the technical method such as intake-outlet and backflow water pump and the series connection of Wa Tanghedui island the sediment deposition pool, Plant Pond and constructed Journey is relatively complicated, is both needed to expend bigger manpower, material resources and financial resources.
Summary of the invention
In place of solving the shortcoming and defect of above prior art, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of high waterpower and bear Lotus man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method.The method is not affected by factors such as revetment type, weather conditions, is applicable not only to Water body relative closure, range of stage are little, the water body little water body in lake of exchange, such as pond, park man-made lake and real estate landscape lake etc., It is simultaneously applicable to that water exchange capacity is big, the water body time of staying is short, range of stage is big etc. and has the lakeside of high water-base fluid feature The restoration of the ecosystem of band.
The object of the invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method, comprises the steps:
(1) ecological enclosure district is constructed: in Lakeside Zone appropriate area with outer layer as deal pile or bamboo pole, internal layer is plank and fills out The ecological enclosure filling earth constructs ecological enclosure district;
(2) clear up original fish spiral shell: by the way of certainly arranging or drawing water, make the ecological enclosure district depth of water be down to less than 30 centimeters, First pass through the fishing net mode of drawing in the net and capture individual bigger Fish in water body, then tea bran of splashing kills individual less Fish, fish roe And snail;
(3) planting submerged plant is planted: after step (2) clears up original fish spiral shell, select short raw Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, hornwort and watermifoil three kinds Plant seedlings is transplanted;
(4) put aquatic animal in a suitable place to breed: step (3) described submerged plant transplants growth 1~after 2 months, return to ecological enclosure district Pour water to water level 0.5~1.5 meters, then throw in ecological enclosure district water body and include Cipangopaludina chinensis, bivalves, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ophicephalus argus Aquatile seedling;
(5) throw in microbial bacterial agent: water body throws in high-effective service to ecological enclosure district, improve ecosystem further Stability.
Further, described in step (1), ecological enclosure is prepared via a method which: in Lakeside Zone appropriate area with small-sized Hook machine inserts two rows 5~7 meters of long deal pile or bamboo pole under water, and the degree of depth of deal pile or bamboo pole insertion bed mud is its length Half, to guarantee to consolidate;The spacing of two row's deal pile or bamboo pole i.e. enclosure width is 1 meter;Between same row's deal pile or bamboo pole Spacing less than 5 centimetres;It is being close to two row's deal pile or bamboo pole inside straight vertical cutting enters the plank of 40~60 cm thick, highly Keep consistent with deal pile or bamboo pole, between two row's planks, finally fill earth and be compacted dry.Earth selects clay to be advisable, Should not select sand, can excavate on the spot can also be from other places roping.
Further, described ecological enclosure fills the position plantation landscape plant of earthing again of earth, optional gold banyan or The shrubs such as purple back of the body osmanthus, and warning sign is erect at enclosure two ends, prevent trip while improving Lakeside Zone enclosure view and the effect of publicity Visitor tramples on enclosure.
Further, described ecological enclosure arranges 1~2 intake-outlet, each intake-outlet in patch bed mud position, bottom Installing perpendicular type pvc pipe, be i.e. divided into two sections, wherein one section of horizontal positioned crosses ecological enclosure, stretches out outside ecological enclosure district End installs fish sieve, in order to the control Fish turnover when current pass in and out, and the one end in ecological enclosure district connects another of vertically placement Section pvc pipe, the pvc pipe vertically placed is higher than enclosure height and is flexibly connected with the pvc pipe of horizontal positioned, to realize water conservancy diversion and control System ecological enclosure district water level.
The described purpose arranging ecological enclosure is for splitting waters, sets up function ecotope, carries out corresponding biological and ecological Engineering also has the function such as water conservancy diversion, control fish, can remove depending on later stage Effect of Ecological Restoration.Ground according to Lakeside Zone Ecological Restoration Area Shape condition and water stream characteristics, determine length, width and height that enclosure is optimal, and ecological enclosure is mainly by earth, two row's deal pile Or the ecomaterial such as bamboo pole+plank makes, and by arranging pvc pipe controlling water level, installing fish sieve preventing and treating Fish and enter.
Further, the mode of tea bran of splashing described in step (2) is as follows: by tea bran with lake water by the ratio stirring of 1:4 Mixing (better with warm water replacement lake water), soaks more than 8 hours, takes filtrate and add lake flushing, pole a boat or at bank water Wooden dipper is uniformly splashed to the water surface, and consumption of splashing is according to 3~5g/m3, every day 1 time, Reusability 3~5 times, thoroughly to kill water body fish Class and snail;Pull out the water surface such as the fish spiral shell killed and residual tea bran with the string bag subsequently, be transported to specify at dumping and properly locate Reason.
Described tea bran, also known as tea seed cake, calls tea seed cake, tea seed cake, tea seed cake.In puce granule, it is mainly composed of wild mountain Remaining slag after the oil expression of Oleum Camelliae fruit.Tea bran contains the tea saponin of 12%~18%.Tea saponin is a kind of haemolytic exotoxin, energy The erythrocyte making fish dissolves, therefore can kill wild fishes class, Misgurni anguillicaudati, Bellamya quadrata, mussel, Rana ovum, Tinea Ranae and a part of aquatic insect.Tea Saponin is soluble in alkaline water, adds a small amount of lime water during use, and drug effect is more preferably.
Further, in clearing up original fish spiral shell step, as bed mud presents black smelly phenomenon, oxygenation agent of need to first splashing, consumption It is 0.5~1g/m3, stir bed mud simultaneously, improve water quality, bottom environment, improve Dissolved Oxygen in Water, continuous three days, once a day; Described oxygenation agent is active o content >=13.5%, white quicksand like crystalline particle, Main Ingredients and Appearance be SODIUM PERCARBONATE, stabilizer, Synergists etc., meet water and can discharge the free oxygen in substantial amounts of water soluble, and the Dissolved Oxygen in Water that can increase sharply improves black smelly Phenomenon, the Organic substance that can adsorb and degrade in water body simultaneously, remove ammonia, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and the algae toxin in water.As bed mud without Black smelly phenomenon, this step can be omitted.
The purpose of described cleaning original fish spiral shell is to reduce original Fish gross density, and removing original possibility affect water quality or later stage The Fish of submerged plant growth and other aquatic animals (containing fish roe).The object species of main cleaning are tilapia, Cyprinus carpio, Fu Shou Spiral shell etc..
Further, step (3) described transplanting method is: 30~50cm shallow water areas, takes the artificial kind of rice transplanting formula under water Plant, ensure neat field planting with cord simultaneously;50~150cm deepwater regions, take bamboo pole seedlings plugging method, and 1 people draws slurry 1 people and plants, gently Taking light cultivation, rod enters mud about 10cm, and grass comes directly towards the neat water surface preferably;Planting density is according to 20~30 strains/m2, 6~8 strains/clump.Move The principle that dilute phytal zone, profundal zone is close is followed during cultivation.Being affected by anthropic factor or water level, after planting, a couple of days is likely to occur kind The phenomenon that Seedling floats, needs with long bamboo pole secondary field planting, it is ensured that submerged plant seedling root or stem insert bed mud.Submerged plant Implantation time select as far as possible non-flood period as the Ching Ming Festival before and after.Root, stem and leaf need to be selected without blackout, plant without the seedling rotted.
Described kind of planting submerged plant step is the key link of Lakeside Zone restoration of the ecosystem, and its effect is to be planted by the heavy water of recovery Quilt, promotes submerged plant to the absorption and sorption of water pollutant and to fix, suppresses algal grown, improve water transparency and fall Low water pollution substrate concentration, is converted into self substance in vivo by nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient.
Further, described in put aquatic animal in a suitable place to breed during, Cipangopaludina chinensis, bivalves, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) throw in mode be water surface uniform broadcasting, Fish are directly thrown in.
Described Cipangopaludina chinensis is Bellamya purificate, Classification system Bellamya purificata, for Viviparidae animal, fresh water group Dwell snail.It throws in specification about 2g/ or diameter 2 cm, the input density every square metre water surface 1~5.
Described bivalves is cristaria plicata, is commonly called as cockscomb freshwater mussel, lake freshwater mussel, continuous freshwater mussel, water freshwater mussel etc., Classification system Cristariaplicata, belongs to for Unionidae, hat freshwater mussel, and fresh water benthic mollusca, for coastal area of china common species.The resistance to sewage of this freshwater mussel and hypoxia Ability is relatively strong, and happiness is dwelt in more fertile waters, typically inhabits fresh water unhurried current and the lake of standing water, river and irrigation canals and ditches and pond At the bottom of the mud on the pool or in silt bottom.It is more than the algae that hydriopsis cumingii ingests, widely distributed, all produces in China almost various places.Its Throw in specification about 200g/, the input density every square metre water surface 1~2.
Described Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), also known as astacus, macrobrachium, i.e. Macrobrachium nipponensis, Classification system Macrobrachium nipponense, is subordinate to Belong to Palaemonidae, macrobrachium belongs to.It it is a kind of Main economic shrimp being distributed widely in freshwater.Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) happiness inhabits rivers, lake In the unhurried current that pool, pond, irrigation canals and ditches bank phytal zone or pasture and water grow thickly, daytime, dormancy was at shady place, nocturnalism, often water-bed, Climb on pasture and water and other objects and creep.Mainly with canebreak, plankton, dish class of rotting, rice grain for food.Often it is gathered in bridge Around pier, sluice, dyke, riprap, river bank tree root and pasture and water.It throws in specification about 20g/, throws in density every square metre water Face 1~2.
In described input microbial bacterial agent step, microbial bacterial agent is high-effective service, and major function is to control in water body The harmful substances such as ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, decompose bed mud harmful deposits, accelerate nitration denitrification course of reaction.Just Each 1~2 liter/mu of ordinary water body, eutrophication water 2~3 liter/mu first, within every 7~10 days, use once.Can be real according to water quality Border situation suitably increases and decreases consumption and access times.
The principle of the present invention is: on the basis of comprehensive existing Lakeside Zone restoration of the ecosystem correlation technique, special for Lakeside Zone Point, arranges ecological enclosure, regulates water level, clears up original Fish, improves substrate condition, builds Aquatic Higher Plants group, increases and expand Aquatic animal extends food chain.Ecological enclosure mainly controls water body exchange, reduction range of stage at the restoration of the ecosystem initial stage;Regulation water Position is Fish cleaning for convenience and provides transparency needed for submerged plant planting;Fish cleaning primarily to break original not Reasonably ecologic structure, reduces Fish gross density, provides favourable ecological condition for submerged plant growth;Plant planting submerged plant main It is to play absorbed nitrogen phosphorus, the effect of reduction water pollution substrate concentration;Put aquatic animal in a suitable place to breed primarily to extend food chain in water, Build complete aquatic ecosystem;Throwing in microbial bacterial agent is the stability in order to improve ecosystem further, is heavy simultaneously Water plant provides good growing space, and improves the ecological community of bed mud.
Relative to prior art, the invention have the advantages that and beneficial effect:
(1) with existing Fixed-order ladder type is plant floating bed, lay the sediment trapping ridge and the combination of bamboo raft floating bed, alternation of wetting and drying life under water The technology implementation schemes such as state repair system and the series connection sediment deposition pool are different, and set by the present invention, ecological enclosure not only has existing There are the functions such as water conservancy diversion, control fish that technology do not has, and completely without employing big machinery in technological means, earth used, Masson Pine The raw materials such as stake, bamboo pole, plank, pvc pipe, fish sieve the most easily obtain, and with low cost;
(2) cleaning of tradition Fish uses bleaching powder or containing pyrethrin pesticide etc., is easily generated secondary pollution and toxic and side effects, Affect water quality and other aquatiles grow;The present invention uses tea bran and fishing net cleaning Fish spiral shell, can greatly reduce water quality and Other hydrobiological harm;
(3) present invention specify that kind, specification, density and the side that submerged plant planting and aquatic animal are put in a suitable place to breed further Formula, compared with existing other technologies, it is not necessary to determine pioneer by planting experiment, and the selected kind four seasons all can grow, water The technological means of restoration of the ecosystem is more practical, the most clearly;
(4) the method Effect of Ecological Restoration of the present invention is obvious, and easy to maintenance;Use the lakeside that the method for the present invention is repaired It is strong that band water quality typically can reach surface water IV class standard, submerged plant adaptability and absorbed nitrogen phosphorus ability, and especially select is short Raw Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, does not the most grow the water surface, and harvesting frequency, maintenance difficulties are substantially reduced.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 be ecological enclosure set by the embodiment of the present invention 1 face structural representation;
Fig. 2 is the plan structure schematic diagram of ecological enclosure set by the embodiment of the present invention 1;
Fig. 3 is the right TV structure schematic diagram of ecological enclosure set by the embodiment of the present invention 1;
In figure, labelling is described as follows: 1-deal pile, 2-plank, and 3-PVC manages, and 4-fish is sieved, 5-landscape plant, 6-warning sign, 7-bed mud, 8-fills clay.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail, but embodiments of the present invention do not limit In this.
Embodiment 1
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method of the present embodiment, to bed mud without black smelly phenomenon, go out The bad V class Lakeside Zone water body of existing eutrophication carries out restoration of the ecosystem, specifically comprises the following steps that
1, ecological enclosure is set
1) inserting two row 5 meters long deal pile with small-sized hook machine under water in Lakeside Zone appropriate area, deal pile inserts bed mud The half that the degree of depth is its length, to guarantee to consolidate, the spacing between same row's deal pile be less than 5 centimetres, two row Masson Pines The spacing (i.e. enclosure width) of stake is 1 meter.
2) being close to two row's deal pile inside straight vertical cuttings and enter the plank of 40 cm thick, height keeps consistent with deal pile, Between plank, finally fill clay and be compacted dry.
3) the bottom patch bed mud at ecological enclosure arranges 1 intake-outlet, and intake-outlet installs perpendicular type pvc pipe, i.e. divides Being two sections, wherein one section of horizontal positioned crosses ecological enclosure, 2 times of a length of enclosure width, respectively exposes 1/4, stretches out ecology Fish sieve is installed in one end outside enclosure district, in order to control Fish turnover when current pass in and out, and described fish sieve is made into for thin bamboo strips used for weaving, eyelet is straight Footpath connects, less than the oblate sieve of 2 fingers, the one end in ecological enclosure district, another section of pvc pipe vertically placed, and its height is for enclosing Every 2 times (i.e. exceeding enclosure 1 times) of height, the pvc pipe vertically placed is flexibly connected with the pvc pipe of horizontal positioned, can be at any time Extract, to realize water conservancy diversion and to control ecological enclosure district water level.
4), after above-mentioned steps completes, plant gold banyan at enclosure overlying soil, and erect warning sign at enclosure two ends, improve lake Prevent visitor from trampling on enclosure while shore band enclosure view and the effect of publicity.
Set by the present embodiment, ecological enclosure faces structural representation, plan structure schematic diagram and right TV structure schematic diagram The most as shown in Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3.
2, original Fish are cleared up
1) by intake-outlet water body by the way of row and immersible pump draw water, the enclosure district depth of water is made to be down to less than 30 centimeters. Selected suction pump flow is not less than 30 cubes of meter per seconds.
2) for Fish bigger in water body, in enclosure district, place 1 fishing net along Transverse to the flow direction every 30 meters, put Capturing Fish after putting 3 hours by the way of drawing in the net to catch up with fish, fishing net mesh specification used is 2 fingers, and length is according to Lakeside Zone width Determine.
3) for the less Fish seedling of individuality or fish roe and Pomacea canaliculata etc., use pollution-free, nonhazardous effect Tea bran is killed.Method particularly includes: by tea bran with lake water in the ratio stirring and evenly mixing of 1:4, soak more than 8 hours, take filtrate and add lake Water dilutes, and mixed solution consumption is according to 3g/m3, pole a boat or uniformly splash to the water surface at bank water ladle, every day 1 time, repeatedly making With 3 times, thoroughly to kill water body Fish and Pomacea canaliculata, pull out the water surface such as the fish spiral shell killed and residual tea bran with the string bag subsequently, It is transported to specify at dumping and deals carefully with.
3, planting submerged plant is planted
After fish tap bolt is originally cleaned out, short raw Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, hornwort and three kinds of plant seedlings of watermifoil are selected to transplant, Root, stem and leaf need to be selected without blackout, without the seedling rotted.Planting pattern is divided into two kinds: 30~50cm shallow water area, can take artificial Rice transplanting formula under water is planted, and ensures neat field planting with cord simultaneously;50~150cm deepwater regions can take bamboo pole seedlings plugging method, and 1 people draws Starching 1 people to plant, light taking gently is planted, and rod enters mud about 10cm, and grass comes directly towards the neat water surface preferably.Planting density is according to 30 strains/m2, 8 strains/ Clump.The principle that dilute phytal zone, profundal zone is close is followed during transplanting.Being affected by anthropic factor or water level, after planting, a couple of days may go out The phenomenon that existing seedling floats, needs with long bamboo pole secondary field planting, it is ensured that submerged plant seedling root or stem insert bed mud.Heavy water The plant growing time select as far as possible non-flood period as the Ching Ming Festival before and after.
4, aquatic animal is put in a suitable place to breed
This step is implemented after aforementioned submerged plant planting grows 1 month: to ecological enclosure district recharge water to water level 1 meter, Recharge water is the outer eutrophication bad V class lake water of ecological enclosure or the rainwater of collection, throws in Cipangopaludina chinensis, freshwater mussel to water body the most successively The aquatile seedlings such as class, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ophicephalus argus, Cipangopaludina chinensis, shell, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) input mode are water surface uniform broadcasting, and Fish are direct Throw in.
Described Cipangopaludina chinensis is Bellamya purificate, Classification system Bellamya purificata, for Viviparidae animal, fresh water group Dwell snail.It throws in specification about 2g/ or diameter 2 cm, throws in the density every square metre water surface 1.
Described bivalves is cristaria plicata, is commonly called as cockscomb freshwater mussel, lake freshwater mussel, continuous freshwater mussel, water freshwater mussel etc., Classification system Cristariaplicata, belongs to for Unionidae, hat freshwater mussel, and fresh water benthic mollusca, for coastal area of china common species.The resistance to sewage of this freshwater mussel and hypoxia Ability is relatively strong, and happiness is dwelt in more fertile waters, typically inhabits fresh water unhurried current and the lake of standing water, river and irrigation canals and ditches and pond At the bottom of the mud on the pool or in silt bottom.It is more than the algae that hydriopsis cumingii ingests, widely distributed, all produces in China almost various places.Its Throw in specification about 200g/, throw in the density every square metre water surface 1.
Described Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), also known as astacus, macrobrachium, i.e. Macrobrachium nipponensis, Classification system Macrobrachium nipponense, is subordinate to Belong to Palaemonidae, macrobrachium belongs to.It it is a kind of Main economic shrimp being distributed widely in freshwater.Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) happiness inhabits rivers, lake In the unhurried current that pool, pond, irrigation canals and ditches bank phytal zone or pasture and water grow thickly, daytime, dormancy was at shady place, nocturnalism, often water-bed, Climb on pasture and water and other objects and creep.Mainly with canebreak, plankton, dish class of rotting, rice grain for food.Often it is gathered in bridge Around pier, sluice, dyke, riprap, river bank tree root and pasture and water.It throws in specification about 20g/, throws in density every square metre water 1, face.
5, microbial bacterial agent is thrown in
In ecological enclosure, water body throws in high-effective service, improves the stability of ecosystem further.Described microorganism Microbial inoculum is high-effective service, and major function is to control the harmful substances such as ammonia nitrogen in water body, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, decomposes bed mud Harmful deposits, accelerates nitration denitrification course of reaction.Each 1 liter/mu of injected volume, uses once for every 7 days.
Before and after the present embodiment is repaired, water quality each index concentration is as shown in table 1, unit: mg/L.
Table 1
Embodiment 2
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method of the present embodiment, bed mud is presented black smelly phenomenon, Occur that the bad V class Lakeside Zone water body of eutrophication carries out restoration of the ecosystem, specifically comprise the following steps that
1, ecological enclosure is set
1) inserting two row 7 meters long bamboo poles with small-sized hook machine under water in Lakeside Zone appropriate area, bamboo pole inserts the bed mud degree of depth For the half of its length, to guarantee to consolidate;Spacing between same row's bamboo pole is less than 5 centimetres, and the spacing of two row's bamboo poles is (i.e. Enclosure width) it is 1 meter.
2) being close to two row's deal pile inside straight vertical cuttings and enter the plank of 60 cm thick, height keeps consistent with bamboo pole, After between plank fill clay and compacting dry.
3) the bottom patch bed mud at ecological enclosure arranges 2 intake-outlets, and each intake-outlet installs perpendicular type pvc pipe, I.e. being divided into two sections, wherein one section of horizontal positioned crosses ecological enclosure, 2 times of a length of enclosure width, respectively exposes 1/4, stretches out Fish sieve is installed in one end outside ecological enclosure district, in order to control Fish turnover when current pass in and out, and described fish sieve is made into for thin bamboo strips used for weaving, hole Eye diameter connects, less than the oblate sieve of 2 fingers, the one end in ecological enclosure district, another section of pvc pipe vertically placed, its height For 2 times (i.e. exceeding enclosure 1 times) of enclosure height, the pvc pipe vertically placed is flexibly connected with the pvc pipe of horizontal positioned, permissible Extract at any time, to realize water conservancy diversion and to control ecological enclosure district water level.
4), after above-mentioned steps completes, plant gold banyan at enclosure overlying soil, and erect warning sign at enclosure two ends, improve lake Prevent visitor from trampling on enclosure while shore band enclosure view and the effect of publicity.
2, original Fish are cleared up
1) by intake-outlet water body by the way of row and immersible pump draw water, the enclosure district depth of water is made to be down to less than 30 centimeters. Selected suction pump flow is not less than 30 cubes of meter per seconds.
2) for Fish bigger in water body, in enclosure district, place 1 fishing net along Transverse to the flow direction every 30 meters, put Capturing Fish after putting 5 hours by the way of drawing in the net to catch up with fish, fishing net mesh specification used is 3 fingers, and length is according to Lakeside Zone width Determine.
3) for the less Fish seedling of individuality or fish roe and Pomacea canaliculata etc., use pollution-free, nonhazardous effect Tea bran is killed.Method particularly includes: by tea bran with warm water in the ratio stirring and evenly mixing of 1:4, soak more than 8 hours, take filtrate and add lake Water dilutes, and mixed solution consumption is according to 5g/m3, pole a boat or uniformly splash to the water surface at bank water ladle, every day 1 time, repeatedly making With 5 times, thoroughly to kill water body Fish and Pomacea canaliculata, pull out the water surface such as the fish spiral shell killed and residual tea bran with the string bag subsequently, It is transported to specify at dumping and deals carefully with.
4) splashing oxygenation agent, consumption is 1g/m3, stir bed mud simultaneously, improve water quality, bottom environment, improve water body and dissolve Oxygen, continuous three days, once a day.
3, planting submerged plant is planted
After fish tap bolt is originally cleaned out, short raw Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, hornwort and three kinds of plant seedlings of watermifoil are selected to transplant, Root, stem and leaf need to be selected without blackout, without the seedling rotted.Planting pattern is divided into two kinds: 30~50cm shallow water area, can take artificial Rice transplanting formula under water is planted, and ensures neat field planting with cord simultaneously;50~150cm deepwater regions can take bamboo pole seedlings plugging method, and 1 people draws Starching 1 people to plant, light taking gently is planted, and rod enters mud about 10cm, and grass comes directly towards the neat water surface preferably.Planting density according to 20 strains/, 6 strains/ Clump.The principle that dilute phytal zone, profundal zone is close is followed during transplanting.Being affected by anthropic factor or water level, after planting, a couple of days may go out The phenomenon that existing seedling floats, needs with long bamboo pole secondary field planting, it is ensured that submerged plant seedling root or stem insert bed mud.Heavy water The plant growing time select as far as possible non-flood period as the Ching Ming Festival before and after.
4, aquatic animal is put in a suitable place to breed
This step is implemented after aforementioned submerged plant planting grows 2 months: to ecological enclosure district recharge water to water level 1.5 Rice, recharge water is the outer eutrophication bad V class lake water of ecological enclosure or the rainwater of collection, the most successively to water body throw in Cipangopaludina chinensis, The aquatile seedlings such as bivalves, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ophicephalus argus, Cipangopaludina chinensis, shell, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) input mode are water surface uniform broadcasting, and Fish are straight Connect input.
Described Cipangopaludina chinensis is Bellamya purificate, Classification system Bellamya purificata, for Viviparidae animal, fresh water group Dwell snail.It throws in specification about 2g/ or diameter 2 cm, throws in the density every square metre water surface 5.
Described bivalves is cristaria plicata, is commonly called as cockscomb freshwater mussel, lake freshwater mussel, continuous freshwater mussel, water freshwater mussel etc., Classification system Cristariaplicata, belongs to for Unionidae, hat freshwater mussel, and fresh water benthic mollusca, for coastal area of china common species.The resistance to sewage of this freshwater mussel and hypoxia Ability is relatively strong, and happiness is dwelt in more fertile waters, typically inhabits fresh water unhurried current and the lake of standing water, river and irrigation canals and ditches and pond At the bottom of the mud on the pool or in silt bottom.It is more than the algae that hydriopsis cumingii ingests, widely distributed, all produces in China almost various places.Its Throw in specification about 200g/, throw in the density every square metre water surface 2.
Described Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), also known as astacus, macrobrachium, i.e. Macrobrachium nipponensis, Classification system Macrobrachium nipponense, is subordinate to Belong to Palaemonidae, macrobrachium belongs to.It it is a kind of Main economic shrimp being distributed widely in freshwater.Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) happiness inhabits rivers, lake In the unhurried current that pool, pond, irrigation canals and ditches bank phytal zone or pasture and water grow thickly, daytime, dormancy was at shady place, nocturnalism, often water-bed, Climb on pasture and water and other objects and creep.Mainly with canebreak, plankton, dish class of rotting, rice grain for food.Often it is gathered in bridge Around pier, sluice, dyke, riprap, river bank tree root and pasture and water.It throws in specification about 20g/, throws in density every square metre water 2, face.
5, microbial bacterial agent is thrown in
In ecological enclosure, water body throws in high-effective service, improves the stability of ecosystem further.Described microorganism Microbial inoculum is high-effective service, and major function is to control the harmful substances such as ammonia nitrogen in water body, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, decomposes bed mud Harmful deposits, accelerates nitration denitrification course of reaction.Each 3 liters/mu of injected volume, use once for every 10 days.
Before and after the present embodiment is repaired, water quality each index concentration is as shown in table 2, unit: mg/L.
Table 2
Above-described embodiment is the present invention preferably embodiment, but embodiments of the present invention are not by above-described embodiment Limit, the change made under other any spirit without departing from the present invention and principle, modify, substitute, combine, simplify, All should be the substitute mode of equivalence, within being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method, it is characterised in that comprise the steps:
(1) ecological enclosure district is constructed: in Lakeside Zone appropriate area with outer layer as deal pile or bamboo pole, internal layer is plank and fills mud The ecological enclosure of soil constructs ecological enclosure district;
(2) clear up original fish spiral shell: by the way of certainly arranging or drawing water, make the ecological enclosure district depth of water be down to less than 30 centimeters, first lead to Cross the fishing net mode of drawing in the net and capture individual bigger Fish in water body, then tea bran of splashing kills individual less Fish, fish roe and spiral shell Class;
(3) planting submerged plant is planted: after step (2) clears up original fish spiral shell, select short raw Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, hornwort and three kinds of plants of watermifoil Seedling is transplanted;
(4) aquatic animal is put in a suitable place to breed: step (3) described submerged plant transplants growth 1~after 2 months, to ecological enclosure district recharge water To water level 0.5~1.5 meters, then throw in ecological enclosure district water body and include the aquatic of Cipangopaludina chinensis, bivalves, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ophicephalus argus Biological seedling;
(5) throw in microbial bacterial agent: water body throws in high-effective service to ecological enclosure district, improve stablizing of ecosystem further Property.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step Suddenly described in (1), ecological enclosure is prepared via a method which: insert two rows 5 under water at the small-sized hook machine of Lakeside Zone appropriate area ~7 meters of long deal pile or bamboo pole, deal pile or bamboo pole insert the half that the degree of depth is its length of bed mud, to guarantee to consolidate;Two The spacing i.e. enclosure width of row's deal pile or bamboo pole is 1 meter;Spacing between same row's deal pile or bamboo pole is less than 5 centimetres; Being close to two row's deal pile or bamboo pole inside straight vertical cutting enters the plank of 40~60 cm thick, height keeps with deal pile or bamboo pole Unanimously, between two row's planks, finally fill earth and be compacted dry.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute State ecological enclosure and fill the position plantation landscape plant of earthing again of earth, and erect warning sign at enclosure two ends.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute Stating ecological enclosure and arrange 1~2 intake-outlet in patch bed mud position, bottom, each intake-outlet installs perpendicular type pvc pipe, i.e. divides Being two sections, wherein one section of horizontal positioned crosses ecological enclosure, stretches out the one end outside ecological enclosure district and installs fish sieve, ecological enclosure district In one end connect another section of pvc pipe vertically placed, the pvc pipe vertically placed higher than enclosure height and with horizontal positioned Pvc pipe is flexibly connected.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step Suddenly the mode of tea bran of splashing described in (2) is as follows: by tea bran and lake water or warm water in the ratio stirring and evenly mixing of 1:4, soak 8 hours Above, taking filtrate and add lake flushing, pole a boat or uniformly splash to the water surface at bank water ladle, consumption of splashing is according to 3~5g/m3, Every day 1 time, Reusability 3~5 times.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: Clearing up in original fish spiral shell step, oxygenation agent of need to splashing, consumption is 0.5~1g/m3, stir bed mud simultaneously, continuous three days, every day one Secondary.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step Suddenly (3) described transplanting method is: 30~50cm shallow water areas, takes the artificial plantation of rice transplanting formula under water, ensures whole with cord simultaneously Neat field planting;50~150cm deepwater regions, take bamboo pole seedlings plugging method, and 1 people draws slurry 1 people and plants, and light taking gently is planted, and rod enters mud 10cm Left and right, grass comes directly towards the neat water surface preferably;Planting density is according to 20~30 strains/m2, 6~8 strains/clump.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step Suddenly Cipangopaludina chinensis described in (4) is Bellamya purificate, and it throws in average size is 2g/ or average diameter 2 centimetres, throws in density and often puts down Side's rice water surface 1~5;Described bivalves is cristaria plicata, and it throws in average size is 200g/, throws in density every square metre water Face 1~2;It is 20g/ that described Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) throws in average size, the input density every square metre water surface 1~2.
A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step Suddenly described in (5), the injected volume of high-effective service is: normal each 1~2 liter/mu of water body, eutrophication water 2~3 liters first/ Mu, uses once for every 7~10 days.
CN201610781195.7A 2016-08-31 2016-08-31 A kind of high water-base fluid man-made lake Lakeside Zone ecological restoring method Pending CN106242064A (en)

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Cited By (6)

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CN106745792A (en) * 2017-03-30 2017-05-31 武汉中科水生环境工程股份有限公司 A kind of submerged plant restoration methods
CN107651754A (en) * 2017-11-07 2018-02-02 棕榈生态城镇发展股份有限公司 A kind of complex ecosystem construction method and artificial reef for repairing eutrophic water body
CN108163981A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-15 广州普邦园林股份有限公司 A kind of method for repairing polluted lake landscape water body
CN109179857A (en) * 2018-05-04 2019-01-11 暨南大学 A kind of eutrophic water body repairing method seized based on ecology isolation-fish reparation-substrate lock phosphorus-plant
CN109937755A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-06-28 上海海洋大学 A kind of habitat brick production method and multi-functional wetland restorative procedure
CN110589979A (en) * 2019-09-28 2019-12-20 河南城建学院 Heavy metal water quality repair system

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106745792A (en) * 2017-03-30 2017-05-31 武汉中科水生环境工程股份有限公司 A kind of submerged plant restoration methods
CN107651754A (en) * 2017-11-07 2018-02-02 棕榈生态城镇发展股份有限公司 A kind of complex ecosystem construction method and artificial reef for repairing eutrophic water body
CN107651754B (en) * 2017-11-07 2021-02-23 棕榈生态城镇发展股份有限公司 Composite ecological system construction method for restoring eutrophic water body and artificial reef
CN108163981A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-15 广州普邦园林股份有限公司 A kind of method for repairing polluted lake landscape water body
CN109179857A (en) * 2018-05-04 2019-01-11 暨南大学 A kind of eutrophic water body repairing method seized based on ecology isolation-fish reparation-substrate lock phosphorus-plant
CN109937755A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-06-28 上海海洋大学 A kind of habitat brick production method and multi-functional wetland restorative procedure
CN110589979A (en) * 2019-09-28 2019-12-20 河南城建学院 Heavy metal water quality repair system

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