CN105889906A - Thermal-pulverization high-efficiency combustion device and method for high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel - Google Patents

Thermal-pulverization high-efficiency combustion device and method for high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105889906A
CN105889906A CN201610413306.9A CN201610413306A CN105889906A CN 105889906 A CN105889906 A CN 105889906A CN 201610413306 A CN201610413306 A CN 201610413306A CN 105889906 A CN105889906 A CN 105889906A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
efflorescence
hot
containing fuel
fluid bed
bed furnace
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Pending
Application number
CN201610413306.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张守军
范晓旭
鲁万宝
赵成武
张守峰
李益瑞
吴银龙
冯干
胡鹏
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Hefei Deborah Power Co. Ltd.
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Hefei Debo Bioenergy Science & Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610413306.9A priority Critical patent/CN105889906A/en
Publication of CN105889906A publication Critical patent/CN105889906A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C10/00Fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • F23C10/002Fluidised bed combustion apparatus for pulverulent solid fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C10/00Fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • F23C10/18Details; Accessories

Abstract

The invention discloses a thermal-pulverization high-efficiency combustion device and method for high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel. A thermal-pulverization fluidized bed furnace is adopted to heat and pulverize the high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel so as to produce a high-temperature semi-coke power and gas mixture. The high-temperature semi-coke power and gas mixture is fed into the boiler, and complete combustion is performed in a hearth through staged air distribution. Ash obtained after combustion is discharged out through a dust remover at the tail portion. The efficient utilization of the high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel is achieved, the problem of the high costs for thermal pulverization of an existing high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel is solved, the bottleneck of big utilization difficulty of the high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel is broken through and the utilization efficiency is improved by adopting a thermal-pulverization method.

Description

A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device and method
Technical field
The invention belongs to high volatile carbon-containing fuel and utilize technical field, be specifically related to a kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel heat Efflorescence high efficient combustion device and method.
Background technology
High volatile carbon-containing fuel mainly includes biomass and the low-order coal fuel such as brown coal, mud coal.Various high volatiles contain Carbon fuel all has certain energy.High volatile carbon-containing fuel can be a kind of energy shape that solar energy is stored with chemical energy form Formula, directly or indirectly derives from the photosynthesis of plant.Tellurian plant carries out the energy that photosynthesis is consumed, and accounts for the sun Being irradiated to the 0.2% of earth total radiation, this portion of energy is 40 times of current mankind's total energy consumption.
Existing high volatile carbon-containing fuel mainly uses the combustion system of fixed bed and fluid bed, combustion reaction is simplified to The gas-solid reaction of low rate, efficiency of combustion is low.The most built multiple engineerings, are processed into fuel powdery before combustion, adopt Efficient burning is carried out by the mode of burner.But high volatile carbon-containing fuel there will be problems in pulverizing process, such as: wave Send out point easy a precipitation and cause Fire explosion;Moisture causes fuel powder to bond;Biomass fuel intensity or toughness are high, and pulverizing energy consumption is high.
High volatile carbon-containing fuel is when burning, owing to its flame organization need has certain central high temperature district, high volatilization Point carbon-containing fuel just will become Mars and fly out system once not complete reaction in flame high-temperature region.So the combustion of high volatile carbon containing The efficiency of material combustor is difficult to be further continued for improving, and easily produces NOx in flame high-temperature region, causes the maximum discharge of NOx, existing height The NOx discharge of volatile matter carbon-containing fuel combustor is typically larger than 300mg/Nm.High volatile carbon-containing fuel usually contains higher Moisture, low temp fuel powder is after entering combustion zone, and the moisture precipitation time is longer and moisture separates out and needs big energy, causes Combustion instability.
Accordingly, it would be desirable to a kind of rational high volatile carbon-containing fuel Land use models improves popularity and the combustion that raw material utilizes Burn efficiency.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, it is provided that a kind of hot efflorescence of high volatile carbon-containing fuel High efficient combustion device and method.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device, sets including hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace, boiler, dedusting Standby and tail gas treatment device, described hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace bottom is provided with dog-house, bottom hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace also and gas The air outlet of conveying equipment is connected, and hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace upper outlet is connected with boiler inlet, boiler export and cleaner Entrance connect, the outlet of cleaner is connected with tail gas treatment device.
Further describing as technique scheme:
Dog-house includes raw material feed bin and bed feed bin;
Further describing as technique scheme:
Heating surface, air preheater and economizer it has been sequentially arranged in boiler;
Further describing as technique scheme:
Tail gas treatment device includes air-introduced machine and chimney, and described cleaner is connected with chimney by air-introduced machine;
Further describing as technique scheme:
Dog-house bottom in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace is provided with the blast cap for being uniformly distributed air and temperature;
Further describing as technique scheme:
Boiler internal classification is disposed with air port;
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence efficient burning method, uses a kind of hot efflorescence of high volatile carbon-containing fuel efficient Burner produces, and comprises the following steps:
(1) raw material, bed add in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace by dog-house, and air is sent into by gas transportation facilities, makes hot powder Changing the fluid bed furnace bottom speed of service is 1-5m/s, top speed of service 0.2-3.5m/s, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace running temperature 400-1200 DEG C, under the effect of high temperature and bed, high volatile carbonaceous fuel feedstock is pulverized into≤the semicoke fine powder of 2mm, And produce combustion gas;
(2) the high-temperature semi-coke fine powder produced and the mixture of combustion gas enter boiler, burn with preheated air stepped mixing, and burning is produced Raw ash removing dust equipment is collected, and tail gas is discharged through tail gas treatment device.
Further describing as technique scheme:
The calorific value > 1200Kcal/kg of high volatile carbonaceous fuel feedstock, granularity≤20cm, volatile matter content is more than 25%;
Further describing as technique scheme:
The bed that hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace adds is wear-resisting thick bed granule, including quartz sand, river sand and/or alumina balls, grain Footpath is 0.5 ~ 5mm.
The principle of the present invention is:
Biomass in high volatile carbon-containing fuel are mainly made up of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and content of lignin is more Height, the mechanical strength of biomass is the highest;The content of cellulose is the highest, and the elasticity of biomass and toughness are the best.And lignin is with fine Dimension element all forms with C, H, O for essential element, and its at high temperature macromole molecular scission primarily forms biomass half Burnt, combustion gas (CO, CO2、H2、C2H4、H2O etc.).Biomass semicoke is that loose and porous structure, mechanical strength and toughness are far below biology Matter itself.Low-order coal in high volatile carbon-containing fuel usually contains relatively high-moisture, at high temperature moisture and Volatile, shape Become loose porous semicoke.
Hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace adds high volatile carbon-containing fuel, is formed in bottom under the air effect that bottom is passed through Weak oxide region, the oxygen molecule in air is distributed on high volatile carbon-containing fuel surface and reacts with C=C, C=H key, at the beginning of fuel Step efflorescence, and under the effect of high temperature, generate semicoke and combustion gas.Bed in fluid bed, under gas push effect, is carried out at a high speed Motion, by loose semi-coke powder chemical conversion fine powder.Hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace bottom bed speed is higher, beneficially semicoke efflorescence;On Portion's air velocity is relatively low, and the semicoke fine powder of smaller particle size can escape, and the semicoke of bigger granularity returns heat under gravity Efflorescence is continued in efflorescence fluid bed furnace bottom.
Owing to semi-coke powder and fuel gas temperature are higher, having exceeded thermodynamics firing temperature, burning mixed with air is empty Between burn, and unconventional torch burning mode, substantially increase efficiency of combustion.In boiler combustion indoor high-temperature semi-coke powder and combustion Gas can fully stepped mixing burn with air, not only ensure that the burning completely of high-temperature semi-coke powder and combustion gas, and uniform Temperature field, it is suppressed that the generation of NOx, simultaneously by arranging that heating surface controls the temperature of combustor, it is ensured that ignition temperature is less than High volatile carbon-containing fuel ash melt temperature.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
(1) cost of high volatile carbonaceous fuel feedstock efflorescence is greatly reduced.High-temperature oxydation is utilized to change high volatile carbon containing The chemistry of fuel and physical property, recycle the high speed impact pulverised fuel of bed in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace, greatly reduce Energy required for efflorescence;
(2) expand high volatile carbon-containing fuel and utilize scope, high volatile carbon-containing fuel calorific value > 1200Kcal/kg, granularity < 20cm;
(3) improve high volatile carbon-containing fuel utilization ratio, high volatile carbon-containing fuel efficiency of combustion > 99%, and reduce NOx emission is to < 100mg/Nm.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of a kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device in the embodiment of the present invention.
Wherein have: 1, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace;101, raw material feed bin;102, bed feed bin;103, aerator;104, wind Cap;2, boiler;201, heating surface;202, air preheater;203, economizer;204, air port;3, cleaner unit;4, air inducing Machine;5, chimney.
Detailed description of the invention
See Fig. 1, a kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device, including hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1, under Portion is provided with raw material feed bin 101, bed feed bin 102, and the bottom in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1 is provided with for homogeneous air distribution with equal The blast cap 104 in even temperature field, is connected with aerator 103 bottom hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1 top and pot Stove 2 is connected, and boiler 2 is provided with the heating surface 201 for controlling boiler combustion indoor temperature, is provided with air preheater 202 and saves coal Device 203, also hierarchical arrangement have air port 204, boiler 2 outlet to be connected with cleaner unit 3 entrance, and cleaner unit 3 exports connection to be had and draw Blower fan 4, air-introduced machine 4 exports connection chimney 5.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence efficient burning method, uses a kind of hot efflorescence of high volatile carbon-containing fuel High efficient combustion device produces, and comprises the following steps:
(1) raw material, bed add in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1 by raw material feed bin 101, bed feed bin 102, and aerator 103 will Air is sent into, and by blast cap 104 even distributing wind.The hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1 bottom speed of service is 1-5m/s, and speed is run on top Degree 0.2-3.5m/s.Hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1 running temperature 400-1200 DEG C.Under the effect of high temperature and bed, high volatile Carbonaceous fuel feedstock is pulverized into≤the semicoke fine powder of 2mm, and produce combustion gas.
(2) the high-temperature semi-coke fine powder produced and the mixture of combustion gas enter boiler 2 and burn with preheated air stepped mixing, combustion Burning the ash removing dust device 3 produced to collect, tail gas is discharged through air-introduced machine 4 and chimney 5.
Wherein, calorific value > 1200Kcal/kg, the granularity≤20cm of high volatile carbonaceous fuel feedstock, volatile matter content is big In 25%;
Wherein, the bed that hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace 1 adds is wear-resisting thick bed granule, including quartz sand, river sand and/or aluminium oxide Ball, particle diameter is 0.5 ~ 5mm.
Embodiment 1
Raw material is wooden unit granularity 20cm, water content 25%, calorific value 3120Kcal/kg, volatile matter content about 67%.Bed is aluminium oxide Spherolite footpath 5mm adds in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace lower gas speed 5m/s, upper gas speed 3.5m/s, in-furnace temperature 1200 DEG C.Wooden unit is pulverized into about 2mm semicoke, and enters in boiler after combustion gas mixing, is passed through with classification Air mixed combustion.Tail gas NOx content 86mg/Nm after burning.Material combusting efficiency is about 99.9%.
Embodiment 2
Raw material is bamboo chip granularity 10cm, water content 42%, calorific value 2350Kcal/kg, volatile matter content about 63%.Bed is aluminium oxide Spherolite footpath 3mm adds in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace lower gas speed 4m/s, upper gas speed 1.6m/s, in-furnace temperature 850 DEG C.Wooden unit is pulverized into about 0.5mm semicoke, and enters after combustion gas mixing in boiler, leads to classification The air mixed combustion entered.Tail gas NOx content 74mg/Nm after burning.Material combusting efficiency is about 99.8%.
Embodiment 3
Raw material is brown coal granularity 5cm, water content 32%, calorific value 3200Kcal/kg, volatile matter content about 43%.Bed is river sand grain Footpath 1.5mm adds in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace lower gas speed 2.5m/s, upper gas speed 1.2m/s, in-furnace temperature 620 DEG C.Wooden unit is pulverized into about 1.2mm semicoke, and enters after combustion gas mixing in boiler, leads to classification The air mixed combustion entered.Tail gas NOx content 68mg/Nm after burning.Material combusting efficiency is about 99.5%
Embodiment 4
Raw material is mud coal granularity 3cm, water content 60%, calorific value 1200Kcal/kg, volatile matter content about 56%.Bed is quartz sand 0.5mm adds in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace lower gas speed 1m/s, upper gas speed 0.2m/s, In-furnace temperature 400 DEG C.Wooden unit is pulverized into about 0.3mm semicoke, and enters after combustion gas mixing in boiler, the air being passed through with classification Mixed combustion.Tail gas NOx content 60mg/Nm after burning.Material combusting efficiency is about 99.4%.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, and protection scope of the present invention is not limited merely to above-mentioned enforcement Example, all technical schemes belonged under thinking of the present invention belong to protection scope of the present invention.It should be pointed out that, for the art Those of ordinary skill for, some improvements and modifications without departing from the principles of the present invention, these improvements and modifications are also Should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device, it is characterised in that: include hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace, pot Stove, cleaner and tail gas treatment device, described hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace bottom is provided with dog-house, bottom hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace Also being connected with the air outlet of gas transportation facilities, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace upper outlet is connected with boiler inlet, boiler export with The entrance of cleaner connects, and the outlet of cleaner is connected with tail gas treatment device.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute State dog-house and include raw material feed bin and bed feed bin.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute Heating surface, air preheater and economizer it has been sequentially arranged in stating boiler.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute Stating tail gas treatment device and include air-introduced machine and chimney, described cleaner is connected with chimney by air-introduced machine.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute State the dog-house bottom in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace and be provided with the blast cap for being uniformly distributed air and temperature.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute State boiler internal classification and be disposed with air port.
7. the combustion method of the arbitrary described a kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence high efficient combustion device of claim 1-6, It is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
(1) raw material, bed add in hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace by dog-house, and air is sent into by gas transportation facilities, makes hot powder Changing the fluid bed furnace bottom speed of service is 1-5m/s, top speed of service 0.2-3.5m/s, hot efflorescence fluid bed furnace running temperature 400-1200 DEG C, under the effect of high temperature and bed, high volatile carbonaceous fuel feedstock is pulverized into≤the semicoke fine powder of 2mm, And produce combustion gas;
(2) the high-temperature semi-coke fine powder produced and the mixture of combustion gas enter boiler, burn with preheated air stepped mixing, and burning is produced Raw ash removing dust equipment is collected, and tail gas is discharged through tail gas treatment device.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence efficient burning method the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that: high The calorific value > 1200Kcal/kg of volatile matter carbonaceous fuel feedstock, granularity≤20cm, volatile matter content is more than 25%.
A kind of high volatile carbon-containing fuel hot efflorescence efficient burning method the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that: heat The bed that efflorescence fluid bed furnace adds is wear-resisting thick bed granule, and including quartz sand, river sand and/or alumina balls, particle diameter is 0.5 ~5mm。
CN201610413306.9A 2016-06-13 2016-06-13 Thermal-pulverization high-efficiency combustion device and method for high-volatile-component carbon-containing fuel Pending CN105889906A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106801862A (en) * 2017-03-15 2017-06-06 张守军 A kind of carbon-containing fuel efficient burning coupled electricity-generation method
CN110631007A (en) * 2019-09-09 2019-12-31 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 Hot semicoke direct combustion system and method

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CN1415891A (en) * 2001-10-31 2003-05-07 清华大学 Combustion method and device for denitration by refueling pyrolysis gas of biomass
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CN110631007A (en) * 2019-09-09 2019-12-31 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 Hot semicoke direct combustion system and method

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