CN104787893B - A kind of large-scale acclimation method and application thereof - Google Patents

A kind of large-scale acclimation method and application thereof Download PDF

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CN104787893B
CN104787893B CN201510145571.9A CN201510145571A CN104787893B CN 104787893 B CN104787893 B CN 104787893B CN 201510145571 A CN201510145571 A CN 201510145571A CN 104787893 B CN104787893 B CN 104787893B
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domestication
water
foodstuff
cyanophyceae
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CN104787893A (en
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何文辉
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Shanghai Taihe Water Technology Development Co.,Ltd.
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SHANGHAI TAIHE WATER ECOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • C02F3/327Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae characterised by animals and plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/007Contaminated open waterways, rivers, lakes or ponds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2203/00Apparatus and plants for the biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2203/004Apparatus and plants for the biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage comprising a selector reactor for promoting floc-forming or other bacteria
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2305/00Use of specific compounds during water treatment

Abstract

The invention provides a kind of large-scale acclimation method and application thereof.The present invention renders in domestication pool by large-scale, uses specific domestication foodstuff to cultivate a period of time, takes sociales and carries out repeating domestication, screening, then through stable and rejuvenation, the most large-scale domestication becomes the natural enemy of cyanophyceae.The present invention further discloses described large-scale domestication domestication foodstuff and described large-scale acclimation method repairs the application in field at water ecology.The large-scale of the inventive method domestication has the advantages that individuality is big, cyanophycean toxin conversion capability is high, field stability is strong.Utilizing the present invention to tame and large-scale carry out restoration of the ecosystem, can improve illumination condition under water, quickly improve water transparency, responding time is short, environmental protection low-carbon (LC), efficiency high.

Description

A kind of large-scale acclimation method and application thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to water ecology and repair field, particularly relate to a kind of large-scale acclimation method and in water body life State repairs the application in field.
Background technology
Body eutrophication refers to inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen and waits material to enter the water body that relative closure current are the most smooth, causes Algae and other water plant amount reproductions, dissolved oxygen content declines, water quality deterioration, showing of other aquatile mortality As.In the last few years, China's rivers and lakes eutrophication development speed quickly, in June, 2014 Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection issue " in 2013 State's environmental aspect publication " point out, the Changjiang river, the Yellow River, the Zhujiang River, Song Hua River, Huaihe River, Haihe River, the Liaohe River, Min Pian river, Zhejiang, northwest Zhu He With in state's control section of ten large watersheds such as south-west rivers, IV~V class and bad V class water quality section ratio are 28.3%;Taihu Lake, Yunnan In pond and Chaohu, water eutrophication, Middle nutrition and dystrophic lake (reservoir) ratio are respectively 27.8%, 57.4% and 14.8%.The main water pollution of China is day by day serious, water scarcity.Major part lake, the whole nation, river have in various degree Eutrophication even occurs in that many black and odorous waters, has a strong impact on Urban Ecology Landscape, also creates people's health serious Threaten.Eutrophication causes extremely serious harm to Chinese Lakes water environment and water resource, makes water become stench unpleasant, reduces Water transparency, the dissolved oxygen of water body declines, and lake ecological balance is destroyed, and more seriously many algae can produce Toxin.Animals and humans are had potentially hazardous by these toxin, and the cyanophycean toxin in poisons in freshwater has become global environment , the most often there is cyanophycean toxin poisoning in problem.
Cyanophycean toxin is mainly intracellular toxin, and after cell rupture or algae rot to decompose, toxin just can be released to In water body, the mankind in contact skin, drink, may result in poisoning during edible aquatic animal etc..The general table of poisoning symptom Now for visual deterioration, rapid breathing, vomit, diarrhoea etc..In poisons in freshwater, cyanophycean toxin is a lot, mainly includes acting on liver Hepatotoxin (hepatotoxins), acts on neural neurotoxin (neurotoxins), is positioned at the fat of cell wall outer layer Polysaccharide (lipopolysacchrides) endotoxin, causes the skin toxins (dermatotoxins) etc. of inflammation.Wherein hepatotoxin Including Microcystin (microcystin), nodularins (nodularin) and cylindrospermopsin.In the world Various places are widely present and endanger bigger cyanophycean toxin is Microcystin, and Microcystin is primarily present in Microcystis aeruginosa (Microcystis), in anabena (Anabaena), the algae that quivers (Oscillatoria) and nostoc (Nostoc).Neurotoxin Mainly include anabena toxin-a (anatoxin-a), anabena toxin-a (s) (anatoxin-a (s)), saxitoxin (saxitox-in), N-STX (neosaxitoxin) and gonyatoxin (gonyautoxin) etc., wherein latter three It is referred to as paralytic shellfish poison.The blue-green alga bloom of 25%~70% can produce toxin all over the world, and those are with river, lake, reservoir People for drinking-water water source just has the danger of absorption cyanophycean toxin.It addition, the mankind directly contact with the water body containing cyanophycean toxin (such as trip Swimming, rows the boat), it is also possible to poisoning.
Therefore, the pollution control of people's pay attention to day by day eutrophication water.Eutrophied water treatment technology is according to improvement Means divide can be divided into again chemical treatment, physical treatment and bioremediation etc..Chemical method processes polluted-water mainly Add chemical agent and adsorbent changes oxidation-reduction potential, pH, adsorption precipitation Suspended Matter in Water matter and organic matter in water body. Peripheral doses measure includes artificial aeration, cuts the measures such as dirt, water transfer dirt removal, the training of channel.Water ecology recovery technique includes raw Thing embrane method treatment technology, microorganism formulation technology, artificial floating island technology, artificial wetland treatment, biological grid reparation etc..Biological restoration Technology has features such as conveniently managing, repairing effect is good, has preferable development prospect.
Water ecology recovery technique, under the auxiliary of engineering measure, utilizes the vital movement of animal and plant or microorganism to water Middle pollutant carry out shifting, convert and degrading, and have treatment in accordance with local conditions, energy-conserving and environment-protective, can realize the advantage of comprehensive reclamation to river basin;And And facility is simple, the construction period is short, instant effect;Cost and operation and maintenance cost are low, manage, safeguard simply;Ecological risk is low, raw Thing multiformity is strong, and ecosystem stability is high;The feature such as strong shock resistance, non-secondary pollution, water ecology recovery technique exists China is widely applied, and creates preferable economy, society and environmental benefit, establishes for water conservancy development in science and technology Basis.
Water ecology recovery technique becomes a kind of evening of starting to walk, develops fast new type water body pollution Treatment process, although Have been widely recognized, but in Practical Project implementation process, domestic and international experts the most coincidentally encounter by In cannot improve under water illumination condition and the bottleneck problem of Submerged plant communities and aquatic ecosystem can not be built fast and effectively. From the point of view of popular, it is simply that illumination can not normally enter the bottom, the aquatic organism group of structure cannot normal growth, cause water ecology Repairing effect can not keep for a long time.
Classical bio operon, based on macrozooplankton, proposes by the phytoplankton effect of ingesting is controlled algae Class wawter bloom.In Freshwater ecosystems, zooplankton is many with phytoplankton for food, and they are again that better nutritivity level is biological simultaneously Prey, therefore, zooplankton plays important pivotal role in Freshwater ecosystems food chain.Bloom blue algae is to swimming The harm of animal not only can cause the variation of Zooplankton Community structure, and secondary productivity also can produce far-reaching shadow Ring.Oneself there are some researches show, bloom blue algae can produce various adverse effects to zooplankton, as reduced the survival of zooplankton Rate, Developing restraint and breeding, reduction grazing rate etc..In order to enable to survive in the environment of poisonous cyanophyceae, cladocera must enter Dissolve certain adaptability to improve the ability that they fight toxins.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention solves technical problem of the prior art exactly, it is provided that a kind of large-scale acclimation method and Application.Large-scale can swallow cyanophyceae through what the method for the present invention was tamed, utilize that this domestication is large-scale carries out restoration of the ecosystem, can improve Illumination condition under water, quickly improves water transparency, and responding time is short, environmental protection low-carbon (LC), efficiency high.
Insight of the invention is that and render in domestication pool by large-scale, use specific domestication foodstuff to cultivate a period of time, Taking sociales to carry out repeating domestication, purification, rejuvenation, the most large-scale domestication becomes the natural enemy of cyanophyceae.The present invention's is large-scale Domestication and improvement has three layers of implication: to digesting and assimilating the improvement of cyanophyceae intestinal;To cyanophyceae agglomerate bore improvement of ingesting;Salt water population is stable Property fresh water improvement.Through domestication, large-scale adult average individual size between 5.0~6.5mm, the maximum individual long 6.7mm of body, Big body weight, up to 8.8mg, can filter the food particle of food maximum gauge about 80-160um.
First the present invention discloses a kind of large-scale acclimation method, comprises the following steps:
(1) domestication foodstuff is thrown something and fed: large-scale input tamed in water, domestication foodstuff of throwing something and feeding every day;
(2) screening: from step (1) domestication foodstuff throw something and feed after large-scale select sociales, described sociales are made a living It is large-scale that long situation is excellent and individual relative is bigger.
(3) repeat to use step (1) and step (2) to carry out domestication food by the large-scale repeatedly circulation selected through step (2) Material is thrown something and fed and screens, until the domestication total natural law of foodstuff of throwing something and feeding is at least 60 days;
(4) stable: the large-scale input that step (3) is obtained specific body of water more than 50 days, domestication foodstuff of throwing something and feeding every day, To carry out the stable of domestication and improvement characteristic and rejuvenation.
In step (1), the water body in domestication pool is general water body.Domestication pool water temperature controls the temperature for suitable large-scale survival Degree, the temperature range of large-scale suitable survival is generally 4 DEG C-30 DEG C.Preferably 15-26 DEG C.
In step (1), the density of large-scale domestication is maximum up to 500,000/m3, it is converted into load worm amount 2.5kg/m3.Large-scale Throw in that density is low can't affect domestication effect, it is contemplated that economic benefit, be typically controllable to ten thousand/m of 30-403.Domestication food Each injected volume of material is generally: 20-40g/m2, throw something and feed 3-5 time every day.Feeding time is 7-15 days.
It is also preferred that the left the large-scale individuality for a length of 2-4mm health big, great-hearted of step (1) initially selection-breeding is wild Large-scale.
In step (2), described sociales upgrowth situation is good, cyanophyceae water body adaptable, individual typically 3-6mm it Between.Generally, can select and account for 20-40% large-scale as sociales of large-scale total quantity to be selected.
In step (3), step (1)-(2) are used to carry out throwing something and feeding the circulation total degree screened typically at least more than 5 times.
In step (4), described large-scale input concentration range is ten thousand/m of 30-503, ten thousand/m of preferably 30-403.Described Specific body of water refer to pH value between 5-10, dissolved oxygen is at 2-8mg/l, and temperature range is the water body of 4 DEG C to 30 DEG C.Domestication foodstuff Injected volume maintain each 20-40g/m2, throw something and feed 3-5 time every day.The stable time, more than 50 days, can be 50-60 days.
The present invention is for taming the material composition that large-scale domestication foodstuff comprises following weight portion:
It is also preferred that the left described cyanophyceae is microcystic aeruginosa (Microcystis aeruginosa).
Described Mel does not has particular requirement to kind, can use various conventional Mel.
The preparation method of described domestication foodstuff comprises the following steps:
1) by fresh Pericarpium Musae, Herba Dendrobii fresh stem pulping pasty state;
2) by yeast dry powder activating;
3) by proportioning, by the yeast of activation, break into starchy fresh Pericarpium Musae, the fresh stem of Herba Dendrobii mixes with other raw materials Even, under conditions of suitable yeast bacterium is fermented, fermentation obtains domestication foodstuff.
Step 2) in, described yeast dry powder activating is prior art, and conventional method can be used to activate, as used glucose sugar Water activates.As present example is specifically enumerated, every 450g yeast dry powder can use glucose 10 liters of work of 150 grams and 35 DEG C pure water Change.
It is also preferred that the left step 3) in, described fermentation condition is: 35-38 DEG C of lower seal ferments 1-10 hour.
Use the acclimation method of the present invention, can obtain and can stablize the big individual large-scale of growth in the wild.It is with in water body Algae be its main food source, every day, edible volume was equivalent to the algae several times in self, and by other digestion point Solution becomes water and inorganic salt, makes the algae in water body be greatly reduced, loses population advantage.
The present invention further discloses the purposes of described large-scale acclimation method, eat owing to domestication is the most large-scale Cyanophyceae, adapts to severe water environment, and for improving water quality, recovering aquatic ecosystem provides premise, as the guiding of Water Ecological Recovery Condition, solution body eutrophication rapidly and efficiently, recovers the water environment that water clearing heat in QI system is clean, it is provided that graceful subaqual landscape.Therefore, Its purposes repairs field for using it for water ecology.
The invention also discloses a kind of method for repairing water ecology, for using preceding method domestication large-scale, and thrown Put purifying water body to the eutrophic water body polluted by cyanophyceae.
The large-scale injected volume of described domestication is: 150-300/L water.
More one progressive ground, one or more during described method for repairing water ecology is further comprising the steps of:
A) at bottom kind planting submerged plant.
B) being placed with beneficial microorganism in water body, wherein this beneficial microbe can be with large-scale symbiosis.
C) in water body, senior aquatic animal is put into, including at least one in spiral shell, shellfish, fish, shrimps.
In step a), described submerged plant includes submerged forest species.Wherein said submerged forest species include following thing At least one in kind: water caltrop (Potamogetoncrispus);Herba vallisneriae Spiralis (Vallisneriaspiralis), thorn Herba vallisneriae Spiralis (Vallisneriaspinulosa), dragon's tongue (Otteliaalismoides), p.malaianus (Potamogetonmalaimus), Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti (Potamogetonpectinatus), Potamogeton maackianu (Potamogetonmaackianus), Flos Mume algae (Batrachiumtrichophyllum), watermifoil (Myricphyllumspicatum).Or, described submerged plant includes turf species under water.Wherein said turf species under water Including at least one in following species: waterweed (Elodea Canadensis), hydrilla verticillata (IIydrillaverticillata), charophyta (Chara), little najas marina (Najas minor), najas marina (Najasmajor), Carassius auratus Algae (Ceratophyllumdemersum).
Preferably, in described step a), the coverage rate of submerged plant is 20%~60%.
Large-scale acclimation method disclosed by the invention, can realize the improvement to large-scale three aspects: first, through domestication, Large scale individual becomes big, can filter the food particle of food maximum gauge about 80-160um, it is taken as that mouthpart bore compare wild greatly Type becomes big.Can ingest cyanophyceae agglomerate;Secondly, through domestication, large-scale intestinal obtains improvement, can digest and assimilate cyanophyceae;3rd, Through domestication, large-scale salt water kind population stability fresh water is improved.The large-scale of the inventive method domestication has individual big, cyanophyceae poison The feature that element conversion capability is high, field stability is strong.
The large-scale of method domestication using the present invention carries out water ecology reparation, and its effect is mainly reflected in:
1) improve rapidly water transparency, improve illumination condition under water.To eutrophication water throw in domestication after large-scale After, they can come using blue-green alge crumby in water body, detritus, suspended particle, harmful mushroom etc. as main food Source, can eat several times in the algae of own vol and organic granular, quickly improve water transparency, and then reach clean its every day Changing water body, promote restoration of the ecosystem under water, growth and ecosystem for Submerged plant communities under water build offer condition.This is thorough Solve during Water Ecological Recovery, due to cannot quickly improve under water illumination condition and can not effectively build submerged plant Group and the maximum bottleneck problem of aquatic ecosystem.
2) promote submerged plant growth, the large-scale a large amount of beneficial microbes carried after domestication, as internal containing Photosynthetic bacteria can be obviously promoted the photosynthesis of submerged plant, significantly improves the submerged plant survival rate in initial planting, promotes The structure of Submerged plant communities;
3) getting through food chain, large-scale itself is the best natural baits of Fish, the algae in its water body, organic granular It is converted into animal proteinum Deng rich nutritive material, is ingested by the fish in water body, shrimp etc. again simultaneously, so can quickly be formed optimum Ecologic food chain, promotes stablizing of repair system, it is achieved that the resource of body eutrophication material;
4) simultaneously, after the large-scale digestion cyanophyceae that ingests of domestication, faintly acid Excreta can be produced, effectively reduce water body pH Value, can suppress the most again growth and the breeding of cyanophyceae.Further, since after Xun Hua large-scale itself as a kind of large-scale branch angle Class zooplankton, is a kind of dispersed species, there is not foreign term equivalent risk.
5) can the most effectively digest the cyanophycean toxins such as microcystic aeruginosa, in water body cyanophycean toxin dense is greatly lowered Degree, promotes that the health of water ecosystem is with stable.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 tames the large-scale microphotograph of acquisition
After Fig. 2 domestication, large-scale build is measured
Fig. 3 blue alga clearing is tested
Detailed description of the invention
Below by way of specific instantiation, embodiments of the present invention being described, those skilled in the art can be by this specification Disclosed content understands other advantages and effect of the present invention easily.The present invention can also be by the most different concrete realities The mode of executing is carried out or applies, the every details in this specification can also based on different viewpoints and application, without departing from Various modification or change is carried out under the spirit of the present invention.
In addition, it is to be understood that the one or more method steps mentioned in the present invention do not repel before and after described combination step Additive method step can also be there is or additive method step can also be inserted between these steps specifically mentioned, unless separately It is described;And, except as otherwise noted, the numbering of various method steps is only the convenient tool differentiating various method steps, rather than is Limiting the ordering of various method steps or limit the enforceable scope of the present invention, being altered or modified of its relativeness, in nothing In the case of essence change technology contents, when being also considered as the enforceable category of the present invention.
Embodiment 1 tames the preparation of foodstuff
1.1 domestication foodstuff composition of raw materials
Formula one:
1. 3.0 kilograms of cyanophyceae (microcystic aeruginosa) dry powder;
2. yeast dry powder: 450 grams;
3. Mel: 300 grams;
The freshest Pericarpium Musae: 2 kilograms;
5. Rhizoma Gastrodiae dry powder: 30 grams
6. Radix Notoginseng dry powder: 60 grams
7. the fresh stem of Herba Dendrobii: 300 grams;
8. water: 20 kilograms
Formula two:
1. 2.9 kilograms of cyanophyceae (microcystic aeruginosa) dry powder;
2. yeast dry powder: 500 grams;
3. Mel: 250 grams;
The freshest Pericarpium Musae: 1.9 kilograms;
5. Rhizoma Gastrodiae dry powder: 35 grams
6. Radix Notoginseng dry powder: 55 grams
7. the fresh stem of Herba Dendrobii: 250 grams;
8. water: 22 kilograms
Formula three:
1. 3.1 kilograms of cyanophyceae (microcystic aeruginosa) dry powder;
2. yeast dry powder: 400 grams;
3. Mel: 350 grams;
The freshest Pericarpium Musae: 2.1 kilograms;
5. Rhizoma Gastrodiae dry powder: 25 grams
6. Radix Notoginseng dry powder: 65 grams
7. the fresh stem of Herba Dendrobii: 350 grams;
8. water: 18 kilograms
The preparation of 1.2 domestication foodstuffs:
1) by fresh Pericarpium Musae, Herba Dendrobii fresh stem pulping pasty state;
2) by yeast dry powder activating: dissolve in, with glucose 150 grams, the glucose aqueous solution work that 35 DEG C of pure water 10 liters are made Change yeast dry powder;
3) by proportioning, by the yeast of activation, break into starchy fresh Pericarpium Musae, the fresh stem of Herba Dendrobii mixes with other raw materials Even, ferment 8 hours at 35 DEG C of lower seals and obtain domestication foodstuff.
The large-scale domestication of embodiment 2
2.1 wait to tame large-scale: the individuality of a length of 2-4mm health big, great-hearted is wild large-scale, maximum adult The long 4.0mm of body.
2.2 domestication foodstuffs: prepared by embodiment 1
2.3 domestication steps:
(1) domestication foodstuff is thrown something and fed: by large-scale input domestication pool, domestication foodstuff of throwing something and feeding every day;
Domestication pool water body: general water body
Large-scale input density is: ten thousand/m of 30-503
The injected volume of domestication foodstuff is generally: 20-40g/m every time2, throw something and feed 3-5 time every day
Domestication pool water temperature is room temperature, typically can be in the range of 4-31 DEG C, it is not necessary to process especially.
Feeding time is 7-15 days.
(2) screening: select to select and account for large-scale total quantity to be selected large-scale after step (1) domestication foodstuff is thrown something and fed 20-40% large-scale as sociales, described sociales make a living that long situation is excellent and that individual relative is bigger is large-scale.
(3) repeat to use step (1) and step (2) to carry out domestication food by the large-scale repeatedly circulation selected through step (2) Material is thrown something and fed and screens, until the domestication total natural law of foodstuff of throwing something and feeding reaches 60 days;Step (1)-(2) are used to carry out the circulation screened of throwing something and feeding Total degree is 5 times.
(4) stable: the large-scale input that step (3) is obtained specific body of water 50-60 days, domestication foodstuff of throwing something and feeding every day, To carry out the stable of domestication and improvement characteristic and rejuvenation.
Large-scale input concentration: ten thousand/m of 30-403
Water body: pH value is between 5-10, and dissolved oxygen is at 2-8mg/l, and temperature range is the water body of 4 DEG C to 31 DEG C.
The injected volume of domestication foodstuff: 20-40g/m every time2, throw something and feed 3-5 time every day.
2.2 tame the detection of large-scale build
Three kinds of domestication foodstuff formula domestication results are not significantly different from.
The large-scale microphotograph that domestication obtains is as shown in Figure 1
The large-scale adult individuals that domestication obtains be average individual size between 5.0~6.5mm, maximum individual body is long 6.7mm, weight limit is up to 8.8mg.Typical case Large scale individual such as Fig. 2 after domestication.
Under conditions of being main food source with cyanophyceae, the maximal density of the large-scale cultivation after domestication is up to 500,000 Individual/m3, it is converted into load worm amount (weight in wet base) 2.5kg/m3, average density is up to 400,000/m3, it is converted into load worm amount 2kg/m3, every day Every cubic metre of water body can gather 1.0~2.0kg.
Embodiment 3 blue alga clearing is tested
3.1 test methods:
Cyanophyceae concentration in water: 1,000,000/ml
Large-scale input density after embodiment 2 is tamed: 300/L
3.2 result of the tests: as it can be seen, after throwing in large-scale latter 24 hours, water transparency increases sharply, such as Fig. 3 institute Show.
Embodiment 4 filter food test
Present in nature, wild cladocera typical case's adult body length is generally 0.3~3.0mm, and maximum individual body is long 4.0mm, prey size scope 1~30um.
Large-scale filter food prey size after embodiment 2 is tamed is studied by the present invention
4.1 test method
Large-scale after taming with the diet of variable grain size, can be divided into 8 groups by granular size, be respectively as follows: 0- 40mm、40-60mm、60-80mm、80-100mm、100-120mm、120-140mm、140-160mm、160-180mm、180mm- 200mm, concentration thrown in by foodstuff is 20-40g/m2, 4 hours feeding trial time.
After off-test, employing is dissected large-scale glandular stomach under the microscope and is carried out its mensuration that can filter food granule, detection Result such as following table.
The large-scale detection filtering food granule after table one domestication
Feed granular size Testing result
0-40mm Detect
40-60mm Detect
60-80mm Detect
80-100mm Detect
100-120mm Detect
120-140mm Detect
140-160mm Detect
160-180mm Do not detect
180-200mm Do not detect
4.2 result of the tests: test proves, the large-scale maximum particle diameter filtering food food particle after domestication reaches 160mm.
Embodiment 5 tolerance test
5.1 test method
(1) the tolerance experiment of pH, DO
It is pH with hydrochloric acid and acetate mixture and reduces buffer agent, with NaOH and Na2CO3It is pH and raises buffer agent;Water temperature improves With 100W-300W controllable electric hot pin;Dissolved oxygen controls at more than 5.1mg/l.Experimental period 9 days.
Each experiment combination put into through embodiment 2 tame after large-scale 100, the large-scale average individual after domestication is big Little is about 5 milligrams.First support temporarily 12 hours at experimental water bunch case before experiment.Cyanophyceae of normally throwing something and feeding in experimentation is raised Material, cyanophyceae concentration is ten thousand/ml of 50-100.Observing time is 96 hours.
(2) breeding potential, breeding cycle test
Major comonomer after embodiment 2 being tamed puts into culture dish, and the large-scale adult after every inferior domestication releases children Germling sucks after body the germling number that postscript adult is released, and this germling number is the germling number of each each adult breeding.
5.2 experimental result
(1) large-scale to different pH, the tolerances of variations in temperature after domestication
Experimental enviroment temperature is between 7-18 DEG C, and dissolved oxygen is maintained at 4.0-5.0mg/l, aquarium controlled temperature electric heating Rod regulation, the pH buffer of variety classes variable concentrations regulates, large-scale after test domestication to different pH Dian Chi Yuan Shui and The adaptation ability of different temperatures Dian Chi Yuan Shui, characterizes the large-scale tolerance after domestication by mensuration median lethal time.Result Show after domestication large-scale has the widest temperature and a pH subject range (data are shown in Table, table two) to Dian Chi Yuan Shui:
Large-scale median lethal time after taming under the different pH` temperature conditions of table one
PH/ temperature 10℃±1℃ 15℃±1℃ 20℃±1℃ 25℃±1℃ 30℃±1℃
3.00—3.10 3 hours 112 minutes 70 minutes 28 minutes 10 minutes
4.00—4.10 74 hours 62 hours 45 hours 31 hours 16 hours
5.00—5.10 Normally Normally Normally Normally A small amount of dead
6.00—6.10 Normally Normally Normally Normally Normally
7.00—7.10 Normally Normally Normally Normally Normally
8.00—8.10 Normally Normally Normally Normally Normally
9.00—9.10 Normally Normally Normally Normally Normally
10.00—10.10 Normally Normally Normally Normally 26 hours
11.00—11.10 33 hours 27 hours 17 hours 8 hours 2 hours
By table one it can be seen that the large-scale pH scope being adapted to Dian Chi Yuan Shui after Xun Hua is 5.00 to 10.00. Additionally, it can also be seen that from table one temperature and pH have cooperative effect, temperature is the highest, large-scale to too high or too low after domestication PH tolerance the poorest;Otherwise, temperature is the lowest, large-scale the strongest to too high or too low pH tolerance after domestication.
Large-scale median lethal time after domestication under 2 two kinds of pH conditions of table and different temperatures combination
Temperature/pH 7.00—7.10 9.00—9.10
0℃ 5 minutes 3 minutes
5℃±1℃ Normally Normally
10℃±1℃ Normally Normally
15℃±1℃ Normally Normally
20℃±1℃ Normally Normally
25℃±1℃ Normally Normally
30℃±1℃ Normally Normally
35℃±1℃ 13 hours 9 hours
40℃±1℃ 1 minute Full death in 1 minute
By table two it can be seen that the temperature range that Dian Chi Yuan Shui is adapted to by large-scale after Xun Hua be 5 DEG C ± 1 DEG C to 30℃±1℃.Equally, from table two it can also be seen that temperature and pH have some cooperative effects.PH is the highest, large-scale after domestication The poorest to too high or too low temperature capabilities;Otherwise, pH is the lowest, large-scale to too high or too low temperature tolerance after domestication Power is the highest.
(2) the large-scale tolerance to different dissolved oxygen pH change after domestication
Experimental enviroment temperature is between 7-18 DEG C, and aquarium temperature electrical bar is adjusted to the large-scale optimum after domestication 20-25 DEG C, the pH buffer of variety classes variable concentrations regulates, and dissolved oxygen inflatable aerator controls trachea sand head number Amount increase and decrease, the large-scale adaptation energy in two kinds of typical pH Dian Chi Yuan Shui to Dian Chi Yuan Shui different dissolved oxygen after test domestication Power, characterizes the large-scale tolerance to different dissolved oxygen after domestication by mensuration median lethal time.
Large-scale median lethal time after taming under table three different dissolved oxygen conditions
Dissolved oxygen/PH 7.00—7.50 9.00—9.50
About 0mg/l 11 minutes 3 minutes
About 0.5mg/l 8 hours 5 hours
1.0mg/l left and right 45 hours 12 hours
2.0mg/l left and right Normally Normally
4.0mg/l left and right Normally Normally
8.0mg/l left and right Normally A small amount of dead
About 15.0mg/l A small amount of dead A small amount of dead
By table three it can be seen that large-scale adaptation about the 0.5mg/l after Xun Hua and above dissolved oxygen, it is super full A small amount of phenomena of mortality are just had to occur with under condition (about 15.0mg/l), this is because when Dissolved Oxygen in Water over-saturation after domestication Large-scale easily occur that bubble glues dead phenomenon.
Additionally, it can also be seen that from table three dissolved oxygen and pH also have cooperative effect, pH is the highest, large-scale right after domestication Too high or too low dissolved oxygen tolerance is the poorest;Otherwise, pH is the lowest, large-scale resistance to too high or too low dissolved oxygen after domestication Stress is the strongest.
(3) breeding potential, breeding cycle test
Test is to carry out in the large-scale conservation room after domestication, and conservation room environmental temperature infrared bathroom master controls 25 About DEG C, the temperature of culture dish is stable between 22-23 DEG C after measured, and illumination controls at 4500-5000LX.In culture dish all Using Dian Chi Yuan Shui, be simultaneously introduced cyanophyceae, cyanophyceae concentration is ten thousand/ml of 50-100, within during experiment every 4 hours, adds once blue Algae.Each culture dish only puts that one healthy after domestication, large-scale after the domestication of oogenesis, observe they row children's time and Row children's quantity (being shown in Table four).
Large-scale breeding potential after table four domestication, breeding cycle table
As shown in Table 4, when ambient temperature about 25 DEG C, the large-scale adult after domestication bred a generation every 2-4 days, Breed less for the first time, general about 40, the most general more than 50, the most every adult reproductive number about 35 66 Individual.
(4) speed of growth, life cycle test
This test is also to carry out in the large-scale conservation room after domestication, conservation room environmental temperature infrared bathroom master Controlling about 25 DEG C, the temperature of culture dish is stable between 22--23 DEG C after measured, and illumination controls at 4500-5000LX.Cultivate All using Dian Chi Yuan Shui in ware, be simultaneously introduced cyanophyceae, cyanophyceae concentration is ten thousand/ml of 50-100, within during experiment every 4 hours, adds Cyanophyceae.Each culture dish puts 10 large-scale germling after domestication, after the same a collection of domestication that produces of healthy parent, sees Examine their speed of growth and life cycle (being shown in Table five).
The large-scale speed of growth after table five domestication, lifecycle matrix
Bloom blue algae often makes wild Large scale individual diminish, and breeding potential declines, and even there are some researches show, in poisonous indigo plant Algae (microcystic aeruginosa 7820) concentration reaches in the environment of 500,000/ml, and wild large-scale existence is less than 48 hours.And from table Can be seen that in five, the large-scale general life cycle after domestication was up to more than 30 days, very fast in life cycle typically growth in first 10 days, Growth in 10th day to the 20th day slows down, and not only stops growing before within the 20th day to life cycle, terminating, and general health gradually withers Contract, diminish (being shown in Table five).Individual general more than 4 millimeters of adult, weight is about 3-5 milligram, and pilot scale detects in pond Big individuality weighs 8.8 milligrams, up to 6.7 millimeters.
Embodiment 6 is ingested cyanophyceae effectiveness and the compatibility test to eutrophication water ecological recovery
It is said that in general, zooplankton not only can not effectively ingest and digest cyanophyceae on the contrary when extensive breakout of cyanobacteria blooms The growth and breeding of himself is all suppressed, show as individuality diminish host tree increase breeding potential reduce idiophase push away After, why occur these phenomenons to be because following several reason: 1. microcystic aeruginosa often forms large area and paints shape colony Resist cladocera to ingest;2. the outer digestion by colloid antagonism cladocera of microcystic aeruginosa;3. the toxin that microcystic aeruginosa produces Large-scale toxic effect to natural kind;4. the nutritive value of microcystic aeruginosa is relatively low.
The body size of the algae of feeding of zooplankton is many in < 50 μm, and relevant with the build of ingestion animal.Cyanophyceae It is difficult to by feeding of zooplankton or is difficult to digested absorption.But large-scale after present invention domestication can not only effectively ingest cyanophyceae and And Algae toxins of can also degrading.
6.1 test methods:
By special time in the large-scale input cyanophyceae water body after embodiment 2 is tamed (respectively 0h, 1.5h, 4.5h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h) after, by large-scale taking-up, lyophilization, sampling, then sampling correct amount is ground, is homogenized, institute Being water or ethanol, acetone with solvent, gained sample is crossed C18 extraction column, then is detected by high performance liquid chromatography.
6.2 result of the tests:
Test shows: after the large-scale cyanophyceae that ingests after domestication, Algae toxins nearly 40% of i.e. degrading in an and a half hours, 12 Nearly 80% is degraded, 24 hours almost degradable 100% in individual hour.(being shown in Table six).
Vivotoxin residual (mg/g) after the large-scale cyanophyceae that ingests after table six domestication
Time MC-RR. MC-YR MC-LR Total toxin
0h 0.458 NO 0.592 1.050
1.5h 0.206 NO 0.398 0.604
4.5h 0.186 NO 0.381 0.567
12h 0.066 NO 0.231 0.297
24h 0.027 NO 0.138 0.165
48h 0.0114 NO 0.089 0.100
72h 0.0035 NO 0.074 0.077
Note: " NO " expression is not detected by.
MC-RR: Microcystin-tyrosine
MC-YR: Microcystin-tyrosine
MC-LR: Microcystin-leucine
The effectiveness experiment of the large-scale cyanophyceae that ingests after 6.2 domestications
For investigating the effectiveness of the large-scale cyanophyceae that ingests after taming, we have done different temperatures, under the conditions of different cyanophyceaes Large-scale ingestion speed experiment after domestication.Finding that temperature is the highest, large-scale after domestication is ingested the fastest, and every Day feeding amount is also The biggest, when initial concentration be 1,000,000,000/liter, temperature be 30 DEG C time, (adult is generally 5 milligrams of left sides only to need every liter to put into 300 adults Right each), just can substantially eat clear in 24 hours;The same time when 10 DEG C, the large-scale density after same domestication can only be eaten up About 1/4;20 DEG C of same times, the large-scale density after same domestication can eat up about 2/3;25 DEG C of same times, the most tame and the most docile Large-scale density after change can eat up about 90%, and result shows that the temperature that the large-scale grazing rate after domestication is stronger is 25 DEG C 30 DEG C, but temperature is beyond 35 DEG C, large-scale after domestication is ingested the most suppressed, and at this moment temperature is the highest, large-scale after domestication Grazing rate is the lowest, even can cause dead generation.When initial concentration be 500,000,000/liter, temperature control at 25 DEG C ± 1 DEG C time, every lifting Enter 300 adults (adult be generally about 5 milligrams each), just can substantially eat clear in 18 hours;When initial concentration be 100,000,000/liter, Temperature controls when 25 DEG C ± 1 DEG C, puts into 300 adults (adult be generally about 5 milligrams each), just may be used in 3 hours for every liter Substantially eat clear.Concentration is the highest, and the large-scale cyanophyceae that ingests after domestication is the fastest, and it is the highest that this is possibly due to cyanophyceae concentration, after domestication The large-scale chance catching cyanophyceae the highest, the large-scale motor capacity after domestication is less strong, and the most suitable high concentration can increase Add the chance met with cyanophyceae it is thus possible to feed into cyanophyceae smoothly, otherwise, once cyanophyceae concentration is the lowest, large-scale after domestication The chance met with cyanophyceae will be relatively low thus can not feed into cyanophyceae smoothly.And along with the large-scale indigo plant of ingesting after domestication Movable constantly the carrying out of algae, as a whole, the large-scale cyanophyceae that ingests after domestication is increasingly slower, and food ration is more and more lower. (being shown in Table seven, eight)
Aquarium residue algae amount concentration (hundred million/liter) after large-scale different time of ingesting after domestication under table seven different temperatures
Aquarium residue algae amount after large-scale different time of ingesting after domestication under the different cyanophyceae initial concentration of table eight (hundred million/ Rise)
" no " represents that cyanophyceae concentration is the lowest, it is difficult to accurately detect
In the ecological work of the large-scale inducing involution water remediation after the application domestication that limit, Dian Chi is carried out, the most in a large number Throw in and large-scale eat up blue-green alga bloom after domestication, make water transparency reach to meet the degree that submerged plant recovers, one Denier submerged vegetation recovers, and water transparency both can have been made persistently to increase, the large-scale offer after submerged vegetation can be again domestication simultaneously The habitat perched is to be more beneficial for suppressing cyanophyceae bounce-back, and such water body enters the benign cycle constantly recovered, finally suitably Time introduces fish, shrimp, Eriocheir sinensis, spiral shell, shellfish (as far as possible screening endemic species), adds and transfers the best the various of clear-cutting forestland along with water quality (such as some aquatic insects, plankton, various antibacterials etc., these species are in the environment of serious eutrophication for endemic species It is on the brink of or has disappeared, but can be constantly good then reappear along with water quality), constitute multiformity height, a stability Strong good aquatic ecosystem.Thus can long term maintenance water body is limpid, submerged plant is in great numbers good view to recover The offer of the normal ecosystem service function of water body, can constantly extract water body deposition nutrition by Economic animals and plants again, pollute Physical resources, turn waste into wealth.Pilot scale project lasts 9 months, and when 7 months, water body is substantially clarified and seen the bottom, water analysis tables of data When bright 9 months, much testing the indexs such as water quality TN, TP, have reaches country surface water II class water water standard (TN TP), be always maintained at and later stable (later stage we typically i.e. mended every 3~4 days Dian Chi Yuan Shui 1 to three/5ths/ One, after three days, water body always recovers the state that clarification sees the bottom).Pilot-scale experiment also demonstrate after domestication large-scale can be at Dianchi Lake Effectively playing a role in body, this also demonstrates experimental result.Due to domestication after large-scale but can be at the cyanophyceae environment of high concentration In normal g and D (cyanophyceae at concentrations up to 1,000,000/milliliter more than, water temperature 25 DEG C ± 1 DEG C), and big after domestication Type can effectively be ingested cyanophyceae, is the most substantially suitable for various severe water quality, and laboratory experiment and the domestication of pilot scale data analysis factually After large-scale will not constitute again ecological hazard for water body, after rendering to water body, its biological safety is the most guaranteed. The technology of the large-scale control algae induction eutrophication alga type water body after domestication can be put into nature lake further the most completely (such as lakes such as Dian Chi) is enlarged pilot scale.
Above embodiment illustrates that embodiment disclosed by the invention, can not be interpreted as the limit to the present invention System.Additionally, various amendments listed herein and invention in method, the change of compositions, without departing from the scope of the present invention It is apparent from for those skilled in the art with on the premise of spirit.Although combined the present invention multiple specifically Preferred embodiment has carried out concrete description to the present invention, it is to be understood that, the present invention should not be limited only to these specific embodiments. It is true that various as above for those skilled in the art obvious amendment obtain invention and all should include Within the scope of the invention.

Claims (13)

1. a large-scale acclimation method, comprises the following steps:
(1) domestication foodstuff is thrown something and fed: large-scale input tamed in water, domestication foodstuff of throwing something and feeding every day;
Described domestication foodstuff comprises the material composition of following weight portion:
(2) screening: from step (1) domestication foodstuff throw something and feed after large-scale select sociales, described sociales are made a living elongated It is large-scale that gesture is excellent and individual relative is bigger;
(3) the large-scale repeatedly circulation selected through step (2) is repeated use step (1) and step (2) to carry out taming foodstuff to throw Feed and screen again, until the domestication total natural law of foodstuff of throwing something and feeding is at least 60 days;
(4) stable: large-scale input step (3) obtained was specific body of water more than 50 days, and domestication foodstuff of throwing something and feeding every day, to enter Stable and the rejuvenation of row domestication and improvement characteristic, described specific body of water refer to pH value between 5-10, dissolved oxygen is in 2-8mg/L, temperature Degree scope is the water body of 4 DEG C to 30 DEG C.
Large-scale acclimation method the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (1), the density of large-scale domestication is Greatly 500,000/m3;Domestication foodstuff injected volume is: 20-40g/ every time, throws something and feeds 3-5 time every day, and Feeding time is 7-15 days.
Large-scale acclimation method the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (2), select account for be selected large-scale always The 20-40%'s of quantity is large-scale as sociales.
Large-scale acclimation method the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (3), uses step (1) and step (2) carry out throwing something and feeding the circulation total degree screened at least more than 5 times.
Large-scale acclimation method the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (4), described large-scale input concentration Scope is ten thousand/m of 30-503;The injected volume of domestication foodstuff maintains each 20-40g/, throws something and feeds 3-5 time every day.
Large-scale acclimation method the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the large-scale adult individuals obtained after domestication is put down All sizes, between 5.0~6.5mm, can filter the food particle of food maximum gauge 80-160 μm.
7. a large-scale domestication domestication foodstuff, comprises the material composition of following weight portion:
Large-scale domestication the most as claimed in claim 7 domestication foodstuff, it is characterised in that described cyanophyceae is microcystic aeruginosa.
Large-scale domestication the most as claimed in claim 7 domestication foodstuff, it is characterised in that the employing of described domestication foodstuff includes following The method of step prepares:
1) by fresh Pericarpium Musae, Herba Dendrobii fresh stem pulping pasty state;
2) by yeast dry powder activating;
3) by proportioning, by the yeast of activation, starchy fresh Pericarpium Musae, the fresh stem of Herba Dendrobii and other raw material blendings are broken into, Under conditions of suitable yeast bacterium is fermented, fermentation obtains domestication foodstuff.
10. as described in claim 1-6 any claim, large-scale acclimation method repairs the purposes in field for water ecology.
11. 1 kinds of method for repairing water ecology, for using large-scale acclimation method described in claim 1-6 any claim to tame and docile Change large-scale, and purifying water body in the large-scale eutrophic water body being thrown to be polluted by cyanophyceae that domestication is obtained.
12. method for repairing water ecology as claimed in claim 11, it is characterised in that the large-scale injected volume of described domestication For 150-300/L water.
13. method for repairing water ecology as claimed in claim 11, it is characterised in that described method for repairing water ecology also wraps Include in following steps is one or more:
A) at bottom kind planting submerged plant;
B) being placed with beneficial microorganism in water body, wherein this beneficial microbe can be with large-scale symbiosis;
C) in water body, senior aquatic animal is put into, at least one in spiral shell, shellfish, fish, shrimps.
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