CN104561689B - Heat-resistant cast aluminum alloy and extrusion casting method thereof - Google Patents

Heat-resistant cast aluminum alloy and extrusion casting method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104561689B
CN104561689B CN201510039580.XA CN201510039580A CN104561689B CN 104561689 B CN104561689 B CN 104561689B CN 201510039580 A CN201510039580 A CN 201510039580A CN 104561689 B CN104561689 B CN 104561689B
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alloys
alloy
casting
aluminium
aluminium alloy
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CN201510039580.XA
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CN104561689A (en
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隋育栋
王渠东
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上海交通大学
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D18/00Pressure casting; Vacuum casting
    • B22D18/02Pressure casting making use of mechanical pressure devices, e.g. cast-forging
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/06Making alloys with the use of special agents for refining or deoxidising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/043Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with silicon as the next major constituent

Abstract

The invention relates to a heat-resistant cast aluminum alloy and an extrusion casting method thereof, and belongs to the fields of metallic materials and metallurgy. The alloy consists of the following elements in percentage by weight: Si, Cu, Ni, Mg, Ti, RE, Mn, Fe and Al. The heat-resistant cast aluminum alloy is prepared by virtue of extrusion casting, and after performing solution treatment and artificial aging treatment on the alloy, the room temperature tensile strength sigma b of the alloy is more than or equal to 420MPa, the tensile strength sigma b at 300 DEG C is more than or equal to 220MPa, the tensile strength sigma b at 350 DEG C is more than or equal to 140MPa, the room temperature extensibility delta is more than or equal to 2.5%, the extensibility delta at 300 DEG C is more than or equal to 6.5%, and the extensibility delta at 350 DEG C is more than or equal to 14.5%. According to the alloy and the extrusion casting method thereof provided by the invention, the casting performance is improved, the room-temperature and high-temperature mechanical properties of the alloy are greatly improved, and the application range of Al-Si series cast aluminum alloys is expanded.

Description

A kind of birmastic and its extrusion casting method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cast aluminium alloy gold and preparation method thereof, specifically birmastic and its extruding Casting preparation method, belongs to class of metal materials and field of metallurgy.
Background technology
With the shortage of Global Oil resource, various countries have put into effect increasingly strict automobile exhaust emission standard, produce weight Amount is light, oil consumption is few, environment-friendly type new automobile is increasingly serious topic in auto industry.In order to reduce energy consumption, reduce air Pollution, the efficiency for improving electromotor, improve the important development trend that ignition temperature has become electromotor, accordingly to electromotor The elevated temperature strength of accessory is put forward higher requirement.Piston is referred to as the heart of electromotor, and it is most important zero in electromotor One of part, its function are subject to gas pressure, and pass to connecting rod by piston pin and order about bent axle rotation.When electromotor works, Piston is directly contacted with the high-temperature gas of 2200 DEG C of transient temperature, and its head temperature reaches 300-400 DEG C, and also subject to very big Gas pressure, gasoline engine reach 4-5MPa, and diesel engine is up to 8-9MPa, even more high.Therefore piston subjects the heat of high temperature, high pressure Load and mechanical load.With the continuous improvement of engine power, the mechanical property, thermostability and wearability to aluminium piston alloy Put forward higher requirement etc. performance.
As piston is mainly used at high temperature, and mainly improve the Mg of Alloy At Room Temperature intensity2Si、Al2The Precipitations such as Cu Mutually it is roughened at high temperature, it is difficult to play effective anchoring effect again to crystal boundary.And the chemism of rare earth is between alkali metal and alkali It is between earth metal, more active than other metals.Rare earth plays refinement primary silicon and Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Cast Alloys, microalloy in aluminium alloy casting process Change and purify the effect such as melt.In aluminium alloy, the crystalline structure of most of Copper components is all very thick, directly affects the machine of alloy Low-alloyed mobility, drops in tool performance, increases structural heterogenity, adds rare earth, thus it is possible to vary the existing forms of iron phase, improves The casting character of aluminium alloy.Rare earth forms many intermetallic compounds containing rare earth with the multiple element in aluminium alloy, and these are in The high melting compound of Dispersed precipitate has good thermostability and heat stability, in net distribution in crystal boundary or interdendritic, carefully Tissue is changed, has effectively hindered matrix deformation and crystal boundary is moved and para-position offsets to move and plays good pinning effect, so as to bright It is aobvious to put forward heavy alloyed high-temperature behavior.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of high-temperature behavior is excellent, casting character is good, technology stability good and economy into This low birmastic and its extrusion casting preparation method, are particularly suited in the piston of vehicular engine.
The purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
On the one hand, the invention provides a kind of birmastic, its following element group by percentage Into:Si9.0~14.0%, Cu2.0~5.5%, Ni1.0~3.5%, Mg0.6~1.5%, Ti0.05~0.2%, RE0.01 ~1.5%, Mn0.05~0.25%, Fe0.6~1.3%, balance of Al and inevitable impurity.
Preferably, the RE is at least one in Gd, Y, Nd, Sm, Er, Yb, La.
On the other hand, present invention also offers a kind of casting method of birmastic as mentioned, it include as Lower step:
A, molten alloy, obtain aluminium alloy melt;
B, extrusion casint is carried out to the aluminium alloy melt, obtain aluminium alloy castings;
C, the aluminium alloy castings is carried out after solution treatment, cooling treatment and Ageing Treatment successively, obtain heat-resistant cast Aluminium alloy.
Preferably, step a specifically includes following operation:
By in commercial-purity aluminium, pure magnesium, Al-Si intermediate alloys, Al-Cu intermediate alloys, Al-Ni intermediate alloys, Al-Mn Between alloy, rare earth intermediate alloy and Al-Ti-B intermediate alloys preheated at 200~250 DEG C respectively;
The commercial-purity aluminium is melted, and Al-Si intermediate alloys is added when commercial-purity aluminium fusing 30~80%, is treated work Industry fine aluminium and Al-Si intermediate alloys are stirred evenly after all melting, and are added in the middle of Al-Cu intermediate alloys, Al-Ni at 720~740 DEG C Alloy, Al-Mn intermediate alloys and rare earth intermediate alloy, stir evenly after insulation, add in the middle of Al-Ti-B after being warming up to 710~730 DEG C Alloy, after stirring stands, adds pure magnesium at 700~720 DEG C, after the pure magnesium is completely melt, 710~730 DEG C when add refining agent to carry out refine, stand 20~40 minutes after refine, skim surface scum at 680~700 DEG C, obtain aluminum and close Golden melt.
Preferably, the refining agent is the conventional aluminum refining agent containing inorganic salts such as sodium salt, potassium salt, villiaumites Or hexachlorethane, the inorganic salt includes sodium salt, potassium salt, villiaumite etc..
Preferably, step b specifically includes following operation:
The aluminium alloy melt is poured at 680~700 DEG C and is preheated in 200~300 DEG C of metal type dies, with 10~120MPa, pressurize 0.5~5 minute.
Preferably, 490~540 DEG C of the temperature of the solution treatment described in step c, time are 4~18 hours.
Preferably, the cooling treatment described in step c is referred to according to conventional stove is cold, air cooling or water quenching method enter Row cooling.
Preferably, 170~250 DEG C of the temperature of the Ageing Treatment described in step c, time are 10~40 hours. In Al-Si alloys, Si amounts typically between 4%~20%, and alusil alloy near eutectic composition (9%~14%) stream The casting characters such as dynamic property, hot crackability are best.
The elements such as Cu, Mg are added in Al-Si alloys, can be with medium-temperature reinforced phase Al of forming chamber2Cu、Mg2Si and High-Temperature Strengthening phase Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, in usual Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys the addition of Cu in below 5.0wt.%, when Mg additions are 1wt.%, The mechanical property of alloy is best.Ni can form Al in being added to Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys3Ni、Al3CuNi and Al7Cu4Ni etc. is resistance to Hot hardening constituent, these complicated hardening constituents not only can improve alloy mechanical property, can also reduce alloy linear expansion coefficient.For For extrusion casint Al-Si systems alloy, Fe contents must be more than 0.6wt.% to prevent sticking to mould and put forward heavy alloyed high-temperature behavior, but Thick lamellar and needlelike phase then can be formed during Fe too high levels in the base, reduce the intensity and plasticity of alloy, therefore Add Mn to reduce adverse effects of the Fe to alloy in alloy, and appropriate Mn can also put forward heavy alloyed thermostability and compactness.Squeeze Die casting is made also known as liquid forging, and as high pressure and plastic deformation are present simultaneously, therefore foundry goods prepared by extrusion casint is without shrinkage cavity, contracting The defects such as pine, organize fine and closely woven, and liquid metal or alloy utilization rate are high, and operation is simple, and commercial Application is extensive.
Alloy of the present invention mainly using rare earth alloying action, as RE is the more active element of chemical property, its with The elements such as copper, nickel, manganese form the intermetallic compound of high-temperature heat-resistance, can stable existence at 350 DEG C.The heat-resisting of formation is living The grain boundaries for plugging together gold play good pinning effect, and the movement of dislocation when hindering deformation enhances alloy high-temp performance, makes Foundry goods can bear higher thermic load.In addition, RE is added in cast aluminium alloy gold, the stacking fault energy of alloy can be significantly reduced, be suppressed Under high temperature, dislocation is climbed and commutative Banach aglebra, makes the alloy have more preferable elevated temperature strength, room temperature tensile intensity σ of alloyb≥ 420MPa, 300 DEG C of tensile strength sigmasb>=220MPa, 350 DEG C of tensile strength sigmasb≥140MPa;Room temperature elongation percentage δ >=2.5%, 300 DEG C elongation percentage δ >=6.5%, 350 DEG C of elongation percentage δ >=14.5%.
It is of the invention compared with existing piston material with advantages below:
1) alloy material prepared by this method has high-temperature behavior excellent, and hardness is high, the features such as thermal coefficient of expansion is little, meets The requirement of high-performance piston of automotive engine, is that breakthrough of the aluminium alloy industry in new material performance have accumulated experience.
2) appropriate RE can increase substantially the elevated temperature strength of existing high-performance piston alloy.Rare earth and Al, Si, Cu, Ni, The elements such as Mg form rare earth compound, substantially increase the room temperature and elevated temperature strength of alloy.Using RE-treated, primary crystal has been refined Silicon and Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Cast Alloys, elongation percentage are also improved.
3) rare earth plays purified solution, degasification slagging-off effect in metallic solution again, reduces defect, further improves and closes The performance of gold.
4) operation that need not be complicated in technique and equipment, foundry goods have excellent casting character, and strong operability is easy to push away It is wide to produce.
Specific embodiment
With reference to specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail.Following examples will be helpful to the technology of this area Personnel further understand the present invention, but the invention is not limited in any way.It should be pointed out that the ordinary skill to this area For personnel, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, some deformations and improvement can also be made.These belong to the present invention Protection domain.
In the present invention, selected various intermediate alloys are commercially available prod.
Embodiment 1
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:11.69%Si, 3.96% Cu, 2.0%Ni, 0.76%Mg, 0.18%Mn, 0.1%Ti, 1.5%Gd, 0.6%Fe, other inevitable impurity are less than 0.2%, remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 200 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 200 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 400 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 730 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, stirring are completely melt which;(4) 710 DEG C of addition Al-Ti-B intermediate alloys are cooled to, stirring stands 3~5 Minute;(6) the pure magnesium that aluminium foil is wrapped up is pressed in aluminum alloy melt with bell jar at 700 DEG C, stirring makes which fully melt;(7) rise Refine is carried out when temperature is to 720 DEG C, during refine, the three-in-one refining agent that aluminium foil is wrapped up the roundabout fortune of level in aluminium liquid is pressed into into bell jar Dynamic, the content of hydrogen is surveyed in about 10min refines after finishing, and carries out stokehold inspection;(8) stand under 680 DEG C of pouring temperature 20min, skims surface scum, obtains aluminium alloy melt, and cast prepares;(9) extrusion casint:Keep aluminium alloy melt temperature be 680 DEG C, mold temperature is 200 DEG C, and squeeze pressure is 10MPa, 5 minutes dwell times.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 530 DEG C, the solution treatment of 10 hours, boiling water cooling and 250 DEG C, 12 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 432Mpa, elongation percentage 2.5%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 240MPa, elongation percentage 6.5%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 150MPa, elongation percentage 14.5%.
Comparative example 2
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:9.0%Si, 2.0%Cu, 1.0%Ni, 0.6%Mg, 0.05%Mn, 0.05%Ti, 0.4%Gd, 0.01%Y, 0.8%Fe, other inevitable impurity Less than 0.2%, remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 250 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 220 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 400 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 720 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, Mg-25Y intermediate alloys, stirring are completely melt which;(4) 720 DEG C are cooled to and add conjunction in the middle of Al-Ti-B Gold, stirring stand 3~5 minutes;(6) the pure magnesium that aluminium foil is wrapped up is pressed in aluminum alloy melt with bell jar at 710 DEG C, stirring makes Which fully melts;(7) refine is carried out when being warming up to 730 DEG C, hexachlorethane refining agent pressure aluminium foil wrapped up with bell jar during refine Enter horizontal turning movement in aluminium liquid, the content of hydrogen is surveyed in about 10min refines after finishing, and carries out stokehold inspection;(8) at 690 DEG C 30min is stood under pouring temperature, surface scum is skimmed, aluminium alloy melt is obtained, cast prepares;(9) extrusion casint:Aluminum is kept to close Golden melt temperature is 690 DEG C, and mold temperature is 225 DEG C, and squeeze pressure is 30MPa, 4 minutes dwell times.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 520 DEG C, the solution treatment of 9 hours, boiling water cooling and 240 DEG C, 12 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 432Mpa, elongation percentage 3.2%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 228MPa, elongation percentage 6.8%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 142MPa, elongation percentage 15.3%.
Embodiment 3
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:9.5%Si, 5.5%Cu, 3.5%Ni, 1.5%Mg, 0.25%Mn, 0.2%Ti, 0.05%Gd, 0.1%Y, 0.02%Nd, 1.0%Fe, other can not be kept away The impurity exempted from is less than 0.2%, and remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 220 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 200 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 500 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 740 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, Mg-25Y intermediate alloys, Mg-90Nd intermediate alloys, stirring are completely melt which;(4) it is cooled to 720 DEG C to add Enter Al-Ti-B intermediate alloys, stir, stand 3~5 minutes;(6) pure magnesium press-in aluminum aluminium foil wrapped up with bell jar at 720 DEG C In aluminium alloy, stirring makes which fully melt;(7) refine is carried out when being warming up to 740 DEG C, six aluminium foil wrapped up with bell jar during refine Horizontal turning movement in ethyl chloride refining agent press-in aluminium liquid, the content of hydrogen is surveyed in about 10min refines after finishing, and carries out stokehold inspection Look into;(8) 40min being stood under 700 DEG C of pouring temperature, skimming surface scum, obtain aluminium alloy melt, cast prepares;(9) squeeze Die casting is made:Aluminium alloy melt temperature is kept to be 700 DEG C, mold temperature is 250 DEG C, squeeze pressure is 50MPa, 3 points of dwell time Clock.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 500 DEG C, the solution treatment of 8 hours, boiling water cooling and 170 DEG C, 24 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 428Mpa, elongation percentage 2.8%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 231MPa, elongation percentage 6.7%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 146MPa, elongation percentage 15.2%.
Embodiment 4
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:10.5%Si, 4.5%Cu, 2.5%Ni, 0.9%Mg, 0.2%Mn, 0.1%Ti, 0.2%Gd, 0.3%Y, 0.15%Nd, 0.02%Sm, 1.3%Fe, other Inevitably impurity is less than 0.2%, and remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 220 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 220 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 450 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 720 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, Mg-25Y intermediate alloys, Mg-90Nd intermediate alloys, Mg-20Sm intermediate alloys, stirring are completely melt which; (4) 710 DEG C of addition Al-Ti-B intermediate alloys are cooled to, stirring stands 3~5 minutes;(6) at 700 DEG C with bell jar by aluminium foil In the pure magnesium press-in aluminum alloy melt of parcel, stirring makes which fully melt;(7) refine is carried out when being warming up to 710 DEG C, clock during refine Horizontal turning movement in the three-in-one refining agent press-in aluminium liquid for wrapping up aluminium foil is covered, the content of hydrogen is surveyed in about 10min refines after finishing, And carry out stokehold inspection;(8) 40min is stood under 680 DEG C of pouring temperature, skim surface scum, obtain aluminium alloy melt, pour Note prepares;(9) extrusion casint:Aluminium alloy melt temperature is kept to be 680 DEG C, mold temperature is 200 DEG C, and squeeze pressure is 80MPa, 2 minutes dwell times.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 480 DEG C, the solution treatment of 12 hours, boiling water cooling and 200 DEG C, 12 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 422Mpa, elongation percentage 2.8%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 227MPa, elongation percentage 6.6%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 140MPa, elongation percentage 14.8%.
Embodiment 5
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:12.5%Si, 3.5%Cu, 1.5%Ni, 1.2%Mg, 0.16%Mn, 0.15%Ti, 0.1%Gd, 0.1%Y, 0.05%Nd, 0.2%Sm, 0.1%Er, 0.7%Fe, other inevitable impurity are less than 0.2%, and remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 230 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 200 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 420 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 720 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, Al-5Y intermediate alloys, Mg-90Nd intermediate alloys, Mg-20Sm intermediate alloys, Al-20Er intermediate alloys, stir Mixing is completely melt which;(4) 710 DEG C of addition Al-Ti-B intermediate alloys are cooled to, stirring stands 3~5 minutes;(5) at 700 DEG C When the pure magnesium press-in aluminum alloy melt that aluminium foil wrapped up with bell jar in, stirring makes which fully melt;(6) carry out when being warming up to 710 DEG C The three-in-one refining agent that aluminium foil is wrapped up is pressed into horizontal turning movement in aluminium liquid with bell jar during refine by refine, and about 10min refines are complete The content of hydrogen is surveyed after finishing, and carries out stokehold inspection;(7) 20min is stood under 690 DEG C of pouring temperature, skim surface scum, obtain Aluminium alloy melt is obtained, cast prepares;(8) extrusion casint:Aluminium alloy melt temperature is kept to be 690 DEG C, mold temperature is 300 DEG C, Squeeze pressure is 120MPa, 0.5 minute dwell time.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 480 DEG C, the solution treatment of 18 hours, boiling water cooling and 170 DEG C, 40 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 420Mpa, elongation percentage 3.5%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 220MPa, elongation percentage 6.7%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 140MPa, elongation percentage 15.1%.
Embodiment 6:
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:13.0%Si, 3.0%Cu, 1.75%Ni, 1.3%Mg, 0.2%Mn, 0.15%Ti, 0.05%Gd, 0.1%Y, 0.05%Nd, 0.02%Sm, 0.7%Er, 0.02%La, 0.9%Fe, other inevitable impurity are less than 0.2%, and remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 240 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 200 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 420 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 720 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, Al-5Y intermediate alloys, Mg-90Nd intermediate alloys, Mg-20Sm intermediate alloys, Al-20Er intermediate alloys, Al-20La intermediate alloys, stirring are completely melt which;(4) 720 DEG C of addition Al-Ti-B intermediate alloys are cooled to, stirring stands 3 ~5 minutes;(5) the pure magnesium that aluminium foil is wrapped up is pressed in aluminum alloy melt with bell jar at 710 DEG C, stirring makes which fully melt;(6) Refine is carried out when being warming up to 720 DEG C, level in aluminium liquid is pressed into the hexachlorethane refining agent that aluminium foil is wrapped up by bell jar during refine circuitous Backhaul dynamic, the content of hydrogen is surveyed in about 10min refines after finishing, and carry out stokehold inspection;(7) stand under 690 DEG C of pouring temperature 30min, skims surface scum, obtains aluminium alloy melt, and cast prepares;(8) extrusion casint:Keep aluminium alloy melt temperature be 690 DEG C, mold temperature is 250 DEG C, and squeeze pressure is 40MPa, 3.5 minutes dwell times.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 540 DEG C, the solution treatment of 4 hours, boiling water cooling and 250 DEG C, 10 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 430Mpa, elongation percentage 2.6%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 235MPa, elongation percentage 6.6%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 142MPa, elongation percentage 14.8%.
Embodiment 7:
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:9.0%Si, 4.0%Cu, 2.5%Ni, 1.4%Mg, 0.22%Mn, 0.18%Ti, 0.05%Gd, 0.05%Y, 0.02%Nd, 0.02%Sm, 0.1%Er, 0.6%La, 0.1%Yb, 1.1%Fe, other inevitable impurity are less than 0.2%, and remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 200 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 200 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 400 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 720 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, Al-5Y intermediate alloys, Mg-90Nd intermediate alloys, Mg-20Sm intermediate alloys, Al-20Er intermediate alloys, Al-20La intermediate alloys, Al-10Yb intermediate alloys, stirring is completely melt which;(4) it is cooled in 720 DEG C of addition Al-Ti-B Between alloy, stirring, stand 3~5 minutes;(5) the pure magnesium that aluminium foil is wrapped up is pressed in aluminum alloy melt with bell jar at 710 DEG C, is stirred Mixing makes which fully melt;(6) refine is carried out when being warming up to 720 DEG C, hexachlorethane refine aluminium foil wrapped up with bell jar during refine Horizontal turning movement in agent press-in aluminium liquid, the content of hydrogen is surveyed in about 10min refines after finishing, and carries out stokehold inspection;(7) 690 DEG C pouring temperature under stand 30min, skim surface scum, obtain aluminium alloy melt, cast prepares;(8) extrusion casint:Keep Aluminium alloy melt temperature is 690 DEG C, and mold temperature is 240 DEG C, and squeeze pressure is 60MPa, 2.5 minutes dwell times.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 520 DEG C, the solution treatment of 10 hours, boiling water cooling and 200 DEG C, 14 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 426Mpa, elongation percentage 2.7%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 221MPa, elongation percentage 6.7%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 149MPa, elongation percentage 14.6%.
Embodiment 8:
The alloying component (percentage by weight) of the birmastic described in the present embodiment:13.0%Si, 4.0%Cu, 2.5%Ni, 1.4%Mg, 0.22%Mn, 0.18%Ti, 0.05%Gd, 0.05%Y, 0.02%Nd, 0.02%Sm, 0.1%Er, 0.02%La, 0.7%Yb, 1.2%Fe, other inevitable impurity are less than 0.2%, and remaining is Al.
The smelting technology of the alloy is concretely comprised the following steps:(1) melting raw material is preheated to into 200 DEG C in an oven, is incubated 2 hours More than, the rust cleaning painting of the surface clean such as Slag Tool, bell jar to be coated, the coating adopts 25% Pulvis Talci and 5% waterglass to add Enter appropriate water mediation to form, then be placed in the baking of stove surface, baking temperature is 200 DEG C, and baking was cleared up after 1 hour, to prevent conjunction Increasing ferrum of the gold in fusion process;(2) preheated crucible is to 400 DEG C, adds commercial-purity aluminium in crucible bottom, and fine aluminium is 680~700 DEG C start fusing, Al-35Si intermediate alloys are added when fine aluminium fusing 1/2, mix which with graphite rod stirring after all melting Close uniform;(3) 720 DEG C are cooled to and add Al-50Cu intermediate alloys, Al-10Ni intermediate alloys, Al-10Mn intermediate alloys, Mg- 90Gd intermediate alloys, Al-5Y intermediate alloys, Mg-90Nd intermediate alloys, Mg-20Sm intermediate alloys, Al-20Er intermediate alloys, Al-20La intermediate alloys, Al-10Yb intermediate alloys, stirring are completely melt which;(4) it is cooled in 720 DEG C of addition Al-Ti-B Between alloy, stirring, stand 3~5 minutes;(5) the pure magnesium that aluminium foil is wrapped up is pressed in aluminum alloy melt with bell jar at 710 DEG C, is stirred Mixing makes which fully melt;(6) refine is carried out when being warming up to 720 DEG C, three-in-one refining agent aluminium foil wrapped up with bell jar during refine The content of hydrogen is surveyed in horizontal turning movement in press-in aluminium liquid, about 10min refines after finishing, and carries out stokehold inspection;(7) at 690 DEG C Pouring temperature under stand 30min, skim surface scum, obtain aluminium alloy melt, cast prepares;(8) extrusion casint:Keep aluminum Alloy melt temperature is 690 DEG C, and mold temperature is 210 DEG C, and squeeze pressure is 20MPa, 4 minutes dwell times.
Obtained cast aluminium alloy gold is carried out into 510 DEG C, the solution treatment of 12 hours, boiling water cooling and 200 DEG C, 14 hours Ageing Treatment, finally obtain birmastic.
The heat-resisting aluminium alloy room temperature tensile intensity cast in this example be 432Mpa, elongation percentage 3.1%;300 DEG C of tensions are strong Spend for 226MPa, elongation percentage 6.8%;350 DEG C of tensile strength are 141MPa, elongation percentage 14.5%.
Above the specific embodiment of the present invention is described.It is to be appreciated that the invention is not limited in above-mentioned Particular implementation, those skilled in the art can make various modifications or modification within the scope of the claims, this not shadow Ring the flesh and blood of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of birmastic, it is characterised in that by the following elementary composition of percentage:Si10.5%, Cu4.5%, Ni2.5%, Mg0.9%, Ti0.1%, Gd0.2%, Y0.3%, Nd0.15%, Sm0.02%, Mn0.2%, Fe1.3%, balance of Al and inevitable impurity, inevitable impurity are less than 0.2%.
2. a kind of casting method of birmastic as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that comprise the steps:
A, molten alloy, obtain aluminium alloy melt;
B, extrusion casint is carried out to the aluminium alloy melt, obtain aluminium alloy castings;
C, the aluminium alloy castings is carried out after solution treatment, cooling treatment and Ageing Treatment successively, obtain the conjunction of heat-resistant cast aluminum Gold.
3. casting method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that step a specifically includes following operation:
To close in the middle of commercial-purity aluminium, pure magnesium, Al-Si intermediate alloys, Al-Cu intermediate alloys, Al-Ni intermediate alloys, Al-Mn Gold, rare earth intermediate alloy and Al-Ti-B intermediate alloys are preheated at 200~250 DEG C respectively;
The commercial-purity aluminium is melted, and Al-Si intermediate alloys is added when commercial-purity aluminium fusing 30~80%, is treated technical pure Aluminum and Al-Si intermediate alloys are stirred evenly after all melting, and are added at 720~740 DEG C in the middle of Al-Cu intermediate alloys, Al-Ni and are closed Gold, Al-Mn intermediate alloys and rare earth intermediate alloy, stir evenly after insulation, add after being warming up to 710~730 DEG C Gold, after stirring stands, adds pure magnesium at 700~720 DEG C, after the pure magnesium is completely melt, at 710~730 DEG C When add refining agent to carry out refine, stand 20~40 minutes after refine, skim surface scum at 680~700 DEG C, obtain aluminium alloy Melt.
4. casting method as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that the dosage of the refining agent is less than all raw material gross weights 5%.
5. casting method as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that the refining agent is the conventional aluminium alloy containing inorganic salt Refining agent or hexachlorethane.
6. casting method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that step b specifically includes following operation:
The aluminium alloy melt is poured at 680~700 DEG C and is preheated in 200~300 DEG C of metal type dies, with 10~ 120MPa, pressurize 0.5~5 minute.
7. casting method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that the temperature 490 of the solution treatment described in step c~ 540 DEG C, the time is 4~18 hours.
8. casting method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that the cooling treatment described in step c is referred to according to routine Stove is cold, air cooling or water quenching method are cooled down.
9. casting method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that the temperature 170 of the Ageing Treatment described in step c~ 250 DEG C, the time is 10~40 hours.
CN201510039580.XA 2015-01-26 2015-01-26 Heat-resistant cast aluminum alloy and extrusion casting method thereof CN104561689B (en)

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