CN103276696B - A kind of underwater slope protection based on ecology bag and Ecological water treatment method - Google Patents

A kind of underwater slope protection based on ecology bag and Ecological water treatment method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103276696B
CN103276696B CN201210427476.4A CN201210427476A CN103276696B CN 103276696 B CN103276696 B CN 103276696B CN 201210427476 A CN201210427476 A CN 201210427476A CN 103276696 B CN103276696 B CN 103276696B
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water
ecology bag
bag
plant
slope
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CN103276696A (en
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李可为
严伟
龚明康
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CHONGQING DANHAI INDUSTRIAL Co Ltd
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CHONGQING DANHAI INDUSTRIAL Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of underwater slope protection based on ecology bag and Ecological water treatment method, including 1) desilting processes and solidifies: 2) set up water-bed basis; 3) arrange domatic; 4) by the top on water-bed basis, ecology bag is paved in the dislocation of stepped lamination; 5) on ecology bag, planting submerged plant is planted; 6) when water quality is below the 5th class of country's surface water environment standard GB/3838-2002 regulation, put into microorganism formulation according to water quality measurement, terminate to dam or cofferdam when water quality reaches GB/3838-2002 the 4th class standard and is above; 7), in water, throw in filter-feeding fish or/and herbivorous fishes, and dwell shellfish in shrimp and the end. This method, based on the Underwater Slope structural safety in lake, river, ensures outside flood passage demand, produces the collaborative Governance Ability to water body by the restoration of the ecosystem of Underwater Slope.<!--1-->

Description

A kind of underwater slope protection based on ecology bag and Ecological water treatment method
Technical field
The present invention relates to environmental improvement method, specifically a kind of underwater slope protection based on ecology bag and Ecological water treatment method, be the integrated system engineering of a kind of flexible ecological side slope and water body treating.
Background technology
Traditional water conservancy side slope protection scheme is mainly focused on the requirement of the function such as flood passage, shipping, river course and the shore protection in lake, slope protection works are mainly considered the safety of engineering structure and resistance to+of a specified duration property, therefore governance model many employings linear type river course and river course channelization, adopt the hardened materials such as stone-laying, concrete or armored concrete, seldom consider the ecological functions in river course.
Above-mentioned canalization has blocked exchanging of river and subsoil water with the water conservancy side slope of hardening, also result in hardening side slope alkalization of soils below, becoming dead soil, lose nutrient, plant loses growing environment on the bank, lose the growth procreation environment of microbiologic population, aquatic animal disappears because losing ecological chain and even becomes extinct, and aquatic organism group disappears, and the ability of the river self-purification disappears, add the combined effect of domestic sewage in rural areas and municipal sewage, make river and lake enter the vicious cycle of black stench.
Water conservancy side slope can be divided under water naturally, falling zone, three slope sections of shore protection, due under water, falling zone, three slope sections of shore protection have different ecological functions, for underwater slope protection, except needs solve the technical problem such as edge slope structure safety and flood control, also should to restore or build up ecosystem for target, therefore it also should solve following technical problem underlying:
Underwater plant can grow naturally, using the teaching of the invention it is possible to provide the place that animal and microorganism are perched;
The ecological revetment material adopted should solve the etching problem of strong acid and strong base, should have the function of acid-base balance based on the aquatic ecological system of ecological revetment;
Aquatic ecological system based on ecological revetment can be closed or Adsorption of Heavy Metals;
Aquatic ecological system based on ecological revetment can prevent and treat body eutrophication;
There is the function of the self-purification of water based on the aquatic ecological system of ecological revetment.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of underwater slope protection based on ecology bag and Ecological water treatment method, this method is based on the Underwater Slope structural safety in lake, river, ensure outside flood passage demand, produce the collaborative Governance Ability to water body by the restoration of the ecosystem of Underwater Slope.
Employed technical scheme comprise that such for achieving the above object, i.e. a kind of underwater slope protection based on ecology bag and Ecological water treatment method, the restoration of the ecosystem comprised the following steps, wherein carry out damming or cofferdam before construction:
1) desilting processes and solidifies: before construction river or lake water water quality country's surface water environment standard GB/3838-2002 regulation the 5th class water quality and following time need the riverbed bottom side slope or lakebed are carried out desilting process;
2) water-bed basis is set up
4) by the top on water-bed basis, ecology bag is paved in the dislocation of stepped lamination
5) on ecology bag, planting submerged plant is planted, under water the epimere plantation emergent aquactic plant of bank protection;
6) when water quality is below the 5th class of country's surface water environment standard GB/3838-2002 regulation, put into microorganism formulation according to water quality measurement, terminate to dam or cofferdam when water quality reaches GB/3838-2002 the 4th class standard and is above;
7), in water, throw in filter-feeding fish or/and herbivorous fishes, and dwell shellfish in shrimp and the end.
Step 2) the water-bed basis of middle foundation includes fluting on the root river of bank protection under water, lakebed, bottom land lays blotter, input reinforced gabion net, or be immobilizing foundation or the fixed mount of setting up ecology bag.
The submerged plant that step 5) is planted on ecology bag is selected from waterweed, hydrilla verticillata, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, adopt and intercut or/and press the planting patterns broadcast. If this bank protection is absent from falling zone, namely water level is relatively stable, then need the emergent aquactic plant that the epimere of bank protection under water is planted selected from Herba Lythri Salicariae, aquatic Canna generalis Bailey. If there is falling zone in this bank protection, i.e. water level big rise and fall, then need not under water bank protection epimere plantation emergent aquactic plant.
Slope surface treatment described in step 3) is the softer place of ground for bearing capacity < 150kpa, uses C20 concrete casting ground or rubble compacting, and compacting degree is more than 90%, removes domatic foreign material.
Stepped lamination dislocation described in step 4) pave the method for ecology bag be in advance at platform or/and barricade place builds by the C20 concrete of design size, then place connection and be buckled in two bags of head and the tail seaming positions, stepped layer by layer again pave bag, after often having spread one layer, with ramming iron, bag and bag gap place are backfilled rammed earth, then paving next layer, the ecology bag of adjacent layer position misplaces half bag wide.
Further, riverbed bottom side slope or build, on lakebed, groove of planting by laying bricks or stones, groove is spread compost, water plant is implanted in soil; Or by water plant kind in a reservoir, then by container submerged and reinforce.
In the present invention, ecology bag is the ingredient that flexible ecological SLOPE ENGINEERING SYSTEM is important, ecology bag has permeable soil impervious filtering function, implant (soil and nutritional labeling mixture) can be prevented to run off, moisture normal communication in soil can be realized again, needed for plant growing, soil and moisture obtain effective maintenance, make plant traverse bag free growth. Along with the growth of plant, root system of plant has penetrated ecology bag, has become organic whole with cyphosomatic, and the time is more long, and side slope is all the more firm.
The sack that ecology bag is processed for the two-sided flatiron needle punched non-woven fabrics that raw material is made by polypropylene (PP) or polyester fiber (PET). There is uvioresistant, aging resistance, nontoxic, not combustion-supporting, feature that breach does not extend, it is truly realized no pollution.
Ecology bag has physics and the chemical property of excellence, the material of this formulated can resist ultraviolet erosion, not by the impact of chemical substance in soil, qualitative change will not be there is or rot, permanent non-degradable also can resist the erosion of insect pest, aging resistance, nontoxic, antiacid alkali salt corrodes and microbial decomposition; As latest model side slope construction material, there is following environment universality advantage:
A. moisture resistant
Ecology bag raw material does not absorb moisture, will not destroy sack, and sack is without deformation when moisture occurs, insoluble in polluting liquid (EPAMethod9090 U.S. environment office).
B. resist chemical (PH)
Certain density soda acid chemical substance is had very strong resistance by the bright ecology bag of widely studied test chart, can be used for most solid and severe contamination place.
C. antibiont degraded and animal damage
Ecology bag adopts special formulation material, does not support, does not absorb, does not help fungus grown, without putrefaction, not mouldy, never degenerate. Ecology bag by insecticide and relevant animal digestion, will not will not become the food gnawing tooth animal (mouse), Coptotermes formosanus Shtrari., moth, beetle, Hemisalanx moth etc.
D. high temperature resistance low temperature
Ecology bag can bear 150 celsius temperatures and not melt, it is possible to bear the lowest temperature-40 degrees Celsius.
E. uvioresistant (UV)
Ecology bag, containing carbon ink and other uv-resistant compositions, is aforementioned ecology bag A and the ecology bag B function to increase.
The underwater slope protection ecological restoring method giving ecology bag that the present invention adopts has following significant effect:
Ecology bag form of construction work flexibly not only meets hydrophilic demand; The scour resistance of ecology bag self and the combined effect of root system of plant, effectively meet flood passage demand.
Root system of plant penetrates ecology bag, becomes organic whole with cyphosomatic, makes slope body more firm;
The medium-and-large-sized vegetation of water can strengthen the degree of roughness at the bottom, slows down water velocity, promotes noxious substance sedimentation; Root, stem, leaf can slow down water velocity and eliminate turbulent flow, filters and glar sand grain, organic fine particles;
There is provided beneficial microorganism growing environment, it is provided that the food of Herbivore;
Emergent aquactic plant root system of plant of being everlasting is formed about the varying environment of aerobic, anoxia and anaerobism, provides good living environment for the absorption of various microorganisms and metabolism;
Submerged plant can form one barrier at lake low layer, makes low layer nutrient substance overflow speed and is suppressed; Meanwhile, submerged plant photosynthesis consumes the CO2 in water, makes the pH value of water body increase, and promotes the removal of nitrogen;
Heavy metal in water body is had absorption enrichment by water plant, some position that can heavy metal be accumulated in plant with the form of metallo-chelate, reaches the phytoremediation to sewage;
Some water plant can also discharge allelochemical in water body and suppress the growth of phytoplankton; Floating plant, emergent aquactic plant, submerged plant can be made something perfect even more perfect for landscape diversity.
The present invention is applied to syllogic bank protection administering method effect more preferably.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing 1 is the ecological restoring method schematic diagram of underwater slope protection of the present invention;
In figure: A-2 is ecology bag; A-3 is for coupling button; A-4 is reinforced gabion net; A-5 is broken stone foundation; A-6 is planting soil; A-7 is river, lakebed;
Accompanying drawing 2 is for present invention position view in syllogic bank protection administering method;
The block diagram of three norms disposal ability in the embodiment of accompanying drawing 3 Pan Xi river.
Detailed description of the invention
Below by way of accompanying drawing and the embodiment of indefiniteness that provides thereof, the present invention will be described in detail.
For feature and the functional requirement of underwater slope protection restoration of the ecosystem, adopt the protective slope structure of ecology bag can meet the needs of river lakeside slope safety, the needs of different plant growing can also be met in ecology. Solve the problems such as the high cost low quality that existing flexible ecological protection slope system adopts lakeside slope, same product supporting river to bring, plant survival rate is low, cannot recover self-purification of water power, construction management difficulty, water remediation difficulty.
Construction process
Dam in lake, river or cofferdam processes
Construction starts cause and construction section is dammed or cofferdam processes, for lake, the river Ecological Slope construction section execution conditions without large area hydrops or current.
Process the need of desilting
According to detail design in advance the need of carrying out desilting process, the 5th class water quality that before general construction, river or lake water water quality specify in country's surface water environment standard (GB/3838-2002) and following river course and lake need bottom is carried out desilting process.
Desilting processes and solidifies
Remove bed-silt and carry out bed-silt, by tool filter pressing mode or natural air drying mode, 24~48 hours natural air dryings, making moisture percentage in sewage sludge be reduced to 50%~60% from 80%~95%.
Ground slope surface treatment
Ecology bag to carry out ground (domatic) and process before paving, for the softer place of ground (bearing capacity < 150kpa), can use C20 concrete casting ground or rubble compacting (compacting degree is more than 90%) basis. Remove domatic bark, tree root, rubbish, foreign material, tophus, mantle rock, accomplish domatic neatly. After domatic finishing, interim intercepting ditch is set on top, slope, it is prevented that during rainfall, hydrops collects impact slope body.
Planting soil prepares
Scene has the planting soil of applicable plant growing then to can be directly used for pack, when not being suitable for planting soil, then mix homogeneously with 3:7 ratio with sand and clay and be used for packing, to hold, tightly landing scatters is advisable at 10%/-20%(to control wettability), mud acid alkalescence is joined in adjustment, it is desirable to pH value deviates less than 0.5 with local P in soil H-number.
Fill ecology bag
Ready soil is packed into ecology bag, and the three/a period of time often packing sub-capacity carries out drawing by rammed earth (stepping on real more than three times, reach filling full) every time. It is filled to from bag mouth 15cm-20cm(beautiful faeryEcology bag bag mouth label position) it is considered as bag completely, then it is close to soil face locking bag mouth with tying band.
Pack requires:
Full: bag is filled full, with the outer label of bag for filling soil standard;
Real: pack is filled earth material and to be filled closely knit, often fill 1/3rd during pack and to carry out pier in fact;
Tight: tying to be strained, it is ensured that not loose tying when carrying at the scene and assemble. Bag mouth length 5-7cm after tying.
Packed good after, it is safe to place, and during carrying, liftoff carrying or rolling, does not drag on ground, it is prevented that galls and cause spillage of material. The bag installed is tried one's best and was assembled the same day, is sure not to drench with rain for a long time be exposed to the sun installing the bag not assembled, in case of rainy weather should hide in advance, in order to go into operation at any time after rain and assemble.
Ecology bag is paved in the dislocation of stepped lamination
Pave ecology bag and bench toe need to be set by design, and bracing wire plays slope reference line as what pave, then place connection and be buckled in two bags of the first seaming positions, then bag is paved along what the line one that draws arranged (one layer), spread row's (a layer) available ramming iron and bag and bag gap place have been backfilled rammed earth, afterwards smooth bag ensure that bag edge and institute's bracing wire coincide. Design drawing has completing in time of drainage system.
Ecology bag paves whether meet construction requirement
After engineering construction completes, overall leveling is attractive in appearance, paves straight, and the fissure of displacement is uniform; Basis is strong without sedimentation; Design drawing there is discharge structure need to meet periphery four-way without hydrops requirement.
Detection method: observe, control design drawing and detection technique processing scheme.
Ecology bag flexibility side slope support process construction Permission deviation item and detection method table
Finishing processes
According to the result that detection is checked and accepted, being deteriorated for the engineering occurred and work out finishing processing scheme, until reaching design and construction requirement, meeting, then enter next one flow process.
Greening prepares
After structure construction completes, select the plant that water-bed lake should select.It addition, for there being plant to need to plant with specific process (in such as water-bed bank protection, Activities of Some Plants needs to plant with container in advance), it is necessary to get out the construction equipment being correlated with.
Underwater slope protection section greening vegetation
The ecology bag C that underwater slope protection section is paved requires to carry structural safety, anti-long-time immersion and the functional requirement such as submerged plant growth and restoration of the ecosystem, and product self has following main feature:
Erosion resistibility is high: >=6m/s
Uvioresistant strength retention (xenon lamp 500h): longitudinally: >=75%, laterally: >=75%
Resistance to immersion: >=80 years
Ecology bag is beneficial to submerged plant growth
Anti-chemical thing and microbiologic(al) corrosion
Strong alkali-acid resistance: ph=4~11
Greening construction and maintenance
The implantation methods of water plant
Water plant is planted according to the habit of variety classes or kind. Water plant of planting adopts technological approaches two kinds different: intercut or/and press and broadcast.
Soil
Select clean garden mould fine sieved, remove the twig in soil, weeds, dead leaf etc., it is to avoid by the sposh in the pool, in order to avoid mixing seed or other harmful organism bacterium of aquatic weed. As main material, add a small amount of skeleton soil and some slow-releasing nitrogenous fertilizer.
Rhizome cuts breeding
Digging out subterraneous stem, clean earth and old root, be cut into bulk with sharp knife, every piece of 3-4 bud is bred. The method planted is the requirement according to afforestation, general seeding row spacing about 40cm, plants into various geometric pattern and is advisable. Shallow water should be kept, in order to improve soil temperature, water temperature, promote the long-living of plant at the initial stage water level planted.
Plant is matched
When carrying out the option of species of vegetation, according to conditions such as local weather and geology, it is proposed that the apolegamy of plant is as shown in the table:
Underwater slope protection section plant is matched:
1, Herba Lythri Salicariae
Lythraceae Lythrum. Also known as water willow, water branch willow and Shui Zhijin. Liking warm and illumination is sufficient, breezy environment, happiness water wets, and various places, China north and south all have wild, is grown in marshland, the other wetland of water and river bank, limes marginis more. Existing various places are extensively cultivated. Relatively more cold-resistant, all can open field soil in various places, China north and south. Best in shallow aquaculture growing way, it is possible to dry-land cultivation. Soil being required not tight, spend gorgeous in the pond sludge substrate that soil property is fertile, growing way is strong.
2, aquatic Canna generalis Bailey
Aquatic Canna generalis Bailey is perennial large-scale herbaceous plant, and root stock is tiny, elongation of internode, resistance to water logging, energy normal growth in the water that 20cm is deep, and pattern is gorgeous; Strong adaptability.
3, waterweed
Waterweed originates in America, is the submerged plant of a kind of high-quality, fast-growing, high yield, belongs to Hydrocharctaceae together with the black algae of distribution, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis in China freshwater. The nineties introduces from Japan with research of lakes institute through Chinese Academy of Sciences's Nanjing geography.
A kind of high-quality, fast-growing, high yield submerged plant, be referred to as submerged plant favourite son, waterweed stem is 2 meters, have branch. Strong adaptability, yield is high, and nutritious, has very strong regeneration capacity strong, and has the effect of water purification.
4, hydrilla verticillata
Hydrilla verticillata is commonly called as Herba pteridis vittatae, WEMSI grass, lantern common vetch, common vetch etc. of walking around, and likes high temperature, and trophophase is long, and adaptability is good, has very strong vitality, and will not ruin water quality.
5, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis
The heavy pasture and water of perennial acaulescence originally, have stolon. Breeding is fast, can effectively reduce amount of algae, can administer lake eutrophication.
6, Rhizoma Seu Herba Bergeniae Herba Eichhorniae
Rhizoma Seu Herba Bergeniae Herba Eichhorniae is to utilize GPIT targetedly to the characteristic of Herba Eichhorniae in addition induction regulating controlling, improving the breed of the Herba Eichhorniae that successful incubation becomes.Rhizoma Seu Herba Bergeniae stalklet leaf Herba Eichhorniae increases nearly 20 times than light water calabash root cap, and root is not perishable, it is possible to secretion allelochemical, and quick adsorption also presses down cyanophyceae of going out, and in removing heavy metal arsenic, is about 52 times of " king of drug abuse " Herba pteridis vittatae. Can substantially consume dissolved oxygen in water simultaneously, have can oxygen supply function, water purification function is greatly improved. Processing effect in blue algae water pollution problem, substantially, it also has bioenergy and can make the value that the secondaries such as fibre board utilize huge Rhizoma Seu Herba Bergeniae stalklet leaf Herba Eichhorniae simultaneously.
Throw in microorganism formulation
Water quality is improved by the microorganism formulation (be appointed as Shenzhen radically reform the QYB specially good effect microorganism formulation of precious Science and Technology Ltd.) putting into suitable proportion according to water quality measurement. Major function is removal body eutrophication, the organic substance of decomposing soluble, removing is stench, particle of degrading, raising water transparency etc., finally reaches pollutant indexs such as reducing Biochemical oxygen demand BOD, chemical oxygen demand COD.
Terminate to dam or cofferdam
To damming or after the water source in cofferdam carries out Artificial Microorganism process, terminate to dam or cofferdam when water quality reaches GB/3838-2002 the 4th class standard and is above. Initial stage vegetation root system is not yet firm, because noting control water velocity when discharging water, wants vegetation and falling zone vegetation under timely curing water after water level is normal.
Aquatic animal is thrown in
And according to season with plant selected different maintenance and started to put into the aquatic toy (all kinds of fishes, shrimp etc.) of Construction Scheme after 36 months. After waiting that proprietor checks and accepts engineering, construction terminates.
When carrying out animal, living species selection, according to conditions such as local weather and water quality, it is proposed that the apolegamy of species is as shown in the table:
1, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix cries again silver carp, water silver carp, jumps silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, is one of famous four large Chinese carps. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is typical filter-feeding fish, mainly eats zooplankton in the fry stage, transfers to gradually and eats phytoplankton, also eat bean milk, okara powder, wheat bran and Testa oryzae etc. up to more than 1.5 centimetres time, and more artificial microparticle mixed feed is eaten in happiness. It is suitable in rich water and cultivates.
Ecological functions:
Under certain density, put filter-feeding Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in a suitable place to breed can play control algae effect;
Cultivation combined by the yaito tuna of certain density with water plant can also play control algae effect;
Putting in a suitable place to breed of Fish makes cyanophyceae ratio in phytoplankton in water body increase.
2, Aristichthys nobilis
Aristichthys nobilis cries again Aristichthys nobilis, big head, packet header fish, bullhead, black silver carp (going back some places fiber crops silver carp). Outer likeness in form silver carp. Flat-sided. It it is the one of fresh-water fishes.
Ecological functions:
Control algae effect can be played;
The Aristichthys nobilis of certain density combines cultivation with water plant can also play control algae effect;
Putting in a suitable place to breed of Fish makes cyanophyceae ratio in phytoplankton in water body increase.
3, Ctenopharyngodon idellus
Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the micro-green of health, squama dusky, live in fresh water, be one of the important Fish of special product of China. Also Ctenopharyngodon idellus it is, also known as ctenopharyngodon idellus, grass roots fish, thick fish. Endemic fish for Guangxi, Eastern China to the plains regions such as Heilungkiang.
Ecological functions:
Ctenopharyngodon idellus, with plankton for food, is the natural enemy of algae and Herba Spirodelae;
Can effectively slow down the eutrophication of water body.
4, macrobrachium
Macrobrachium is also known as the big astacus in river, Portugal, Baihe shrimp, tong shrimp, and it is distributed mainly on the coastal south, and Zhejiang Portugal river middle and lower reaches abound with this shrimp, and it is individual big, can compare favourably with Macrobrachium rosenbergii, it has been found that maximum male reaches 200 grams, but meat flavour is more delicious.Macrobrachium body colour is with white clear for many, but can change along with environment and water colour, and suitable temperature range is wide, 5 DEG C~35 DEG C equal can existence, most thermophilic is 20 DEG C~28 DEG C, and pH value is 6.3~7.5.
Ecological functions:
Macrobrachium is Omnivore, mainly with plankton for food, can reduce plankton amount reproduction;
The transparency (SD) of algal tufa water body can be significantly improved;
Can directly or indirectly reduce water body DO concentration;
Can effectively slow down the eutrophication of water body.
5, oppossum shrimp
Oppossum shrimp, body shrimp shape. The many kinds of oppossum shrimp class can be lived in low-solids water or brackish water. Many kinds are life of swimming, but have many kind to perch activity in seabed, often slip in silt.
Ecological functions:
Main with plankton for food, plankton amount reproduction can be reduced;
The transparency (SD) of algal tufa water body can be significantly improved
Can directly or indirectly reduce water body DO concentration;
Can effectively slow down the eutrophication of water body.
6, Bellamya Aeruginosa Reeve
High 25 millimeter of one shell of shell adult, wide 15 millimeter of shell.
Ecological functions:
Bellamya Aeruginosa Reeve can significantly improve the transparency (SD) of algal tufa water body. and the existence of Bellamya sp can directly or indirectly reduce water body DO concentration;
Bellamya Aeruginosa Reeve put the growth that can suppress zooplankton to a certain extent in a suitable place to breed;
Eutrophication algal tufa water body can be produced certain impact by putting in a suitable place to breed of Bellamya Aeruginosa Reeve, puts the spiral shell of suitable density in a suitable place to breed and can slow down species in algal tufa water body to a certain extent and tend to monistic speed, and can reduce the abundance ratio of cyanophyceae in algal tufa water body;
The consumption rate of Bellamya Aeruginosa Reeve is first gradually increased with the rising producing poison cyanophyceae concentration, reaches after to a certain degree, and its consumption rate reduces;
The turbidity of water body is also had certain Degradation by Bellamya Aeruginosa Reeve, promotes the transparency of water body; The content of water body in phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen additionally can be greatly lowered, alleviate the eutrophication in lake;
Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn and Mn are respectively provided with stronger summation by Bellamya Aeruginosa Reeve liver pancreas.
7, bay scallop
Bay scallop, belongs to lamellibranchiata, Anisomyaria, Pectenidae, and scallop belongs to. Scallop is filter feeder, and Major Foods is organic debris, suspend minitype particle in the seawater and plankton, such as Diatomeae, double; two Flagellatae, Copepods etc.; Secondly also have the spore of algae, antibacterial etc. Its food species composition is consistent with the kind in environment.
Ecological functions:
There is very strong drainage capacity;
The concentration of particulate organic matter in water body (algae and organic debris) can be reduced, indirectly control nitrogen and phosphorus salinity;
Obtain food by digestive system filtering sea, when the waters life polluted by industrial wastewater or sewer, toxic chemical substance can be accumulated in vivo;
If shellfish is increased, it is possible to effectively filter oxide and algae;
Shellfish has good filtration and enriched character, it is possible to adsorb and consume the multiple noxious substance such as benzene, phenol, consumes superfluous Organic substance in sea water, plays purifying sea water effect;
Shellfish can provide a kind of ecosystems services, is famous ecologically clean work, it is possible to filter out the precipitate in water, increase water quality, allows water become limpider. The more important thing is, they can remove the noxious substance in water.
Underwater slope protection case history
Pan Xi river ecological revetment engineering
Pan Xi river is located in Yubei District of Chongqing City, and periphery high building stands in great numbers, densely populated, before improvement, is a notorious sewage ditch, has a strong impact on resident living and city image.
The major measure that ecological management is administered includes:
First, is dammed in Pan Xi river, process the black stench mud in original river bed, remove 230,000 tons of mud altogether;
Secondly, bank protection part under water, first squeeze into deal pile 0.5 meter deep in river bed, for the stable and water-bed ecology bag of compacting.
Then, bank protection is afforested, bank protection mainly plants Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, two kinds of submerged plants of black algae under water, and ordinary water level upper and lower about 0.5 meter plantation phragmites communis, Caulis Miscanthis floriduli, aquatic Canna generalis Bailey, the greening of underwater slope protection mainly have employed the mode that pressure is broadcast, plant near ordinary water level adopts the mode intercutted, can discharging water after sowing completes, river course recovers normal morphology, according to water analysis, the water surface in river course has thrown in floating plant, mainly floating lotus.
Finally, carry out ecological construction, throw in fry according to following standard to river course: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix: 600-800 fish/ha, Aristichthys nobilis: 250-350 fish/ha, after submerged vegetation maturation, throw in Ctenopharyngodon idellus: 180-300 fish/ha.
By afforesting and ecological construction, Pan Xi river is made progressively to have recovered due ecosystem, by the monitoring analysis that total phosphorus, total nitrogen and COD three norms is equal, shown in unit efficiency Fig. 3 of Pan Xi river river course slope protection greening:
Unit: 24h × mg/m2
By above-mentioned improvement, the afforestation vegetation of Pan Xi river ecological revetment has played obvious action in aquatic ecological system and water self-cleaning ability. At present, Pan Xi river has substantially eliminated black stench, and water quality reverts to V class from bad IV 2, spring partial period be IV class, season in autumn in summer two, partial period was up to III class.
Along with the growth of plant, root system of plant has penetrated ecology bag, has become organic whole with cyphosomatic, side slope is more and more safer, and greening is more and more beautiful, and water quality is more and more clear, take a walk to here again after resident's leisure near the ecological revetment of Pan Xi river, like that the old man fished comes again and go fishing here. Sewage ditch once has become park along river, and river bank greenweed is spreaded and sink in, egression is had a rest, citizen fish, and becomes place to go of having lain fallow.
Application in three sections of comprehensive processing methods of river lakeside slope ecology
Concentric lake, Chongqing comprehensive administration project
Concentric lake, Chongqing is located in Chongqing North, Lake area 48.76 ten thousand side, exploitation and construction along with Liang Jiang new district, the farmland of concentric lake periphery is just progressively replaced by high building and Factory Building, if lake takes no action to one heart, along with the remittance of municipal sewage, the water quality in concentric lake will become bad VI 2 classes from III class at short notice.
At the beginning of developing concentric lake, decision-making and manager have just drawn the experiences and lessons of similar item, and it is secure that a safety is forged in territory, concentric lake region by power will, environmental beauty, the urban lakes of ecological balance, specifically, the water quality being desirable to concentric lake is maintained at III class for a long time.
Concentric lake adopts three sections of lake, river of the present invention Ecological Slope to administer method, and loke shore is divided into three slope sections.
First loke shore being carried out paving of ecology bag bank protection, under water bank protection part, first squeeze into deal pile 0.5 meter deep in river bed, for the stable and water-bed ecology bag of compacting, underwater slope protection part ecology bag adopts ecology bag C. Meanwhile, synchronizing to be constructed in falling zone and shore protection, falling zone adopts ecology bag B, and shore protection adopts ecology bag A.
After slope protection ecological bag paves end, ecological revetment can ensure structural safety in the early stage, domatic covered by ecology bag, soil erosion (lake water washes away, heavy rain washes away) just can be effectively contained when vegetation has not yet been formed, simultaneously, ecology bag has permeable soil impervious feature, it is also possible to effectively prevent due to caving in that slope internal water accumulation causes.
Then, three slope sections are carried out greening vegetation respectively:
Slope section under water, plants the submerged plant such as Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, black algae;
In slope, falling zone section, under normal pool level, plant phragmites communis, Caulis Miscanthis floriduli, aquatic Canna generalis Bailey, normal pool level is planted the plants such as Herba Typhae, phragmites communis, Rhizoma Acori Graminei, Caulis Miscanthis floriduli;
In loke shore slope section, grass planting, shrub, arbor, grass seed selection rye grass, coreopsis, Bermuda grass etc. can be planted; Shrub and arbor then need to arrange in pairs or groups according to view.
Floating plants such as lake surface, plantation water lettuces, when blue algae bloom, it is also possible to do and put Rhizoma Seu Herba Bergeniae Herba Eichhorniae.
After plant seeding, ecology bag is provided that soil necessary to plant growing, moisture and nutrient, and along with growth and the maturation of plant, root system can pass bag and become organic whole with cyphosomatic, and the time, root system more of a specified duration was more flourishing, and slope body is more firm. At loke shore bank protection, grass fill Qiao can growth promoter, meet landscape diversity sexual demand, form good ecosystem.
Finally, carry out ecological construction, throw in fry according to following standard to river course: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix: 600-800 fish/ha, Aristichthys nobilis: 250-350 fish/ha, after submerged vegetation maturation, throw in Ctenopharyngodon idellus: 180-300 fish/ha.
By ecological management, concentric lake is made to have possessed good ecosystem and water body self-purification ability at the very start. The design storage capacity in concentric lake is 48.76 ten thousand sides, at ordinary times inflow 0.004m3/s, at ordinary times water yield 0.0025m3/s. Concentric lake current enters water quality to be needed to control in IV class, and management goal is III class, then the demand of three norms is as follows:
Unit: mg
There are 12708 square meter underwater slope protections in concentric lake, 1470 square meter falling zone bank protections, adds the lake surface plant of about 1000 square meters. Vegetation is processing the ability respectively shown in Fig. 3 of three norms:
Unit: mg/24h
From figure 3, it can be seen that in the disposal ability of three norms, the actual treatment ability in concentric lake, compared with process demand, all has bigger surplus. In this leading indicator of the self-purification of water, concentric lake adopts the comprehensive control based on ecological revetment to achieve remarkable effect.
Additionally, lake also has following distinguishing feature with one heart:
Bio-diversity and the self-purification of water, including
Define the optimum ecosystem of many integration
Body self-purification capacity is strong, it is possible to make water quality be maintained at III class for a long time
Ecological revetment and vegetation can active adsorption heavy metals
Total nitrogen, total phosphorus are controlled, it is possible to blue algae prevention breaks out.
Safety and flood passage
Root system of plant makes slope body more firm
The scour resistance of ecology bag self and root system of plant combined effect, effectively meet flood passage demand.
Economy and the feature of environmental protection
Ecology bag divides three kinds of colors, and convenient construction manages
Bed mud can make ecology bag inserts, it is possible to reduces construction cost
Construction technology is simple, and cost is relatively low
The material low-carbon environment-friendly used, energy-saving and emission-reduction, do not result in secondary pollution.
Landscape diversity and hydrophilic
Grass, filling, Qiao can freely arrange in pairs or groups
Water front need not cut-off, and ecology bag can be arranged in pairs or groups with sash, shelter bridge, platform etc.

Claims (4)

1. based on an Ecological water treatment method for ecology bag, it is characterized in that: the restoration of the ecosystem comprised the following steps, wherein carry out damming or cofferdam before construction:
1) desilting processes and solidifies: before construction river or lake water water quality country's surface water environment standard B/3838-2002 regulation the 5th class water quality and following time need the riverbed bottom side slope or lakebed are carried out desilting, and to bed-silt by tool filter pressing mode or natural air drying mode, making moisture percentage in sewage sludge be reduced to 50%~60% from 80%~95%, the time of described natural air drying is 24~48 hours;
2) water-bed basis is set up;
3) slope surface treatment;
4) by the top on water-bed basis, ecology bag is paved in the dislocation of stepped lamination; The dislocation of described stepped lamination pave the method for ecology bag be in advance at platform or/and barricade place builds by the C20 concrete of design size, then place connection and be buckled in two bags of head and the tail seaming positions, stepped layer by layer again pave bag, after often having spread one layer, with ramming iron, bag and bag gap place are backfilled rammed earth, then paving next layer, the ecology bag of adjacent layer position misplaces half bag wide;
The planting soil of described ecology bag is prepared by following methods: scene has the planting soil of applicable plant growing then to can be directly used for pack, when not being suitable for planting soil, then mix homogeneously with 3:7 ratio with sand and clay and be used for packing, control wettability 10%/-20%, mud acid alkalescence is joined in adjustment, it is desirable to pH value deviates less than 0.5 with local soil pH value;
5) intercutting on ecology bag or/and press the planting patterns kind planting submerged plant and emergent aquactic plant broadcast, described submerged plant is selected from waterweed, hydrilla verticillata or Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, and described emergent aquactic plant is Herba Lythri Salicariae or aquatic Canna generalis Bailey; And riverbed bottom side slope or build, on lakebed, groove of planting by laying bricks or stones, groove is spread compost, water plant is implanted in soil; Or by water plant kind in a reservoir, then by container submerged and reinforce;
6) when water quality is below the 5th class of country's surface water environment standard GB/3838-2002 regulation, put into microorganism formulation according to water quality measurement, terminate to dam or cofferdam when water quality reaches GB/3838-2002 the 4th class standard and is above;
7) in water, throw in filter-feeding fish or/and herbivorous fishes, and dwell shellfish in shrimp and the end.
2. a kind of Ecological water treatment method based on ecology bag according to claim 1, is characterized in that: step 2) the water-bed basis of foundation includes fluting on the root river of bank protection under water, lakebed, bottom land lays blotter, throw in reinforced gabion net.
3. a kind of Ecological water treatment method based on ecology bag according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the submerged plant that step 5) is planted on ecology bag is selected from waterweed, hydrilla verticillata, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, adopts and intercuts or/and press the planting patterns broadcast.
4. a kind of Ecological water treatment method based on ecology bag according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the slope surface treatment described in step 3) is the softer place of ground for bearing capacity < 150kpa, use C20 concrete casting ground or rubble compacting, compacting degree is more than 90%, removes domatic foreign material.
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