CN104596905B - Device and method for measuring permeability of rock in fracturing process - Google Patents

Device and method for measuring permeability of rock in fracturing process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104596905B
CN104596905B CN201410853506.7A CN201410853506A CN104596905B CN 104596905 B CN104596905 B CN 104596905B CN 201410853506 A CN201410853506 A CN 201410853506A CN 104596905 B CN104596905 B CN 104596905B
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rock
core
triaxial test
test cabin
pressure
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CN201410853506.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104596905A (en
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朱海燕
刘清友
陶雷
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西南石油大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a device for measuring the permeability of rock in a fracturing process. The device comprises a triaxial test chamber (1), a core gripping device, a carbon dioxide cylinder (2), a flow monitoring device, a hydraulic oil confining pressure loading system (3) and a computer (4), wherein the hydraulic oil confining pressure loading system (3) comprises an oil pump, a booster pump and an oil tank; the core gripping device comprises a core gripper (11), an air cushion (12), an insulating self-adhesive sealing tape (13) and a thermal shrinkable sleeve (14); an air inlet (15) connected with an air inlet valve (9) and an air outlet (16) connected with an air outlet valve (10) are formed in the upper end and the lower end of the core gripper (11) respectively; the carbon dioxide cylinder (2) is connected with the air inlet valve (9); and the flow monitoring device comprises a glass burette (17) and a rubber hose (18). The invention further discloses a measuring method. The device provided by the invention has the beneficial effects of convenience and easiness in refitting, safety and simplicity in operation, small measuring error, high working efficiency and high utilization ratio of carbon dioxide.

Description

The devices and methods therefor of permeability in a kind of measure rock failure process

Technical field

The present invention relates to the technical field of oil development, particularly a kind of device for determining permeability in rock failure process And its method.

Background technology

With continuing to develop that Domestic Oil And Gas Fields are developed, and overseas business continuous expansion, domestic and international unconventional special type Reservoir Development technical requirements more and more higher, is subject to various circles of society extensive already with hydraulic fracturing exploitation unconventional petroleum resources Concern.Rock is fully understanded and grasps to be subject in hydraulic fracturing to three-dimensional stress load up to mechanics parameter in rupture process Change and rock permeability change, to establishment Oil and gas field development scheme, instruct site operation provide important evidence.

The ground environment for being faced becomes increasingly complex, and formation rock mechanical property and penetration property receive each stress load shadow Sound is larger, and mechanical response and permeability variation of the rock under different stress are difficult to Accurate Prediction.And laboratory is retrievable often Static permeability under the conditions of rule using standard size rock core direct measurement out can not meet study of rocks slit morphological feature It is difficult to enter into high temperature with gas under the actual requirement that stress loading changes, and conventional rock mechanics triaxial strength experiment condition In rock core in high-potting cabin after plastic packaging, can not realize at all " side loading stress, side measurement permeability ".On the other hand, by Hide that rock is fine and close, permeability is low in unconventionaloil pool, general flowmeter is difficult to accurately to measure gas by the air-flow of rock even Monitoring is less than flow.

The content of the invention

It is an object of the invention to overcome existing rock permeability in three-dimensional stress is loaded onto rupture process to be difficult to what is measured Problem, there is provided the convenient easy, safe operation of one kind repacking is simple, measurement error is small, high working efficiency and utilization rate of carbon dioxide The devices and methods therefor for determining permeability in rock failure process high.

The purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:The dress of permeability in a kind of measure rock failure process Put, it includes triaxial test cabin, core clamping device, dioxide bottle, flow monitoring device, hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system With the computer for being provided with data acquisition unit and controller, in described triaxial test cabin and positioned at the upper and lower of triaxial test cabin Two ends are respectively arranged with axle pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod and axle pressure loading experiment platform down-pressed pole, axle pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod It is fixed on triaxial test cabin, axle pressure loading experiment platform down-pressed pole can be upper and lower movable with loading axis pressure, under axle pressure loading experiment platform Depression bar and axle pressure loading device be connecteds, and triaxial test is provided with the inlet valve and oil return valve for connecting triaxial test cabin on wall out of my cabin, The bottom in triaxial test cabin is provided with intake valve and air outlet valve, described hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system by oil pump, force (forcing) pump and Fuel tank is constituted, and the suction port of force (forcing) pump and oil pump is connected with fuel tank, and the oil-out of force (forcing) pump and oil pump is connected with inlet valve, Oil pump is also connected with oil return valve, and described core clamping device is by core holding unit, air cushion, insulating self-adhesive band and thermal shrinkable sleeve Composition, the upper and lower end of core holding unit is respectively arranged with the air inlet being connected with intake valve and the gas outlet being connected with air outlet valve, Dioxide bottle is connected with intake valve, and described flow monitoring device is made up of buret and rubber hose.

Described buret is fixed on fixed clamp device, and chromonic bubble is under the promotion of gas in glass tube Can upward sliding.

A kind of method of permeability in measure rock failure process, it is comprised the following steps:

S1, plastic packaging rock core:The two ends of the rock core after first end face is polished install air cushion additional, then successively use insulating self-adhesive band And thermal shrinkable sleeve wraps between core holding unit rock core, it is achieved thereby that the plastic packaging of rock core;

S2, install sensor additional:Axial position is installed in the bottom of core holding unit upper end and the top of core holding unit lower end Displacement sensor;

S3, plus confined pressure and gas injection:

S(1):The core holding unit in S2 is first placed in axle pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod and axle pressure loading experiment platform is pushed Between bar, then shaft position sensor is connected with computer, is then shut off triaxial test cabin, starting oil pump is full of hydraulic oil Pressure oil pump is opened in triaxial test cabin simultaneously, and be promoted to for rock core confined pressure according to loading speed 50mm/min by piston in pressure oil pump 5MPa, is then turned off pressure oil pump and inlet valve, and confined pressure steady is in 5MPa in making whole experiment process;

S(2):The intake valve and air outlet valve in triaxial test cabin are fastened, the valve of dioxide bottle is opened, and adjusts dioxy Changing carbon gas cylinder makes the pressure that carbon dioxide enters triaxial test cabin be 2MPa;

S(3):The intake valve in triaxial test cabin is opened, pressure is the carbon dioxide of 2MPa sequentially through air inlet in above-mentioned S (2) Valve and air inlet are entered into rock core, keep rock core entrance point pressure stability in 2MPa;

S4, rate of discharge monitoring:The air outlet valve in triaxial test cabin is opened, by one end of rubber hose in flow monitoring device It is connected with buret, the other end of rubber hose is connected with air outlet valve, amount of glass in flow monitoring device is changed as required The range of pipe, starts to calculate port of export gas flow;

S5, axle pressure loading start experiment:Rock core original dimension parameter is input into a computer, it is clear to shaft position sensor Zero, start perform experimental arrangement, using strain controlling test, its speed control be 0.04mm/min, increase xial feed until Sample is destroyed, under confined pressure, pressure carbon dioxide, stress at different levels in recording rock core during applying axial load Stress, strain value and measure port of export data on flows;

S6, experiment terminate:

S(1):After rock core failure damage, stop loading axial load, carbon dioxide gas bottle valve is closed, while opening back Fuel tap simultaneously starts oil pump hydraulic oil in triaxial test cabin is drawn back into fuel tank;

S(2):Open triaxial test cabin, the data wire of each sensor that dismounting core holding unit is connected with triaxial test cabin With gas inlet/outlet pipe line;

S(3):Fetch core holding unit and cut air cushion positioned at rock core upper and lower end, keep rock core and reality after experiment Data are tested, prepares experiment next time;

S(4):Elastic modelling quantity, compression strength of the rock core under the conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide are calculated, rock core is finally drawn and is existed Stress-strain diagram under the conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide, it is achieved thereby that determining the triaxial strength of now rock;

S (5) calculates permeability data under different ess-strains by each group port of export data on flows, and by permeability- Strain curve is plotted on stress-strain curve diagram, you can analysis obtains the Changing Pattern of rock permeability in rupture process.

The present invention has advantages below:(1) present invention is used to determine the change of rock permeability in rupture process, and in fact When monitoring record rock confined pressure, rock core in the pressure of carbon dioxide, axial stress, axial strain data, carbon dioxide pass through The flow of rock core, and calculate elastic modelling quantity, compression strength, dioxy that rock axle pressure is loaded onto in rupture process according to these data Change the flow of carbon, while drawing the stress-strain diagram of rock, calculate and draw carbon dioxide gas of the rock in rupture process Survey permeability variation curve map.(2) present invention realizes the adjustable satisfaction of range of different current rate down-off monitoring devices Different flow monitoring demands.(3) experimentation it is easy, it is necessary to instrument and equipment be all easy to be obtained, conventional efficient is higher. (4) convenient data processing is easy to operate, data result final curves figure more intuitively reflect rock be stressed effect until Permeability variation trend during rupture, for wind-structure interaction provides experimental data foundation.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is structural representation of the invention;

Fig. 2 is the scheme of installation of core clamping device of the invention and shaft position sensor;

Fig. 3 is the structural representation of flow monitoring device of the invention;

Fig. 4 is the stress-strain diagram and permeability-strain curve that the present invention draws after experiment;

In figure, 1- triaxial tests cabin, 2- dioxide bottles, 3- hydraulic oil confined pressure loading systems, 4- computers, 5a- axles Pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod, 5b- axles pressure loading experiment platform down-pressed pole, 6- rock cores, 7- inlet valves, 8- oil return valves, 9- intake valves, 10- air outlet valves, 11- core holding units, 12- air cushions, 13- insulating self-adhesive bands, 14- thermal shrinkable sleeves, 15- air inlets, 16- outlets Mouthful, 17- burets, 18- rubber hose, 19- fixed clamp devices, 20- shaft position sensors, 21- rock cores and rock core are pressed from both sides Hold device.

Specific embodiment

The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, and protection scope of the present invention is not limited to as described below:

As Figure 1-3, a kind of device for determining permeability in rock failure process, it includes triaxial test cabin 1, rock core Clamping device, dioxide bottle 2, flow monitoring device, hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system 3 and the computer of controller is installed 4, the upper/lower terminal in described triaxial test cabin 1 and positioned at triaxial test cabin 1 is respectively arranged with axle pressure loading experiment platform and presses Bar 5a and axle pressure loading experiment platform down-pressed pole 5b, axle pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod 5a are fixed on triaxial test cabin 1, and axle pressure adds Carrying experimental bench down-pressed pole 5b can be upper and lower movable with loading axis pressure, and axle pressure loading experiment platform down-pressed pole 5b connects with axle pressure loading device Connect, the inlet valve 7 and oil return valve 8 in connection triaxial test cabin 1, the bottom in triaxial test cabin 1 are provided with the outer wall of triaxial test cabin 1 Intake valve 9 and air outlet valve 10 are provided with, described hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system 3 is made up of oil pump, force (forcing) pump and fuel tank, pressurizeed The suction port of pump and oil pump is connected with fuel tank, and the oil-out of force (forcing) pump and oil pump is connected with inlet valve 7, oil pump also with oil return Valve 8 is connected, and described core clamping device is by 14 groups of core holding unit 11, air cushion 12, insulating self-adhesive band 13 and thermal shrinkable sleeve Be respectively arranged with into, the upper and lower end of core holding unit 11 air inlet 15 that is connected with intake valve 9 and with going out that air outlet valve 10 is connected Gas port 16, dioxide bottle 2 is connected with intake valve 9, and described flow monitoring device is by buret 17 and rubber hose 18 Composition.

Described buret 17 is fixed on fixed clamp device 19, chromonic bubble pushing away in gas in glass tube Can upward sliding under dynamic.

A kind of method of permeability in measure rock failure process, it is comprised the following steps:

S1, plastic packaging rock core:

S(1):The rock core sample that a diameter of 25mm, length are 50mm is taken out, two ends of rock core 6 are polished by stone mill Face, makes both ends of the surface be each perpendicular to the axis of rock core 6, and axial angle deviation is no more than 0.05 °;

S(2):The top counterpoise at the two ends of rock core 6 is stacked the air cushion 12 for putting diameter 25mm, then air cushion 12 is positioned over rock core In the middle of clamper 11;

S(3):The side uniform winding of core holding unit 11, air cushion 12 and rock core 6 is wrapped up with insulating self-adhesive band 13 It is entirety, in order to which carbon dioxide causes carbon dioxide loss along the channelling of rock core side in preventing experimentation, increases Big measurement error;

S(4):Thermal shrinkable sleeve 14 is enclosed within the middle of core holding unit 11, with 300 DEG C to 500 DEG C air-heaters from core holding unit 11 middle parts to its upper/lower terminal are uniformly heated and are rotated, and the uniform bubble-free in the presence of high temperature of thermal shrinkable sleeve 14 is tightened bag The upper and lower side part of rock core 6, air cushion 12 and core holding unit 11 is wrapped up in, to completely cut off hydraulic oil when confined pressure is loaded.

S2, install sensor additional:Bottom and the top installation axle of the lower end of core holding unit 11 in the upper end of core holding unit 11 To displacement transducer 20.

S3, plus confined pressure and gas injection:

S(1):The core holding unit 11 in S2 is first placed in axle pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod 5a and axle pressure loading experiment platform Between down-pressed pole 5b, then shaft position sensor 20 is connected with computer 4, is then shut off triaxial test cabin 1 and excludes three axles Air in experimental cabin 1, starting oil pump makes hydraulic oil open pressure oil pump simultaneously full of triaxial test cabin 1, living in pressure oil pump The confined pressure of rock core 6 is promoted to 5MPa by plug according to loading speed 50mm/min, is then turned off pressure oil pump and inlet valve 7, is made whole Confined pressure steady is in 5MPa in experimentation;

S(2):The intake valve 9 and air outlet valve 10 in triaxial test cabin 1 are fastened, the valve of dioxide bottle 2 is opened, and adjusted Section dioxide bottle 2 makes the pressure that carbon dioxide enters triaxial test cabin 1 be 2MPa (if Carbon dioxide air pressure is not enough in gas cylinder Gas pressurized device need to be increased);

S(3):The intake valve 9 in triaxial test cabin 1 is opened, pressure is the carbon dioxide of 2MPa sequentially through entering in above-mentioned S (2) Air valve 9 and air inlet 15 are entered into rock core 6, keep the entrance point pressure stability of rock core 6 in 2MPa.

S4, rate of discharge monitoring:

S(1):The air outlet valve 10 in triaxial test cabin 1 is opened, air outlet valve 10 is connected in rubber hose 18;

S(2):1ml~50ml burets 17 are selected according to gas outlet end uninterrupted, observation bubble is in certain hour The volume that interior (stopwatch is measured) passes through buret 17, calculates port of export gas flow and note corresponding with ess-strain value at that time Record;

S(3):Timing duplicate measurements stability of flow after rock sample is destroyed terminates experiment, and particularly stress is near peak value When should suitably increase measurement group number, slit system Deformation Law and permeability variation when making every effort to more accurately reflect rock rupture.

S5, axle pressure loading start experiment:The original dimension parameter of rock core 6 is input into computer 4, to shaft position sensor 20 reset, and start to perform experimental arrangement, are tested using strain controlling, and its speed control is 0.04mm/min, increases xial feed Until sample is destroyed, confined pressure, pressure carbon dioxide, Ge Jiying in rock core 6 is recorded during applying axial load Stress, strain value under power and measure port of export data on flows.

S6, experiment terminate:

S(1):After rock core failure damage, stop loading axial load, the valve of dioxide bottle 2 is closed, while opening back Fuel tap 8 simultaneously starts oil pump hydraulic oil in triaxial test cabin 1 is drawn back into fuel tank;

S(2):Open triaxial test cabin 1, the number of each sensor that dismounting core holding unit 11 is connected with triaxial test cabin 1 According to line and gas inlet/outlet pipe line;

S(3):Fetch core holding unit 11 and cut air cushion 12 positioned at the upper and lower end of rock core 6, keep the rock after experiment The heart 6 and experimental data, prepare experiment next time;

S(4):Elastic modelling quantity, compression strength of the rock in rupture process are calculated, Complete Stress-Strain Relationship of Rock curve is drawn, asked The permeability of rock different phase is solved, and permeability-strain curve is plotted on stress-strain curve diagram.Solve elastic modelling quantity Method be:The length of strain=loading procedure Axial Deformation/rock core test piece;Draw stress, the strain figure in loading procedure; Ask for the slope of curve cathetus section, as elastic modelling quantity.The length of axial strain=loading procedure Axial Deformation/rock core test piece Degree.Permeability of the Darcy formula (formula 1) in the flow rate calculation rock stress loading procedure for measuring is surveyed according to gas, and draws infiltration Rate-strain curve.

Wherein:K- gas is surveyed and calculates permeability (mD), P0- atmospheric pressure (MPa), Q0- flow through the flow of rock sample cross-sectional area (ml/s), μ-carbon dioxide viscosity (mPas), L- rock cores length (cm), A- rock core cross-sectional areas (cm2), P1、P2- rock Motive body import and export end air pressure (MPa), the volume (ml) that bubble flows through within a certain period of time in glass tube during V- measurement flows, The time (s) of t- bubbly flows, you can analysis obtains the Changing Pattern of rock permeability in rupture process.

Claims (1)

1. it is a kind of determine rock failure process in permeability method, it using determine rock failure process in permeability dress Put, the device includes triaxial test cabin(1), core clamping device, dioxide bottle(2), flow monitoring device, hydraulic oil encloses Pressure loading system(3)With the computer for being provided with controller(4), described triaxial test cabin(1)It is interior and positioned at triaxial test cabin (1)Upper/lower terminal be respectively arranged with axle pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod(5a)Loading experiment platform down-pressed pole is pressed with axle(5b), axle Pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod(5a)It is fixed on triaxial test cabin(1)On, axle pressure loading experiment platform down-pressed pole(5b)Can upper and lower work Move with loading axis pressure, axle pressure loading experiment platform down-pressed pole(5b)It is connected with axle pressure loading device, triaxial test cabin(1)Set on outer wall It is equipped with connection triaxial test cabin(1)Inlet valve(7)And oil return valve(8), triaxial test cabin(1)Bottom be provided with intake valve (9)And air outlet valve(10), described hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system(3)It is made up of oil pump, force (forcing) pump and fuel tank, force (forcing) pump and oil The suction port of pump is connected with fuel tank, and the oil-out of force (forcing) pump and oil pump is and inlet valve(7)Connection, oil pump also with oil return valve (8)Connection, described core clamping device is by core holding unit(11), air cushion(12), insulating self-adhesive band(13)And pyrocondensation Set(14)Composition, core holding unit(11)Upper and lower end be respectively arranged with and intake valve(9)The air inlet of connection(15)And with go out Air valve(10)The gas outlet of connection(16), dioxide bottle(2)With intake valve(9)Connection, described flow monitoring device by Buret(17)And rubber hose(18)Composition, described buret(17)It is fixed on fixed clamp device(19)On, glass Glass buret(17)Middle chromonic bubble under the promotion of gas can upward sliding,
It is characterized in that:The method is comprised the following steps:
S1, plastic packaging rock core:Rock core after first end face is polished(6)Two ends install air cushion additional(12), then it is successively close with insulating self-adhesive Envelope band(13)And thermal shrinkable sleeve(14)By rock core(6)Wrap in core holding unit(11)Between, it is achieved thereby that the modeling of rock core Envelope;
S2, install sensor additional:In core holding unit(11)The bottom of upper end and core holding unit(11)The top installation axle of lower end To displacement transducer(20);
S3, plus confined pressure and gas injection:
S(1):First by the core holding unit in S2(11)It is placed in axle pressure loading experiment platform upperpush rod(5a)Loading experiment platform is pressed with axle Down-pressed pole(5b)Between, then will be to displacement transducer(20)With computer(4)Connection, is then shut off triaxial test cabin(1), start Oil pump makes hydraulic oil be full of triaxial test cabin(1)Pressure oil pump is opened simultaneously, and piston is according to loading speed 50mm/ in pressure oil pump Min is by rock core(6)Confined pressure is promoted to 5MPa, is then turned off pressure oil pump and inlet valve(7), confined pressure is steady in making whole experiment process It is scheduled on 5MPa;
S(2):Fasten triaxial test cabin(1)Intake valve(9)And air outlet valve(10), open dioxide bottle(2)Valve, And regulation of carbon dioxide gas cylinder(2)Carbon dioxide is set to enter triaxial test cabin(1)Pressure be 2MPa;
S(3):Open triaxial test cabin(1)Intake valve(9), above-mentioned S(2)Middle pressure is the carbon dioxide of 2 MPa sequentially through entering Air valve(9)And air inlet(15)Enter into rock core(6)In, rock core entrance point pressure stability is kept in 2 MPa;
S4, rate of discharge monitoring:Open triaxial test cabin(1)Air outlet valve(10), by rubber hose in flow monitoring device (18)One end and buret(17)Connection, rubber hose(18)The other end and air outlet valve(10)Connection, becomes as required Buret in more flow monitoring device(17)Range, start calculate port of export gas flow;
S5, axle pressure loading start experiment:In computer(4)Middle input rock core(6)Original dimension parameter, to shaft position sensor (20)Reset, start to perform experimental arrangement, tested using strain controlling, its speed control is 0.04mm/min, increase axial lotus Carry until sample is destroyed, rock core is recorded during axial load is applied(6)It is middle confined pressure, pressure carbon dioxide, each Stress under level stress, strain value and measure port of export data on flows;
S6, experiment terminate:
S(1):After rock core failure damage, stop loading axial load, close dioxide bottle(2)Valve, while opening oil return Valve(8)And start oil pump by triaxial test cabin(1)Interior hydraulic oil draws back fuel tank;
S(2):Open triaxial test cabin(1), dismantle core holding unit(11)With triaxial test cabin(1)Each sensor of connection Data wire and gas inlet/outlet pipe line;
S(3):Fetch core holding unit(11)And cut positioned at rock core(6)The air cushion of upper and lower end(12), after keeping experiment Rock core(6)And experimental data, prepare experiment next time;
S(4):Calculate rock core(6)Elastic modelling quantity, compression strength under the conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide, finally draw rock core(6) Stress-strain diagram under the conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide, it is achieved thereby that determining the triaxial strength of now rock;
S(5):Permeability data under different ess-strains is calculated by each group port of export data on flows, and by permeability-strain Drawing of Curve is on stress-strain curve diagram, you can analysis obtains the Changing Pattern of rock permeability in rupture process.
CN201410853506.7A 2014-12-31 2014-12-31 Device and method for measuring permeability of rock in fracturing process CN104596905B (en)

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