CN104942655A - Main shaft rotary error accuracy testing device - Google Patents

Main shaft rotary error accuracy testing device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104942655A
CN104942655A CN201510428573.9A CN201510428573A CN104942655A CN 104942655 A CN104942655 A CN 104942655A CN 201510428573 A CN201510428573 A CN 201510428573A CN 104942655 A CN104942655 A CN 104942655A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
sensor
main shaft
machine tool
chip microcomputer
error
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CN201510428573.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
徐文欢
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徐文欢
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Priority to CN201510428573.9A priority Critical patent/CN104942655A/en
Publication of CN104942655A publication Critical patent/CN104942655A/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/007Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for managing machine functions not concerning the tool
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M13/00Testing of machine parts
    • G01M13/04Bearings

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of machine tool processing, particularly to a main shaft rotary error accuracy testing device for a machine tool. The main shaft rotary error accuracy testing device comprises vortex flow sensors, prefixed amplifying circuits, filter circuits, A/D conversion chips, a single chip microcomputer, a peripheral circuit of the single chip microcomputer, and an embedded microprocessor, wherein the vortex flow sensors comprise an X direction sensor and a Y direction sensor; the X direction sensor and the Y direction sensor are respectively connected to the input end of the single chip microcomputer through the prefixed amplifying circuits, the filter circuits and the A/D conversion chips in sequence; the input-output port of the single chip microcomputer is connected to a memory and the embedded microprocessor; the input-output port of the embedded microprocessor is connected with a keyboard, a mouse, a USB and a display. According to the main shaft rotary error accuracy testing device, the rotary error of the main shaft of the machine tool can be effectively improved, the error condition can be discovered in time to diagnose failure of the machine tool, or the targeted prevention and improvement measures are conducted on the machine tool, so that the machine tool processing precision is improved, and the yield and quality of products processed by the machine tool are ensured.

Description

Spindle rotation error accuracy test device

Technical field

The present invention relates to machine tooling technical field, specifically refer to a kind of machine spindle rotary error accuracy test device.

Background technology

Spindle rotation error is the principal element affecting machine finish, and spindle rotation accuracy is a leading indicator of evaluation lathe dynamic property.By measuring spindle rotation error, main shaft running status can be monitored, Timeliness coverage and tracing trouble, also the rotating accuracy of main shaft can be improved by error compensation, therefore, the research of the rotating accuracy of main shaft is had to the meaning of particular importance, therefore lot of domestic and foreign scholars have carried out long-term research to its method of testing, and achieve certain achievement.

Early stage Rotary Precision of Spindle of Machine Tools is not too high, the common method static measurement of the rotating accuracy of test machine tool chief axis, namely insert in spindle hole with accurate plug, then on the cylindrical or end face of plug, amesdial is installed to measure, to obtain axial float, circular runout and swing three spindle rotation accuracy values.Although this method is simple, both included the radial motion of main shaft gyration axis in the circular runout recorded, have again taper hole relative to the bias (namely often turning beat offset once) of axis of rotation, the two cannot be distinguished.And because this measuring method is carried out under main spindle hand turns round at a slow speed, so the rotating accuracy under main shaft duty can not be reflected, more can not be used for high speed, high-accuracy rotating accuracy is measured.

The traditional method of testing of spindle rotation accuracy is Czech VUOSO bidirectional measurement method and the unidirectional mensuration of U.S. LRL.The former is applicable to test tool rotary type spindle rotation error; The latter is applicable to test piece rotary type main shaft radial error.These two kinds of methods are all unloaded at lathe or under the condition of simulating cutting, by the measurement to standard ball (ring), oscillograph screen shows the circular image that main shaft gyration produces, circular image is filmed and just can reads spindle rotation error motion value with circularity model.Although the display graphics that this method of testing intuitively can show in laboratory, be convenient to monitor the installation and debugging of lathe, due to by there is certain errors of principles, so measuring accuracy is difficult to improve, practical application is restricted.

By 1970, machine tool institute of Czech proposed two-way kinetic measurement.This measuring method is obtained by the sensor that two orthogonal coordinate directions are installed because of the turn error signal of main shaft simultaneously, therefore is called two coordinate survey.Tested main shaft is installed a reference rings, and reference rings rotates with main shaft.Relative to reference rings, in two positions of 90 °, two fixed sensor: X are installed to sensor and Y-direction sensor.Because the out-of-roundness error of reference sphere is relatively minimum, so negligible.At this moment, eccentric error and radial motion error two parts of reference sphere are only comprised in the error signal that sensor provides.

To be people carrying out sub-micron even in the test of nanoscale spindle rotation accuracy to error separating technology (Error Separation Technique), and form error and its setting-up eccentricity error that can not ignore standard ball (ring) again all can grow up in the impact of test result.Error separating technology refers to and to be separated from measured signal and to remove the component of signal affecting certainty of measurement that measuring system introduces, thus obtains the accurate signal that will measure.In spindle rotation accuracy is measured, error separate refers to be separated from measured signal and removes the setting-up eccentricity of detected element and the impact of out-of-roundness, thus obtains the exact value of turn error.Conventional error separating technology mainly contains reverse method, multistep processes and multipoint method.Reverse method is the good reproducibility within the short period of measuring based on roundness error of workpiece and axis system error, change workpiece, sensor to the relative position of main shaft, then do twice measurement respectively, after data processing is carried out to the resultant error of twice measurement, just can obtain axis system error; Multistep processes only needs a sensor image data, by transposition workpiece or main shaft to specific location work; Multipoint method adopt multiple sensor main shaft diameter to while image data, multiple sensor is mutually the angle determined and arranges in the plane of vertical central, then by processing to the data gathered the turn error isolating form error and main shaft, line-of-sight course is most widely used error separating technology during multipoint method is measured, but it exists the problem of harmonic distortion.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to provide a kind of machine spindle rotary error accuracy test device, to find accurately and to diagnose machine failure in time, improves machine finish.

For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is: spindle rotation error accuracy test device, comprise eddy current sensor, pre-amplification circuit, filter circuit, A/D conversion chip, single-chip microcomputer and peripheral circuit thereof and embedded microprocessor, described eddy current sensor comprises X to sensor and Y-direction sensor, described X passes through pre-amplification circuit respectively successively to sensor and Y-direction sensor, filter circuit and A/D conversion chip are connected to the input of described single-chip microcomputer, the input/output port of described single-chip microcomputer is connected to memory and embedded microprocessor, described embedded microprocessor input/output port connects keyboard, mouse, USB and display.

The present invention effectively can improve the turn error of machine tool chief axis, for error condition Timeliness coverage and diagnosis machine failure, or lathe is prevented and Improving Measurements targetedly, improve machine finish, ensure yield rate and the quality of machine tooling product.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is testing experimental system master-plan block diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is single chip computer hardware circuit principle sketch of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is filter circuit sampled signal aliasing figure of the present invention.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in detail.

A kind of spindle rotation error accuracy test device of the present invention, mainly comprises eddy current sensor, pre-amplification circuit, filter circuit, A/D conversion chip, single-chip microcomputer and peripheral circuit and embedded microprocessor etc., as shown in Figure 1.What testing arrangement adopted is bit pattern up and down based on embedded microprocessor-single-chip microcomputer, and embedded microprocessor and single-chip microcomputer are by RS232 serial ports interaction data.Under the support of testing software, the instruction that the data acquisition of spindle rotation error signal receives embedded microprocessor by single-chip microcomputer completes, and the display of data processing, result and storage data etc. are all completed by embedded microprocessor.

According to design overall protocols call, testing arrangement hardware controls part of the present invention mainly have employed following chip:

(1) singlechip chip: 51 serial 77LE58, is characterized in aboundresources, Width funtion operating characteristic (2.7V ~ 5.5V) and high reliability.

(2) RS232 interface chip: MAX232, without the need to any extra boost voltage, directly can be converted into the RS232 level of standard by Transistor-Transistor Logic level.

(3) A/D conversion chip: AD1674,12 conversion accuracies, accessible ± 10V analog signal.

(4) RAM chip: 62256,32K byte space, deposits collection 12 precision measure signals.

(5) CF card: 8G internal memory, power consumption is few, and volume is little, and capacity is large, and do not need extra balancing cell, easy to carry, price comparison is cheap.

As indicated with 2, the 77LE58 of system, carries out the decomposition of address/data bus to single-chip microcomputer hardware elementary diagram by address latch 74ls373, in 0 ~ 7FFF data space, extends 62256 (32K) RAM, as measurement data memory.

By A15, A14, A0, RD and WR signal, be combined into all control signals of AD1674 by logic circuit; Photoelectric encoder A is to pulse input signal access external interrupt T0; The Transistor-Transistor Logic level RS232 logic interfacing of single-chip microcomputer itself, by MAX232 electrical level transferring chip, can be directly connected to host computer serial ports.

Respectively pre-amplification circuit as shown in Figure 1 and filter circuit are described in detail below.

Pre-amplification circuit system adopts a double-pole two-way switch, for circuit arranges two multiplication factors.Wherein, JIN0 is sensor signal, and its output voltage is inV; JT0 is potentiometer, and its output voltage is V; JS0 is a double-pole two-way switch.

When switch 2 and 3,4 and 5 is connected, export as Vout=Vin

Now, the multiplication factor of circuit is A=1, is equivalent to in-phase voltage amplifier.

When switch 2 and 1,5 and 6 is connected, export and be

Now, circuit can regulate the value of V by regulating potentiometer, and realizing circuit is every directly; By regulating variable resistor RW0, multiplication factor can be regulated during the input value that output is changed as A/D, A/D converter full scale can be made to measure as far as possible, improve the precision measured.

Wherein, operational amplifier uses OP07, and OP07 is a kind of high-precision single operational amplifier, has very low input offset voltage and drift.The good characteristic of OP07 makes it be particularly suitable for as pre-amplifier to amplify small-signal, and zeroing and frequency issues just can meet the demands to use OP07 generally need not consider.Its characteristic has: low input offset voltage, is 75 μ V to the maximum; Low Drift Temperature, is 1.3 μ V/ DEG C to the maximum; Low noise, is 0.6 μ V to the maximum; Wide input voltage range, input voltage is from-14V to+14V; Very wide supply voltage scope is 3V ~ 18V.

The sampling thheorem of filter circuit.

In data collecting system, sampling thheorem plays a part very important.By the time signal that the data of data acquisition system are discrete.So-called discrete-time signal refers to gets limited signal at discrete instants, and it can be the signal of objective reality, also by the analog signal of a Time Continuous, can extract instantaneous value by the pointwise of certain hour interval.From continuous signal or discrete-time signal, extracting a series of sample value during sampling, is in fact exactly the one process to signal.

As shown in Figure 3 a, the Fourier transformation of signal x (t) is X (ω), and its frequency band range is-ω ~ ω.Sampled signal x st one-period spectrogram during the Fourier transformation of (), its cycle is ω s, and ω s=2 π/T s.Shown in Fig. 3 b, ω s>2 ω m, peri odic spectrum is separated from each other; And shown in Fig. 3 c, ω s<2 ω m, peri odic spectrum is overlapped, and the High-frequency and low-frequency part namely between frequency spectrum overlaps, and this will make to produce spectral aliasing effect during signal restoring.So-called spectral aliasing effect is because sampled signal after sampling changes, and occurs a kind of phenomenon that high and low composition is obscured.

To sum up, as seen from Figure 3, if ω s>=2 ω m, then not occurrence frequency aliasing, therefore sample frequency ω s(2 π/T s) or f s(1/T s) highest frequency ω in signal x (t) must be greater than or equal to mtwice, i.e. ω s>=2 ω m, or f s>=f m, this is called sampling thheorem.

Therefore, when gathering signal, according to the frequency component of the highest frequency component of signal or needs, the noise in signal or unwanted frequency composition should be filtered.

The design of filter circuit.

Filter circuit is the selection of frequency characteristic realization to signal intermediate frequency rate composition utilizing circuit.Low-pass filter circuit, bandwidth-limited circuit and high-pass filtering circuit is divided into according to allowing the frequency difference passed through in signal.As requested, what native system was selected is low-pass filter circuit.The most frequently used low-pass filter circuit has three kinds, i.e. Butterworth (Butterworth), Chebyshev (Chebyshev) and Bezier (Bessel) filter circuit.The amplitude-frequency response of Butterworth filter circuit has maximally-flat degree in the pass-band, but slower from passband to stopband attenuation; The amplitude-frequency response of Chebyshev's filter circuit has certain ripple in the pass-band, but can decay rapidly; And Bezier filter circuit focuses on phase-frequency characteristic, its phase frequency is directly proportional to frequency, and namely time delay is constant substantially, can obtain the waveform that distortion is minimum.Under identical index, the exponent number of Chebyshev's filter circuit is lower than Butterworth filter circuit.What native system was selected is Chebyshev's filter circuit.Native system selective filter exponent number is 8 rank, and the filter chip of selection is OP07 high precision operating amplifier.The design software that filter circuit adopts is FilterLAB.

Claims (2)

1. spindle rotation error accuracy test device, comprise eddy current sensor, pre-amplification circuit, filter circuit, A/D conversion chip, single-chip microcomputer and peripheral circuit thereof and embedded microprocessor, it is characterized in that, described eddy current sensor comprises X to sensor and Y-direction sensor, described X passes through pre-amplification circuit respectively successively to sensor and Y-direction sensor, filter circuit and A/D conversion chip are connected to the input of described single-chip microcomputer, the input/output port of described single-chip microcomputer is connected to memory and embedded microprocessor, described embedded microprocessor input/output port connects keyboard, mouse, USB and display.
2. spindle rotation error accuracy test device according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the output port of described single-chip microcomputer is also connected with numeral method device.
CN201510428573.9A 2015-07-20 2015-07-20 Main shaft rotary error accuracy testing device CN104942655A (en)

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CN201510428573.9A CN104942655A (en) 2015-07-20 2015-07-20 Main shaft rotary error accuracy testing device
PCT/CN2015/084863 WO2017012107A1 (en) 2015-07-20 2015-07-22 Turning error precision testing device for spindle

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108145531A (en) * 2018-01-08 2018-06-12 内蒙古科技大学 A kind of device and method for detecting machine tool motion characteristic and precision deterioration law

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JPH03228549A (en) * 1990-07-31 1991-10-09 Osaka Kiko Co Ltd Method and device for measuring feeding accuracy of machine tool
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