CN109588191A - A method of for restoring the mangrove on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region - Google Patents

A method of for restoring the mangrove on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109588191A
CN109588191A CN201811558186.7A CN201811558186A CN109588191A CN 109588191 A CN109588191 A CN 109588191A CN 201811558186 A CN201811558186 A CN 201811558186A CN 109588191 A CN109588191 A CN 109588191A
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mangrove
beach
level
tidal
sewage draining
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杨玉楠
王瑶
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Beihang University
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Beihang University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of for restoring the method for the mangrove on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region, it the described method comprises the following steps: (1) improving the pH value of the soil of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region beach by tidal scour, mitigate the acidizing degree of the soil;(2) the padded shrimp pool sewage draining exit region to be upwardly formed the domatic beach face that Tidal flat is gradually increased in tide rises side;(3) mangrove is planted on the domatic beach face, and applies phosphate fertilizer into the mangrove rhizosphere soil.The present invention can improve the problem soils condition in shrimp pool sewage draining exit region, quickly slow down and control the degenerative process of mangrove, solve the problems, such as that mangrove cannot survive or growth retardation in a long time in the region, protection and restore Mangrove resource.

Description

A method of for restoring the mangrove on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region
Technical field
The invention belongs to ecological protection technical fields, and in particular to for restoring the mangrove on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region The method of woods.
Background technique
Mangrove (mangroves), which refers to, is grown in tropical and subtropical region seashore intertidal zone top, is soaked by periodical tidewater It floods, the woody biocoene of tidal beach wetland that the evergreen shrubs or arbor based on mangrove form.It is grown on land with The beach shoal of ocean Heat resources is special ecosystem of the land to ocean transition.With flood control, wave resistance, storm guard, bank protection Function be also referred to as " ocean bodyguard " irreplaceable coastal green screen.Mangrove is maintaining atmosphere carbon and oxygen balance, Air and water body environment are purified, greening, beautification, Popular Science Education etc. also have unique ecology, social and economic benefit.Heat Band and semi-tropical mangrove biocoene are the bases to form mangrove ecosystem high productivity and rich biodiversity, should The ecosystem ranks the 4th in global 16 kinds of ecosystems, and millions of necessary goods and materials and service can be provided for the mankind.
Although the ecological functions Huge value of mangrove, there is water quality purification function, due to the influence of mankind's activity, example If interests driving brings aquaculture area to increase, make the forfeiture of mangrove purification function and the degeneration of large area, this is in turn It will lead to the increase of cultivation difficulty.By taking Hainan Province, China Dong Zhaigang supports shrimp as an example, since mangrove degenerates seriously, the ground at the port Dong Zhai Table seawater cannot be used for shrimp pond culture, and nearby residents start exploiting groundwater and are engaged in related cultivation activity, and in protection zone There is a discharge outlet on each shrimp pool of periphery, and breeding wastewater is directly discharged into mangrove by discharge outlet in this way, thus The stability and living environment for leading to mangrove ecosystem are constantly destroyed, and mangrove is caused constantly to disappear, and are followed into pernicious Ring.
It is existing that United Nations Environment Programme has formally issued global first comprehensive assessment Mangrove Wetlands environment in July, 2010 The comprehensive report of shape: the existence of mangrove is faced with artificial excessively exploitation and seriously threatens with what sea level rise, from last century 80 Since age, global mangrove area has reduced 1/5th or more.China's mangrove area also sharply declines, from 20th century 50 Fall sharply 68.7% to area at the beginning of the nineties.
Lewis(2004)(Roy R.Lewis.Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests[J].Ecological Engineering, 2004,24 (4)) propose that mangrove successfully restores preceding necessary 5 steps, specifically: 1, understanding autecology (species ecology Learn), the distribution of mode and brood body that the mangrove species especially at this are bred simultaneously plants seedling;2, it is red to understand control target Woods species distribution and the normal Hydrological Models for being successfully established and growing;3, assessment prevents the environment of mangrove natural deduction at present Variation;4, design recovery scheme tentatively restores hydrologic condition appropriate, eliminates or reduce pressure factor;5, only passing through Step 1 determines that spontaneous recovery cannot provide the quantity of surviving seedling in restoration project target, coefficient of stabilization or sapling growth rate to 4 Afterwards, practical plantation breeding, acquisition seedling or cultivation seedling are just utilized.Lewis also highlights the hydrology in recovery process at the same time Importance.
Since 2013, the concrete engineering measure implemented at home include cleaning extremely set, dig trenches to drain the water away, cofferdam ridging, It inserts the comprehensive three-dimensional mode such as kind transplant seedlings and restores mangrove.But presently, there are the problem of be when restoring not using forming Tidal flat The engineering measure for the domatic beach face being gradually increased;Or mangrove plantation is not carried out according to the Natural ecological distribution of mangrove;It does not account for To the variation for causing soil fertility and physicochemical character due to polluting;To mangrove periphery feed coefficient shrimp aquaculture contamination control not enough with And it is managed and protected after afforestation not in place etc..At the port Dong Zhai during Mangrove restoration, it was found that partial region is in the time as long as five years It cannot be survived there is mangrove or the phenomenon that growth retardation.
Therefore, the severe situation to decrease sharply in view of mangrove, very there is an urgent need to one kind can be in mangrove degenerate region The method of mangrove is effectively restored in shrimp pool sewage draining exit region on domain such as shoal area especially beach.
In conclusion the present invention is based on organic substance hydrolysis acidifications in mangrove sediment and aquaculture acidic discharge object Matter is superimposed in a short time causes the accumulation of organic acid in mangrove flooded soils to have toxic action, Yi Jihai to mangrove plant Shortage of soil quick-effective phosphor caused by shrimp aquaculture discharges etc. causes this difficult key of the regional area Mangrove restoration in protection zone Technical problem proposes that pile sunning and the method for tidal scour are turned over using mud gradually reduces soil acidification degree, using burying fertilizer Method application is sustained organic phosphatic fertiliser to improve the technical solution of content of available phosphorus in soil.The present invention will realize sea shrimp cultivation discharge Caused by degeneration mangrove recovery.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the problems, such as that mangrove growth is bad on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region or is difficult to restore, the present invention A kind of method for restoring on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region or planting mangrove is provided, the method includes following steps It is rapid:
(1) pH value that shrimp pool sewage draining exit region mud-flat soil is improved by tidal scour, mitigates the acidification of the soil Degree;
(2) the padded shrimp pool sewage draining exit region to be upwardly formed the slope that Tidal flat is gradually increased in tide rises side Shape beach face;
(3) mangrove is planted on the domatic beach face, and applies phosphate fertilizer into the mangrove rhizosphere soil.
Relative to existing Mangrove restoration method, advantages of the present invention is as follows:
By slowing down, soil acidification degree turns over pile sunning for example, by using the mud of certain depth and time and to bury fertilizer application slow The method for releasing organic phosphatic fertiliser efficiently solves in the sewage draining exit region of the shrimp pool due to soil acidification, fertilizer caused by long-term pollution Mangrove ecosystem caused by power decline is difficult to the problem of restoring.
Padded shrimp pool sewage draining exit region is formed in the domatic beach face that Tidal flat on tide rises direction is gradually increased.
The present inventor is by carrying out on-site inspection to mangrove autecology and synecology, it is determined that be planted The tree species type of the mangrove of plant carries out the selection of tree species according to natural growthing condition, is conducive to using sapling transplanting planting method The tree species of ambient growth preferably are filtered out, survival rate is higher after plantation.
The present invention can be effectively improved the ecological environment of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region mangrove, restore the life in shrimp pool sewage draining exit region The self-purification capacity of state system, and mangrove wetland diversity of organism is improved after recovery, so that the ecosystem is more Add stabilization.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 a is the schematic top plan view of mangrove strip and block beach face and tidal creek construction.
Fig. 1 b is the diagrammatic cross-section of mangrove strip and block beach face and tidal creek construction.
Fig. 2 a is the schematic top plan view of mangrove terrace type beach face and tidal creek construction.
Fig. 2 b is the diagrammatic cross-section of mangrove terrace type beach face.
Fig. 3 is Mangrove Communities anthropogenic sere schematic diagram, and which show the legends of part mangrove tree species.
Fig. 4 is Hainan Province, sewage draining exit region, Dong Zhaigang shrimp pool Mangrove restoration picture in embodiment 1.Wherein figure A is display There is the Mangrove restoration area of second level tidal creek;Scheme the Mangrove restoration area that B is existing level-one tidal creek and second level tidal creek.
Specific embodiment
In order to make the object, technical scheme and advantages of the embodiment of the invention clearer, below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention In attached drawing, technical scheme in the embodiment of the invention is clearly and completely described, it is clear that described embodiment is A part of the embodiments of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.Based on the embodiments of the present invention, ordinary skill people Member's every other embodiment obtained without making creative work, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
It is described the present invention provides a kind of method for restoring on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region or planting mangrove Method the following steps are included:
(1) pH value that shrimp pool sewage draining exit region mud-flat soil is improved by tidal scour, mitigates the acidification of the soil Degree;;
(2) the padded shrimp pool sewage draining exit region to be upwardly formed the slope that Tidal flat is gradually increased in tide rises side Shape beach face;
(3) mangrove is planted on the domatic beach face, and applies phosphate fertilizer into the mangrove rhizosphere soil.
In step (1), can by soil is dug turn over and the method that dries and/or using tidal scour method to mitigate State the acidizing degree of soil.Preferably, digging the depth turned over is 0.5 to 0.7m (such as 0.6m), sunning and/or tidal scour Time can be such as 18 days 15 to 20 days.
It, can be with the lowered zones in padded shrimp pool sewage draining exit region in step (2).It preferably, can be by domatic beach face It is transformed into strip and block beach face or terrace type beach face (as shown in figures 2 a and 2b).It is further preferred that the minimum of domatic beach face can be made Position is 0.2m higher than mean sea level to 0.5m (such as 0.3m or 0.4m).Also it is preferred that the width of beach face be 0.6 to 1.4m (for example, 0.8,1.0 or 1.2m)
Fig. 1 a is the schematic top plan view of mangrove strip and block beach face and tidal creek construction;Fig. 1 b be mangrove strip and block beach face with The diagrammatic cross-section of tidal creek construction.As seen in figure la and lb along the direction building level-one tidal creek 2 far from coastline 4 and with one The second level tidal creek 3 that grade tidal creek 2 is connected to plants mangrove 4 in planting area.The height of the second groove 3 of extreme higher position can be lower than The height of high tide level 5, the second groove 3 of extreme lower position can be higher than low tide 6.
Similar, Fig. 2 a is the schematic top plan view of mangrove terrace type beach face and tidal creek construction;Fig. 1 b is mangrove terraced fields The diagrammatic cross-section of shape beach face and tidal creek construction.Level-one tidal creek 2 is constructed along the direction far from coastline 4 as shown in figures 2 a and 2b And the second level tidal creek 3 being connected to level-one tidal creek 2, mangrove 4 is planted in planting area.The height of the second groove 3 of extreme higher position High tide level 5 can be lower than, the height of the second groove 3 of extreme lower position can be higher than low tide 6.Likewise, extreme higher position is also protected There are the mangroves for capableing of normal growth.
Optionally, step (2) can further include remove in the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region the dead tree root of mangrove and Trunk, and the lowered zones are to have removed the region of dead tree root and trunk.
In addition optionally, tidal creek is constructed in the sewage draining exit region of the shrimp pool.It is further preferred that the tidal creek is included in tide The level-one tidal creek that the side of flood tide upwardly extends and the second level tidal creek for intersecting and being connected to the level-one tidal creek, and level-one tide The area of section of ditch is greater than the area of section of the second level tidal creek.It is further preferred that the width of the level-one tidal creek is 4 to 5m And/or the second level tidal creek is 0.4 to 0.6m (such as 0.5m).It may further be preferable that the level-one tidal creek is located at the slope The two sides of shape beach face.
In the present invention, in order to avoid gnawing for the zoobenthos such as Sphaeroma, fiddler crab, do not planted directly using plumular axis Method restores the mangrove in shrimp pool sewage draining exit region, but sapling is used to transplant planting method.Then, in some embodiments In, in step (3), the mangrove can be using sapling transplanting planting method plantation.About mangrove land occupation condition and spacing in the rows It determines, can determine plantation distance after determining mangrove Planting Patterns and hydrologic condition.For example, in some embodiments, kind Plant is away from can be 1.0m to 2.0m (for example, 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,1.5,1.6,1.7,1.8 or 1.9m).For example, it is preferable to , plantation distance can be determined according to the size of stormy waves, such as when planting on the biggish beach face of stormy waves, seeding row spacing can be 1.0 to 1.5m × 1.0 to 1.5m;On the lesser beach face of stormy waves, seeding row spacing is 1.5 to 2.0m × 1.5 to 2.0m.
In the present invention, using biggish spacing in the rows, it is therefore an objective to follow naturally, making the Nature competing according to habitat conditions progress object Natural selection enables that local habitat conditions growing plants is suitble to grow between the mangrove of big spacing in the rows, be mangrove self is extensive The performance of reactivation power reserves enough spaces.
The seedling of selection is preferably the healthy nursery stock of no disease and pests harm, the height of seedling of sapling be 50 to 70cm (for example, 50,55, 60,65 or 70cm).The root system for piercing through nutrient bag can be cut before transplanting, then nutrient bag need to protect mangrove root maintenance 15- 25 days.Length, width and the height of plantation hole are not particularly limited, such as can be 0.2m to 0.4m.Specifically, can incite somebody to action 50 to 70cm root system cuts nutrient bag mangrove sapling after conserving 15-25 days is put into the plantation hole excavated, then will be young Seed is planted, and recycles shale earthen backfill plantation hole, the height to earth up of seedling wood is after compaction no more than Soil Surrounding surface 10 ±5cm。
In some preferred embodiments, the tree species of the mangrove can comprehensively consider the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region Natural growthing condition is selected, such as is selected according to the tree species type of the area health mangrove and soil regime.
In addition, in step (3), can successively be planted from low to high on the direction of tide rises succession front end tree species, Succession middle-end tree species and succession rear end tree species.Preferably, succession front end tree species can be such as Avicennia marina (Avicennia marina(Forsk.)Vierh.hailanci).Avicennia marina is distributed in seashore outer most edge, and this kind of plant is water-fast It is strong to flood ability, is suitable as succession front end tree species.The succession middle-end tree species can be selected from by halogen fern (Acrostichum Aureum Linn.), Aegiceras corniculatum (Aegiceras corniculatum (L) Blanco), Rhizophora stylosa (Rhizophora Stylosa), Hainan Hai Sang (Sonneratia hainanensisKO, E.Y.Chen et W.Y.Chen), Hai Sang (Sonneratiacaseolaris (L.)), pagatpat (Sonneratia apetala), olive Lee (Lumnitzera Racemosa Willd), red olive Lee (Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt), positive mangrove (Rhizophora Apiculata Blume), autumn eggplant (Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce/Kandelia obovata) composition group. These tree species are generally grown in the shale beach that water and soil is easy to run off in the middle part of beach, are suitable as succession middle-end tree species.The succession Rear end tree species can be selected from by Bruguiera conjugata (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir.), Hai Lian (Bruguiera Sexangula), ceriops tagal (Ceriops tagal (perr.) C.B.Rob.), sea paint (Excoecaria agallocha Linn.), looking glass tree (Heritiera littoralis Dryand.), Lao Shu le (Acanthus ilicifolius L.), The yellow rose of Sharon (Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn.), Hai Mangguo (Cerbera manghas), Indian beech (Pongamia Pinnata (L.) Pierre) and populnea (Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland.ex Correa) composition group. These tree species can be grown on mangrove inner edge (nearly land side) or high tide level beach, be suitable as succession rear end tree species. In a specific embodiment, Avicennia marina, halogen fern, paulownia can successively be planted from low to high on the direction of tide rises Tree, Rhizophora stylosa, positive mangrove, autumn eggplant, Bruguiera conjugata, Hai Lian, ceriops tagal, looking glass tree and populnea etc..It is above-mentioned that part is shown in Fig. 3 Some legends of tree species.As shown in figure 3, front end succession group is successively planted in the direction along tide rises (such as seawater) from low to high Fall 10, middle-end serial community 11 and rear end serial community 12.
It in some alternative embodiments, can be on the direction of tide rises from low to high successively in step (3) Plant lapacho wood group (as prodophytium, planting ahead of the curve seawards band) tree species, Rhinophora stylosa Community in Yingluo Bay tree species, Hai Lian group tree Kind and ceriops tagal group tree species, to construct Mangrove Communities anthropogenic sere.
In addition, in step (3) phosphate fertilizer can be applied, the available phosphorus contents in mangrove rhizosphere soil is made to be 40 ± 5mg/ kg.Preferably, the phosphate fertilizer is slow-release phosphate fertilizer.It is further preferred that the phosphate fertilizer is sustained release organic phosphatic fertiliser.Further preferred It is that the preferential soil for applying phosphate fertilizer is the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region that available phosphorus contents are 3.00mg/kg to 20.00mg/kg.
In some embodiments, the method can also include for the first time plant after carried out in 2 years supplement plantation and/or The step of management and maintenance.
In other preferred embodiment, the method can also include limiting the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region The discharge of peripheral pollution sources.In some optional or alternative embodiment, the method can be in step (1) Including continuously monitoring the mean sea level in the mangrove healthy growth region in the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region and the son of tidal level Step.Preferably, the monitoring of the mean sea level and tidal level can be with the duration for 1 month or more, such as continues 2 A month or 3 months time.
In a specific embodiment of the invention, described method includes following steps:
(1) aerial root of the dead mangrove in shrimp pool sewage draining exit region, trunk are all removed;
(2) the shrimp pool sewage draining exit area periphery discharge of pollutant sources is controlled, and continuously monitors the red of the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region Woods healthy growth region mean sea level and tidal level (including high tide level and low tide);
(3) excavator is utilized, the acid soil in the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region dig and turns over, dry and is carried out using tide It washes away;
(4) by earth work measure, the lowered zones of padded acid soil, being formed has the variation of continuous elevation gradient Strip and block or terrace type beach face are to keep the extreme lower position of plantation beach face 0.2m higher than mean sea level for planting mangrove To 0.5m;The width of beach face remains 0.6 to 1.4m.
(5) big tidal creek (can tidal creek) and neap are constructed in the region that the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region prepares plantation mangrove Ditch (i.e. second level tidal creek);
(6) along beach face difference elevation gradient, planting method is transplanted using sapling, mangrove species are selected, according to elevation Gradient from low to high, is successively planted succession front end tree species, succession middle-end tree species and succession rear end tree species, is drilled according to Mangrove Communities For series, planted according to spacing in the rows appropriate;
(7) for content of available phosphorus in soil be 3.00 to 20.00mg/kg shrimp pool sewage draining exit region, using bury fertilizer Method application sustained release organic phosphatic fertiliser, makes content of available phosphorus in soil reach 40 ± 5mg/kg;
(8) supplement plantation and management and maintenance are carried out to reproducing area at least within continuous 2 years or more time after afforestation.
When wherein continuously monitoring in step (2), the monitoring of mean sea level and tidal level should be at 1 month or more, with true Its fixed high tide level 5 and low tide 6 (referring to Fig. 1 b, Fig. 2 b and Fig. 3).
It is 0.5 to 0.7m that the depth turned over wherein is dug in step (3), dries the time and the tidal scour time is total up to 15 to 20 It.
The wherein lowered zones at the sewage draining exit of step (4) Prawn pool, having removed as at the sewage draining exit of the shrimp pool are dead red The region of the aerial root of tree, trunk.
Wherein step (5) in the construction process, forms tide rises direction gradually padded strip and block or terrace type beach face (as shown in Figure 2) opens big tidal creek (the i.e. level-one with tidal fluctuations in afforestation region to plant mangrove, in the left and right sides of beach face Tidal creek), spring tide ditch width is 4 to 5m, and opens small tidal creek (the i.e. second level tidal creek) width being connected with big tidal creek on beach face and be 0.5m (as shown in Figure 1).
The method of the present invention is aiming at the problem that shrimp pool sewage draining exit region mangrove is difficult to restore, by mangrove water environment Long term monitoring, analysis, result of study show in the swamp of mangrove soil of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region since the accumulation of organic acid causes Soil is excessively acidified and the shortage of rapid available phosphorus, thus forms above-mentioned solution.
Embodiment
The present invention can be more clearly understood by the way that specific embodiments of the present invention are given below, it is clear that these implementations Example is only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, is not whole.Based on the embodiment of the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art Every other embodiment obtained without making creative work, is all within the scope of the present invention.
Embodiment 1
1. the preparation of early period:
1.1 the present inventor have carried out mangrove autecology and synecology tune in Hainan Province Dong Zhaigang in early period Look into, hydrology and water ecological environment pollution monitoring research, for many years, and on this basis assess the hydrology change or pressure because Influence of the increase of element to Mangrove restoration.
Monitoring result shows the recovery difficulty of the region mangrove and recovery effects with apart from the distance of shrimp pool sewage draining exit are in It is positively correlated.Further monitoring discovery, the acidity of mangrove forest soil and the content of rapid available phosphorus and sea shrimp farm drain tidal creek distance Distance it is closely related.Near close shrimp pool draining tidal creek sluice gate (such as the mangrove of each discharge outlet is difficult to recover the 1cm in area Mangrove topsoil to 50cm) is usually pH value < 6 (such as Mangrove restoration area, the village Shan Wei soil), in tower city mangrove The pH value of recovery district soil is even less than 4.It can be the major influence factors of Mangrove restoration with preliminary judgement soil acidification.
It is found by investigating pollution sources further progress and detecting, the acidic discharge object on the shrimp pool includes hydrogen peroxide and dioxy Change disinfectants and the iodine solutions (such as povidone iodine) such as chlorine and organic acid substance (such as citric acid and hydroxyacetic acid) removing toxic substances Agent.Speculate that the discharge of these substances is superimposed the accumulation for being likely to result in mangrove forest soil middle acid substance in a short time.Except this Except, a large amount of organic substance has been discharged on the shrimp pool.It can be obtained by measuring and calculating, the case where the port the Dong Zhai 1300ha shrimp pool is used Under, the deposit weights such as annual residual bait, excrement, shrimp shell and dead shrimp are 8372t, BOD 1937.52t.These organic matters are in mangrove In woods for a long time deposit after under anaerobic state hydrolysis acidification at small organic molecule.Acid soil, which has mangrove plant to poison, to be made With will cause regional area of the mangrove in mangrove swamps protected area and restore difficult
In addition, found by soil fertility analysis, the content of the soil quick-effective phosphor in shrimp pool sewage draining exit region be 3.25 to 17.94mg/kg, hence it is evident that lower than the mangrove in the discharge outlet region on mangrove pig farm, duckery and neighbouring sanitary sewage 34.59 to 97.79mg/kg available phosphorus contents in soil, also below in natural mangrove forest soil 26.31 to 47.31mg/kg's Available phosphorus contents illustrate that the phosphorus content in the emission of prawn culturing process is insufficient.Therefore, it is possible to determine that rapid available phosphorus, which reduces, is also One of the major influence factors of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region Mangrove restoration.
Therefore, in the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region of Hainan Mangrove Nature Reserves Dong Zhaigang, the pollution sources in the region are arranged Put row control into, and continuously monitor the region mangrove healthy growth region mean sea level and tidal level 1 month or more, with Determine the hydrology requirement of mangrove;By the on-site inspection to mangrove autecology and synecology, the area is determined The halodrymium in domain forms and soil types.
1.2 using excavator and bull-dozer, to the acid soil in the region region is purged, and removes the red of dead Aerial root and trunk are set, to restore the original state of mud bank;
1.3 utilize excavator, and by the acid soil the acid soil in region dig and turns over, dries and tidal scour, dig The depth turned over is 0.50m, and sunning and tidal scour time are total up to 15 days.
1.4 are transformed using bull-dozer and ream grab by earth work measure, backfill mud soil with the padded shrimp pool The lowered zones in sewage draining exit region make shrimp pool sewage draining exit region form the strip and block or terrace type with the variation of continuous elevation gradient Beach face restores and establishes normal hydrologic condition, keeps the extreme lower position higher than mean sea level 0.2 to 0.5m of plantation beach face;
1.5 in the construction process, the left and right of strip and block gradually padded or terrace type beach face on the direction towards seawater Two sides (herein, front side is the side for having seawater, and rear side is the side of original healthy mangrove), opening has in afforestation region The big tidal creek (i.e. level-one tidal creek) of tidal fluctuations, tidal creek width is 4m, and the small tidal creek being connected with big tidal creek is opened on beach face The width of (i.e. second level tidal creek), small tidal creek is 0.5m (such as Fig. 1), and planting area is made to be in tidal flow shape in its natural state State.
2. the plantation of mangrove
The selection of 2.1 tree species
The selection of mangrove: synthesis is carried out according to the tree species type of the destroyed area health mangrove and soil regime and is examined Consider, selects following tree species to be planted: Avicennia marina, halogen fern, Aegiceras corniculatum, Rhizophora stylosa, positive mangrove, autumn eggplant, Bruguiera conjugata, Hai Lian, silique Wood, looking glass tree and populnea.Avicennia marina, halogen fern, Aegiceras corniculatum, Rhizophora stylosa, positive mangrove, autumn eggplant, wood are successively planted from low to high Olive, Hai Lian, ceriops tagal, looking glass tree and populnea.Plantation sequence will successively plant above-mentioned tree according to elevation gradient from low to high Kind, i.e., succession front end tree species, succession middle-end tree species and succession rear end tree species are successively planted from low to high.
The determination of 2.2 mangrove spacing in the rows
After determining mangrove Planting Patterns and hydrologic condition, the big littoral zone beach face mangrove spacing in the rows of stormy waves be 1.0m × 1.0m。
2.3 kinds are planted and are managed and protected
2.3.1 afforestation season: mangrove was planted since part on May 15th, 2017, to 20 end of day of August in 2017.
2.3.2 planting patterns: not being direct using plumular axis in order to avoid gnawing for the zoobenthos such as Sphaeroma, fiddler crab The method of plantation but planting method is transplanted using sapling to restore the mangrove in shrimp pool sewage draining exit region.The seedling selected is disease-free The healthy nursery stock of insect pest, height of seedling 50 to 70cm cut the root system for piercing through nutrient bag before transplanting, are then protected using nutrient bag Mangrove root conserves 15-25 days.The length, width and height of mangrove plantation hole are 0.2 to 0.3m.Specifically, 50 to 70cm root system is supported Shield cuts nutrient bag mangrove sapling after 15-25 days is put into the plantation hole excavated, and then by seedling cultivation, recycles shale Earthen backfill plantation hole is no more than 10 ± 5cm of Soil Surrounding surface after the compacting of seedling wood height to earth up.
Using the method application sustained release organic phosphatic fertiliser (purchased from Dongfang Shi Kowloon means of agricultural production sales department) for burying fertilizer, make quick-acting in soil Phosphorus content reaches 40 ± 5mg/kg.Reinforce after afforestation to reproducing area maintenance and management, periodically carry out after-culture, righting lodging sapling, Rubbish incidental is cleared up, maintenance and management is carried out continuously 2 years.Through calculating, 90% or more survival rate in two years, area coverage 40% with Upper (referring to fig. 4).
Embodiment 2
Equally adopted in Hainan Mangrove Nature Reserves Dong Zhaigang in the adjacent position in the same shrimp pool sewage draining exit region It is carried out with mode substantially the same manner as Example 1, the difference is that, digging the depth turned over is 0.70m, when sunning and tidal scour Between be total up to 20 days, open afforestation region in tidal fluctuations big tidal creek (i.e. level-one tidal creek), tidal creek width be 5m.
Embodiment 3
It is red determining by the way of substantially the same manner as Example 1 equally in Hainan Mangrove Nature Reserves Dong Zhaigang After tree planting type and hydrologic condition, plant mangrove in stormy waves relatively small trench bank band beach face, plant away from for 2.0m × 2.0m。
Embodiment 4
Another adjacent bit equally in Hainan Mangrove Nature Reserves Dong Zhaigang, in the same shrimp pool sewage draining exit region Set, by the way of substantially the same manner as Example 1, only without using excavator by acid soil region acid soil into Row, which is dug, to be turned over, dries and tidal scour, does not also have supplementation administration phosphate fertilizer.
Wherein, a survival rate (November) when 3 months full after planting for the first time is united before no plantation of supplement for the first time Meter, calculation formula: for the first time plant after survive sum/for the first time plantation sum × 100%;Survival rate is mended in second year June in 2 years (i.e. September part) counts when filling completely 3 months after plantation, calculation formula: sum/(plantation number+supplement kind for the first time is survived after supplement plantation Plant number) × 100%.
Finally, it should be noted that the above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical solutions of the present invention, rather than its limitations;Although Present invention has been described in detail with reference to the aforementioned embodiments, those skilled in the art should understand that: it still may be used To modify the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments or equivalent replacement of some of the technical features; And these are modified or replaceed, technical solution of various embodiments of the present invention that it does not separate the essence of the corresponding technical solution spirit and Range.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of for restoring the method for the mangrove on the beach of shrimp pool sewage draining exit region, which is characterized in that the method includes Following steps:
(1) pH value that shrimp pool sewage draining exit region mud-flat soil is improved by tidal scour, mitigates the acidizing degree of the soil;
(2) the padded shrimp pool sewage draining exit region to be upwardly formed the domatic beach that Tidal flat is gradually increased in tide rises side Face;
(3) mangrove is planted on the domatic beach face, and applies phosphate fertilizer into the mangrove rhizosphere soil.
2. the method according to claim 1, wherein in step (2):
The lowered zones in padded shrimp pool sewage draining exit region;
Preferably, domatic beach face is transformed into strip and block beach face or terrace type beach face, it is further preferred that the width of beach face is 0.6 to 1.4m;
It is further preferred that keeping the extreme lower position of domatic beach face 0.2m higher than mean sea level to 0.5m;
Optionally, step (2) further include remove the dead tree root and trunk of the mangrove in the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region, and And the lowered zones are to have removed the region of dead tree root and trunk;
In addition optionally, tidal creek is constructed in the sewage draining exit region of the shrimp pool;It is further preferred that the tidal creek is included in tide rises The level-one tidal creek just upwardly extended and the second level tidal creek for intersecting and being connected to the level-one tidal creek, and section of the level-one tidal creek Face area is greater than the area of section of the second level tidal creek;Preferably, the width of the level-one tidal creek is 4 to 5m and/or described Second level tidal creek is 0.4 to 0.6m;It may further be preferable that the level-one tidal creek is located at the two sides of the domatic beach face;Further Preferably, the second level tidal creek of extreme lower position is not less than low tide, and the second level tidal creek of extreme higher position is not higher than high tide level.
3. the method according to claim 1, wherein in step (1):
Mitigate the acidizing degree of the soil by the method that soil digging is turned over and dried and/or using tidal scour method;It is excellent Choosing, digging the depth turned over is 0.5 to 0.7m, and the time of sunning and/or tidal scour is 15 to 20 days.
4. the method according to claim 1, wherein in step (3):
The mangrove is using sapling transplanting planting method plantation;
Preferably, the tree species of the mangrove are according to the tree species type and soil of the healthy mangrove in the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region Situation is selected.
5. the method according to claim 1, wherein in step (3):
Successively plant succession front end tree species, succession middle-end tree species and succession rear end tree species from low to high on tide rises direction;
It is further preferred that succession front end tree species are Avicennia marina, the succession middle-end tree species are selected from by halogen fern, Aegiceras corniculatum, red The group that Hai Lan, Hainan Hai Sang, Hai Sang, pagatpat, olive Lee, red olive Lee, positive mangrove, autumn eggplant form;Succession rear end tree species Selected from what is be made of Bruguiera conjugata, Hai Lian, ceriops tagal, book paint, looking glass tree, old mouse le, the yellow rose of Sharon, Hai Mangguo, Indian beech and populnea Group;Most preferably, Avicennia marina, halogen fern, Aegiceras corniculatum, Rhizophora stylosa, at prime is successively planted from low to high on tide rises direction Tree, autumn eggplant, Bruguiera conjugata, Hai Lian, ceriops tagal, looking glass tree and populnea.
6. the method according to claim 1, wherein in step (3):
For plant away from for 1.0m to 2.0m, the height of seedling of sapling is 50 to 70cm, length, width and the height of plantation hole be 0.3m extremely 0.4m and/or earthing are shale soil.
7. the method according to claim 1, wherein in step (3):
Successively plant lapacho wood group tree species, Rhinophora stylosa Community in Yingluo Bay tree species, Hai Lian group tree from low to high on tide rises direction Kind and ceriops tagal group tree species.
8. the method according to claim 1, wherein in step (3):
Application phosphate fertilizer makes the available phosphorus contents in soil be 40 ± 5mg/kg;Preferably, the phosphate fertilizer is slow-release phosphate fertilizer;More Preferably, the phosphate fertilizer is sustained release organic phosphatic fertiliser;It may further be preferable that preferentially the soil of application phosphate fertilizer is available phosphorus contents For the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region of 3.00mg/kg to 20.00mg/kg.
9. the method according to claim 1, wherein the method also includes carrying out in 2 years after planting for the first time The step of supplement plantation and/or management and maintenance.
10. the method according to claim 1, wherein the method also includes limiting the shrimp pool blowdown mouth region The discharge of the peripheral pollution sources in domain;Continuously monitor the mangrove healthy growth region mean sea level in the shrimp pool sewage draining exit region With tidal level to determine high tide level, low tide and mean sea level, the monitoring of preferably described mean sea level and tidal level Duration is 1 month or more.
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