CN104904633A - Method for constructing cold saline land rice-fish wetland - Google Patents

Method for constructing cold saline land rice-fish wetland Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104904633A
CN104904633A CN201510292624.XA CN201510292624A CN104904633A CN 104904633 A CN104904633 A CN 104904633A CN 201510292624 A CN201510292624 A CN 201510292624A CN 104904633 A CN104904633 A CN 104904633A
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China
Prior art keywords
rice
fish
water
days
salinization
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Chinese (zh)
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杨富亿
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Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology of CAS
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Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology of CAS
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Priority to CN201510292624.XA priority Critical patent/CN104904633A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

A method for constructing cold saline land rice-fish wetland relates to a method for constructing rice-fish wetland. The invention aims to solve the problems of low yield, single operation and poor economic benefit of a cold saline rice field existing in the prior art. The method comprises the following steps: 1, washing salt; 2, performing farmland works; 3, transplanting rice; 4, introducing fish; 5, performing water layer management; 6, fertilizing; 7, performing disease control; 8, harvesting. By utilizing the method for constructing the cold saline land rice-fish wetland disclosed by the invention, the yield of the rice is improved by over 5% and higher averagely than the yield of rice planted singly, the yield of fish is greater than 450kg/hm<2> averagely, and the newly increased economic income is more than 3000RMB/hm<2> averagely, so the effect of improving the economic benefit of the cold saline land rice field is significant; the method is applicable for the technical field of saline land agricultural development.

Description

A kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method building rice-fish wetland.
Technical background
In international Wetland Convention categorizing system, rice field belongs to " artificial wet land system ", " irrigated land " wetland type, and its pact appointment codes is " 3 ".
Salinization soil refers to that water soluble salt accumulation harmful to plant growth in soil exceedes certain limit, reaches a kind of land type of damage to crops normal growth.Salinization soil comprises the salinization abandoned land and salinization arable land that are not utilized.Wherein the latter belongs to China's middle-and-low-yielding fields category, and occupies suitable ratio.Salinization is a worldwide problem.Research both domestic and external shows, due to reasons such as natural cause and artificial unreasonable irrigations, salinization once brought massive losses to agricultural production.Salinization not only reduces productivity of land, and seriously governs the indissolubility of Land_use change, the sustainable development of directly impact agricultural.Therefore, the Appropriate application in salinization soil, significant to performance Potential Land Productivity.
Planting rice is that current the northern area of China develops one of the main path in salinization soil, and its exploitation area accounts for more than 80% of the salinization land development and utilization gross area.In the West in Jilin Province consolidation major project of carrying out in recent years, only in Zhenlai, large peace, Project Areas, three, Songyuan City, just will increase salinization arable land 200,000 hm newly 2, wherein rice field area will more than 180,000 hm 2.
Build rice-fish wetland, be exactly by rational technical measures, fish are introduced in original paddy ecosystem, enable the shallow-water environment in rice field meet the long requirement of rice sashimi (raw fish) simultaneously, form the complex ecosystem of rice fish mutualism, thus strengthen ecological functions and the Economic Function of original rice field wetland.Practice shows, build rice-fish wetland, the plane agricultural that can change rice field wetland is multi-storied agriculture, and change one-product operation is comprehensive management, have save land, economize on water, save grain, joint provide, increase production, the effect such as to increase income, be agriculture, fishing combine a kind of Wetland ecological agricultural Model in exploitation salinization soil.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to yield poorly with will solving salinization rice field, existing cold district, manage single and problem that is deficiency in economic performance, and a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland is provided.
A kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland completes according to the following steps:
One, salinity is rinsed:
1., turn over field: autumn, salinization rice field, cold district is ploughed;
2., face, smooth field: farm slack season in autumn, to before freezing, smashes the bulk soil of ploughing in ground, salinization rice field, Hou Han district, then fetches earth and fill and lead up depression, and make topsoil uniform soil quality, the flatness on ground, salinization rice field, cold district reaches ± 5cm;
3. rinse spring: spring in next year to flatness be ± soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm rinses 2 times, with obtaining salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district;
Step one 3. described in the 1st time to flatness be ± water consumption that soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm is rinsed is 1500m 3/ hm 2~ 1800m 3/ hm 2, soak time is 2 days ~ 3 days, then discharges; Again to flatness be ± carry out the 2nd soaked field to the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm, water consumption is 900m 3/ hm 2~ 1200m 3/ hm 2, soak and discharge again for 3 days ~ 4 days;
Two, irrigation facility:
1., ridge is rebuild:
The ridge on ground, salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district is increased and ground tamping, obtains the ridge after increasing;
2. fish ditch specification, is improved:
In every block rice field, distance ridge 1.5m far digs Yu Gou, and fish ditch is communicated with inlet channel and drainage ditch; Again in the rice field closed of the fish ditch composition dug, dig longitudinal furrow at interval of 75cm ~ 85cm, then dig a traverse furrow in centre;
3. fish hole specification, is improved:
In fish ditch infall, water inlet and excavation fish hole, discharge outlet place;
Three, rice transplanting:
1., rinse: before rice transplanting, flushing is carried out 3 times ~ 4 times to rice field, the rice field after rinsing before obtaining rice transplanting;
Yu Gou, the fish in the rice field after 2., rinsing before every block rice transplanting carry out rice transplanting outside hole; Rice row is vertical with the sideline that Yu Gou, fish are cheated; Rice transplanting was terminated before May 31;
Four, fish are introduced:
1., fingerling is supported temporarily: on May 10 ~ 15 bought fingerling, used salt content lower than the soaked field water of 2g/L, was temporary in the fence in drainage ditch by purchase fingerling;
Step 4 1. described in fingerling be carp, crucian and grass carp;
2., field prepares: after rice transplanting terminates, rebuild ridge and cleaning Yu Gou, Yu Keng;
3. examination water fish, is introduced: put into by 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps and be equipped with in the container of paddy field water either, observe the activity of 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps;
If 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps 4. in the container that paddy field water either is housed are movable normal, within 7 ~ 10 days after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce carp and crucian; Within 25 ~ 30 days again after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce grass carp;
Five, water layer management:
1., rice transplanting terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, then carries out pouring water 3 ~ 5cm, drains after 2 ~ 3 days, then the 3 ~ 5cm that pours water, and drains again, remain to effective tiller always and terminate after 2 ~ 3 days; Every 5 ~ 7 days, 1 time is rinsed to rice field during this;
2., rice tillering latter stage, booting stage and heading stage, keep the water layer in rice field to be 10cm ~ 15cm, expand fish movement simultaneously and look for food scope;
3., dry field draining: first rinse 1 time to rice field before dry field draining, clear up Yu Gou and Yu Keng simultaneously, then carry out draining, drainage speed, lower than 5cm/s, makes fish enter Yu Gou, Yu Keng smoothly;
4., maintain during dry field and protect fish and water: when the water colour finding in fish ditch or fish hole during dry field becomes brown or dark brown, water filling in Xiang Yugou, fish hole, rinses salinity; Dry field terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, keeps depth of water 10cm ~ 15cm;
5., the paddy rice flowering later stage keeps the water layer in rice field to be 5cm ~ 10cm; Being grouted into the maturing stage carries out the irrigation method that early shallow evening is dry, causes dead ripeness to prevent later stage paddy rice by the evil of salt marsh;
6., shallow-dark interval is poured water: the rice field intermediary and later stages carry out light irrigation, paddy field water either layer depth 3 ~ 5cm, and paddy field water either layer depth every 2 ~ 3 days once, will be raised to 15cm ~ 20cm by period at every turn, maintain 8h ~ 10h;
7., in good time deep irrigation: maintenance rice field, peak period depth of water 15cm ~ 20cm of tillering, and maintain 5 ~ 7 days;
8., maintain and protect fish and water: during rice-fish symbiosis, in the rice field depth of water lower than the 10cm period, Yu Gou, fish hole all will keep full water, noting the change of water colour simultaneously, when there is brown water quality, pulling part large gauge adult fish out, reduce Fish Sampled from Paddy Field density;
Six, apply fertilizer:
1., basal dressing: rice transplanting forward direction rice field applies fertilizer 20 ~ 30t/hm in ground 2, urea 1500kg/hm 2, superphosphate 2250kg/hm 2with zinc sulphate 20 ~ 30kg/hm 2;
2., chemical fertilizer is imposed:
Before topdressing, flushing 1 salinity is carried out to rice field at every turn, and be filled to depth of water 8cm ~ 10cm, then impose fertilizer;
Step 6 2. described in during rice fish mutualism, impose urea 900kg/hm altogether 2, potassium sulfate 750kg/hm 2;
3., liquid dung of splashing: during rice fish mutualism, be the animal liquid dung 2250 ~ 3000kg/hm of 30 ~ 40mg/L every 10 ~ 15 days Xiang Yugou, Yu Keng concentration of splashing 2;
Seven, disease control:
1., fish sterilization: fish are introduced before rice field, first to sterilize 5min ~ 7min to fish with the salt of 5%;
2., pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding: in July ~ August, 1 pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding every 10 days, throws something and feeds 3 ~ 4 days at every turn continuously;
Step 7 2. described in pharmaceutical chemistry sticked Chinese sorghum face or glutinous corn flour and 0.5kg salt mixed by 1kg garlic, 15kg corn flour, 5kg;
Step 7 2. described in the amount of fish erbium of throwing something and feeding be 90kg/hm 2~ 120kg/hm 2;
3., water body disinfection: in July ~ August, to splash 1 Eusol in hole Yu Gou, fish every 10 days, make Yu Gou, the bleaching powder concentration of fish underground water body is 20mg/L;
4., artificial deinsectization: when the water level in rice field is 15cm ~ 20cm, uses rod to drive Tanaka, make a large amount of insect fall into the water as fish take food;
5., medical treatment: between harvest time after rice transplanting, medical treatment is carried out to rice field;
Eight, gather in the crops:
1., paddy rice is gathered in: at the beginning of 9 months, rice-fish wetland starts to remove water final period, and on September 25 ~ 30 started to gather in paddy rice;
2., results fish: during paddy field drainage, focused on by fish in Yu Gou, fish hole and drainage ditch, feed of throwing something and feeding is continuous supports paddy rice harvesting first 10 days harvestings, namely completes a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland.
Advantage of the present invention:
One, adopt a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland of the present invention, its rice yield on average can increase production more than 5% by more single kind of rice, the average 450kg/hm of fish crop 2above, newly-increased income is average more than 3000 yuan/hm 2, the effect putting forward rice field, salinization soil, High-cold regions economic benefit is obvious;
Two, salinization soil, a kind of cold district of the present invention builds the method for rice-fish wetland is practicable, and for solution China trembles with fear, rice field, salinization soil, district increases production, Income, provides an effective way.
The present invention is applicable to salinization soil agricultural development technical field.
Embodiment
Embodiment one: present embodiment is that a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland completes according to the following steps:
One, salinity is rinsed:
1., turn over field: autumn, salinization rice field, cold district is ploughed;
2., face, smooth field: farm slack season in autumn, to before freezing, smashes the bulk soil of ploughing in ground, salinization rice field, Hou Han district, then fetches earth and fill and lead up depression, and make topsoil uniform soil quality, the flatness on ground, salinization rice field, cold district reaches ± 5cm;
3. rinse spring: spring in next year to flatness be ± soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm rinses 2 times, with obtaining salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district;
Step one 3. described in the 1st time to flatness be ± water consumption that soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm is rinsed is 1500m 3/ hm 2~ 1800m 3/ hm 2, soak time is 2 days ~ 3 days, then discharges; Again to flatness be ± carry out the 2nd soaked field to the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm, water consumption is 900m 3/ hm 2~ 1200m 3/ hm 2, soak and discharge again for 3 days ~ 4 days;
Two, irrigation facility:
1., ridge is rebuild:
The ridge on ground, salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district is increased and ground tamping, obtains the ridge after increasing;
2. fish ditch specification, is improved:
In every block rice field, distance ridge 1.5m far digs Yu Gou, and fish ditch is communicated with inlet channel and drainage ditch; Again in the rice field closed of the fish ditch composition dug, dig longitudinal furrow at interval of 75cm ~ 85cm, then dig a traverse furrow in centre;
3. fish hole specification, is improved:
In fish ditch infall, water inlet and excavation fish hole, discharge outlet place;
Three, rice transplanting:
1., rinse: before rice transplanting, flushing is carried out 3 times ~ 4 times to rice field, the rice field after rinsing before obtaining rice transplanting;
Yu Gou, the fish in the rice field after 2., rinsing before every block rice transplanting carry out rice transplanting outside hole; Rice row is vertical with the sideline that Yu Gou, fish are cheated; Rice transplanting was terminated before May 31;
Four, fish are introduced:
1., fingerling is supported temporarily: on May 10 ~ 15 bought fingerling, used salt content lower than the soaked field water of 2g/L, was temporary in the fence in drainage ditch by purchase fingerling;
Step 4 1. described in fingerling be carp, crucian and grass carp;
2., field prepares: after rice transplanting terminates, rebuild ridge and cleaning Yu Gou, Yu Keng;
3. examination water fish, is introduced: put into by 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps and be equipped with in the container of paddy field water either, observe the activity of 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps;
If 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps 4. in the container that paddy field water either is housed are movable normal, within 7 ~ 10 days after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce carp and crucian; Within 25 ~ 30 days again after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce grass carp;
Five, water layer management:
1., rice transplanting terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, then carries out pouring water 3 ~ 5cm, drains after 2 ~ 3 days, then the 3 ~ 5cm that pours water, and drains again, remain to effective tiller always and terminate after 2 ~ 3 days; Every 5 ~ 7 days, 1 time is rinsed to rice field during this;
2., rice tillering latter stage, booting stage and heading stage, keep the water layer in rice field to be 10cm ~ 15cm, expand fish movement simultaneously and look for food scope;
3., dry field draining: first rinse 1 time to rice field before dry field draining, clear up Yu Gou and Yu Keng simultaneously, then carry out draining, drainage speed, lower than 5cm/s, makes fish enter Yu Gou, Yu Keng smoothly;
4., maintain during dry field and protect fish and water: when the water colour finding in fish ditch or fish hole during dry field becomes brown or dark brown, water filling in Xiang Yugou, fish hole, rinses salinity; Dry field terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, keeps depth of water 10cm ~ 15cm;
5., the paddy rice flowering later stage keeps the water layer in rice field to be 5cm ~ 10cm; Being grouted into the maturing stage carries out the irrigation method that early shallow evening is dry, causes dead ripeness to prevent later stage paddy rice by the evil of salt marsh;
6., shallow-dark interval is poured water: the rice field intermediary and later stages carry out light irrigation, paddy field water either layer depth 3 ~ 5cm, and paddy field water either layer depth every 2 ~ 3 days once, will be raised to 15cm ~ 20cm by period at every turn, maintain 8h ~ 10h;
7., in good time deep irrigation: maintenance rice field, peak period depth of water 15cm ~ 20cm of tillering, and maintain 5 ~ 7 days;
8., maintain and protect fish and water: during rice-fish symbiosis, in the rice field depth of water lower than the 10cm period, Yu Gou, fish hole all will keep full water, noting the change of water colour simultaneously, when there is brown water quality, pulling part large gauge adult fish out, reduce Fish Sampled from Paddy Field density;
Six, apply fertilizer:
1., basal dressing: rice transplanting forward direction rice field applies fertilizer 20 ~ 30t/hm in ground 2, urea 1500kg/hm 2, superphosphate 2250kg/hm 2with zinc sulphate 20 ~ 30kg/hm 2;
2., chemical fertilizer is imposed:
Before topdressing, flushing 1 salinity is carried out to rice field at every turn, and be filled to depth of water 8cm ~ 10cm, then impose fertilizer;
Step 6 2. described in during rice fish mutualism, impose urea 900kg/hm altogether 2, potassium sulfate 750kg/hm 2;
3., liquid dung of splashing: during rice fish mutualism, be the animal liquid dung 2250 ~ 3000kg/hm of 30 ~ 40mg/L every 10 ~ 15 days Xiang Yugou, Yu Keng concentration of splashing 2;
Seven, disease control:
1., fish sterilization: fish are introduced before rice field, first to sterilize 5min ~ 7min to fish with the salt of 5%;
2., pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding: in July ~ August, 1 pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding every 10 days, throws something and feeds 3 ~ 4 days at every turn continuously;
Step 7 2. described in pharmaceutical chemistry sticked Chinese sorghum face or glutinous corn flour and 0.5kg salt mixed by 1kg garlic, 15kg corn flour, 5kg;
Step 7 2. described in the amount of fish erbium of throwing something and feeding be 90kg/hm 2~ 120kg/hm 2;
3., water body disinfection: in July ~ August, to splash 1 Eusol in hole Yu Gou, fish every 10 days, make Yu Gou, the bleaching powder concentration of fish underground water body is 20mg/L;
4., artificial deinsectization: when the water level in rice field is 15cm ~ 20cm, uses rod to drive Tanaka, make a large amount of insect fall into the water as fish take food;
5., medical treatment: between harvest time after rice transplanting, medical treatment is carried out to rice field;
Eight, gather in the crops:
1., paddy rice is gathered in: at the beginning of 9 months, rice-fish wetland starts to remove water final period, and on September 25 ~ 30 started to gather in paddy rice;
2., results fish: during paddy field drainage, focused on by fish in Yu Gou, fish hole and drainage ditch, feed of throwing something and feeding is continuous supports paddy rice harvesting first 10 days harvestings, namely completes a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland.
The advantage of present embodiment:
One, adopt a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland of present embodiment, its rice yield on average can increase production more than 5% by more single kind of rice, the average 450kg/hm of fish crop 2above, newly-increased income is average more than 3000 yuan/hm 2, the effect putting forward rice field, salinization soil, High-cold regions economic benefit is obvious;
Two, the salinization soil, a kind of cold district of present embodiment builds the method for rice-fish wetland is practicable, and for solution China trembles with fear, rice field, salinization soil, district increases production, Income, provides an effective way.
Present embodiment is applicable to salinization soil agricultural development technical field.
Embodiment two: present embodiment and embodiment one difference are: step one 1. described in ploughing depth be 25cm ~ 30cm.Other steps are identical with embodiment one.
Embodiment three: one of present embodiment and embodiment one or two difference is: step 2 1. described in increase after the height of ridge be 60cm ~ 70cm, width is 40cm ~ 45cm.Other steps are identical with embodiment one or two.
Embodiment four: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to three difference is: step 2 2. described in the degree of depth of fish ditch be 55cm ~ 60cm.Other steps are identical with embodiment one to three.
Embodiment five: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to four difference is: step 2 3. described in fish hole length be 2m, wide is 2m, is 1m ~ 1.2m deeply.Other steps are identical with embodiment one to four.
Embodiment six: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to five difference is: step 3 1. described in the water consumption of each flushing be 1200 ~ 1500m 3/ hm 2, soak 2 ~ 3 days.Other steps are identical with embodiment one to five.
Embodiment seven: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to six difference is: step 3 2. described in the paddy rice row cave in distance Yu Gou, fish hole 1m apart from for 12cm × 5cm, be 18cm × 8cm in the paddy rice row cave distance of distance Yu Gou, fish hole 1m.Other steps are identical with embodiment one to six.
Embodiment eight: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to seven difference is: step 4 4. described in introducing carp density be 350 ~ 1200 tails/hm 2; Described introducing crucian density is 360 ~ 930 tails/hm 2; Described introducing grass carp density is 320 ~ 570 tails/hm 2.Other steps are identical with embodiment one to seven.
Embodiment nine: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to eight difference is: step 4 4. described in the specification of introducing carp be 55 ~ 80g/ tail; The specification of described introducing crucian is 20 ~ 25g/ tail; The specification of described introducing grass carp is 110 ~ 120g/ tail.Other steps are identical with embodiment one to eight.
Embodiment ten: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to nine difference is: step 5 5. described in dry irrigation method in morning in shallow evening refer to the 5 ~ 10cm that pours water in rice field morning, maintain a whole day, the water in rice field is drained into below 3cm by evening again.Other steps are identical with embodiment one to nine.
Adopt following verification experimental verification beneficial effect of the present invention:
Test 1: a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland completes according to the following steps:
One, salinity is rinsed:
1., turn over field: autumn, salinization rice field, cold district is ploughed;
Step one 1. described in ploughing depth be 28cm;
2., face, smooth field: farm slack season in autumn, to before freezing, smashes the bulk soil of ploughing in ground, salinization rice field, Hou Han district, then fetches earth and fill and lead up depression, and make topsoil uniform soil quality, the flatness on ground, salinization rice field, cold district reaches ± 5cm;
3. rinse spring: spring in next year to flatness be ± soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm rinses 2 times, with obtaining salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district;
Step one 3. described in the 1st time to flatness be ± water consumption that soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm is rinsed is 1600m 3/ hm 2, soak time is 3 days, then discharges; Again to flatness be ± carry out the 2nd soaked field to the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm, water consumption is 1100m 3/ hm 2, soak and discharge again for 3 days;
Two, irrigation facility:
1., ridge is rebuild:
The ridge on ground, salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district is increased and ground tamping, obtains the ridge after increasing;
Step 2 1. described in increase after the height of ridge be 65cm, width is 45cm;
2. fish ditch specification, is improved:
In every block rice field, distance ridge 1.5m far digs Yu Gou, and fish ditch is communicated with inlet channel and drainage ditch; Again in the rice field closed of the fish ditch composition dug, dig longitudinal furrow at interval of 80cm, then dig a traverse furrow in centre;
Step 2 2. described in the degree of depth of fish ditch be 55cm;
3. fish hole specification, is improved:
In fish ditch infall, water inlet and excavation fish hole, discharge outlet place;
Step 2 3. described in fish hole length be 2m, wide is 2m, is 1.1m deeply;
Three, rice transplanting:
1., rinse: before rice transplanting, flushing is carried out 3 times to rice field, the rice field after rinsing before obtaining rice transplanting;
Step 3 1. described in the water consumption of each flushing be 1300m 3/ hm 2, soak 3 days;
Yu Gou, the fish in the rice field after 2., rinsing before every block rice transplanting carry out rice transplanting outside hole; Rice row is vertical with the sideline that Yu Gou, fish are cheated; Rice transplanting was terminated before May 31;
Step 3 2. described in the paddy rice row cave in distance Yu Gou, fish hole 1m apart from be 12cm × 5cm, the paddy rice row cave distance of cheating 1m distance Yu Gou, fish is 18cm × 8cm;
Four, fish are introduced:
1., fingerling is supported temporarily: May 13 bought fingerling, used salt content lower than the soaked field water of 2g/L, was temporary in the fence in drainage ditch by purchase fingerling;
Step 4 1. described in fingerling be carp, crucian and grass carp;
2., field prepares: after rice transplanting terminates, rebuild ridge and cleaning Yu Gou, Yu Keng;
3. examination water fish, is introduced: put into by 10 tailed silver carps and be equipped with in the container of paddy field water either, observe the activity of 10 tailed silver carps;
If 10 tailed silver carps 4. in the container that paddy field water either is housed are movable normal, within 8 days after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce carp and crucian; Within 28 days again after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce grass carp;
Step 4 4. described in introducing carp density be 350 ~ 1200 tails/hm 2; Described introducing crucian density is 360 ~ 930 tails/hm 2; Described introducing grass carp density is 320 ~ 570 tails/hm 2;
Step 4 4. described in the specification of introducing carp be 55 ~ 80g/ tail; The specification of described introducing crucian is 20 ~ 25g/ tail; The specification of described introducing grass carp is 110 ~ 120g/ tail;
Five, water layer management:
1., rice transplanting terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, then carries out pouring water 4cm, drains after 3 days, then the 4cm that pours water, and drains again, remain to effective tiller always and terminate after 3 days; Every 6 days, 1 time is rinsed to rice field during this;
2., rice tillering latter stage, booting stage and heading stage, keep the water layer in rice field to be 13cm, expand fish movement simultaneously and look for food scope;
3., dry field draining: first rinse 1 time to rice field before dry field draining, clear up Yu Gou and Yu Keng simultaneously, then carry out draining, drainage speed, lower than 5cm/s, makes fish enter Yu Gou, Yu Keng smoothly;
4., maintain during dry field and protect fish and water: when the water colour finding in fish ditch or fish hole during dry field becomes brown or dark brown, water filling in Xiang Yugou, fish hole, rinses salinity; Dry field terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, keeps depth of water 13cm;
5., the paddy rice flowering later stage keeps the water layer in rice field to be 8cm; Being grouted into the maturing stage carries out the irrigation method that early shallow evening is dry, causes dead ripeness to prevent later stage paddy rice by the evil of salt marsh;
Step 5 5. described in dry irrigation method in morning in shallow evening refer to the 8cm that pours water in rice field morning, maintain a whole day, the water in rice field is drained into below 3cm by evening again;
6., shallow-dark interval is poured water: the rice field intermediary and later stages carry out light irrigation, paddy field water either layer depth 4cm, and paddy field water either layer depth every 3 days once, will be raised to 20cm by period at every turn, maintain 9h;
7., in good time deep irrigation: maintenance rice field, peak period depth of water 18cm of tillering, and maintain 6 days;
8., maintain and protect fish and water: during rice-fish symbiosis, in the rice field depth of water lower than the 10cm period, Yu Gou, fish hole all will keep full water, noting the change of water colour simultaneously, when there is brown water quality, pulling part large gauge adult fish out, reduce Fish Sampled from Paddy Field density;
Six, apply fertilizer:
1., basal dressing: rice transplanting forward direction rice field applies fertilizer 25t/hm in ground 2, urea 1500kg/hm 2, superphosphate 2250kg/hm 2with zinc sulphate 25kg/hm 2;
2., chemical fertilizer is imposed:
Before topdressing, flushing 1 salinity is carried out to rice field at every turn, and be filled to depth of water 9cm, then impose fertilizer;
Step 6 2. described in during rice fish mutualism, impose urea 900kg/hm altogether 2, potassium sulfate 750kg/hm 2;
3., liquid dung of splashing: during rice fish mutualism, be the animal liquid dung 2500kg/hm of 35mg/L every 13 days Xiang Yugou, Yu Keng concentration of splashing 2;
Seven, disease control:
1., fish sterilization: fish are introduced before rice field, first to sterilize 6min to fish with the salt of 5%;
2., pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding: in July ~ August, 1 pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding every 10 days, throws something and feeds 4 days at every turn continuously;
Step 7 2. described in pharmaceutical chemistry sticked Chinese sorghum face or glutinous corn flour and 0.5kg salt mixed by 1kg garlic, 15kg corn flour, 5kg;
Step 7 2. described in the amount of fish erbium of throwing something and feeding be 100kg/hm 2;
3., water body disinfection: in July ~ August, to splash 1 Eusol in hole Yu Gou, fish every 10 days, make Yu Gou, the bleaching powder concentration of fish underground water body is 20mg/L;
4., artificial deinsectization: when the water level in rice field is 18cm, uses rod to drive Tanaka, make a large amount of insect fall into the water as fish take food;
5., medical treatment: between harvest time after rice transplanting, medical treatment is carried out to rice field;
Eight, gather in the crops:
1., paddy rice is gathered in: at the beginning of 9 months, rice-fish wetland starts to remove water final period, and on September 25 ~ 30 started to gather in paddy rice;
2., results fish: during paddy field drainage, focused on by fish in Yu Gou, fish hole and drainage ditch, feed of throwing something and feeding is continuous supports paddy rice harvesting first 10 days harvestings, namely completes a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland.
The target area of this test: be positioned at West of Songnen Plain Jilin Province Daan City OX-heart cover and protect, the gross area is 12.2hm 2, soil types is carbonate type salinization soil, and the total salt content of plow layer (0 ~ 40cm) is 7 ~ 13g/kg; Adopt the method for test 1, fish, averag density and average harvest yield that 2011 ~ 2014 years target areas are introduced refer to table 1, and the situation that increases income of 2011 ~ 2014 years target areas refers to table 2.
Table 1 2011 ~ 2014 years target areas introduce fish, averag density and average harvest yield
Table 2 2011 ~ 2014 years target areas increase income situation
From the result of test 1, adopt a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland of this test, its rice yield on average can increase production more than 5% by more single kind of rice, the average 450kg/hm of fish crop 2above, newly-increased income is average more than 3000 yuan/hm 2, the effect putting forward rice field, salinization soil, High-cold regions economic benefit is obvious; The method of salinization soil, a kind of cold district structure rice-fish wetland of this test is practicable, and for solution China trembles with fear, rice field, salinization soil, district increases production, Income, provides an effective way.

Claims (10)

1. build a method for cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland, it is characterized in that a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland completes according to the following steps:
One, salinity is rinsed:
1., turn over field: autumn, salinization rice field, cold district is ploughed;
2., face, smooth field: farm slack season in autumn, to before freezing, smashes the bulk soil of ploughing in ground, salinization rice field, Hou Han district, then fetches earth and fill and lead up depression, and make topsoil uniform soil quality, the flatness on ground, salinization rice field, cold district reaches ± 5cm;
3. rinse spring: spring in next year to flatness be ± soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm rinses 2 times, with obtaining salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district;
Step one 3. described in the 1st time to flatness be ± water consumption that soaked field, ground, the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm is rinsed is 1500m 3/ hm 2~ 1800m 3/ hm 2, soak time is 2 days ~ 3 days, then discharges; Again to flatness be ± carry out the 2nd soaked field to the salinization rice field, cold district of 5cm, water consumption is 900m 3/ hm 2~ 1200m 3/ hm 2, soak and discharge again for 3 days ~ 4 days;
Two, irrigation facility:
1., ridge is rebuild:
The ridge on ground, salinization rice field, flushing 2 Ci Houhan district is increased and ground tamping, obtains the ridge after increasing;
2. fish ditch specification, is improved:
In every block rice field, distance ridge 1.5m far digs Yu Gou, and fish ditch is communicated with inlet channel and drainage ditch; Again in the rice field closed of the fish ditch composition dug, dig longitudinal furrow at interval of 75cm ~ 85cm, then dig a traverse furrow in centre;
3. fish hole specification, is improved:
In fish ditch infall, water inlet and excavation fish hole, discharge outlet place;
Three, rice transplanting:
1., rinse: before rice transplanting, flushing is carried out 3 times ~ 4 times to rice field, the rice field after rinsing before obtaining rice transplanting;
Yu Gou, the fish in the rice field after 2., rinsing before every block rice transplanting carry out rice transplanting outside hole; Rice row is vertical with the sideline that Yu Gou, fish are cheated; Rice transplanting was terminated before May 31;
Four, fish are introduced:
1., fingerling is supported temporarily: on May 10 ~ 15 bought fingerling, used salt content lower than the soaked field water of 2g/L, was temporary in the fence in drainage ditch by purchase fingerling;
Step 4 1. described in fingerling be carp, crucian and grass carp;
2., field prepares: after rice transplanting terminates, rebuild ridge and cleaning Yu Gou, Yu Keng;
3. examination water fish, is introduced: put into by 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps and be equipped with in the container of paddy field water either, observe the activity of 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps;
If 5 tail ~ 10 tailed silver carps 4. in the container that paddy field water either is housed are movable normal, within 7 ~ 10 days after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce carp and crucian; Within 25 ~ 30 days again after rice transplanting terminates, in rice field, introduce grass carp;
Five, water layer management:
1., rice transplanting terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, then carries out pouring water 3 ~ 5cm, drains after 2 ~ 3 days, then the 3 ~ 5cm that pours water, and drains again, remain to effective tiller always and terminate after 2 ~ 3 days; Every 5 ~ 7 days, 1 time is rinsed to rice field during this;
2., rice tillering latter stage, booting stage and heading stage, keep the water layer in rice field to be 10cm ~ 15cm, expand fish movement simultaneously and look for food scope;
3., dry field draining: first rinse 1 time to rice field before dry field draining, clear up Yu Gou and Yu Keng simultaneously, then carry out draining, drainage speed, lower than 5cm/s, makes fish enter Yu Gou, Yu Keng smoothly;
4., maintain during dry field and protect fish and water: when the water colour finding in fish ditch or fish hole during dry field becomes brown or dark brown, water filling in Xiang Yugou, fish hole, rinses salinity; Dry field terminates to carry out flushing 1 time to rice field afterwards, keeps depth of water 10cm ~ 15cm;
5., the paddy rice flowering later stage keeps the water layer in rice field to be 5cm ~ 10cm; Being grouted into the maturing stage carries out the irrigation method that early shallow evening is dry, causes dead ripeness to prevent later stage paddy rice by the evil of salt marsh;
6., shallow-dark interval is poured water: the rice field intermediary and later stages carry out light irrigation, paddy field water either layer depth 3 ~ 5cm, and paddy field water either layer depth every 2 ~ 3 days once, will be raised to 15cm ~ 20cm by period at every turn, maintain 8h ~ 10h;
7., in good time deep irrigation: maintenance rice field, peak period depth of water 15cm ~ 20cm of tillering, and maintain 5 ~ 7 days;
8., maintain and protect fish and water: during rice-fish symbiosis, in the rice field depth of water lower than the 10cm period, Yu Gou, fish hole all will keep full water, noting the change of water colour simultaneously, when there is brown water quality, pulling part large gauge adult fish out, reduce Fish Sampled from Paddy Field density;
Six, apply fertilizer:
1., basal dressing: rice transplanting forward direction rice field applies fertilizer 20 ~ 30t/hm in ground 2, urea 1500kg/hm 2, superphosphate 2250kg/hm 2with zinc sulphate 20 ~ 30kg/hm 2;
2., chemical fertilizer is imposed:
Before topdressing, flushing 1 salinity is carried out to rice field at every turn, and be filled to depth of water 8cm ~ 10cm, then impose fertilizer;
Step 6 2. described in during rice fish mutualism, impose urea 900kg/hm altogether 2, potassium sulfate 750kg/hm 2;
3., liquid dung of splashing: during rice fish mutualism, be the animal liquid dung 2250 ~ 3000kg/hm of 30 ~ 40mg/L every 10 ~ 15 days Xiang Yugou, Yu Keng concentration of splashing 2;
Seven, disease control:
1., fish sterilization: fish are introduced before rice field, first to sterilize 5min ~ 7min to fish with the salt of 5%;
2., pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding: in July ~ August, 1 pharmaceutical chemistry of throwing something and feeding every 10 days, throws something and feeds 3 ~ 4 days at every turn continuously;
Step 7 2. described in pharmaceutical chemistry sticked Chinese sorghum face or glutinous corn flour and 0.5kg salt mixed by 1kg garlic, 15kg corn flour, 5kg;
Step 7 2. described in the amount of fish erbium of throwing something and feeding be 90kg/hm 2~ 120kg/hm 2;
3., water body disinfection: in July ~ August, to splash 1 Eusol in hole Yu Gou, fish every 10 days, make Yu Gou, the bleaching powder concentration of fish underground water body is 20mg/L;
4., artificial deinsectization: when the water level in rice field is 15cm ~ 20cm, uses rod to drive Tanaka, make a large amount of insect fall into the water as fish take food;
5., medical treatment: between harvest time after rice transplanting, medical treatment is carried out to rice field;
Eight, gather in the crops:
1., paddy rice is gathered in: at the beginning of 9 months, rice-fish wetland starts to remove water final period, and on September 25 ~ 30 started to gather in paddy rice;
2., results fish: during paddy field drainage, focused on by fish in Yu Gou, fish hole and drainage ditch, feed of throwing something and feeding is continuous supports paddy rice harvesting first 10 days harvestings, namely completes a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland.
2. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, is characterized in that the ploughing depth described in step one is 1. 25cm ~ 30cm.
3. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the height of the ridge after increasing described in step 2 is 1. 60cm ~ 70cm, width is 40cm ~ 45cm.
4. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, is characterized in that the degree of depth of the fish ditch described in step 2 is 2. 55cm ~ 60cm.
5. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the length in the fish hole described in step 2 is 3. 2m, wide is 2m, is 1m ~ 1.2m deeply.
6. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, is characterized in that the water consumption of each flushing described in step 3 is 1. 1200 ~ 1500m 3/ hm 2, soak 2 ~ 3 days.
7. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the paddy rice row cave in distance Yu Gou, fish hole 1m described in step 3 is 2. apart from being 12cm × 5cm, is 18cm × 8cm in the paddy rice row cave distance of distance Yu Gou, fish hole 1m.
8. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, is characterized in that the introducing carp density described in step 4 is 4. 350 ~ 1200 tails/hm 2; Described introducing crucian density is 360 ~ 930 tails/hm 2; Described introducing grass carp density is 320 ~ 570 tails/hm 2.
9. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, is characterized in that the specification of the introducing carp described in step 4 is 4. 55 ~ 80g/ tail; The specification of described introducing crucian is 20 ~ 25g/ tail; The specification of described introducing grass carp is 110 ~ 120g/ tail.
10. a kind of method building cold district salinization soil rice-fish wetland according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the irrigation method done morning in the shallow evening described in step 5 5. refers to the 5 ~ 10cm that pours water in rice field morning, maintain a whole day, the water in rice field is drained into below 3cm by evening again.
CN201510292624.XA 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 Method for constructing cold saline land rice-fish wetland Pending CN104904633A (en)

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