CN105885898B - One kind is pyrolyzed from dedusting type and catalytic cracking reaction device - Google Patents

One kind is pyrolyzed from dedusting type and catalytic cracking reaction device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105885898B
CN105885898B CN201610489876.6A CN201610489876A CN105885898B CN 105885898 B CN105885898 B CN 105885898B CN 201610489876 A CN201610489876 A CN 201610489876A CN 105885898 B CN105885898 B CN 105885898B
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China
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catalyst
pyrolysis
reactor
extraction unit
cracking
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CN105885898A (en
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耿层层
陈水渺
肖磊
薛逊
吴道洪
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Shenwu Technology Group Corp Co Ltd
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Shenwu Technology Group Corp Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/04Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of powdered coal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/06Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of oil shale and/or or bituminous rocks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B57/00Other processes not covered before; Features of destructive distillation processes in general
    • C10B57/18Modifying the properties of the distillation gases in the oven

Abstract

The invention belongs to the pyrolysis of fossil fuel and cracking technique field, and in particular to it is a kind of mainly for the resources such as oil shale and coal from dedusting type pyrolysis and catalytic cracking reaction device, for producing combustible gas and semicoke product.The present invention is in view of the deficiencies of the prior art, it designs and develops a kind of from the pyrolysis of dedusting type and catalytic cracking reaction device, it is integrated in the reactor to devise pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates, into grain bed dust-extraction unit, after grain bed dust-extraction unit dedusting, clean oil gas enters back into cracking room and carries out deep pyrolytic, reduce rear end dedusting pressure, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, and by way of catalytic pyrolysis, it is a large amount of to generate hydrogen, the problem of so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilizes.

Description

One kind is pyrolyzed from dedusting type and catalytic cracking reaction device
Technical field
The invention belongs to the pyrolysis of fossil fuel and cracking technique field, and in particular to one kind is mainly for oil shale and coal Etc. resources from dedusting type pyrolysis and catalytic cracking reaction device, for producing combustible gas and semicoke product.
Background technology
World today's petroleum resources gradually decrease, and increasingly deficient, China is more so, it is necessary to a large amount of imported crude oil is relied on, this It is related to national energy security problem.However, China possesses very abundant oil shale and coal resources, the heat in China at present Solution shale oil yield ranks first in the world, and has the tendency that increasing year by year.Existing oil shale and coal pyrolysis type of furnace master There is the Ge Luote of Fushun stove, three river gas combustion side stoves, the solid heat carrier retort of big work, Ai Shaniya(Galoter)Stove, ATP stoves and American Association oil company gas retort of Australia etc..The existing pyrolysis type of furnace to produce oil product as the main purpose, But it is pyrolyzed the type of furnace mostly, especially to handle the type of furnace of the fine coal as raw material, contains a large amount of dirt in pyrolysis oil, cause pyrolysis oil difficult To efficiently use, it is pyrolyzed the problems such as oil value is not high.Therefore, a kind of high-effective dust-removing, system structure and technological process how to be designed All simple reactor becomes the problem of this field urgent need to resolve.
Invention content
The present invention in view of the deficiencies of the prior art, is designed and is developed a kind of from the pyrolysis of dedusting type and catalytic cracking reaction Device, integrated in the reactor to devise pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates is filled into grain bed dedusting It sets, after grain bed dust-extraction unit dedusting, clean oil gas enters back into cracking room and carries out deep pyrolytic, reduces rear end dedusting The tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule by pressure, and by way of catalytic pyrolysis, largely generate hydrogen Gas, so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil dust-laden the problem of, be truly realized fossil fuel clean and effective utilize.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is:
The present invention provides one kind to be pyrolyzed and catalytic cracking reaction device, including feed inlet, pyrolysis chamber, cracking room from dedusting type It is exported with cracking gas, the feed inlet is arranged on the roof of the pyrolysis chamber, and the cracking gas outlet is arranged in the cracking On the side wall of room, which is characterized in that further include:
Heat accumulation type radiant tube, the heat accumulation type radiant tube along the reactor short transverse multi-tier arrangement in the pyrolysis Inside room and the cracking room, every layer has the more heat accumulation type radiant tubes arranged in the horizontal direction;
Heat-insulated brick wall, the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged at the 2/3 of the reactor transverse width, vertically through in described In reactor, the inner space of the reactor is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room;
Catalyst-adding device is connect with the cracking room, for catalyst for cracking to be applied in the cracking room;
Communication member, the communication member are to be located at the opening of lower position on the heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, be used for The pyrolysis chamber is connected to the cracking room;
Grain bed dust-extraction unit, the grain bed dust-extraction unit are fixedly connected with the opening of the heat-insulated brick wall, and The side that the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at the pyrolysis chamber extends horizontally and in the pyrolysis chamber, and being used for will be described The oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates is passed into the cracking room by the grain bed dust-extraction unit.
Inventor has found that the system structure of reactor according to the ... of the embodiment of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, and pyrolysis chamber generates Oil gas, into grain bed dedusting, after grain bed dedusting, clean oil gas enter back into cracking room carry out deep pyrolytic, drop The tar molecules of macromolecular, are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, which can generate largely by low rear end dedusting pressure Cracking gas, and by way of catalytic pyrolysis, largely generate hydrogen, the problem of so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil dust-laden, very The clean and effective for just realizing fossil fuel utilizes.In addition, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, it is combined into one, saving is built This and floor space are caused, is heated without gas, solid heat carrier moreover, the reactor uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique, System process is simplified while the thermal efficiency for improving reactor.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located on the side of pyrolysis chamber side and is arranged with more The pore area in a hole, the bottom surface that the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis chamber side are equipped with dust outlet, and the particle The side surface upper part that bed dust-extraction unit is located at cracking room side is equipped with for the blow valve port to dust-extraction unit progress blowback, lower part Equipped with pyrolysis gas outlet.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the grain bed dust-extraction unit is inlayed in the opening;Also, the grain bed The top that dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis chamber side is inclined design.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the thickness of the heat-insulated brick wall is 50-150mm;The grain bed dust-extraction unit Height is 200-2000mm, width 100-500mm.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the height of the pore area is 150-1500mm, a diameter of 1-30mm in the hole.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the catalyst-adding device includes:Catalyst hooper;Catalyst is responsible for, described Catalyst supervisor is connected with the catalyst hooper;Catalyst branch pipe, the catalyst branch pipe are connected with catalyst supervisor Logical, the catalyst branch pipe passes through the wall of the reactor cracking room and extends to inside the cracking room;At least one catalysis Agent jet member, the catalyst ejector part are arranged on the catalyst branch pipe, and inside the cracking room.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the catalyst branch pipe be it is multiple and along the catalyst supervisor length direction that The interlayer in the heat accumulation type radiant tube is arranged in this parallel arrangement, the catalyst branch pipe.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the catalyst ejector part includes catalyst ejection passage and is arranged in the catalysis Nozzle on agent ejection passage is provided with regulating valve on the nozzle.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the filter medium of 1mm-20mm high is housed in the grain bed dust-extraction unit, it is described Filter medium is perlite, sandstone or spherical ceramic particles.
According to an embodiment of the invention, hopper is connected by feeding equipment with the feed inlet;And further comprise half Coke outlet, the semicoke outlet are arranged in the lower part of the pyrolysis chamber, and the semicoke outlet is connect with the semicoke conveying device.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are:
1)Reactor is divided into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can carry out Deep catalytic in cracking room and split The tar molecules of solution, macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, and fuel gas yield is high, avoids asking for pyrolysis oil dust-laden Topic, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilize.
2)Two kinds of operations can be carried out in one furnace body, are combined into one, and construction cost and floor space are saved.
3)By way of catalytic pyrolysis, hydrogen content is high in cracking gas, and quality is good.
4)Heat accumulation type radiant tube heat supply is taken, reaction system is simple in structure, easy to operate, uniformity of temperature profile, heating effect Fruit is good.
5)Grain bed dust-extraction unit, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates, by grain bed dedusting are equipped at pyrolysis chamber's oil gas vent After device dedusting, clean oil gas enters back into cracking room and carries out deep pyrolytic, reduces rear end dedusting pressure, generates cleaning Gas.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is structure chart of the present invention from dedusting type pyrolysis and catalytic cracking reaction device.
Fig. 2 is the front view for the heat-insulated brick wall that the present invention is equipped with grain bed dust-extraction unit.
Fig. 3 is the structure chart of grain bed dust-extraction unit of the present invention.
Wherein, 1, hopper;2, feeding equipment;3, pyrolysis chamber;310, cracking gas exports;320, feed inlet;330, semicoke goes out Mouthful;340, heat accumulation type radiant tube;4, cracking room;5, heat-insulated brick wall;510, communication member;610, catalyst hooper;620, it is catalyzed Agent is responsible for;630, catalyst branch pipe;640, catalyst ejector part;7, fuel gas inlet;8, exhanst gas outlet 9, air intake;10, gas Source;11, semicoke conveying device;12, grain bed dust-extraction unit;121, blow valve port;122, pyrolysis gas outlet;123, dust is discharged Mouthful;124, pore area.
Specific implementation mode
In order to make those skilled in the art more fully understand technical scheme of the present invention, with reference to specific embodiment to this Invention is described in further detail.The embodiments described below is exemplary, and is only used for explaining the present invention, and cannot be understood For limitation of the present invention.Particular technique or condition are not specified in embodiment, according to skill described in document in the art Art or condition are carried out according to product description.
According to an aspect of the present invention, the present invention provides one kind is pyrolyzed and catalytic cracking reaction device, Fig. 1 from dedusting type It is pyrolyzed the structure chart with catalytic cracking reaction device from dedusting type for this, as shown in Figure 1, reactor includes feed inlet 320, pyrolysis chamber 3, cracking room 4, cracking gas outlet 310, heat accumulation type radiant tube 340, heat-insulated brick wall 5, catalyst-adding device, communication member 510 With grain bed dust-extraction unit 12, wherein the feed inlet is arranged on the roof of the pyrolysis chamber, cracking gas outlet setting On the side wall of the cracking room, the heat-insulated brick wall separates the inner space of reactor vertically through in reactor At pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, catalyst-adding device is used for for catalyst for cracking to be applied in cracking room by the heat The oil gas that solution room generates is dusted after processing clean oil gas being passed into the cracking room, and the communication member is arranged in institute It states on heat-insulated brick wall, pyrolysis chamber is connected to cracking room, it is preferred that the communication member is arranged in heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length On, it is located at the opening of lower position, for the pyrolysis chamber to be connected to the cracking room.Grain bed dust-extraction unit with it is described every The opening of hot brick wall is fixedly connected.
Inventor find, it is according to the ... of the embodiment of the present invention this set reactor system structure it is simple, easy to operate, pyrolysis chamber The oil gas of generation, into grain bed dust-extraction unit, after grain bed dust-extraction unit dedusting, clean oil gas enters back into cracking room Deep pyrolytic is carried out, rear end dedusting pressure is reduced, the tar molecules of macromolecular is cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, this is anti- Answer device that can generate a large amount of cracking gas, the problem of so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil dust-laden, and by way of catalytic pyrolysis, production Go out a large amount of hydrogen-rich gas so that combustion gas quality is high, and the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilizes.In addition, the reaction Device uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique without gas, solid heat carrier heating, improves simple while the thermal efficiency of reactor System process is changed.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, be suitable for the reactor is pyrolyzed the specific type expected and grain size not by special Limitation, according to an embodiment of the invention, pyrolysis material can be the fossil fuels such as oil shale, coal, can also be rubbish, sludge, give up Old tire etc., pyrolysis material can be blocky pyrolysis material or little particle pyrolysis material, in some currently preferred embodiments of the present invention In, the pyrolysis material which uses is grain size 20mm particles below and powdery fossil fuel, thus, it is possible to make full use of small Particle pyrolysis material, resource utilization is high, and can solve the problems, such as that bulk deposition pollutes environment.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, it is not particularly limited suitable for the type of furnace of the reactor, can be heat accumulating type Moving bed can also be other types, such as non-heat accumulating type or non-moving type, as long as can pass through the integrated segmentation of heat-insulated brick wall For pyrolysis chamber and cracking room.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in reactor, it is preferred that it is laterally wide to be located at reactor At the 2/3 of degree, the thickness of heat-insulated brick wall is 50-150mm, and heat-insulated brick wall, will be in reactor vertically through in reactor Portion space is separated into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, which to be provided with pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, pyrolysis chamber in a furnace body The oil gas of generation, into grain bed dust-extraction unit, after grain bed dust-extraction unit dedusting, clean oil gas enters back into cracking room Deep pyrolytic is carried out, rear end dedusting pressure is reduced, the tar molecules of macromolecular is cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, is generated A large amount of cracking gas, so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil dust-laden the problem of.Also, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, are closed Two be one, saves construction cost and floor space.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the specific type of communication member is not particularly limited, as long as can will be pyrolyzed Room is connected to cracking room, to which the oil gas for generating pyrolysis chamber is passed into cracking room.In some embodiments of the invention, Fig. 1 is structure chart of the present invention from dedusting type pyrolysis and catalytic cracking reaction device, as shown in Figure 1, the reactor further includes connection Component, the communication member can be on insulating brick wall longitudinal length, to be located at the opening of lower position.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, Fig. 1 is structure of the present invention from dedusting type pyrolysis and catalytic cracking reaction device Figure, as shown in Figure 1, the reactor further includes grain bed dust-extraction unit 12, the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at the pyrolysis chamber Side extend horizontally and in the pyrolysis chamber, the oil gas for generating the pyrolysis chamber passes through the grain bed Dust-extraction unit is passed into the cracking room.In some embodiments of the invention, when Fig. 2 is in terms of the from left to right of reactor, every The front view of hot brick wall, as shown in Fig. 2, the grain bed dust-extraction unit is fixedly connected with the opening of the heat-insulated brick wall. Preferably, the grain bed dust-extraction unit is embedded in the communication member of the opening.Also, the grain bed dust-extraction unit Pore area 124 of the setting with multiple holes on the side of pyrolysis chamber side.Preferably, the height of the pore area is 150- 1500mm, a diameter of 1-30mm in the hole.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the concrete structure of the grain bed dust-extraction unit is not particularly limited, as long as The oil gas that can be generated to pyrolysis chamber is dusted processing.In some embodiments of the invention, Fig. 3 is particle of the present invention The structure chart of bed dust-extraction unit, as shown in figure 3, the bottom surface that the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis chamber side is equipped with dust Outlet 123, and the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at the side surface upper part of cracking room side equipped with for the dust-extraction unit Carry out the blow valve port 121 of blowback, lower part is equipped with pyrolysis gas outlet 122.Preferably, the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis The top of room side is inclined design, is fallen convenient for pyrolysis material;Preferably, the height of the grain bed dust-extraction unit is 200- 2000mm, width 100-500mm.In some embodiments of the invention, it is pyrolyzed the oil gas of generation, by heat-insulated with reactor The grain bed dust-extraction unit that brick wall lower openings are fixedly connected after being dusted processing in pore area, obtains clean heat It vents one's spleen, cracking room is entered through pyrolysis gas outlet.After device runs a period of time, nitrogen can be passed through to blow valve port to dedusting Device carries out blowback, ensures the dust removing effects of grain bed, and the dust that blowback goes out is from dust-extraction unit lower left dust outlet or a left side Side opening band is discharged, and falls into pyrolysis chamber, is discharged by cold slag spiral.The oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates as a result, is filled into grain bed dedusting It sets, after dedusting, clean oil gas is obtained, to reduce rear end dedusting pressure.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the specific type and size of filter medium be not in the grain bed dust-extraction unit It is particularly limited, as long as dust removal process is effectively performed in the oil gas that can be generated to pyrolysis chamber.In some realities of the present invention It applies in example, Fig. 3 is the structure chart of grain bed dust-extraction unit of the present invention, as shown in figure 3, can be filled in the grain bed dust-extraction unit There is filter medium, it is preferred that the filter medium can be the filter medium of high 1mm-20mm, preferably perlite, sandstone, Ceramic Balls Particle etc..
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, catalyst-adding device includes:Catalyst hooper 610;Catalyst is responsible for 620, the catalyst supervisor is connected with the catalyst hooper;Catalyst branch pipe 630, the catalyst branch pipe and the catalysis Agent supervisor is connected, and the catalyst branch pipe passes through the wall of the reactor cracking room and extends to inside the cracking room, urges Agent branch pipe is arranged in the interlayer for cracking indoor heat accumulation type radiant tube;At least one catalyst ejector part 640, the catalyst Jet member is arranged on the catalyst branch pipe, and inside the cracking room;Preferably, the catalyst branch pipe is multiple And it is arranged parallel to each other along the length direction of catalyst supervisor, the layer in the heat accumulation type radiant tube is arranged in catalyst branch pipe Between;Preferably, the catalyst ejector part includes catalyst ejection passage and the spray that is arranged on the catalyst ejection passage Mouth is provided with regulating valve on the nozzle, it is preferred that is furnished with catalyst ejection passage around every radiant tube in cracking room.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the type of the catalyst of use, grain size and dosage are not particularly limited, this field skill Art personnel can flexibly select as needed.In some embodiments of the invention, dolomite, the catalysis of Ni bases can be used in catalyst One or more of agent or Fe base catalyst;The grain size of catalyst can be no more than 0.5 millimeter;The dosage of catalyst can Think the 1%~15% of pyrolysis material gross mass.Catalytic efficiency is higher as a result, to the pyrolysis of pyrolysis material higher, the pyrolysis that puies forward oily degree Oil and pyrolysis gas yield are higher.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the feed inlet is arranged on the roof on pyrolysis chamber top, hopper 1 by into Material device 2 is connected with the feed inlet;The specific type of feeding equipment is not particularly limited, as long as can be by the pyrolysis in hopper Material is effectively delivered into reactor.In some embodiments of the invention, feeding equipment can be star feeder or Feed screw.Thereby, it is possible to realize that conveying capacity is controllable, and device structure is simple, operation side to the Automatic Conveying of pyrolysis material Just.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, reactor further comprises semicoke outlet 330, semicoke outlet setting Lower part in the pyrolysis chamber, the semicoke outlet are connect with the semicoke conveying device 11.Thus, it is possible to be conveyed using semicoke Device conveys the semicoke obtained in reactor.The specific type of semicoke conveying device is not particularly limited, including but not It is limited to star or feed screw.Thereby, it is possible to realize the Automatic Conveying to semicoke, and conveying capacity is controllable, device structure letter It is single, it is easy to operate.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, inside reactor has multilayer to be arranged in institute along the short transverse of the reactor State the heat accumulation type radiant tube inside pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room, every layer of heat accumulation type radiant tube may include it is multiple parallel to each other and The heat accumulation type radiant tube of horizontally spaced distribution.According to an embodiment of the invention, the pyrolysis chamber and cracking room are interior respectively It distributed an at least heat accumulation type radiant tube, it is preferred that an at least heat accumulation type radiant tube is uniformly distributed.Heat accumulating type Radiant tube can make it carry out pyrolysis and cracking reaction, tool effective for expecting to pyrolysis and cracking indoor oil gas to heat Body, it can be passed through combustible gas and air into heat accumulation type radiant tube, combustible gas burning is made to realize the heating function to pyrolysis material. The equipment uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique, and without gas, solid heat carrier heating, pyrolysis gas will not be diluted, and calorific value is high, and Reactor temperature is evenly distributed, and surface temperature difference is small, and exhaust gas temperature is low, and the thermal efficiency is high, improves the same of the thermal efficiency of reactor When simplify system process, reaction system is simple in structure, easy to operate.
In the reactor, pyrolysis material moves from top to bottom, and the heat accumulation type radiant tube being arranged in reactor can expect pyrolysis Breaing up makes it be uniformly distributed, and pyrolysis material stops 1-50 minutes from top to bottom in the reactor, and is heated to 500-600 DEG C.According to The shape of the embodiment of the present invention, heat accumulation type radiant tube is not particularly limited, and can be circle in some embodiments of the invention Thus cylindricality is conducive to breaing up for pyrolysis material, realize mixed pyrolysis material in the reactor evenly dispersed.Preferably, radiant tube Using the round tube of DN200-300, the level interval of radiant tube is 200-500mm, vertical interval 200-700mm, radiant tube The number of plies is 10-25 layers, and reactor width is 2-6m, height for reactor 3-20m.In addition, heat accumulation type radiant tube can be uniform The temperature of the unidirectional heat accumulation type radiant tube of arrangement, tube wall can be controlled by gas control valve in 450-1000 DEG C of range, accumulation of heat Formula radiant tube can take the combustion system periodically to commutate so that the surface temperature difference of single heat accumulation type radiant tube only has 30 DEG C of left sides The right side is conducive to improve the thermal efficiency as a result, without local high temperature zone.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the reactor is equipped with fuel gas inlet 7, air intake 9 and exhanst gas outlet 8, wherein fuel gas inlet and exhanst gas outlet are connect with heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively, are respectively used to be passed through combustible gas and discharge flue gas, Air intake is connect with air source 10 and heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively, and the air for generating air source is passed through heat accumulation type radiant tube In.
In another aspect of the present invention, carried out from dedusting type using foregoing reactor the present invention provides a kind of The method of pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis.According to an embodiment of the invention, this method may comprise steps of:
A. pyrolysis material is added to by the feed inlet on reactor top in the reactor, in the pyrolysis of the reactor Pyrolytic process is completed in room.Wherein, the pyrolysis material is added to from the feed inlet on reactor top in reactor, and by reactor Interior heat accumulation type radiant tube is broken up, and pyrolysis char is exported from the semicoke of reactor bottom and is discharged, and through semicoke conveying device(It is preferred that Screw conveyor)Discharge.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the specific type and grain size for being pyrolyzed material are not particularly limited, and pyrolysis material can be oil The fossil fuels such as shale, coal, can also be rubbish, sludge, waste tire etc., and pyrolysis expects can be that blocky pyrolysis material may be Little particle pyrolysis material, in some currently preferred embodiments of the present invention, the pyrolysis material which uses is below for grain size 20mm Particle and powdery fossil fuel, thus, it is possible to make full use of little particle pyrolysis material, resource utilization is high, and can solve a large amount of The problem of accumulation pollution environment.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the heat accumulation type radiant tube being arranged in the pyrolysis chamber of reactor can break up pyrolysis material It is set to be uniformly distributed, pyrolysis material stops 1-50 minutes from top to bottom in the reactor, and pyrolysis material is by the storage in reactor pyrolysis chamber Hot type radiant tube is heated to 500-600 DEG C, and specifically, the temperature that heat accumulation type radiant tube tube wall can be controlled by gas valve is 500-700 DEG C, pyrolysis material is heated to rapidly 500-600 DEG C in the reactor, completes pyrolytic process.
B. it is pyrolyzed the oil gas of generation, by the communication member being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall of the reactor, is removed into grain bed Dirt device, after grain bed dedusting, clean oil gas enters back into the cracking room of the reactor.
According to an embodiment of the invention, heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in reactor, it is preferred that is located at reactor transverse width At 2/3, the thickness of heat-insulated brick wall is 50-150mm, and heat-insulated brick wall is empty by the inside of reactor vertically through in reactor Between be separated into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, the structure make in a furnace body be provided with pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, pyrolysis chamber generate Oil gas, into grain bed dust-extraction unit, after grain bed dust-extraction unit dedusting, clean oil gas enter back into cracking room progress Deep pyrolytic reduces rear end dedusting pressure, the tar molecules of macromolecular is cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, and by urging Change the mode of cracking, a large amount of hydrogen-rich gas of output so that combustion gas quality is high.Two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body as a result, It is combined into one, saves construction cost and floor space.According to an embodiment of the invention, communication member can be that insulating brick wall is longitudinal In length, it is located at the opening of lower position.The grain bed dust-extraction unit is inlayed in the opening, with the heat-insulated brick wall The opening is fixedly connected, and the grain bed dust-extraction unit be located at the pyrolysis chamber side extend horizontally and to it is described In pyrolysis chamber, the oil gas for generating the pyrolysis chamber is passed into the cracking room by the grain bed dust-extraction unit. Specifically, the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at pore area of the setting with multiple holes, the particle on the side of pyrolysis chamber side The bottom surface that bed dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis chamber side is equipped with dust outlet, and the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at cracking room The side surface upper part of side is equipped with is equipped with pyrolysis gas outlet for the blow valve port to dust-extraction unit progress blowback, lower part.It is excellent Choosing, the height of the grain bed dust-extraction unit is 200-2000mm, and width 100-500mm, pore area height is 150- 1500mm, bore dia 1-30mm.Preferably, the pyrolysis indoor grain bed dust-extraction unit top is inclined design, is convenient for Material is pyrolyzed to fall;1mm-20mm filter mediums, preferably perlite, sandstone, Ceramic Balls are housed in the grain bed dust-extraction unit Particle etc..Specifically, the oil gas that pyrolysis generates, passes through the grain bed being fixedly connected with the heat-insulated brick wall lower openings of reactor Dust-extraction unit after being dusted processing in pore area, obtains clean pyrolysis gas, cracking room is entered through pyrolysis gas outlet. Nitrogen can be passed through blow valve port pair after the grain bed dust-extraction unit runs a period of time according to some specific embodiments Dust-extraction unit carries out blowback, ensures the dust removing effects of grain bed, and the dust that blowback goes out is from dust-extraction unit lower left dust outlet Or the discharge of left hole band, pyrolysis chamber is fallen into, is discharged by cold slag spiral.The oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates as a result, into grain bed dedusting Device obtains clean oil gas, to reduce rear end dedusting pressure after dedusting.
C. clean oil gas enters in the cracking room, and catalyst is sprayed on the cracking by catalyst-adding device In room, pyrolysis oil gas completes catalytic pyrolysis process in the cracking room, generates cracking gas.
According to an embodiment of the invention, an at least heat accumulation type radiant tube is distributed in the cracking room, it is preferred that An at least heat accumulation type radiant tube is uniformly distributed.Heat accumulation type radiant tube can be effective for carrying out to cracking indoor oil gas Heating makes it carry out cracking reaction.Specifically, clean oil gas is heated to by the heat accumulation type radiant tube in reactor cracking room 600-900 DEG C, specifically, the temperature that heat accumulation type radiant tube tube wall can be controlled by gas valve is 450-1000 DEG C, clean Oil gas is heated to rapidly 600-900 DEG C in the reactor.According to an embodiment of the invention, it is furnished with around every radiant tube and urges The catalyst of agent ejection passage, grain size≤0.5mm is equably sprayed in cracking room by catalyst ejection passage.It is preferred that , catalyst ejection passage uses the round tube of DN30-80, catalyst to be blown into every layer of catalyst branch by catalyst supervisor Guan Zhong, every layer of catalyst branch pipe separate 4-15 root pipelines, so that catalyst is uniformly sprayed on by catalyst ejector part and split It solves in room.According to an embodiment of the invention, catalyst can be used dolomite, Ni bases catalyst or one kind in Fe base catalyst or It is several to be used in mixed way.Pyrolysis oil gas is heated to 600-900 DEG C in cracking room, completes catalytic pyrolysis process.Macromolecular as a result, Tar molecules be cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, and orient a large amount of hydrogen-rich gas of output, combustion gas quality is high, avoids simultaneously The problem of pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilize.
D. the cracking gas is exported by cracking gas and is discharged.
According to an embodiment of the invention, cracking gas outlet is arranged on the side wall on reactor cracking room top, can be with External gas treatment is connected with collection device(It is not shown), such as spray column, fuel cartridge.For purifying and collecting cracking gas Body, to prepare LNG or LPG.
Inventor has found that this method according to the ... of the embodiment of the present invention, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates is filled into grain bed dedusting It sets, after grain bed dust-extraction unit dedusting, clean oil gas enters back into cracking room and carries out deep pyrolytic, reduces rear end dedusting The tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule by pressure, which can generate a large amount of cracking gas, to The problem of avoiding production pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilize, meanwhile, it can in a furnace body Two kinds of operations are carried out, are combined into one, construction cost and floor space are saved.
Korea's oil shale is handled using from the pyrolysis of dedusting type and catalytic cracking reaction device, the basic data of raw material is shown in Table 1.
Table 1:Korea's oil shale basic data
Using the reactor for treatment Korea oil shale, obtained gas products yield is 17%, far above laboratory aluminium rice steamer heat Obtained factor of created gase is solved, pyrolytic tar almost all is cracked into gaseous products, and factor of created gase is high.Hydrogen content is in cracking gas 40%, quality is high, goes out dust content in the cracking gas of reactor and is less than 3%.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that, term " first ", " second " are used for description purposes only, and cannot It is interpreted as indicating or implies relative importance or implicitly indicate the quantity of indicated technical characteristic.Define as a result, " the One ", the feature of " second " can explicitly or implicitly include one or more this feature.
In the present invention unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, term " installation ", " connected ", " connection ", " fixation " etc. Term shall be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be being fixedly connected, may be a detachable connection, or integral;Can be that machinery connects It connects, can also be electrical connection;It can be directly connected, can also can be indirectly connected through an intermediary in two elements The interaction relationship of the connection in portion or two elements.It for the ordinary skill in the art, can be according to specific feelings Condition understands the concrete meaning of above-mentioned term in the present invention.
In the present invention unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, fisrt feature can be with "above" or "below" second feature It is that the first and second features are in direct contact or the first and second features pass through intermediary mediate contact.Moreover, fisrt feature exists Second feature " on ", " top " and " above " but fisrt feature be directly above or diagonally above the second feature, or be merely representative of Fisrt feature level height is higher than second feature.Fisrt feature second feature " under ", " lower section " and " below " can be One feature is directly under or diagonally below the second feature, or is merely representative of fisrt feature level height and is less than second feature.
In the description of this specification, reference term " one embodiment ", " some embodiments ", " example ", " specifically show The description of example " or " some examples " etc. means specific features, structure, material or spy described in conjunction with this embodiment or example Point is included at least one embodiment or example of the invention.In the present specification, schematic expression of the above terms are not It must be directed to identical embodiment or example.Moreover, particular features, structures, materials, or characteristics described can be any It can be combined in any suitable manner in a or multiple embodiments or example.In addition, without conflicting with each other, the skill of this field Art personnel can tie the feature of different embodiments or examples described in this specification and different embodiments or examples It closes and combines.
Although the embodiments of the present invention has been shown and described above, it is to be understood that above-described embodiment is example Property, it is not considered as limiting the invention, those skilled in the art within the scope of the invention can be to above-mentioned Embodiment is changed, changes, replacing and modification, meanwhile, for those of ordinary skill in the art, the think of according to the application Think, there will be changes in the specific implementation manner and application range.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of export from the pyrolysis of dedusting type and catalytic cracking reaction device, including feed inlet, pyrolysis chamber, cracking room and cracking gas, The feed inlet is arranged on the roof of the pyrolysis chamber, and the cracking gas outlet is arranged on the side wall of the cracking room, It is characterized in that, further includes:
Heat accumulation type radiant tube, the heat accumulation type radiant tube along the reactor short transverse multi-tier arrangement in the pyrolysis chamber and Inside the cracking room, every layer has the more heat accumulation type radiant tubes arranged in the horizontal direction;
Heat-insulated brick wall, the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged at the 2/3 of the reactor transverse width, vertically through in the reaction In device, the inner space of the reactor is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room;
Catalyst-adding device is connect with the cracking room, for catalyst for cracking to be applied in the cracking room;
Communication member, the communication member are to be located at the opening of lower position on the heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, are used for institute Pyrolysis chamber is stated to be connected to the cracking room;
Grain bed dust-extraction unit, the grain bed dust-extraction unit are fixedly connected with the opening of the heat-insulated brick wall, and described The side that grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at the pyrolysis chamber extends horizontally and in the pyrolysis chamber, is used for the pyrolysis The oil gas that room generates is passed into the cracking room by the grain bed dust-extraction unit.
2. reactor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis chamber side Pore area of the setting with multiple holes on side, the bottom surface that the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis chamber side are arranged equipped with dust Outlet, and the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at the side surface upper part of cracking room side equipped with anti-for being carried out to the dust-extraction unit The blow valve port that blows, lower part are equipped with pyrolysis gas outlet.
3. reactor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the grain bed dust-extraction unit is embedded in the opening It is interior;Also, the top that the grain bed dust-extraction unit is located at pyrolysis chamber side is inclined design.
4. reactor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the thickness of the heat-insulated brick wall is 50-150mm;It is described The height of grain bed dust-extraction unit is 200-2000mm, width 100-500mm.
5. reactor according to claim 2, which is characterized in that the height of the pore area is 150-1500mm, the hole A diameter of 1-30mm.
6. reactor according to any one of claims 1-5, the catalyst-adding device include:Catalyst hooper; Catalyst is responsible for, and the catalyst supervisor is connected with the catalyst hooper;Catalyst branch pipe, the catalyst branch pipe with it is described Catalyst supervisor is connected, and the catalyst branch pipe passes through the wall of the reactor cracking room and extends in the cracking room Portion;At least one catalyst ejector part, the catalyst ejector part are arranged on the catalyst branch pipe, and are located at the cracking Chamber interior.
7. reactor according to claim 6, which is characterized in that the catalyst branch pipe is multiple and along the catalyst The length direction of supervisor is arranged parallel to each other, and the interlayer in the heat accumulation type radiant tube is arranged in the catalyst branch pipe.
8. reactor according to claim 6, which is characterized in that the catalyst ejector part includes catalyst ejection passage With the nozzle being arranged on the catalyst ejection passage, regulating valve is provided on the nozzle.
9. reactor according to any one of claims 1-5, which is characterized in that be equipped in the grain bed dust-extraction unit The filter medium of 1mm-20mm high, the filter medium are perlite, sandstone or spherical ceramic particles.
10. reactor according to any one of claims 1-5, which is characterized in that hopper by feeding equipment with it is described Feed inlet is connected;And further comprise that semicoke exports, the semicoke outlet is arranged in the lower part of the pyrolysis chamber, the semicoke Outlet is connect with semicoke conveying device.
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