CN105627280B - A kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler - Google Patents

A kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105627280B
CN105627280B CN201610153272.4A CN201610153272A CN105627280B CN 105627280 B CN105627280 B CN 105627280B CN 201610153272 A CN201610153272 A CN 201610153272A CN 105627280 B CN105627280 B CN 105627280B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
boiler
cyclone cylinder
combustion
firing chamber
dual firing
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CN201610153272.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105627280A (en
Inventor
刘银河
车得福
张勇
张玉斌
杨天亮
李庚达
刘汉强
郭桦
Original Assignee
西安交通大学
烟台龙源电力技术股份有限公司
国电新能源技术研究院
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Priority to CN201610153272.4A priority Critical patent/CN105627280B/en
Publication of CN105627280A publication Critical patent/CN105627280A/en
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Publication of CN105627280B publication Critical patent/CN105627280B/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B31/00Modifications of boiler construction, or of tube systems, dependent on installation of combustion apparatus; Arrangements of dispositions of combustion apparatus
    • F22B31/02Installation of water-tube boilers in chimneys, e.g. in converter chimneys
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B31/00Modifications of boiler construction, or of tube systems, dependent on installation of combustion apparatus; Arrangements of dispositions of combustion apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C7/00Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for air supply
    • F23C7/02Disposition of air supply not passing through burner
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LSUPPLYING AIR OR NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS OR GASES TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS IN GENERAL ; VALVES OR DAMPERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CONTROLLING AIR SUPPLY OR DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; INDUCING DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; TOPS FOR CHIMNEYS OR VENTILATING SHAFTS; TERMINALS FOR FLUES
    • F23L9/00Passages or apertures for delivering secondary air for completing combustion of fuel 

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler, including some cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burners and boiler body;Boiler body includes dual firing chamber, is arranged at the boiler heating surface and exhaust opening on dual firing chamber top;Cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner is an inverted Adiabatic Cyclone separator with central tube;The dual firing chamber of the cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner connection boiler body.Lignite semi-coke powder tangentially or is cut to the annular space entered between central tube and cyclone cylinder under primary air effect, be formed as high-temp combustion gasification zone in the bottom of annular space, excess air coefficient is kept to be less than 1 in this region, maintenance reaction is combustion with meagre oxygen atmosphere;Flue gas containing fuel gas enters dual firing chamber, and fully burning generation high-temperature flue gas is up respectively by each heating surface of boiler of tower arrangement, completes heat transfer, flue gas is reduced to certain exhaust gas temperature.Combustion intensity of the present invention is high, retention efficiency is high, pollutant emission is low, load regulation range is wide.

Description

A kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler

Technical field

The present invention relates to boiler technology field, more particularly to a kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler.

Background technology

Lignite is a kind of low-order coal, and the reserves in China and the world are huge, but the water content of lignite is high, and volatile matter is high, is easy to Spontaneous combustion, it is unfavorable for transporting, constrains the extensive utilization of lignite.By lignite upgrading, classification sub-prime comprehensive utilization, for lignite Develop significant.

Field is utilized in lignite, middle low temperature pyrogenation technology is that a kind of more promising lignite classification sub-prime utilizes skill Art.Solid product lignite semi-coke is pyrolyzed because volatile matter is reduced, moisture is reduced, and caloric value improves, and is a kind of preferable fuel, brown The high-efficiency low-pollution of coal semicoke, which utilizes to improve using comprehensive energy efficiency for lignite classification sub-prime, to be had the function that to hold the balance.

Lignite semi-coke can be used for gasification furnace raw material manufacture coal gas, can be used for boiler oil directly burn production heat energy. It is most direct Application way to be wherein used for the direct combustion heating working medium production hot water of boiler or steam.But because lignite semi-coke is waved Hair point substantially reduces, and its flammability is affected.It is stable to develop a kind of combustibility, the low combustion lignite of pollutant emission half Burnt boiler is most important.

Currently, the primary combustion mode of solid fuel coal and coal tar has three kinds:Grate furnace, fluid bed furnace and coal-powder boiler.Coal Powder stove is the main combustion system of station boiler.

Also a kind of combustion system cyclone firing also once obtained more application.Cyclone firing is that the one kind artificially organized is steady Fixed controllable high speed swirl flame, combustion flame degree of filling is higher, and disturbance ability is extremely strong, suitable for powder, the solid combustion of bits shape The combustion process of material, there is higher calorific intensity than in general room combustion mode.Because solid fuel exists necessarily in a combustion chamber Amount of savings, there is the considerably long holdup time in cyclone furnace, contribute to maintain combustion process continuity.Scorching hot slag Film accumulates certain heat, is the burning bed of stabilizer pole, can maintain the stability of combustion process.Cyclone firing has burning strong The advantages that degree is high, retention efficiency is high, flameholding, but due to analysis iron, hydrogen is quick-fried, deslagging is difficult and pollutant such as discharged nitrous oxides The problems such as high, its application are subject to certain restrictions.

Under the overall background of energy-saving and emission-reduction, coal-burning power plant carries important power peak regulation task, it is desirable to station boiler energy Enough stable and high effective operations in the load range of broadness.The stability high efficiency and boiler of burning generally be present in existing station boiler Underrun between contradiction.Therefore, it is necessary to propose a kind of new burning boiler, it can realize that high-efficiency low-pollution fires Burn, can also realize larger Load Regulation.

The content of the invention

It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler, to solve existing coal-powder boiler boiler combustion The problem of low intensity, load regulation range are narrow, pollutant emission is exceeded;Boiler of the present invention have combustion intensity is high, retention efficiency is high, The advantages that pollutant emission is low, load regulation range is wide.

To achieve the above objectives, the present invention, which adopts the following technical scheme that, is achieved:

A kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler, including some cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burners and boiler body;Boiler sheet Body includes dual firing chamber, is arranged at the boiler heating surface and exhaust opening on dual firing chamber top;Cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner is one and fallen The Adiabatic Cyclone separator with central tube put;The dual firing chamber of the cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner connection boiler body.

Further, cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner includes cyclone cylinder, central tube, smoke tube and Secondary Air cyclone; The lower sides of cyclone cylinder are provided with primary air nozzle;The bottom centre of cyclone cylinder is provided with through hole, and central tube passes through cyclone cylinder bottom Through hole stretch into inside cyclone cylinder, be arranged at intervals for through hole at the top of central tube and with cyclone cylinder top inner wall, central tube and whirlwind The sealing of cylinder junction;Melting slag bath is provided with positioned at the lower section of primary air nozzle in cyclone cylinder, the bottom for melting slag bath is provided with first row Cinder notch;The bottom of central tube is provided with the second slag-drip opening, smoke tube one end vertical connection central tube, other end connection dual firing chamber.

Further, the Secondary Air eddy flow for being used for being sent into afterburning Secondary Air is provided with the porch of smoke tube and dual firing chamber Device.

Further, primary air nozzle tilts down setting.

Further, each cyclone cylinder side wall is provided with two primary air nozzles for being used to form whirlwind in cyclone cylinder.

Further, the tower arrangement of boiler heating surface.

Further, lignite semi-coke powder tangentially or cuts to from cyclone cylinder bottom primary air nozzle under primary air effect Enter the annular space between central tube and cyclone cylinder, be formed as high-temp combustion gasification zone in the bottom of annular space, in this area Domain keeps excess air coefficient to be less than 1, and maintenance reaction is combustion with meagre oxygen atmosphere;Generate flue gas strong rotation removing in cyclone cylinder Molten slag, then flue gas dual firing chamber is entered by the smoke tube between dual firing chamber and cyclone cylinder, enter dual firing chamber when mend Part auxiliary air is filled, dual firing chamber is entered with rotating jet;Flue gas fully burning and further heat release, Ran Housheng in dual firing chamber It is up respectively by each heating surface of boiler of tower arrangement into high-temperature flue gas, heat transfer is completed, flue gas is reduced to exhaust gas temperature Discharged afterwards from exhaust opening.

Further, central tube and cyclone cylinder are made up of silicon nitride material, the whirlwind formed between central tube and cyclone cylinder Combustion chamber is insulated combustion chamber.

Further, the burning carried out in dual firing chamber is homogeneous combustion, and excess air coefficient is 1.05~1.1.

Further, the temperature for melting reaction zone above slag bath is higher than grey melting temperature 100~200 DEG C.

Further, cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner is multiple and be uniformly distributed in boiler body periphery.

Compared with prior art, it is an advantage of the invention that:

1st, most of fuel bound nitrogen is converted into, in dual firing chamber using classification by nitrogen using melting combustion with meagre oxygen in cyclone cylinder Air burning, reduce the discharge of nitrogen oxides.

2nd, more liquid slag forms slag bath in cyclone cylinder ring casing space, the melting ash content in slag bath is to residual burnt gasification Burning is played a part of being catalyzed and providing thermal source, maintains the stability of burning, improves charcoal percent conversion.Each cyclone cylinder has 2 wind inlets being arranged symmetrically, form strong swirling eddy in cyclone cylinder;It is to have certain depth above cyclone cylinder bottom Melting slag bath, ickings fast pyrogenation and gasification in slag slag bath of bulky grain, realize high carbon conversions;It is provided with below slag bath Mud hole, the temperature in cyclone cylinder maintain more than grey melting temperature, and smooth slag tap can be achieved.

3rd, the gasification, and combustion in slag bath is mainly carbon oxygen exothermic reaction so that localized hyperthermia is maintained at slag bath, is advantageous to carry High combustion intensity and the mobility for improving liquid slag.

4th, the strong swirling eddy in cyclone cylinder combustion chamber, cinder is thrown to wall and realizes point of molten melt drop and flue gas From improving and mend slag rate, the contamination and follow-up dedusting for significantly reducing follow-up tower boiler heating surface are born.

5th, the central tube bottom between cyclone cylinder and dual firing chamber is provided with the second slag separation chamber, has not enough time to the liquid of separation State slag is captured into this slag bath, further reduces the flying dust share in flue gas and realizes to the greatest extent may be used for liquid slag and gaseous product Can separation.

6th, the supplement Secondary Air of rotating jet is provided with dual firing chamber's import, maintains overall excess air coefficient in relatively low water It is flat, in the mainly homogeneous combustion that dual firing chamber is carried out, reduce the generation of nitrogen oxides.

7th, cyclone cylinder, central tube and conduit pipe with thermal insulation use silicon nitride material, improve the resistance to heat shocks energy of equipment.

8th, a boiler can match somebody with somebody multiple cyclone cylinder combustion with meagre oxygen equipment.

Brief description of the drawings

Below in conjunction with the drawings and the specific embodiments, the present invention is described in further detail.

Fig. 1 is a kind of structural representation of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is Fig. 1 top view.

In figure:1st, cyclone cylinder;2nd, central tube;3rd, boiler heating surface;4th, exhaust opening;5th, dual firing chamber;6th, Secondary Air cyclone; 7th, smoke tube;8th, the second slag-drip opening;9th, the first slag-drip opening;10th, slag bath is melted;11st, primary air nozzle.

Embodiment

Refer to shown in Fig. 1, a kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler of the present invention, including some cyclone cylinder combustion with meagre oxygen dress Put and boiler body, both satellite types are arranged.

The bottom of boiler body is dual firing chamber 5, and the top of dual firing chamber 5 is the boiler heating surface 3 of tower arrangement, boiler heating surface 3 tops are provided with exhaust opening 4.

Cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner includes cyclone cylinder 1, central tube 2, smoke tube 7 and Secondary Air cyclone 6.Cyclone cylinder 1 lower sides are provided with primary air nozzle 11, and primary air nozzle 11 is micro- to tilt down setting;Each side wall of cyclone cylinder 1 is provided with two The individual primary air nozzle 11 for being used to form whirlwind in cyclone cylinder 1.The bottom centre of cyclone cylinder 1 is provided with through hole, and central tube 2 passes through rotation The through hole of the bottom of air duct 1 is stretched into inside cyclone cylinder 1, and the top of central tube 2 is arranged at intervals for through hole and with the top inner wall of cyclone cylinder 1, Central tube 2 seals with the junction of cyclone cylinder 1.In cyclone cylinder 1 melting slag bath 10, liquid slag are provided with positioned at the lower section of primary air nozzle 11 The bottom in pond 10 is provided with the first slag-drip opening 9.The bottom of central tube 2 is provided with the second slag-drip opening 8, one end vertical connection of smoke tube 7 Central tube 2, other end connection dual firing chamber 5, is provided with Secondary Air cyclone 6 in the porch of smoke tube 7 and dual firing chamber 5, is used for It is sent into the Secondary Air of afterburning.

In order to realize combustion with meagre oxygen, lignite semi-coke powder is by primary air and flue gas recycled by micro- First air tilted down Mouth 11 is sent into cyclone cylinders 1 annular region for melting the top of slag bath 10, and lignite Jiao is fast under strong high-temperature slag heat effect Speed heat solution is simultaneously burnt, in the range of the excess air coefficient of primary air is maintained less than 1.Little particle is fast in the presence of air-flow Quick burning burns, and because strong turbulent flow combustion is dynamic, short grained grey molten melt drop coalescence is simultaneously thrown to rotation under the influence of centrifugal force On the wall of air duct 1, melting slag bath 10 is flowed under gravity, and the coke powder of bulky grain also sticks under the influence of centrifugal force On liquid slag film, melting slag bath 10 is flowed slowly under gravity, and residual burnt particle occurs to gasify and burnt in flowing Reaction, flow into melting slag bath 10 after the residence time dramatically increase, improve the burn-off rate of carbon.Melt the top reaction zone of slag bath 10 Temperature remains higher than grey melting temperature 100~200 DEG C using adjustment excess air coefficient and the control of flue gas recycled rate.Melting Slag bath 10 has larger thermal capacity, can quickly complete residual burnt gasification, and combustion., can due to having one layer of slag in melting slag bath 10 Ensure the stability and slag fluidity of slag bath temperature, unnecessary slag is discharged by the first slag-drip opening 9.It is raw in ring-like reaction zone Into gaseous product complete from the area of turning back on the top of cyclone cylinder 1 along central tube 2 downwards and to pass through with the gas-liquid separation of slag, gas Smoke tube 7 is sent into dual firing chamber 5.Afterburning is sent into by Secondary Air cyclone 6 in the porch of smoke tube 7 and dual firing chamber 5 Secondary Air, completely burned is completed with 1.05~1.1 small excess air coefficient in the inside of dual firing chamber 5.Generated after completely burned High-temperature flue gas is upward from dual firing chamber 5, passes sequentially through each boiler heating surface 3, and flue gas is reduced to one with the heat-exchange temperature of boiler heating surface 3 Fixed temperature discharges boiler from exhaust opening 4, sets gas recirculating fan to introduce a certain amount of smoke evacuation once in system simultaneously Air port 11.

The structure of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler of the present invention is with process characteristic:

In the circular passage that adiabatic high-temp. vortex cylinder 1 is formed with central tube 2 made of the silicon nitride, the excess that is passed through Air coefficient is less than 1, forms combustion with meagre oxygen condition, while has thicker melting slag bath 10 in this region, residual burnt completion melting Burn, contain more fuel gas in the flue gas of generation.It is higher to melt the temperature of slag bath, is advantageous to the complete conversion of carbon residue, Make deslagging smooth simultaneously.Inverted cyclone cylinder causes slag is realized with gaseous product farthest to separate.Simultaneously because high temperature The nitrogen oxides of combustion with meagre oxygen generation also substantially reduces.In dual firing chamber, due to being homogeneous combustion, relatively low excess can be maintained Air coefficient, to reduce the generation of pollutant.The characteristics of this kind of boiler is that each boiler body can configure multiple cyclone cylinders Lean-oxygen burner, each cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner can isolated operation, so as to improve lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen pot The Load Regulation ratio of stove.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler, it is characterised in that including some cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burners and boiler sheet Body;
Boiler body includes dual firing chamber (5), is arranged at the boiler heating surface (3) and exhaust opening (4) on dual firing chamber (5) top;
Cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner is an inverted Adiabatic Cyclone separator with central tube;The cyclone cylinder oxygen deprivation combustion Burn the dual firing chamber (5) of device connection boiler body;
Cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner includes cyclone cylinder (1), central tube (2), smoke tube (7) and Secondary Air cyclone (6);Rotation The lower sides of air duct (1) are provided with primary air nozzle (11);The bottom centre of cyclone cylinder (1) is provided with through hole, and central tube (2) passes through It is internal that the through hole of cyclone cylinder (1) bottom stretches into cyclone cylinder (1), at the top of central tube (2) for through hole and with cyclone cylinder (1) top inner wall It is arranged at intervals, central tube (2) seals with cyclone cylinder (1) junction;Lower section in cyclone cylinder (1) positioned at primary air nozzle (11) is provided with Slag bath (10) is melted, the bottom of melting slag bath (10) is provided with the first slag-drip opening (9);The bottom of central tube (2) is provided with the second deslagging Mouth (8), smoke tube (7) one end vertical connection central tube (2), other end connection dual firing chamber (5);
Cyclone cylinder lean-oxygen burner is multiple and be uniformly distributed in boiler body periphery.
A kind of 2. lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler according to claim 1, it is characterised in that smoke tube (7) with The porch of dual firing chamber (5) is provided with the Secondary Air cyclone (6) for being used for being sent into afterburning Secondary Air.
3. a kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler according to claim 1, it is characterised in that primary air nozzle (11) is downward It is obliquely installed.
A kind of 4. lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler according to claim 1, it is characterised in that each cyclone cylinder (1) side Wall is provided with two primary air nozzles (11) for being used to form whirlwind in cyclone cylinder (1).
A kind of 5. lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler according to claim 1, it is characterised in that boiler heating surface (3) tower Formula is arranged.
6. a kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler according to claim 1, it is characterised in that lignite semi-coke powder is once Tangentially or cut empty to the annular entered from cyclone cylinder bottom primary air nozzle (11) between central tube and cyclone cylinder under air effect Between, be formed as high-temp combustion gasification zone in the bottom of annular space, keep excess air coefficient to be less than 1 in this region, maintain React for combustion with meagre oxygen atmosphere;Flue gas strong rotation removing molten slag in cyclone cylinder is generated, then flue gas passes through dual firing chamber Smoke tube (7) between cyclone cylinder enters dual firing chamber, part auxiliary air is supplemented when entering dual firing chamber, with rotating jet Into dual firing chamber;Flue gas fully burning and further heat release in dual firing chamber, then high-temperature flue gas is up passes through tower respectively for generation The each heating surface of boiler of formula arrangement, completes heat transfer, and flue gas is reduced to after exhaust gas temperature and discharged from exhaust opening.
A kind of 7. lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler according to claim 1, it is characterised in that central tube and cyclone cylinder by Silicon nitride material is made, and the cyclone combustion chamber formed between central tube and cyclone cylinder is insulated combustion chamber.
A kind of 8. lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the combustion carried out in dual firing chamber It is 1.05~1.1 to burn for homogeneous combustion, excess air coefficient;The temperature of reaction zone above slag bath (10) is melted than grey melting temperature It is high 100~200 DEG C.
CN201610153272.4A 2016-03-17 2016-03-17 A kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler CN105627280B (en)

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CN201610153272.4A CN105627280B (en) 2016-03-17 2016-03-17 A kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler

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CN201610153272.4A CN105627280B (en) 2016-03-17 2016-03-17 A kind of lignite semi-coke combustion with meagre oxygen boiler
PCT/CN2016/080062 WO2017156824A1 (en) 2016-03-17 2016-04-22 Lignite semi-coke oxygen deficient combustion boiler

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CN105627280B true CN105627280B (en) 2017-12-15

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CN106642082B (en) * 2016-12-08 2019-04-09 哈尔滨工业大学 A kind of small cyclones melting coal-powder boiler
CN107975782B (en) * 2017-11-22 2019-04-12 西安交通大学 A kind of the fractional combustion boiler system and method for slag combustion with meagre oxygen catalysis oxidation
CN108931054A (en) * 2018-06-04 2018-12-04 河南龙成煤高效技术应用有限公司 A kind of hot-blast stove and the method for controlling its burning

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CN2198506Y (en) * 1994-07-05 1995-05-24 上海交通大学 Vertical rear trap slag tube bundle whirlwind boiler with ring room
JP2000213707A (en) * 1999-01-25 2000-08-02 Hitachi Zosen Corp Combustion apparatus
CN201246737Y (en) * 2008-07-24 2009-05-27 广东工业大学 Anthracite duff combustion device of power station boiler
CN201487939U (en) * 2009-07-17 2010-05-26 刘效洲 Dual-drum pulverized anthracite burning device
CN102062393B (en) * 2011-01-06 2012-11-28 西安交通大学 Cyclone burning method and device for reburning fuel in cyclone drum for denitration
CN202166050U (en) * 2011-07-08 2012-03-14 贵州电力试验研究院 Pulverized-coal-combustion-stabilizing dual cyclone air cylinder combustor - W-type flame boiler
CN105114943A (en) * 2015-08-26 2015-12-02 烟台龙源电力技术股份有限公司 Cyclone furnace and method for improving slag captured rate of cyclone furnace
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CN205447700U (en) * 2016-03-17 2016-08-10 西安交通大学 Oxygendeficient burning boiler of brown coal semicoke

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