CN105950196B - A kind of pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system - Google Patents

A kind of pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105950196B
CN105950196B CN201610332316.XA CN201610332316A CN105950196B CN 105950196 B CN105950196 B CN 105950196B CN 201610332316 A CN201610332316 A CN 201610332316A CN 105950196 B CN105950196 B CN 105950196B
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gas
cracking
pyrolysis
reactor
heat
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CN105950196A (en
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耿层层
陈水渺
肖磊
薛逊
吴道洪
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Shenwu Technology Group Corp Co Ltd
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Shenwu Technology Group Corp Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/04Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of powdered coal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/32Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air
    • C01B3/34Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B47/00Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with indirect heating, e.g. by external combustion
    • C10B47/18Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with indirect heating, e.g. by external combustion with moving charge
    • C10B47/20Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with indirect heating, e.g. by external combustion with moving charge according to the moving bed type
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10KPURIFYING OR MODIFYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE
    • C10K3/00Modifying the chemical composition of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide to produce an improved fuel, e.g. one of different calorific value, which may be free from carbon monoxide
    • C10K3/02Modifying the chemical composition of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide to produce an improved fuel, e.g. one of different calorific value, which may be free from carbon monoxide by catalytic treatment
    • C10K3/023Reducing the tar content
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/06Integration with other chemical processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/12Feeding the process for making hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/1205Composition of the feed
    • C01B2203/1211Organic compounds or organic mixtures used in the process for making hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/1235Hydrocarbons
    • C01B2203/1241Natural gas or methane

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of pyrolysiss of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system, comprising: pyrolysis hopper;First feeding device, first feeding device are connect with the pyrolysis hopper;Pyrolysis and cracking reactor, comprising: the inner space of the reactor is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room by heat-insulated brick wall;The lower part of the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in communication member, the communication member;Spray column, the spray column and cracking gas outlet connect;Reburner, the reburner are connect with the spray column;Fuel cartridge, the fuel cartridge are connect with the reburner.The oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can enter cracking room and carry out deep pyrolytic, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, and the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilizes.Cracking gas enters in reburner, can be carbon monoxide and hydrogen by methane and a small number of more carbon gaseous hydrocarbons, synthesize multiple product, such as methanol, ethylene glycol, acetate products.

Description

A kind of pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system
Technical field
The invention belongs to the pyrolysis of coal and cracking to produce gas technical field, and in particular to one kind is heated based on heat accumulation type radiant tube Particle pyrolysis of coal and cracking system are with producing synthesis gas system.
Background technique
Rich coal resources in China, raw coal is other than part is for coking, conversion processing, and the overwhelming majority is for directly firing It burns.Coal directly burns, and causes the petroleum resources being rich in coal to obtain adequately refining utilization not yet, and the direct combustion heat Low efficiency is serious to environmental disruption.The pyrolysis of coal is to heat coal under an inert atmosphere, produces the production such as semicoke, coal gas and tar Product, these obtained products, and the synthesis of coal can be improved with cascade utilization, while sufficiently extraction to petroleum resources Utilization efficiency.Pyrolytic process of coal can be divided into two class of external-heat and internal heat type.External heating type heat low efficiency, volatility product second decomposition are tight Weight;The shortcomings that internal heat type technique overcomes external-heat, by heat carrier (solid thermal carriers and gas heat carrier) heat transfer To coal.Gas heat carrier technique is rushed dilute there are carbonization gas, and condensate recovery system is huge, and gas heating value is low, it is difficult to further comprehensive Close the shortcomings that utilizing.Comparatively solid thermal carriers technique has certain advantage, but there are complex process operation links too It is more, the disadvantages of manufacturing cost is high.The existing pyrolysis type of furnace is pyrolyzed the type of furnace to produce oil product as the main purpose mostly, Especially to handle the type of furnace of the fine coal as raw material, contains a large amount of dirt in pyrolysis oil, cause pyrolysis oil to be difficult to efficiently use, pyrolysis oil It is worth the problems such as not high.Therefore, a kind of high-effective dust-removing, system structure and all simple pyrolysis of coal of process flow how to be designed and is split Solve the problem of production of synthetic gas system becomes this field urgent need to resolve.
Summary of the invention
The present invention in view of the deficiencies of the prior art, designs and develops a kind of pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system, should Reaction system can be pyrolyzed and be cracked two kinds of operations, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can enter cracking room and carry out deep pyrolytic, The tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, which can produce a large amount of cracking gas, cracking gas into Enter in reburner, can be carbon monoxide and hydrogen by methane and a small number of more carbon gaseous hydrocarbons, synthesis gas can do industrial base Plinth synthetic raw gas produces methanol, ethylene glycol, acetate products.The problem of this system obviates production pyrolysis oil dust-ladens, it is really real The clean and effective for having showed coal utilizes.System that employs heat accumulation type radiant tube heating techniques without gas, solid heat carrier heating, improves System process is simplified while the thermal efficiency of reactor.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted by the present invention are as follows: the present invention provides a kind of pyrolysis of coal and split Solve production of synthetic gas system.According to an embodiment of the invention, the system includes: pyrolysis hopper;First feeding device, described first into Material device is connect with the pyrolysis hopper;Pyrolysis and cracking reactor, comprising: feed inlet, pyrolysis chamber, cracking room and cracking gas go out Mouthful, the feed inlet is arranged on the roof of the pyrolysis chamber, and the cracking gas outlet is arranged on the side wall of the cracking room, And: heat accumulation type radiant tube, the heat accumulation type radiant tube along the reactor short transverse multi-tier arrangement in the pyrolysis chamber Inside the cracking room, every layer has the more heat accumulation type radiant tubes arranged in the horizontal direction;Heat-insulated brick wall, it is described every Hot brick wall is arranged at the 2/3 of the reactor transverse width, vertically through in the reactor, by the reactor Inner space is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room;Communication member, the communication member are arranged in the heat-insulated brick wall Lower part, the oil gas for generating the pyrolysis chamber is passed into the cracking room by the communication member;Spray column, institute It states spray column and cracking gas outlet connects;Reburner, the reburner are connect with the spray column;Fuel cartridge, the combustion Gas tank is connect with the reburner.
Inventors have found that synthesis gas system structure according to an embodiment of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, Temperature Distribution is equal Even, heating effect is good.Reactor is divided into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can enter cracking room and carry out deeply The tar molecules of macromolecular, are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule by degree cracking, which can produce a large amount of cracking gas, from And the problem of avoiding production pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the power generation of combustion gas incendivity, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilize. In addition, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, it is combined into one, construction cost and occupied area is saved, moreover, the reactor is adopted With heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique without gas, solid heat carrier heating, simplified while improving the thermal efficiency of reactor System process.Also, cracking gas enters in reburner, can be carbon monoxide and hydrogen by methane and a small number of more carbon gaseous hydrocarbons Gas synthesizes multiple product, such as methanol, ethylene glycol, acetate products.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the communication member is the hole including multiple holes being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall Band;Or the communication member is on the heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, positioned at the opening of lower position.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the heat-insulated brick wall with a thickness of 5-15cm, the height of the pore area is 3-15cm, The diameter in the hole is 1-3cm, and the height of the opening is 3-15cm.
According to an embodiment of the invention, further comprising combustion gas pressure fan, wherein one end of the combustion gas pressure fan and institute The outlet connection of spray column is stated, the other end is connect with the fuel gas inlet of the heat accumulation type radiant tube.
According to an embodiment of the invention, further comprising combustion gas air-introduced machine, wherein the combustion gas air-introduced machine is arranged in described Between spray column and the reburner.
According to an embodiment of the invention, further including loading hopper;Second feeding device is connected with the loading hopper;It is dry Device is connect with the exhanst gas outlet on second feeding device and the heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively;Gas-solid separating device, It is connected with the drying device and the pyrolysis hopper respectively;Exhaust gas cleaner, with the gas-solid separating device phase Connection.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the pyrolysis hopper is connected by first feeding device with the feed inlet, It further comprise semicoke outlet, the lower part of the pyrolysis chamber, the semicoke outlet and the semicoke is arranged in the semicoke outlet Conveying device connection.
In another aspect of the invention, the present invention provides a kind of using the progress pyrolysis of coal of mentioned-above system and splits The method for solving production of synthetic gas, which comprises the following steps: particulate coal is added in reactor by a. by feed inlet, Pyrolytic process is completed in the pyrolysis chamber of the reactor;B. it is pyrolyzed the oil gas of generation, by the heat-insulated brick wall of the reactor The communication member of setting enters the cracking room of the reactor;C. the oil gas for being pyrolyzed generation completes heat in the cracking room Cracking process generates cracking gas;D. the cracking gas is entered in spray column by cracking gas outlet, is carried out to the cracking gas Purified treatment;E. purified net cracking gas a part is sent into the fuel gas inlet of heat accumulation type radiant tube through combustion gas pressure fan, splits only Another part vent one's spleen through combustion gas air-introduced machine feeding reburner, in the reburner, methane and more carbon hydrocarbon are converted into cracking gas Carbon monoxide and Hydrogen synthesis gas;F. the synthesis gas, which enters in fuel cartridge, stores.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the particulate coal is added from the feed inlet on the reactor top in the step a It is broken up into the reactor, and by the heat accumulation type radiant tube in the reactor, pyrolysis char is from the reactor bottom The semicoke in portion exports discharge;In the step a, the particulate coal is by the heat accumulation type radiant tube in the reactor pyrolysis chamber It is heated to 500-600 DEG C, in the step b, the pyrolysis oil gas is radiated by the heat accumulating type in the reactor cracking room Pipe is heated to 650-900 DEG C.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the granularity of the particulate coal is 10mm or less.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are:
1) heat accumulation type radiant tube moving bed process heating 10mm particle below and powder coal are taken, uniformity of temperature profile, Heating effect is good, and reaction system structure is simple, easy to operate.
2) reactor is divided into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can carry out deep pyrolytic in cracking room, greatly The problem of tar molecules of molecule are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, avoid pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the power generation of combustion gas incendivity, very The clean and effective for just realizing fossil fuel utilizes.
3) two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, be combined into one, save construction cost and occupied area.
4) cracking gas enters in reburner, can be carbon monoxide and hydrogen by methane and a small number of more carbon gaseous hydrocarbons, close At multiple product.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is pyrolysis of coal of the present invention and cracking production of synthetic gas system construction drawing.
Fig. 2 is pyrolysis of coal of the present invention and the structure of reactor figure for cracking production of synthetic gas system.
Fig. 3 is the front view of the heat-insulated brick wall in reactor of the present invention.
Wherein, 1. loading hopper;2. riser drier;3. thermal storage type moving bed reactor;310, cracking gas exports;311, Exhanst gas outlet;320, feed inlet;321, air intake;322, fuel gas inlet;330, semicoke exports;340, cracking room;350, hot Solve room;360, communication member;370, heat-insulated brick wall;380, heat accumulation type radiant tube;4. dry cyclone separator;5. being pyrolyzed hopper; 6. tail gas air-introduced machine;7. exhaust gas cleaner;8. chimney;9. rotary feeder;10. spray column;11. combustion gas air-introduced machine;12. combustion Pneumatic transmission blower;13. reburner;14. screw conveyor;15. fuel cartridge.
Specific embodiment
In order to make those skilled in the art more fully understand technical solution of the present invention, combined with specific embodiments below to this Invention is described in further detail.The embodiments described below is exemplary, and for explaining only the invention, and cannot be understood For limitation of the present invention.Particular technique or condition are not specified in embodiment, according to the literature in the art described skill Art or condition are carried out according to product description.
According to an aspect of the present invention, the present invention provides a kind of pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system, Fig. 1 is should The structure chart of pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system, as shown in Figure 1, pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system include: pyrolysis Hopper 5;First feeding device 9, first feeding device 9 are connect with the pyrolysis hopper 5;Pyrolysis and cracking reactor 3, packet Include: feed inlet 320, pyrolysis chamber 350, cracking room 340, cracking gas export 310, heat accumulation type radiant tube 380,370 and of heat-insulated brick wall Communication member 360, wherein the feed inlet is arranged on the roof of the pyrolysis chamber, and the cracking gas outlet is arranged described On the side wall of cracking room, the inner space of reactor is separated into pyrolysis vertically through in reactor by the heat-insulated brick wall Room and cracking room, the communication member are arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall, pyrolysis chamber are connected to cracking room, it is preferred that described The lower part of heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in communication member, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates is passed into cracking room by communication member;Spray Tower 10 is drenched, the spray column and cracking gas outlet connect;Reburner 13, the reburner are connect with the spray column;Combustion Gas tank 15, the fuel cartridge are connect with the reburner.
Inventors have found that synthesis gas system structure according to an embodiment of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, Temperature Distribution is equal Even, heating effect is good.Reactor is divided into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can enter cracking room and carry out deeply The tar molecules of macromolecular, are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule by degree cracking, which can produce a large amount of cracking gas, from And the problem of avoiding production pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the power generation of combustion gas incendivity, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilize. In addition, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, it is combined into one, construction cost and occupied area is saved, moreover, the reactor is adopted With heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique without gas, solid heat carrier heating, simplified while improving the thermal efficiency of reactor System process.Also, cracking gas enters in reburner, can be carbon monoxide and hydrogen by methane and a small number of more carbon gaseous hydrocarbons Gas synthesizes multiple product, such as methanol, ethylene glycol, acetate products.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the partial size suitable for the coal of synthesis gas system processing is not particularly limited, It can may be small-particle coal for lumped coal, in some currently preferred embodiments of the present invention, which uses partial size 10mm particulate coal below, thus, it is possible to make full use of little particle pyrolysis material, resource utilization is high, and is able to solve a large amount of heaps Contamination contaminates the problem of environment.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the type of furnace suitable for the reactor 3 of the synthesis gas system is not by special Limitation, can be thermal storage type moving bed pyrolysis and cracking reactor 3 is also possible to other types, such as non-heat accumulating type or non-moving type Deng as long as pyrolysis chamber and cracking room can be divided by the way that heat-insulated brick wall is integrated.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, Fig. 2 is the pyrolysis of coal and cracks the pyrolysis of production of synthetic gas system and crack anti- 3 structure chart of device is answered, as shown in Fig. 2, the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in reactor, it is preferred that positioned at reactor transverse width At 2/3, heat-insulated brick wall with a thickness of 5-15cm, heat-insulated brick wall is vertically through in reactor, by the inner space of reactor It is separated into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, which to be provided with pyrolysis chamber and cracking room in a furnace body, what pyrolysis chamber generated Oil gas can enter cracking room and carry out deep pyrolytic, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule, are generated A large amount of cracking gas, so as to avoid production pyrolysis oil dust-laden the problem of.Also, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, are closed Two be one, saves construction cost and occupied area.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the specific type of the communication member 360 is not particularly limited, as long as can be with Pyrolysis chamber is connected to cracking room, so that the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates is passed into cracking room.In some realities of the invention It applies in example, when Fig. 3 is in terms of the from left to right of reactor, the front view of heat-insulated brick wall, as shown in figure 3, communication member can be to set Set the pore area including multiple holes on heat-insulated brick wall, under preferable case, the height of the pore area is 3-15cm, the hole it is straight Diameter is 1-3cm.Communication member may be on heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, under the opening of lower position, preferable case, institute The height for stating opening is 3-15cm.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, as shown in Figure 1, the feed inlet is arranged on the roof on pyrolysis chamber top, Pyrolysis hopper is connected by the first feeding device with the feed inlet;The specific type of first feeding device is not particularly limited, As long as the pyrolysis material being pyrolyzed in hopper can be effectively delivered into reactor.In some embodiments of the invention, First feeding device 9 can be rotary feeder or screw conveyor.Thereby, it is possible to realize the Automatic Conveying to pyrolysis material, Conveying capacity is controllable, and device structure is simple, easy to operate.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, as shown in Figure 1, the reactor further comprises semicoke outlet 330, institute The lower part that the pyrolysis chamber is arranged in semicoke outlet is stated, semicoke outlet is connect with the semicoke conveying device 14.As a result, may be used The semicoke obtained in reactor to be conveyed using semicoke conveying device.The specific type of semicoke conveying device 14 is not by spy It does not limit, including but not limited to star or screw conveyor.Thereby, it is possible to realize the Automatic Conveying to semicoke, and conveying capacity Controllably, device structure is simple, easy to operate.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, as shown in Fig. 2, the inside reactor has multilayer along the height of the reactor Degree direction is arranged in the heat accumulation type radiant tube inside the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room, and every layer of heat accumulation type radiant tube may include The heat accumulation type radiant tube of multiple parallel to each other and horizontally spaced distribution.According to an embodiment of the invention, the pyrolysis chamber With distributed heat accumulation type radiant tube described at least one in cracking room respectively, it is preferred that at least one heat accumulation type radiant tube It is uniformly distributed.Heat accumulation type radiant tube can make it carry out heat effective for expecting to pyrolysis and cracking indoor oil gas to heat Solution and cracking reaction specifically can be passed through combustible gas and air into heat accumulation type radiant tube, realize combustible gas burning to heat Solve the heating function of material.The equipment uses heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique, and without gas, solid heat carrier heating, pyrolysis gas will not It is diluted, calorific value is high, and reactor temperature is evenly distributed, and surface temperature difference is small, and exhaust gas temperature is low, and the thermal efficiency is high, improves anti- System process is simplified while answering the thermal efficiency of device, reaction system structure is simple, easy to operate.
In the reactor, pyrolysis material moves from top to bottom, and the heat accumulation type radiant tube being arranged in the reactor can be with Pyrolysis material, which is broken up, is uniformly distributed it, and pyrolysis material stops 1-50 minutes from top to bottom in the reactor, and is heated to 500-600 ℃.According to an embodiment of the invention, the shape of heat accumulation type radiant tube is not particularly limited, in some embodiments of the invention, It can be cylinder, thus be conducive to breaing up for pyrolysis material, realize mixed pyrolysis material in the reactor evenly dispersed.Radiant tube Horizontal space be 200-500mm, vertical interval 200-700mm, the radiant tube number of plies be 10-25 layer, reactor width be 2- 6m, height for reactor 3-20m.In addition, heat accumulation type radiant tube can be the unidirectional heat accumulation type radiant tube being evenly arranged, tube wall Temperature can be controlled by gas control valve in 450-1000 DEG C of range, and heat accumulation type radiant tube can take the burning periodically to commutate Mode, without local high temperature zone, is conducive to mention as a result, so that the surface temperature difference of single heat accumulation type radiant tube only has 30 DEG C or so High thermal efficiency.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the reactor is equipped with fuel gas inlet 322, air intake 321 and flue gas Outlet 311, wherein fuel gas inlet and exhanst gas outlet are connect with heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively, are respectively used to be passed through combustible gas and row Flue gas out, air intake are connect with gas source and heat accumulation type radiant tube respectively, and the air for generating gas source is passed through heat accumulating type spoke It penetrates in pipe.
According to an embodiment of the invention, as shown in Figure 1, the synthesis gas system may further include: loading hopper 1;With add The second connected feeding device of hopper;What is be connected respectively with the exhanst gas outlet 311 of the second feeding device and heat accumulation type radiant tube is dry Dry device 2;The gas-solid separating device 4 being connected respectively with drying device and pyrolysis hopper 5;The tail gas being connected with gas-solid separating device Purification device 7.Thus, it is possible to which the pyrolysis material in loading hopper is added in drying device by the second feeding device, filled dry In setting, pyrolysis material is dried under the action of flue gas (temperature is about 150-250 DEG C) from heat accumulation type radiant tube, then does Pyrolysis material and the mixture of flue gas after dry enter gas-solid separating device, separate the flue gas (temperature is about 70-130 DEG C) of acquisition into Enter and carries out purified treatment in exhaust gas cleaner, to realize qualified discharge, the pyrolysis material for separating acquisition is delivered in pyrolysis hopper, For carrying out pyrolytic reaction.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the specific type of the second feed device is not particularly limited, as long as being suitable for add Pyrolysis material in hopper is delivered in drying device.In some embodiments of the invention, the second feed device can be Star feeder or feed screw.Thereby, it is possible to realize the Automatic Conveying to pyrolysis material, and conveying capacity is controllable, equipment knot Structure is simple, easy to operate.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the specific type of drying device 2 is not particularly limited, as long as can be realized to pyrolysis The function of drying and the preheating of material.In some embodiments of the invention, drying device 2 can be riser drier 2, Pyrolysis material is dried and is promoted under the action of flue gas as a result, and promotion is discharged in the mixture of pyrolysis material and flue gas after drying Pipe drier is conducive to subsequent step progress.In drying device, while pyrolysis material is dried, also achieve pre- The function of heat is conducive to the rate and efficiency that improve subsequent pyrolytic reaction, and using the flue gas of heat accumulation type radiant tube discharge to heat Solution material is dried and preheats, and realizes the comprehensive utilization of thermal energy, effectively reduces energy consumption, has reached energy-saving and environment-friendly purpose.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the specific type of gas-solid separating device 4 is not particularly limited, as long as can will be pyrolyzed Material is separated with flue gas.In some embodiments of the invention, gas-solid separating device 4 can be dry cyclone separator 4, by This can quickly and efficiently separate pyrolysis material and flue gas, and good separating effect, and simple to operate, cost is relatively low.
According to an embodiment of the invention, can also further be arranged between gas-solid separating device 4 and exhaust gas cleaner 7 There is tail gas air-introduced machine 6, the flue gas that acquisition is separated in gas-solid separating device quickly and efficiently can be delivered to tail by tail gas air-introduced machine In air purifying apparatus, be conducive to improve working efficiency.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the pyrolysis plant is also provided with the chimney 8 being connected with exhaust gas cleaner, warp Flue gas after crossing exhaust gas cleaner purified treatment is emptied through chimney, is conducive to protect environment as a result, is reduced pollution.
According to an embodiment of the invention, as shown in Figure 1, the synthesis gas system further comprises combustion gas pressure fan 12, wherein One end of the combustion gas pressure fan is connect with the outlet of the spray column, the fuel gas inlet of the other end and the heat accumulation type radiant tube 322 connections.To which a part of combustible gas is sent into the fuel gas inlet 322 of the radiant tube of pyrolysis reactor through combustion gas pressure fan.
According to an embodiment of the invention, as shown in Figure 1, the synthesis gas system further comprises combustion gas air-introduced machine 11, wherein The combustion gas air-introduced machine is arranged between the spray column and the reburner.The outlet of spray column and combustion gas air-introduced machine entrance connect It connects, the outlet of combustion gas air-introduced machine is connect with reburner entrance, and conversion outlet of still is connect with fuel cartridge entrance.
In another aspect of the invention, the present invention provides a kind of using the progress pyrolysis of coal of mentioned-above system and splits The method for solving production of synthetic gas.According to an embodiment of the invention, this method may comprise steps of:
A. particulate coal is added in reactor by feed inlet, completes to be pyrolyzed in the pyrolysis chamber of the reactor Journey.Wherein, the particulate coal is added in reactor from the feed inlet on reactor top, and is radiated by the heat accumulating type in reactor Pipe is broken up, and pyrolysis char is exported from the semicoke of reactor bottom and is discharged, and arranges through semicoke conveying device (preferably screw conveyor) Out.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the partial size suitable for the coal of synthesis gas system processing is not particularly limited, It can may be small-particle coal for lumped coal, in some currently preferred embodiments of the present invention, which uses partial size 10mm particulate coal below, thus, it is possible to make full use of little particle pyrolysis material, resource utilization is high, and is able to solve a large amount of heaps Contamination contaminates the problem of environment.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the heat accumulation type radiant tube being arranged in the pyrolysis chamber of reactor can break up particulate coal It is uniformly distributed it, particulate coal stops 1-50 minutes from top to bottom in the reactor, and particulate coal is by the storage in reactor pyrolysis chamber Hot type radiant tube is heated to 500-600 DEG C, specifically, can be by the temperature that gas valve controls heat accumulation type radiant tube tube wall 500-700 DEG C, particulate coal is heated quickly in the reactor to 500-600 DEG C, completes pyrolytic process.
B. it is pyrolyzed the oil gas of generation, by the communication member being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall of the reactor, is entered described anti- Answer the cracking room of device.
According to an embodiment of the invention, heat-insulated brick wall is arranged in reactor, it is preferred that positioned at reactor transverse width At 2/3, heat-insulated brick wall with a thickness of 5-15cm, heat-insulated brick wall is vertically through in reactor, by the inner space of reactor It is separated into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, which to be provided with pyrolysis chamber and cracking room in a furnace body, what pyrolysis chamber generated Oil gas can enter cracking room and carry out deep pyrolytic, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule.By This, can carry out two kinds of operations, be combined into one in a furnace body, save construction cost and occupied area.Implementation according to the present invention Example, communication member can be the pore area including multiple holes being arranged on heat-insulated brick wall, or heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length On, positioned at the opening of lower position.Specifically, the oil gas that pyrolysis generates, by the pore area of the heat-insulated brick wall lower part of reactor or Opening, enters cracking room.
C. the oil gas for being pyrolyzed generation completes thermal cracking processes in the cracking room, generates cracking gas.
According to an embodiment of the invention, distributed heat accumulation type radiant tube described at least one in the cracking room, it is preferred that At least one heat accumulation type radiant tube is uniformly distributed.Heat accumulation type radiant tube can be effective for carrying out the indoor oil gas of cracking Heating makes it carry out cracking reaction.Specifically, pyrolysis oil gas is heated to 650- by the heat accumulation type radiant tube in reactor cracking room 900 DEG C, specifically, the temperature that heat accumulation type radiant tube tube wall can be controlled by gas valve is 650-900 DEG C, and particulate coal is being reacted It is heated quickly in device to 650-900 DEG C, completes thermal cracking processes, the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into small molecule as a result, The problem of gaseous hydrocarbons generates a large amount of cracking gas, avoids pyrolysis oil dust-laden is truly realized the clean and effective of fossil fuel It utilizes.
D. the cracking gas is entered in spray column by cracking gas outlet, carries out purified treatment to the cracking gas.
E. purified net cracking gas a part is sent into the fuel gas inlet of heat accumulation type radiant tube through combustion gas pressure fan, net to crack Gas another part is sent into reburner through combustion gas air-introduced machine, and in the reburner, methane and more carbon hydrocarbon are converted into one in cracking gas Carbonoxide and Hydrogen synthesis gas.
F. the synthesis gas, which enters in fuel cartridge, stores.
Embodiment one:
(1) it is crushed to granularity≤10mm particulate coal and riser drier 2 is entered by loading hopper 1, it is dry in riser In device, coal is done using 150-250 DEG C of flue gas of the radiant tube smoke outlet from thermal storage type moving bed reactor 3 Dry and promotion, coal enter dry cyclone separator 4, and the coal dust separated enters in pyrolysis hopper 5,70-130 DEG C or so Flue gas then passes through tail gas air-introduced machine 6 and is admitted to exhaust gas cleaner 7, and the flue gas after reaching discharge standard is discharged through chimney 8.
(2) coal enters thermal storage type moving bed reactor 3, moving-burden bed reactor 3 through rotary feeder 9 in pyrolysis hopper 5 Pyrolysis chamber and cracking room are divided by grid brick wall shape.
(3) unidirectional heat accumulation type radiant tube has been evenly arranged in pyrolysis chamber, tube wall temperature is controlled using gas control valve 500 ~700 DEG C of ranges, material stops 1-50 minutes from top to bottom in the reactor, and is heated to 500~600 DEG C, and completion was pyrolyzed Journey.
(4) oil gas that pyrolysis generates enters cracking room by the opening of reactor lower part grid brick wall, in cracking room It is evenly arranged unidirectional heat accumulation type radiant tube, tube wall temperature is controlled using gas control valve in 650~900 DEG C of ranges, pyrolysis oil Gas is heated to 650-900 DEG C in cracking room, completes thermal cracking processes, and the tar molecules of macromolecular are cracked into the gas of small molecule The problem of state hydro carbons generates a large amount of cracking gas, avoids pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the clean and effective for being truly realized coal utilize.
(5) cracking gas is by reactor outlet, and into washing in spray column 10, the net cracking gas after washing is blown through combustion gas Machine 11 is sent into reburner 13, and methane and a small number of more carbon hydrocarbon are converted into carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis in 13 cracking gas of reburner Gas, synthesis gas, which enters in fuel cartridge 15, to be stored, and can produce the multiple products such as methanol, ethylene glycol, acetic acid.
(6) a part of combustible gas is sent into the heat accumulation type radiant tube fuel gas inlet of reactor 3 through combustion gas pressure fan 12.
(7) semicoke that pyrolysis of coal generates is discharged by screw conveyor 14, and semicoke can be used for combustion power generation or production moulded coal.
Inventors have found that synthesis gas system structure according to an embodiment of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, Temperature Distribution is equal Even, heating effect is good.Reactor is divided into pyrolysis chamber and cracking room, and the oil gas that pyrolysis chamber generates can enter cracking room and carry out deeply The tar molecules of macromolecular, are cracked into the gaseous hydrocarbons of small molecule by degree cracking, which can produce a large amount of cracking gas, from And the problem of avoiding production pyrolysis oil dust-laden, the power generation of combustion gas incendivity, the clean and effective for being truly realized fossil fuel utilize. In addition, two kinds of operations can be carried out in a furnace body, it is combined into one, construction cost and occupied area is saved, moreover, the reactor is adopted With heat accumulation type radiant tube heating technique without gas, solid heat carrier heating, simplified while improving the thermal efficiency of reactor System process.Also, cracking gas enters in reburner, can be carbon monoxide and hydrogen by methane and a small number of more carbon gaseous hydrocarbons Gas synthesizes multiple product, such as methanol, ethylene glycol, acetate products.
Lignite is handled using pyrolysis of coal of the present invention and cracking production of synthetic gas system, the basic data of raw material is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: lignite basic data
Lignite is handled using the system, obtained factor of created gase is up to 23%, is pyrolyzed obtained production much higher than laboratory aluminium rice steamer Gas rate, pyrolytic tar almost all are cracked into gaseous products, and factor of created gase is high.Synthesis gas purity is up to 95% or more.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that, term " first ", " second " are used for description purposes only, and cannot It is interpreted as indication or suggestion relative importance or implicitly indicates the quantity of indicated technical characteristic.Define as a result, " the One ", the feature of " second " can explicitly or implicitly include one or more of the features.
In the present invention unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, term " installation ", " connected ", " connection ", " fixation " etc. Term shall be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be being fixedly connected, may be a detachable connection, or integral;It can be mechanical connect It connects, is also possible to be electrically connected;It can be directly connected, can also can be in two elements indirectly connected through an intermediary The interaction relationship of the connection in portion or two elements.It for the ordinary skill in the art, can be according to specific feelings Condition understands the concrete meaning of above-mentioned term in the present invention.
In the present invention unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, fisrt feature in the second feature " on " or " down " can be with It is that the first and second features directly contact or the first and second features pass through intermediary mediate contact.Moreover, fisrt feature exists Second feature " on ", " top " and " above " but fisrt feature be directly above or diagonally above the second feature, or be merely representative of First feature horizontal height is higher than second feature.Fisrt feature can be under the second feature " below ", " below " and " below " One feature is directly under or diagonally below the second feature, or is merely representative of first feature horizontal height less than second feature.
In the description of this specification, reference term " one embodiment ", " some embodiments ", " example ", " specifically show The description of example " or " some examples " etc. means specific features, structure, material or spy described in conjunction with this embodiment or example Point is included at least one embodiment or example of the invention.In the present specification, schematic expression of the above terms are not It must be directed to identical embodiment or example.Moreover, particular features, structures, materials, or characteristics described can be any It can be combined in any suitable manner in a or multiple embodiment or examples.In addition, without conflicting with each other, the skill of this field Art personnel can tie the feature of different embodiments or examples described in this specification and different embodiments or examples It closes and combines.
Although the embodiments of the present invention has been shown and described above, it is to be understood that above-described embodiment is example Property, it is not considered as limiting the invention, those skilled in the art within the scope of the invention can be to above-mentioned Embodiment is changed, modifies, replacement and variant, at the same time, for those skilled in the art, the think of according to the application Think, there will be changes in the specific implementation manner and application range.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of pyrolysis of coal and cracking production of synthetic gas system characterized by comprising
It is pyrolyzed hopper;
First feeding device, first feeding device are connect with the pyrolysis hopper;
Pyrolysis and cracking reactor, comprising: feed inlet, pyrolysis chamber, cracking room and cracking gas outlet, the feed inlet are arranged in institute It states on the roof of pyrolysis chamber, the cracking gas outlet is arranged on the side wall of the cracking room;And:
Heat accumulation type radiant tube, the heat accumulation type radiant tube along the reactor short transverse multi-tier arrangement in the pyrolysis chamber and Inside the cracking room, every layer has the more heat accumulation type radiant tubes arranged in the horizontal direction;
Heat-insulated brick wall, the heat-insulated brick wall is arranged at the 2/3 of the reactor transverse width, vertically through in the reaction In device, the inner space of the reactor is separated into the pyrolysis chamber and the cracking room;
Communication member, the communication member are arranged in the lower part of the heat-insulated brick wall, the oil gas for generating the pyrolysis chamber, By the communication member, it is passed into the cracking room;
Spray column, the spray column and cracking gas outlet connect;
Reburner, the reburner are connect with the spray column;
Fuel cartridge, the fuel cartridge are connect with the reburner.
2. system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the communication member is to be arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall Pore area including multiple holes;Or the communication member is on the heat-insulated brick wall longitudinal length, positioned at the opening of lower position.
3. system according to claim 2, which is characterized in that the heat-insulated brick wall with a thickness of 5-15cm, the pore area Height be 3-15cm, the diameter in the hole is 1-3cm, and the height of the opening is 3-15cm.
4. system according to any one of claim 1-3, which is characterized in that further comprise combustion gas pressure fan, wherein One end of the combustion gas pressure fan is connect with the outlet of the spray column, the fuel gas inlet of the other end and the heat accumulation type radiant tube Connection.
5. system according to any one of claim 1-3, which is characterized in that further comprise combustion gas air-introduced machine, wherein The combustion gas air-introduced machine is arranged between the spray column and the reburner.
6. system according to any one of claim 1-3, which is characterized in that further include loading hopper;Second feeding device, It is connected with the loading hopper;Drying device, respectively with the cigarette on second feeding device and the heat accumulation type radiant tube Gas outlet connection;Gas-solid separating device is connected with the drying device and the pyrolysis hopper respectively;Tail gas clean-up dress It sets, is connected with the gas-solid separating device.
7. system according to any one of claim 1-3, which is characterized in that the pyrolysis hopper by described first into Material device is connected with the feed inlet, further comprises semicoke outlet, and the lower part of the pyrolysis chamber is arranged in the semicoke outlet, The semicoke outlet is connect with semicoke conveying device.
8. a kind of method for carrying out pyrolysis of coal using the system of any of claims 1-7 and cracking production of synthetic gas, It is characterized in that, comprising the following steps:
A. particulate coal is added in reactor by feed inlet, completes pyrolytic process in the pyrolysis chamber of the reactor;
B. it is pyrolyzed the oil gas of generation, by the communication member being arranged on the heat-insulated brick wall of the reactor, enters the reactor Cracking room;
C. the oil gas for being pyrolyzed generation completes thermal cracking processes in the cracking room, generates cracking gas;
D. the cracking gas is entered in spray column by cracking gas outlet, carries out purified treatment to the cracking gas;
E. purified net cracking gas a part is sent into the fuel gas inlet of heat accumulation type radiant tube through combustion gas pressure fan, and net cracking gas is another A part is sent into reburner through combustion gas air-introduced machine, and in the reburner, methane and more carbon hydrocarbon are converted into an oxidation in cracking gas Carbon and Hydrogen synthesis gas;
F. the synthesis gas, which enters in fuel cartridge, stores.
9. according to the method described in claim 8, it is characterized in that, the particulate coal is from the reactor in the step a The feed inlet in portion is added in the reactor, and is broken up by the heat accumulation type radiant tube in the reactor, pyrolysis char It exports and is discharged from the semicoke of the reactor bottom;In the step a, the particulate coal is by the institute in the reactor pyrolysis chamber It states heat accumulation type radiant tube and is heated to 500-600 DEG C, in the step b, the pyrolysis oil gas is by the reactor cracking room The heat accumulation type radiant tube is heated to 650-900 DEG C.
10. according to the method described in claim 8, it is characterized in that, the granularity of the particulate coal is 10mm or less.
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