CN104596905A - Device and method for measuring permeability of rock in fracturing process - Google Patents

Device and method for measuring permeability of rock in fracturing process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104596905A
CN104596905A CN201410853506.7A CN201410853506A CN104596905A CN 104596905 A CN104596905 A CN 104596905A CN 201410853506 A CN201410853506 A CN 201410853506A CN 104596905 A CN104596905 A CN 104596905A
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rock
core
triaxial test
test cabin
valve
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CN201410853506.7A
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CN104596905B (en
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朱海燕
刘清友
陶雷
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西南石油大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a device for measuring the permeability of rock in a fracturing process. The device comprises a triaxial test chamber (1), a core gripping device, a carbon dioxide cylinder (2), a flow monitoring device, a hydraulic oil confining pressure loading system (3) and a computer (4), wherein the hydraulic oil confining pressure loading system (3) comprises an oil pump, a booster pump and an oil tank; the core gripping device comprises a core gripper (11), an air cushion (12), an insulating self-adhesive sealing tape (13) and a thermal shrinkable sleeve (14); an air inlet (15) connected with an air inlet valve (9) and an air outlet (16) connected with an air outlet valve (10) are formed in the upper end and the lower end of the core gripper (11) respectively; the carbon dioxide cylinder (2) is connected with the air inlet valve (9); and the flow monitoring device comprises a glass burette (17) and a rubber hose (18). The invention further discloses a measuring method. The device provided by the invention has the beneficial effects of convenience and easiness in refitting, safety and simplicity in operation, small measuring error, high working efficiency and high utilization ratio of carbon dioxide.

Description

A kind of devices and methods therefor measuring permeability in rock failure process

Technical field

The present invention relates to the technical field of oil development, particularly a kind of devices and methods therefor measuring permeability in rock failure process.

Background technology

Along with the development of Domestic Oil And Gas Fields exploitation, and the continuous expansion of overseas business, domestic and international unconventional special reservoirs development technique requires more and more higher, uses waterfrac treatment exploitation unconventional petroleum resources to be subject to various circles of society already and pays close attention to widely.Overall understanding and grasp rock are subject to three-dimensional stress load when waterfrac treatment until the change of mechanics parameter and the change of rock permeability in rupture process, provide important evidence to establishment Oil and gas field development scheme, guide field construction.

Faced by ground environment become increasingly complex, formation rock mechanical property and penetration property are comparatively large by each stress loading effect, and the mechanical response of rock under different stress and permeability variation are difficult to Accurate Prediction.And the static permeability utilizing standard size rock core directly to measure under the retrievable normal condition in laboratory can not meet the actual requirement that study of rocks hole seam morphological feature changes with stress loading, and gas is difficult to enter into the rock core in high temperature and pressure test cabin after plastic packaging under conventional rock mechanics triaxial strength experiment condition, can not realize " limit loading stress, permeability is measured on limit " at all.On the other hand, because unconventionaloil pool is hidden, rock is fine and close, permeability is low, and general flowmeter is difficult to Measurement accuracy gas and is even monitored less than flow by the air-flow of rock.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to overcome existing rock and be loaded in three-dimensional stress the problem that permeability in rupture process is difficult to measure, a kind of devices and methods therefor of reequiping permeability in convenient easy, handling safety is simple, measuring error is little, work efficiency is high and utilization rate of carbon dioxide is high mensuration rock failure process is provided.

Object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions: a kind of device measuring permeability in rock failure process, it comprises triaxial test cabin, core clamping device, dioxide bottle, flow monitoring device, hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system and the computing machine being provided with data acquisition unit and controller, be positioned at the upper of triaxial test cabin in described triaxial test cabin, lower two ends are respectively arranged with axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod and axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole, axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod is fixed on triaxial test cabin, axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole can be gone up, lower activity is to load axial compression, axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole is connected with axial compression charger, triaxial test wall is provided with the inlet valve and oil return valve that are communicated with triaxial test cabin out of my cabin, the bottom in triaxial test cabin is provided with gas admittance valve and air outlet valve, described hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system is by oil pump, force (forcing) pump and fuel tank composition, force (forcing) pump is all connected with fuel tank with the suction port of oil pump, force (forcing) pump is all connected with inlet valve with the oil-out of oil pump, oil pump is also connected with oil return valve, described core clamping device is by core holding unit, air cushion, insulating self-adhesive band and thermal shrinkable sleeve composition, core holding unit upper, lower end is respectively arranged with the air intake opening be connected with gas admittance valve and the gas outlet be connected with air outlet valve, dioxide bottle is connected with gas admittance valve, described flow monitoring device is made up of buret and rubber hose.

Described buret is fixed on fixed clamp device, and in glass tube, chromonic bubble can upward sliding under the promotion of gas.

Measure a method for permeability in rock failure process, it comprises the following steps:

S1, plastic packaging rock core: the two ends of the rock core after first being polished by end face install air cushion additional, then rock core wraps between core holding unit by priority insulating self-adhesive band and thermal shrinkable sleeve, thus achieve the plastic packaging of rock core;

S2, install sensor additional: in the bottom of core holding unit upper end and the top of core holding unit lower end, shaft position sensor is installed;

S3, add confined pressure and gas injection:

S (1): first the core holding unit in S2 is placed between axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod and axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole, again shaft position sensor is connected with computing machine, then triaxial test cabin is closed, startup oil pump makes hydraulic oil be full of triaxial test cabin and opens pressure oil pump simultaneously, in pressure oil pump, rock core confined pressure is promoted to 5MPa according to loading speed 50mm/min by piston, close pressure oil pump and inlet valve subsequently, to make in whole experimentation confined pressure steady at 5MPa;

S (2): gas admittance valve and the air outlet valve of fastening triaxial test cabin, opens the valve of dioxide bottle, and the pressure that regulation of carbon dioxide gas cylinder makes carbon dioxide enter triaxial test cabin is 2MPa;

The middle pressure of S (3): the gas admittance valve opening triaxial test cabin, above-mentioned S (2) is that the carbon dioxide of 2MPa enters into rock core through gas admittance valve and air intake opening in turn, keeps rock core entrance point pressure stability at 2MPa;

S4, rate of discharge are monitored: the air outlet valve opening triaxial test cabin, one end of rubber hose in flow monitoring device is connected with buret, the other end of rubber hose is connected with air outlet valve, change the range of buret in flow monitoring device as required, start to calculate endpiece gas flow;

S5, axial compression load and start experiment: input rock core original dimension parameter in a computer, shaft position sensor is reset, start to perform experimental arrangement, employing strain controlling is tested, its speed control is 0.04mm/min, increase xial feed until sample destroys, in the process applying axial load, record stress, the strain value under confined pressure in rock core, pressure carbon dioxide, stress at different levels and record endpiece data on flows;

S6, experiment terminate:

S (1): after rock core failure damage, stop loading axial load, closing carbon dioxide gas cylinder valve, opens oil return valve simultaneously and starts oil pump and hydraulic oil in triaxial test cabin is drawn back fuel tank;

S (2): open triaxial test cabin, the data line of each sensor that dismounting core holding unit is connected with triaxial test cabin and gas inlet/outlet pipe line;

S (3): fetch core holding unit and cut the air cushion being positioned at rock core upper and lower end, keeping the rock core after experiment and experimental data, prepares experiment next time;

S (4): calculate the elastic modulus of rock core under supercritical carbon dioxide condition, compressive strength, finally draws the stress-strain diagram of rock core under supercritical carbon dioxide condition, thus achieves the triaxial strength measuring now rock;

S (5) calculates permeability data under different ess-strain by each group of endpiece data on flows, and is plotted on stress-strain curve diagram by permeability-strain curve, can analyze the Changing Pattern obtaining rock permeability in rupture process.

The present invention has the following advantages: (1) the present invention is for measuring the change of rock permeability in rupture process, and the pressure of carbon dioxide in the confined pressure of Real-Time Monitoring record rock, rock core, axial stress, axial strain data, carbon dioxide are by the flow of rock core, and calculate according to these data the flow that rock axial compression is loaded on elastic modulus in rupture process, compressive strength, carbon dioxide, draw the stress-strain diagram of rock simultaneously, calculate and draw the carbon dioxide gas of rock in rupture process and survey permeability variation curve map.(2) present invention achieves that the range of different current rate down-off monitoring device is adjustable meets different flow monitoring demands.(3) experimentation is easy, and the instrument and equipment of needs is all easy to obtain, and conventional efficient is higher.(4) convenient data processing is easy to operate, and data result final curves figure reflects rock more intuitively being subject to effect of stress until permeability variation trend when breaking, for wind-structure interaction provides experimental data foundation.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is structural representation of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the scheme of installation of core clamping device of the present invention and shaft position sensor;

Fig. 3 is the structural representation of flow monitoring device of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is stress-strain diagram and the permeability-strain curve of the present invention's drafting after experiment;

In figure, 1-triaxial test cabin, 2-dioxide bottle, 3-hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system, 4-computing machine, 5a-axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod, 5b-axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole, 6-rock core, 7-inlet valve, 8-oil return valve, 9-gas admittance valve, 10-air outlet valve, 11-core holding unit, 12-air cushion, 13-insulating self-adhesive band, 14-thermal shrinkable sleeve, 15-air intake opening, 16-gas outlet, 17-buret, 18-rubber hose, 19-fixed clamp device, 20-shaft position sensor, 21-rock core and core clamping device.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention will be further described, and protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the following stated:

As Figure 1-3, a kind of device measuring permeability in rock failure process, it comprises triaxial test cabin 1, core clamping device, dioxide bottle 2, flow monitoring device, hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system 3 and the computing machine 4 being provided with controller, be positioned at the upper of triaxial test cabin 1 in described triaxial test cabin 1, lower two ends are respectively arranged with axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod 5a and axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole 5b, axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod 5a is fixed on triaxial test cabin 1, axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole 5b can go up, lower activity is to load axial compression, axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole 5b is connected with axial compression charger, triaxial test cabin 1 outer wall is provided with the inlet valve 7 and oil return valve 8 that are communicated with triaxial test cabin 1, the bottom in triaxial test cabin 1 is provided with gas admittance valve 9 and air outlet valve 10, described hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system 3 is by oil pump, force (forcing) pump and fuel tank composition, force (forcing) pump is all connected with fuel tank with the suction port of oil pump, force (forcing) pump is all connected with inlet valve 7 with the oil-out of oil pump, oil pump is also connected with oil return valve 8, described core clamping device is by core holding unit 11, air cushion 12, insulating self-adhesive band 13 and thermal shrinkable sleeve 14 form, core holding unit 11 upper, lower end is respectively arranged with the air intake opening 15 be connected with gas admittance valve 9 and the gas outlet 16 be connected with air outlet valve 10, dioxide bottle 2 is connected with gas admittance valve 9, described flow monitoring device is made up of buret 17 and rubber hose 18.

Described buret 17 is fixed on fixed clamp device 19, and in glass tube, chromonic bubble can upward sliding under the promotion of gas.

Measure a method for permeability in rock failure process, it comprises the following steps:

S1, plastic packaging rock core:

S (1): the rock core sample that taking-up diameter is 25mm, length is 50mm, polishes two end faces of rock core 6 by stone mill, make both ends of the surface all perpendicular to rock core 6 axis, axial angle deviation is no more than 0.05 °;

S (2): the top counterpoise at rock core 6 two ends is stacked the air cushion 12 putting diameter 25mm, then air cushion 12 is positioned in the middle of core holding unit 11;

S (3): it is overall for the side uniform winding of core holding unit 11, air cushion 12 and rock core 6 being wrapped up with insulating self-adhesive band 13, object is to prevent in experimentation carbon dioxide along the channelling of rock core side, cause carbon dioxide loss, increase measuring error;

S (4): thermal shrinkable sleeve 14 is enclosed within the middle of core holding unit 11, rotate to its upper/lower terminal homogeneous heating in the middle part of core holding unit 11 with 300 DEG C to 500 DEG C calorifiers, make the upper and lower side part tightening parcel rock core 6, air cushion 12 and core holding unit 11 of thermal shrinkable sleeve 14 uniform bubble-free under the effect of high temperature, in order to completely cut off hydraulic oil when loading confined pressure.

S2, install sensor additional: in the bottom of core holding unit 11 upper end and the top of core holding unit 11 lower end, shaft position sensor 20 is installed.

S3, add confined pressure and gas injection:

S (1): first the core holding unit 11 in S2 is placed between axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod 5a and axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole 5b, again shaft position sensor 20 is connected with computing machine 4, then triaxial test cabin 1 is closed and the air got rid of in triaxial test cabin 1, startup oil pump makes hydraulic oil be full of triaxial test cabin 1 and opens pressure oil pump simultaneously, in pressure oil pump, rock core 6 confined pressure is promoted to 5MPa according to loading speed 50mm/min by piston, close pressure oil pump and inlet valve 7 subsequently, to make in whole experimentation confined pressure steady at 5MPa;

S (2): gas admittance valve 9 and the air outlet valve 10 of fastening triaxial test cabin 1, open the valve of dioxide bottle 2, and the pressure that regulation of carbon dioxide gas cylinder 2 makes carbon dioxide enter triaxial test cabin 1 is 2MPa (if in gas cylinder, Carbon dioxide air pressure deficiency need increase gas pressurized device);

The middle pressure of S (3): the gas admittance valve 9 opening triaxial test cabin 1, above-mentioned S (2) is that the carbon dioxide of 2MPa enters into rock core 6 through gas admittance valve 9 and air intake opening 15 in turn, keeps rock core 6 entrance point pressure stability at 2MPa.

S4, rate of discharge are monitored:

S (1): the air outlet valve 10 opening triaxial test cabin 1, is connected to air outlet valve 10 in rubber hose 18;

S (2): select 1ml ~ 50ml buret 17 according to gas outlet end uninterrupted, observe bubble within a certain period of time (stopwatch records) by the volume of buret 17, calculate endpiece gas flow and with ess-strain value corresponding record at that time;

S (3): timing duplicate measurements terminates experiment until rock sample destroys rear stability of flow, suitably should increase measurement group number when particularly stress is near peak value, makes every effort to reflect rock burst hole when seam system Deformation Law and permeability variation more accurately.

S5, axial compression load and start experiment: in computing machine 4, input rock core 6 original dimension parameter, shaft position sensor 20 is reset, start to perform experimental arrangement, employing strain controlling is tested, its speed control is 0.04mm/min, increase xial feed until sample destroys, in the process applying axial load, record stress, the strain value under confined pressure in rock core 6, pressure carbon dioxide, stress at different levels and record endpiece data on flows.

S6, experiment terminate:

S (1): after rock core failure damage, stop loading axial load, closing carbon dioxide gas cylinder 2 valve, opens oil return valve 8 simultaneously and starts oil pump and hydraulic oil in triaxial test cabin 1 is drawn back fuel tank;

S (2): open triaxial test cabin 1, the data line of each sensor that dismounting core holding unit 11 is connected with triaxial test cabin 1 and gas inlet/outlet pipe line;

S (3): fetch core holding unit 11 and cut the air cushion 12 being positioned at rock core 6 upper and lower end, keeping the rock core after experiment 6 and experimental data, prepares experiment next time;

S (4): calculate the elastic modulus of rock in rupture process, compressive strength, draws Complete Stress-Strain Relationship of Rock curve, solves the permeability of rock different phase, and be plotted on stress-strain curve diagram by permeability-strain curve.The method solving elastic modulus is: the length of strain=loading procedure Axial Deformation/rock core test piece; Draw the stress in loading procedure, strain figure; Ask for the slope of curve cathetus section, be elastic modulus.The length of axial strain=loading procedure Axial Deformation/rock core test piece.Survey the permeability of Darcy formula (formula 1) in the flow rate calculation rock stress loading procedure recorded according to gas, and draw permeability-strain curve.

k = 2 P 0 Q 0 μL A ( P 1 2 - P 2 2 ) × 100 Q 0 = V t . . . ( 1 )

Wherein: k-gas is surveyed and calculated permeability (mD), P 0-atmospheric pressure (MPa), Q 0-flow through the flow (ml/s) of rock sample cross-sectional area, μ-carbon dioxide viscosity (mPas), L-rock core length (cm), A-rock core cross-sectional area (cm 2), P 1, P 2-rock core gas import and export end air pressure (MPa), the volume (ml) that during V-measuring flow, in glass tube, bubble flows through within a certain period of time, the time (s) of t-bubbly flow, the Changing Pattern obtaining rock permeability in rupture process can be analyzed.

Claims (3)

1. one kind measures the device of permeability in rock failure process, it is characterized in that: it comprises triaxial test cabin (1), core clamping device, dioxide bottle (2), flow monitoring device, hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system (3) and be provided with the computing machine (4) of controller, be positioned at the upper of triaxial test cabin (1) in described triaxial test cabin (1), lower two ends are respectively arranged with axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod (5a) and axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole (5b), axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod (5a) is fixed on triaxial test cabin (1), axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole (5b) can be gone up, lower activity is to load axial compression, axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole (5b) is connected with axial compression charger, triaxial test cabin (1) outer wall is provided with the inlet valve (7) and oil return valve (8) that are communicated with triaxial test cabin (1), the bottom in triaxial test cabin (1) is provided with gas admittance valve (9) and air outlet valve (10), described hydraulic oil confined pressure loading system (3) is by oil pump, force (forcing) pump and fuel tank composition, force (forcing) pump is all connected with fuel tank with the suction port of oil pump, force (forcing) pump is all connected with inlet valve (7) with the oil-out of oil pump, oil pump is also connected with oil return valve (8), described core clamping device is by core holding unit (11), air cushion (12), insulating self-adhesive band (13) and thermal shrinkable sleeve (14) composition, core holding unit (11) upper, lower end is respectively arranged with the air intake opening (15) be connected with gas admittance valve (9) and the gas outlet (16) be connected with air outlet valve (10), dioxide bottle (2) is connected with gas admittance valve (9), described flow monitoring device is made up of buret (17) and rubber hose (18).
2. a kind of device measuring permeability in rock failure process according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described buret (17) is fixed on fixed clamp device (19), and in glass tube, chromonic bubble can upward sliding under the promotion of gas.
3., according to a kind of method measuring permeability in rock failure process in claim 1-2 described in any one, it is characterized in that: it comprises the following steps:
S1, plastic packaging rock core: the two ends of the rock core (6) after first being polished by end face install air cushion (12) additional, rock core (6) wraps between core holding unit (11) by priority insulating self-adhesive band (13) and thermal shrinkable sleeve (14) again, thus achieves the plastic packaging of rock core;
S2, install sensor additional: in the bottom of core holding unit (11) upper end and the top of core holding unit (11) lower end, shaft position sensor (20) is installed;
S3, add confined pressure and gas injection:
S(1): first the core holding unit (11) in S2 is placed between axial compression loading experiment platform upperpush rod (5a) and axial compression loading experiment platform down-pressed pole (5b), to be connected to displacement transducer (20) with computing machine (4) again, then triaxial test cabin (1) is closed, startup oil pump makes hydraulic oil be full of triaxial test cabin (1) and opens pressure oil pump simultaneously, in pressure oil pump, rock core (6) confined pressure is promoted to 5MPa according to loading speed 50mm/min by piston, close pressure oil pump and inlet valve (7) subsequently, to make in whole experimentation confined pressure steady at 5MPa;
S(2): gas admittance valve (9) and the air outlet valve (10) of fastening triaxial test cabin (1), open the valve of dioxide bottle (2), and the pressure that regulation of carbon dioxide gas cylinder (2) makes carbon dioxide enter triaxial test cabin (1) is 2MPa;
S(3): the gas admittance valve (9) opening triaxial test cabin (1), above-mentioned S(2), pressure is that the carbon dioxide of 2 MPa enters into rock core (6) through gas admittance valve (9) and air intake opening (15) in turn, and maintenance rock core entrance point pressure stability is at 2 MPa;
S4, rate of discharge are monitored: the air outlet valve (10) opening triaxial test cabin (1), one end of rubber hose in flow monitoring device (18) is connected with buret (17), the other end of rubber hose (18) is connected with air outlet valve (10), change the range of buret (17) in flow monitoring device as required, start to calculate endpiece gas flow;
S5, axial compression load and start experiment: input rock core (6) original dimension parameter in computing machine (4), shaft position sensor (20) is reset, start to perform experimental arrangement, employing strain controlling is tested, its speed control is 0.04mm/min, increase xial feed until sample destroys, in the process applying axial load, record stress, the strain value in rock core (6) under confined pressure, pressure carbon dioxide, stress at different levels and record endpiece data on flows;
S6, experiment terminate:
S(1): after rock core failure damage, stop loading axial load, closing carbon dioxide gas cylinder (2) valve, opens oil return valve (8) simultaneously and starts oil pump and triaxial test cabin (1) interior hydraulic oil is drawn back fuel tank;
S(2): open triaxial test cabin (1), data line and the gas inlet/outlet pipe line of each sensor that core holding unit (11) is connected with triaxial test cabin (1) is dismantled;
S(3): fetch core holding unit (11) and cut the air cushion (12) being positioned at rock core (6) upper and lower end, keeping the rock core after experiment (6) and experimental data, experiment next time is prepared;
S(4): calculate rock core (6) elastic modulus under supercritical carbon dioxide condition, compressive strength, finally draw rock core (6) stress-strain diagram under supercritical carbon dioxide condition, thus achieve the triaxial strength measuring now rock;
S(5) calculate permeability data under different ess-strain by each group of endpiece data on flows, and permeability-strain curve is plotted on stress-strain curve diagram, the Changing Pattern obtaining rock permeability in rupture process can be analyzed.
CN201410853506.7A 2014-12-31 2014-12-31 Device and method for measuring permeability of rock in fracturing process CN104596905B (en)

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