CN105778949B - A kind of biomass pyrolytic and cracking system - Google Patents

A kind of biomass pyrolytic and cracking system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105778949B
CN105778949B CN201610332303.2A CN201610332303A CN105778949B CN 105778949 B CN105778949 B CN 105778949B CN 201610332303 A CN201610332303 A CN 201610332303A CN 105778949 B CN105778949 B CN 105778949B
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cracking
gas
pyrolysis
reactor
heat
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CN105778949A (en
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耿层层
陈水渺
肖磊
薛逊
吴道洪
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Shenwu Technology Group Corp Co Ltd
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Shenwu Technology Group Corp Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/02Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of cellulose-containing material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/002Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal in combination with oil conversion- or refining processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G9/00Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1011Biomass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2400/00Products obtained by processes covered by groups C10G9/00 - C10G69/14
    • C10G2400/26Fuel gas
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel

Abstract

The invention belongs to biomass pyrolytic technical field, mainly a kind of biomass pyrolytic and cracking system based on heat accumulation type radiant tube heating, the system includes: the components such as pyrolysis hopper, the first feeding device, pyrolysis and cracking reactor, cracking gas cyclone separator, spray column and fuel cartridge, wherein, pyrolysis and cracking reactor include feed inlet, pyrolysis chamber, cracking room and cracking gas outlet, and: heat accumulation type radiant tube, heat-insulated brick wall and communication member.The reaction system structure is simple, it is easy to operate, uniformity of temperature profile, heating effect is good, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates, and can carry out deep pyrolytic in cracking room, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, the problem of reaction system can produce a large amount of cracking gas product, avoid pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilize.

Description

A kind of biomass pyrolytic and cracking system
Technical field
The invention belongs to biomass pyrolytic technical field, mainly a kind of biology based on heat accumulation type radiant tube heating Matter pyrolysis and cracking system, to produce cleaning combustible gas.
Background technique
Biomass energy is the fourth-largest resource of the earth, while being also the maximum renewable energy of reserves.Biomass has distribution It extensively, is most potential one of fossil energy alternative energy source the features such as rich reserves, reproducibility, low pollution.Currently, The recovery energy mode of biomass energy mainly with fermenting and producing fuel, biogas, gasifies, fast pyrogenation, based on charing.Wherein, The disadvantages of fermenting and producing fuel, biogas mainly apply herbaceous plant, and the technology production cycle is long, and yield is lower limits its development; Gasification production gas technology is applied to power generation, industry gas supply aspect more, there is certain limitation then since fuel gases calorific value is low;Charcoal The product that change technology obtains is mainly based on solid biologic charcoal, it is difficult to substitute fossil energy scale application;Fast pyrogenation refers to Under conditions of anaerobic or limit oxygen, biomass is rapidly heated to 550 DEG C or so, generates bio oil, charcoal and pyrolysis gas Process.Pyrolytic technique is a kind of unique technology that biomass energy is converted into liquid fuel.However, by pyrolytic technique Obtained bio-oil components are extremely complex, and pH value is lower, high oxygen content, the disadvantages of thermal stability is poor, viscosity is big make biology Oil is difficult to directly utilize and store.In addition, the last handling process of bio oil is complicated, ineffective and higher cost, it is difficult to it Industrial applications.Therefore, how to design a kind of high-effective dust-removing, system structure and all simple system of process flow becomes this field The problem of urgent need to resolve.
Summary of the invention
The present invention in view of the deficiencies of the prior art, designs and develops a kind of pyrolysis of biomass heat accumulating type down-flow fluidized bed using ECT and cracking Reaction system, the reaction system can be pyrolyzed and be cracked two kinds of operations, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates, can enter cracking room into The tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule by row deep pyrolytic, which can produce a large amount of cracking Gas, the problem of being difficult to be utilized so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil, the clean and effective for being truly realized biomass is utilized.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted by the present invention are as follows:
In view of this, the present invention provides a kind of biomass pyrolytic and cracking systems.According to an embodiment of the invention, this is System includes: pyrolysis hopper;First feeding device, first feeding device are connect with the pyrolysis hopper;Pyrolysis and cracking are anti- Answer device, comprising: the roof of the pyrolysis chamber is arranged in feed inlet, pyrolysis chamber, cracking room and cracking gas outlet, the feed inlet On, the cracking gas outlet is arranged on the side wall of the cracking room, and:
Heat accumulation type radiant tube, the heat accumulation type radiant tube along the pyrolysis reactor short transverse multi-tier arrangement described Inside pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room, every layer has the more heat accumulation type radiant tubes arranged in the horizontal direction;
Heat-insulated brick wall, the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged at the 2/3 of reactor transverse width, vertically through in the reaction In device, the inner space of the reactor is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room;Communication member, the communication member The lower part of the heat-insulated brick wall is set, and the oil gas for generating the pyrolysis chamber is passed into institute by the communication member State cracking room;Cracking gas cyclone separator, the cracking gas cyclone separator are filled with cracking gas outlet, semicoke conveying respectively It sets and is connected with spray column;Spray column, the spray column are connect with the cracking gas cyclone separator;Fuel cartridge, the fuel cartridge It is connect with the spray column.
Inventors have found that the reaction system structure according to an embodiment of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, Temperature Distribution is equal Even, heating effect is good, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates, and can carry out deep pyrolytic in cracking room, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into The problem of gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, which can produce a large amount of cracking gas product, avoid pyrolysis oil dust-laden, really The clean and effective for realizing fossil fuel utilizes.In addition, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, it is combined into one, biomass benefit With rate height, construction cost and occupied area are saved.And the reactor uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique and is not necessarily to gas, consolidates Heat carrier heating, simplifies system process while improving the thermal efficiency of reactor.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the communication member is the hole including multiple holes being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall Band;Alternatively, the communication member is on the heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, positioned at the opening of lower position.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the heat-insulated brick wall with a thickness of 5-15cm, the height of the pore area is 3-15cm, The diameter in the hole is 1-3cm, and the height of the opening is 3-15cm.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the system further comprises: gasification furnace, described gasification furnace one end and the heat accumulating type The fuel gas inlet of radiant tube is connected, and the other end is connected with the semicoke conveying device.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the system can also include: loading hopper;Second feeding device, with the charging Bucket is connected;Drying device is connect with the exhanst gas outlet on second feeding device and the heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively;It is dry Dry cyclone separator is connected with the drying device and the pyrolysis hopper respectively;Exhaust gas cleaner is done with described Dry cyclone separator is connected.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the pyrolysis hopper is connected by first feeding device with the feed inlet; Further comprise semicoke outlet, the lower part of the pyrolysis chamber, the semicoke outlet and the semicoke conveying device are set Connection.
In another aspect of the invention, it is pyrolyzed and is cracked using mentioned-above system the present invention provides a kind of Method.
According to an embodiment of the invention, method includes the following steps: a. feeds grain biomass by described first Device and the feed inlet are added in the reactor, complete pyrolytic process in the pyrolysis chamber of the reactor;b. The oil gas generated is pyrolyzed by the communication member being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall of the reactor, enters the institute of the reactor State cracking room;C. the oil gas for being pyrolyzed generation enters in the cracking room, completes cracking process, generates cracking gas;D. described to split It vents one's spleen and is entered in the cracking gas cyclone separator by cracking gas outlet, the cracking gas is dusted at purification Reason, the thin dirt separated through the cracking gas cyclone separator enter the gasification furnace gas by the semicoke conveying device Change;E. the cracking gas after dedusting enters in the spray column, carries out washing, purifying processing to cracking gas;F. by purification Net cracking gas, which enters in the fuel cartridge, to be stored.
According to an embodiment of the invention, in the step a, feed inlet of the grain biomass from the reactor top It is added in the reactor, and is broken up by the heat accumulation type radiant tube in the reactor, pyrolysis char is from the reaction The semicoke of device bottom exports discharge;In the step a, the grain biomass is by the accumulation of heat in the reactor pyrolysis chamber Formula radiant tube is heated to 500-600 DEG C, and in the step b, the pyrolysis oil gas is by the storage in the reactor cracking room Hot type radiant tube is heated to 650-900 DEG C.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the granularity of the grain biomass is 20mm or less.
The present invention at least has the advantages that
1) heat accumulation type radiant tube moving bed process is taken, reaction system structure is simple, easy to operate, uniformity of temperature profile, Heating effect is good;
2) it is capable of handling 20mm biomass below, raw material availability is high, is suitable for promoting;
3) reactor is divided into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can carry out deep pyrolytic in cracking room, greatly The tar molecules of molecule are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule;
4) reaction system can produce a large amount of cracking gas product, avoid the problem of pyrolysis oil is difficult to be utilized, really real The clean and effective for having showed biomass utilizes;
5) two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, be combined into one, save construction cost and occupied area.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structure chart of present invention pyrolysis and cracking system.
Fig. 2 is the structure of reactor figure of present invention pyrolysis and cracking system.
Fig. 3 is the front view of the heat-insulated brick wall of the present invention.
Wherein, 1, loading hopper;2, gas flow dryer;3, thermal storage type moving bed reactor;4, dry cyclone separator;5, hot Solve hopper;6, tail gas air-introduced machine;7, exhaust gas cleaner;8, screw-feeder;9, cracking gas cyclone separator;10, spray column; 11, combustion gas air-introduced machine;12, fuel cartridge;13, gasification furnace;14, screw conveyor;15, heat accumulation type radiant tube;16, heat-insulated brick wall; 17, communication member;18, pyrolysis chamber;19, cracking room;20, cracking gas exports;21, feed inlet;22, fuel gas inlet;23, flue gas goes out Mouthful;24, air intake;25, semicoke exports.
Specific embodiment
In order to make those skilled in the art more fully understand technical solution of the present invention, combined with specific embodiments below to this Invention is described in further detail.The embodiments described below is exemplary, and for explaining only the invention, and cannot be understood For limitation of the present invention.Particular technique or condition are not specified in embodiment, according to the literature in the art described skill Art or condition are carried out according to product description.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the partial size suitable for the biomass of the reactor is not particularly limited, at this In some preferred embodiments of invention, the biomass which uses is fired for partial size 20mm particle below and powdery fossil Material, thus, it is possible to make full use of little particle biomass, resource utilization is high, and is able to solve asking for bulk deposition pollution environment Topic.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, it is not particularly limited suitable for the type of furnace of the system, can be heat accumulating type shifting Dynamic bed 3 is also possible to other types, such as non-heat accumulating type or non-moving type, as long as can pass through the integrated segmentation of heat-insulated brick wall 16 For pyrolysis chamber 18 and cracking room 19.
The present invention provides a kind of biomass pyrolytic and cracking systems.According to an embodiment of the invention, Fig. 1 is present invention heat The structure chart of solution and cracking system, shown referring to Fig.1, which includes: pyrolysis hopper 5;First feeding device, described first into Material device is connect with the pyrolysis hopper 5;Pyrolysis and cracking reactor 3 comprising: feed inlet 21, pyrolysis chamber 18, cracking room 19, cracking gas outlet 20, heat accumulation type radiant tube 15, heat-insulated brick wall 16 and communication member 17, wherein the feed inlet is arranged in institute It states on the roof of pyrolysis chamber, the cracking gas outlet is arranged on the side wall of the cracking room, and the heat-insulated brick wall vertically passes through It is through in the reactor, the inner space of the reactor is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room, the connection The lower part of the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in component, and the oil gas for generating pyrolysis chamber is passed into institute by the communication member State cracking room;Cracking gas cyclone separator, the cracking gas cyclone separator are filled with cracking gas outlet, semicoke conveying respectively 14 are set to be connected with spray column 10;Spray column, the spray column and cracking gas outlet connect;Fuel cartridge 12, the fuel cartridge It is connect with the spray column.
Inventors have found that the reaction system structure according to an embodiment of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, Temperature Distribution is equal Even, heating effect is good, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates, and can carry out deep pyrolytic in cracking room, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into The problem of gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, which can produce a large amount of cracking gas product, avoid pyrolysis oil dust-laden, really The clean and effective for realizing fossil fuel utilizes.In addition, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, it is combined into one, biomass benefit With rate height, construction cost and occupied area are saved.And the reactor uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique and is not necessarily to gas, consolidates Heat carrier heating, simplifies system process while improving the thermal efficiency of reactor.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, referring to shown in Fig. 2, inside reactor has the height along the pyrolysis reactor Heat accumulation type radiant tube of the direction multi-tier arrangement inside the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room, every layer of heat accumulation type radiant tube have more Root heat accumulation type radiant tube, and horizontally spaced arrangement.According to an embodiment of the invention, dividing in the pyrolysis chamber and cracking room It not distributed heat accumulation type radiant tube described at least one, it is preferred that at least one heat accumulation type radiant tube is uniformly distributed.Accumulation of heat Formula radiant tube can make it carry out pyrolysis and cracking reaction effective for expecting to pyrolysis and crack indoor oil gas and heat, Specifically, it can be passed through combustible gas and air into heat accumulation type radiant tube, combustible gas burning is made to realize the heating function to pyrolysis material Energy.The reactor uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique without gas, solid heat carrier heating, uniformity of temperature profile, heating effect Fruit is good, and reaction system structure is simple, easy to operate, simplifies system process while improving the thermal efficiency of reactor.
In the reactor, biomass moves from top to bottom, the unidirectional heat accumulating type radiation being evenly arranged being arranged in pyrolysis chamber Pipe, which can break up biomass, is uniformly distributed it, and biomass stops 1-50 minutes from top to bottom in the reactor, and is heated to 500-600 DEG C, tube wall temperature is controlled using gas control valve in 500~700 DEG C of ranges, is completed pyrolytic process, is pyrolyzed generation Oil gas enters cracking room, is provided with the unidirectional accumulation of heat being evenly arranged in cracking room by the opening of reactor lower part checker brick Formula radiant tube, and it is heated to 650-900 DEG C, tube wall temperature is controlled using gas control valve in 650~900 DEG C of ranges, completes to split The tar molecules of solution preocess, macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, generate a large amount of cracking gas, avoid pyrolysis oil and contain The problem of dirt, the clean and effective for being truly realized biomass utilize.According to an embodiment of the invention, the shape of heat accumulation type radiant tube It is not particularly limited, in some embodiments of the invention, can be cylinder, thus be conducive to breaing up for biomass, realize Mixing biomass in the reactor evenly dispersed.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the cracking gas cyclone separator respectively with the cracking gas outlet, semicoke Conveying device is connected with spray column.Thus, cracking gas is exported by cracking gas, into dedusting in cracking gas cyclone separator, is removed Cracking gas after dirt, which enters, washs further purification, while the thin dirt that cracking gas cyclone separator separates in spray column, lead to It crosses semicoke conveying device and is sent into gasification furnace 13, gasification gas can produce artificial natural gas, recycle, environment-friendly high-efficiency.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the specific type of communication member is not particularly limited, as long as can will be pyrolyzed Room is connected to cracking room, so that the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates is passed into cracking room.In some embodiments of the invention, When Fig. 3 is in terms of the from left to right of reactor, the front view of heat-insulated brick wall, as shown in figure 3, communication member can be setting heat-insulated On brick wall includes porous pore area, and under preferable case, the height of the pore area is 3-15cm, and the diameter in the hole is 1-3cm. Communication member may be on heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, under the opening of lower position, preferable case, the height of the opening Degree is 3-15cm.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, Fig. 2 is the structure of reactor figure of present invention pyrolysis and cracking system, referring to figure Shown in 2, the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in reactor, it is preferred that at the 2/3 of reactor transverse width, heat-insulated brick wall With a thickness of 5-15cm, the inner space of reactor is separated into pyrolysis chamber and split by heat-insulated brick wall vertically through in reactor Room is solved, which to be provided with pyrolysis chamber and cracking room in a furnace body, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can enter cracking Room carries out deep pyrolytic, and the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, generate a large amount of cracking gas, thus The problem of avoiding production pyrolysis oil dust-laden.Also, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, are combined into one, saving is built into Sheet and occupied area.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the system may further include: respectively with the fuel gas inlet of heat accumulation type radiant tube The gasification furnace being connected with semicoke conveying device.Thus, it is possible to which the semicoke of generation will be pyrolyzed in pyrolysis chamber using semicoke conveying device It is delivered in gasification furnace, gasification process is carried out to semicoke, to obtain combustible gas and lime-ash, obtained combustible gas can be passed through accumulation of heat In formula radiant tube, while it being passed through air into heat accumulation type radiant tube, heats combustible gas burning to the material in pyrolysis chamber. Thus, it is possible to adequately utilize semicoke, do not cause to waste, good economy performance.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the reactor goes out equipped with fuel gas inlet 22, air intake 24 and flue gas Mouth 23, wherein fuel gas inlet and exhanst gas outlet are connect with heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively, are respectively used to be passed through combustible gas and discharge cigarette Gas, air intake are connect with gas source and heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively, and the air for generating gas source is passed through heat accumulation type radiant tube In.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, which may further include: loading hopper 1;To be connected with loading hopper Two feeding devices 8;The dry dress being connect respectively with the exhanst gas outlet on second feeding device and the heat accumulation type radiant tube Set 2;The drying cyclone separator 4 being connected respectively with the drying device and the pyrolysis hopper;With the dry whirlwind point The exhaust gas cleaner 7 being connected from device.Thus, it is possible to which drying is added in the biomass in loading hopper by the second feeding device In device, in drying device, in the flue gas of the heat accumulation type radiant tube in pyrolysis chamber, (temperature is about 200~250 to biomass Degree Celsius) under the action of be dried, the biomass and the mixture of flue gas after then drying enter dry cyclone separator, point Flue gas (temperature is about 70~110 degrees Celsius) from acquisition, which enters in exhaust gas cleaner, carries out purified treatment, up to standard to realize Discharge, the pyrolysis material for separating acquisition is delivered in pyrolysis hopper, for carrying out pyrolytic reaction.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the specific type of the second feed device is not particularly limited, as long as being suitable for add Biomass in hopper is delivered in drying device.In some embodiments of the invention, the second feed device can be Screw-feeder 8.Thereby, it is possible to realize the Automatic Conveying to biomass, and conveying capacity is controllable, and device structure is simple, operation It is convenient.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the specific type of drying device is not particularly limited, as long as can be realized to biology The function of drying and the preheating of matter.In some embodiments of the invention, drying device can be gas flow dryer, by This, biomass is dried and is promoted under the action of flue gas, and the mixture discharge air-flow of the biomass and flue gas after drying is dry Dry device is conducive to subsequent step progress.In drying device, while pyrolysis material is dried, preheating is also achieved Function is conducive to the rate and efficiency that improve subsequent pyrolytic reaction, and using the flue gas of heat accumulation type radiant tube discharge in pyrolysis chamber Biomass is dried and is preheated, the comprehensive utilization of thermal energy is realized, effectively reduces energy consumption, has reached energy-saving and environment-friendly mesh 's.
According to an embodiment of the invention, can also further be arranged between dry cyclone separator and exhaust gas cleaner There is tail gas air-introduced machine 6, the flue gas that acquisition is separated in dry cyclone separator can be quickly and efficiently delivered to by tail gas air-introduced machine In exhaust gas cleaner, be conducive to improve working efficiency.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the system can also include: can also be further between spray column and fuel cartridge It is provided with combustion gas air-introduced machine 11, combustion gas air-introduced machine can be quickly and efficiently defeated by the natural gas obtained in spray column by purification It send and is stored into fuel cartridge, further, obtained cracking gas can be further used for preparing LNG or LNP.Invention human hair It is existing, the yield of cracking gas can be significantly improved using the system, have enough gas for producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquid Liquefied oil gas (LPG), it is good in economic efficiency.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the pyrolysis hopper is connected by the first feeding device with feed inlet;Into one Step further includes semicoke outlet 25, and the lower part of the pyrolysis chamber is arranged in, and the semicoke outlet connects with the semicoke conveying device It connects.The specific type of first feeding device is not particularly limited, as long as the biomass being pyrolyzed in hopper can effectively be conveyed Into reactor.In some embodiments of the invention, the first feeding device can be with screw-feeder 8.Thereby, it is possible to realities Now to the Automatic Conveying of biomass, conveying capacity is controllable, and device structure is simple, easy to operate.Semicoke conveying device it is specific Type is not particularly limited, including but not limited to star or screw conveyor 14, and under preferable case, semicoke conveyer can be spiral shell Revolve conveyer 14.Thereby, it is possible to realize the Automatic Conveying to semicoke, and conveying capacity is controllable, and device structure is simple, operation side Just.
In another aspect of the invention, it is pyrolyzed and is cracked using mentioned-above system the present invention provides a kind of Method.According to an embodiment of the invention, this method may comprise steps of:
A. grain biomass is passed through into first feeding device and the feed inlet being arranged on the roof of the pyrolysis chamber It is added in the reactor, completes pyrolytic process in the pyrolysis chamber of the reactor, pyrolysis char is from reactor bottom The semicoke in portion exports discharge, and is discharged through semicoke conveying device.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the partial size suitable for the biomass of the reactor is not particularly limited, at this In some preferred embodiments of invention, the biomass which uses is fired for partial size 20mm particle below and powdery fossil Material, thus, it is possible to make full use of little particle biomass, resource utilization is high, and is able to solve asking for bulk deposition pollution environment Topic.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the specific type of the first feeding device is not particularly limited, as long as can incite somebody to action Biomass in pyrolysis hopper is effectively delivered into reactor.In some embodiments of the invention, the first charging dress Setting can be with screw-feeder 8.Thereby, it is possible to realize that conveying capacity is controllable to the Automatic Conveying of biomass, and device structure letter It is single, it is easy to operate.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, it distributed heat accumulation type radiant tube described at least one in the pyrolysis chamber, it is excellent Choosing, at least one heat accumulation type radiant tube is uniformly distributed, specifically, unidirectional heat accumulation type radiant tube can break up biomass It is uniformly distributed it, biomass stops 1-50 minutes from top to bottom in the reactor, and is heated to 500-600 DEG C, tube wall temperature Using gas control valve control in 500~700 DEG C of ranges, pyrolytic process is completed.
According to an embodiment of the invention, can also be carried out in advance to biomass before pyrolysis hopper is added in biomass It is dried, for example, biomass be dried the flue gas that heat accumulation type radiant tube can be used to be discharged and the pre-heat treatment, as a result, The moisture in biomass can be removed, is conducive to improve pyrolysis efficiency.According to an embodiment of the invention, the method for pyrolysis can be with Include the steps that carrying out purified treatment to the flue gas after drying, so that tail gas qualified discharge, reduces environmental pollution.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the specific type of semicoke conveying device is not particularly limited, including but not limited to star Shape or screw conveyor 14, under preferable case, semicoke conveyer can be screw conveyor 14.Thereby, it is possible to realize to semicoke Automatic Conveying, and conveying capacity is controllable, and device structure is simple, easy to operate.
B. the oil gas of generation is pyrolyzed by the communication member being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall of the reactor, is entered described The cracking room of reactor.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in reactor, it is preferred that it is laterally wide to be located at reactor At the 2/3 of degree, heat-insulated brick wall with a thickness of 5-15cm, heat-insulated brick wall is vertically through in reactor, by the inside of reactor Space is separated into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, which to be provided with pyrolysis chamber and cracking room in a furnace body, and is produced from pyrolysis chamber Raw oil gas can enter cracking room and carry out deep pyrolytic, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, Generate a large amount of cracking gas, so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil dust-laden the problem of.Also, two kinds of works can be carried out in a furnace body Industry is combined into one, and saves construction cost and occupied area.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the specific type of communication member is not particularly limited, as long as can will be pyrolyzed Room is connected to cracking room, so that the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates is passed into cracking room.In some embodiments of the invention, When Fig. 3 is in terms of the from left to right of reactor, the front view of heat-insulated brick wall, as shown in figure 3, communication member can be setting heat-insulated On brick wall includes porous pore area, and under preferable case, the height of the pore area is 3-15cm, and the diameter in the hole is 1-3cm. Communication member may be on heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, under the opening of lower position, preferable case, the height of the opening Degree is 3-15cm.
C. the oil gas for being pyrolyzed generation enters in the cracking room, completes cracking process, generates cracking gas.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, it distributed heat accumulation type radiant tube described at least one in the cracking room, it is excellent Choosing, at least one heat accumulation type radiant tube is uniformly distributed, specifically, and be heated to 650-900 DEG C, tube wall temperature utilizes combustion The control of gas regulating valve completes thermal cracking processes in 650~900 DEG C of ranges, and the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gas of small molecule The problem of state hydro carbons generates a large amount of cracking gas, avoids pyrolysis oil dust-laden is truly realized the clean and effective benefit of biomass With.
D. the cracking gas is entered in the cracking gas cyclone separator by cracking gas outlet, to the cracking Gas is dusted purified treatment, the thin dirt separated through the cracking gas cyclone separator by the semicoke conveying device into Enter the gasification furnace gasification.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the cracking gas cyclone separator respectively with the cracking gas outlet, semicoke Conveying device is connected with spray column.Thus, cracking gas is exported by cracking gas, into dedusting in cracking gas cyclone separator, is removed Cracking gas after dirt, which enters, washs further purification, while the thin dirt that cracking gas cyclone separator separates in spray column, lead to It crosses screw conveyor and is sent into gasification furnace, gasification gas can produce artificial natural gas, recycle, environment-friendly high-efficiency.
E. the cracking gas after dedusting enters in the spray column, carries out washing, purifying processing to cracking gas.
F. the net cracking gas by purification enters in the fuel cartridge and stores.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the system can also include: can also be further between spray column and fuel cartridge It is provided with combustion gas air-introduced machine, the natural gas transportation that combustion gas air-introduced machine will quickly and efficiently can obtain in spray column by purification It is stored into fuel cartridge, further, obtained cracking gas can be further used for preparing LNG or LNP.Invention human hair It is existing, the yield of cracking gas can be significantly improved using the system, have enough gas for producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquid Liquefied oil gas (LPG), it is good in economic efficiency.
Inventors have found that the reaction system structure according to an embodiment of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, Temperature Distribution is equal Even, heating effect is good, the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates, and can carry out deep pyrolytic in cracking room, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into The problem of gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, which can produce a large amount of cracking gas product, avoid pyrolysis oil dust-laden, really The clean and effective for realizing fossil fuel utilizes.In addition, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, it is combined into one, biomass benefit With rate height, construction cost and occupied area are saved.And the reactor uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique and is not necessarily to gas, consolidates Heat carrier heating, simplifies system process while improving the thermal efficiency of reactor.
The specific work process of biomass pyrolytic and cracking system and method for the invention is described in detail below, is had Body is as follows:
Firstly, granularity≤20mm biomass starting material is added in loading hopper 1, it will be stored in and be added using the second feeding device 8 Biomass starting material in hopper 1 is added in gas flow dryer 2, while 200~250 degrees Celsius be discharged in heat accumulation type radiant tube 15 Flue gas be passed through in gas flow dryer 2, biomass starting material is dried and is promoted under the action of flue gas, then flue gas and raw material Gas flow dryer is discharged in the mixture of biomass, and into dry cyclone separator 4, separating the flue gas of acquisition, (temperature is about 70 ~110 degrees Celsius) dry cyclone separator 4 is discharged, and enter exhaust gas cleaner under the action of tail gas air-introduced machine 6, it carries out Purified treatment, the flue gas for meeting discharge standard purified empty, isolated raw material biology in dry cyclone separator 4 Dry cyclone separator 4 is discharged in matter, and enters in pyrolysis hopper 5, then will be stored in pyrolysis material using the first feed device Biomass starting material be added pyrolysis reactor in, move from top to bottom, stop about 1~50 minute, in the heat accumulating type being uniformly arranged Radiant tube 15 (tube wall temperature is about 500~700 degrees Celsius) breaks up under heat effect, and biomass thermally equivalent is warming up to 500~600 degrees Celsius, pyrolytic reaction is completed, obtains pyrolysis oil gas and semicoke, obtained pyrolysis oil gas passes through on heat-insulated brick wall 16 Communication member 17 enter cracking room and carry out deep pyrolytic, semicoke or other solid impurities are delivered to gas by semicoke conveying device Change furnace 13 in carry out gasification process, obtained combustible gas be passed through heat accumulation type radiant tube for the biomass in pyrolysis reactor into Gasification furnace is discharged in row heating, the lime-ash that gasification process obtains, and the cracked gas cracked in cracking room is exported by cracking gas Into dedusting in cracking gas cyclone separator 9, the cracking gas after dedusting, which enters in spray column 10, washs further purification, after washing Net cracking gas through tail gas air-introduced machine 6 be sent into fuel cartridge 12 store, can be used for producing the products such as artificial natural gas, while cracking gas The thin dirt that cyclone separator 9 separates is sent into gasification furnace 13 by screw conveyor and gasifies, and the gas to gasify can It is passed through pyrolysis chamber and carries out circulating-heating utilization, the lime-ash discharge after gasification.
The embodiment of the present invention is described below in detail.
Case study on implementation: pine sawdust is handled using thermal storage type moving bed pyrolysis and cracking system, the basic number of raw material According to being shown in Table 1.
Table 1: pine sawdust basic data
Pine sawdust is handled using the reaction system, obtained gas products yield is 68%, the cracking of pyrolytic tar almost all For gaseous products, factor of created gase height.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that, term " first ", " second " are used for description purposes only, and cannot It is interpreted as indication or suggestion relative importance or implicitly indicates the quantity of indicated technical characteristic.Define as a result, " the One ", the feature of " second " can explicitly or implicitly include one or more of the features.
In the present invention unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, term " installation ", " connected ", " connection ", " fixation " etc. Term shall be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be being fixedly connected, may be a detachable connection, or integral;It can be mechanical connect It connects, is also possible to be electrically connected;It can be directly connected, can also can be in two elements indirectly connected through an intermediary The interaction relationship of the connection in portion or two elements.It for the ordinary skill in the art, can be according to specific feelings Condition understands the concrete meaning of above-mentioned term in the present invention.
In the present invention unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, fisrt feature in the second feature " on " or " down " can be with It is that the first and second features directly contact or the first and second features pass through intermediary mediate contact.Moreover, fisrt feature exists Second feature " on ", " top " and " above " but fisrt feature be directly above or diagonally above the second feature, or be merely representative of First feature horizontal height is higher than second feature.Fisrt feature can be under the second feature " below ", " below " and " below " One feature is directly under or diagonally below the second feature, or is merely representative of first feature horizontal height less than second feature.
In the description of this specification, reference term " one embodiment ", " some embodiments ", " example ", " specifically show The description of example " or " some examples " etc. means specific features, structure, material or spy described in conjunction with this embodiment or example Point is included at least one embodiment or example of the invention.In the present specification, schematic expression of the above terms are not It must be directed to identical embodiment or example.Moreover, particular features, structures, materials, or characteristics described can be any It can be combined in any suitable manner in a or multiple embodiment or examples.In addition, without conflicting with each other, the technology of this field The feature of different embodiments or examples described in this specification and different embodiments or examples can be combined by personnel And combination.
Although the embodiments of the present invention has been shown and described above, it is to be understood that above-described embodiment is example Property, it is not considered as limiting the invention, those skilled in the art within the scope of the invention can be to above-mentioned Embodiment is changed, modifies, replacement and variant, at the same time, for those skilled in the art, the think of according to the application Think, there will be changes in the specific implementation manner and application range.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of biomass pyrolytic and cracking system characterized by comprising
It is pyrolyzed hopper;
First feeding device, first feeding device are connect with the pyrolysis hopper;
Pyrolysis and cracking reactor, comprising: feed inlet, pyrolysis chamber, cracking room and cracking gas outlet, the feed inlet are arranged in institute It states on the roof of pyrolysis chamber, the cracking gas outlet is arranged on the side wall of the cracking room;And:
Heat accumulation type radiant tube, the heat accumulation type radiant tube along the pyrolysis reactor short transverse multi-tier arrangement in the pyrolysis Inside room and the cracking room, every layer has the more heat accumulation type radiant tubes arranged in the horizontal direction;
Heat-insulated brick wall, the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged at the 2/3 of reactor transverse width, vertically through in the reactor It is interior, the inner space of the reactor is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room;
Communication member, the communication member are arranged in the lower part of the heat-insulated brick wall, the oil gas for generating the pyrolysis chamber, By the communication member, it is passed into the cracking room;
Cracking gas cyclone separator, the cracking gas cyclone separator respectively with the cracking gas outlet, semicoke conveying device and Spray column is connected;
Spray column, the spray column are connect with the cracking gas cyclone separator;
Fuel cartridge, the fuel cartridge are connect with the spray column.
2. system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the communication member is to be arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall Pore area including multiple holes;Alternatively, the communication member is on the heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, positioned at opening for lower position Mouthful.
3. system according to claim 2, which is characterized in that the heat-insulated brick wall with a thickness of 5-15cm, the pore area Height be 3-15cm, the diameter in the hole is 1-3cm, and the height of the opening is 3-15cm.
4. system according to any one of claim 1-3, which is characterized in that further comprise: gasification furnace, the gasification Furnace one end is connected with the fuel gas inlet of the heat accumulation type radiant tube, and the other end is connected with the semicoke conveying device.
5. system according to any one of claim 1-3, which is characterized in that further include:
Loading hopper;
Second feeding device is connected with the loading hopper;
Drying device is connect with the exhanst gas outlet on second feeding device and the heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively;
Dry cyclone separator, is connected with the drying device and the pyrolysis hopper respectively;
Exhaust gas cleaner is connected with the dry cyclone separator.
6. system according to any one of claim 1-3, which is characterized in that the pyrolysis hopper by described first into Material device is connected with the feed inlet;Further comprise semicoke outlet, the lower part of the pyrolysis chamber, the semicoke are set Outlet is connect with the semicoke conveying device.
7. a kind of method for carrying out biomass pyrolytic and cracking using the system of any of claims 1-6, feature It is, comprising the following steps:
A. grain biomass is added in the reactor by first feeding device and the feed inlet, described anti- It answers in the pyrolysis chamber of device and completes pyrolytic process;
B. the oil gas of generation is pyrolyzed by the communication member being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall of the reactor, enters the reaction The cracking room of device;
C. the oil gas for being pyrolyzed generation enters in the cracking room, completes cracking process, generates cracking gas;
D. the cracking gas by the cracking gas outlet enter in the cracking gas cyclone separator, to the cracking gas into Row dust separation processing, the thin dirt separated through the cracking gas cyclone separator enter institute by the semicoke conveying device State gasification furnace gasification;
E. the cracking gas after dedusting enters in the spray column, carries out washing, purifying processing to cracking gas;
F. the net cracking gas by purification enters in the fuel cartridge and stores.
8. the method according to the description of claim 7 is characterized in that in the step a, the grain biomass is from the reaction The feed inlet on device top is added in the reactor, and is broken up by the heat accumulation type radiant tube in the reactor, pyrolysis Semicoke is exported from the semicoke of the reactor bottom and is discharged;In the step a, the grain biomass is pyrolyzed by the reactor The heat accumulation type radiant tube in room is heated to 500-600 DEG C, and in the step b, the pyrolysis oil gas is split by the reactor The heat accumulation type radiant tube in solution room is heated to 650-900 DEG C.
9. the method according to the description of claim 7 is characterized in that the granularity of the grain biomass is 20mm or less.
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CN106281380A (en) * 2016-08-29 2017-01-04 北京神雾环境能源科技集团股份有限公司 A kind of pyrolysis reactor of built-in dust arrester
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CN101038077A (en) * 2006-03-15 2007-09-19 株式会社荏原制作所 Combustible treating device
CN205974369U (en) * 2016-05-19 2017-02-22 北京神雾环境能源科技集团股份有限公司 Living beings pyrolysis and cracking system

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CN101038077A (en) * 2006-03-15 2007-09-19 株式会社荏原制作所 Combustible treating device
CN205974369U (en) * 2016-05-19 2017-02-22 北京神雾环境能源科技集团股份有限公司 Living beings pyrolysis and cracking system

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