CN104265354B - A kind of low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method - Google Patents

A kind of low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method Download PDF

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CN104265354B
CN104265354B CN201410386481.4A CN201410386481A CN104265354B CN 104265354 B CN104265354 B CN 104265354B CN 201410386481 A CN201410386481 A CN 201410386481A CN 104265354 B CN104265354 B CN 104265354B
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hole
phase transformation
coal seam
freezing
water injection
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CN201410386481.4A
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CN104265354A (en
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翟成
林柏泉
彭深
向贤伟
汤宗情
武世亮
余旭
倪冠华
李全贵
杨威
许彦明
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中国矿业大学
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures
    • E21B43/261Separate steps of (1) cementing, plugging or consolidating and (2) fracturing or attacking the formation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F7/00Methods or devices for drawing- off gases with or without subsequent use of the gas for any purpose

Abstract

A kind of low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method, the water of normal temperature is injected coal seam by boring, and water filling terminates rear valve-off; Then by refrigeration freezing technology, coal seam around water injecting drilling is freezed, Free water in freezing process in cracks in coal seam is solid-state by liquid conversion gradually, water is volume expansion 9.1% in phase transition process, produces expansion damage to coal body, promotes generation and the expansion of coal body internal crack; After freezing to terminate, under the absorption well of coal seam, amount of heat is melted gradually, improves further the expansion in the through and crack of coal body hole, strengthen the effect of phase transformation fracturing in melting process.After freeze thawing terminates, water injection hole is connected with methane gas extraction pipeline and carries out gas pumping or implement mash gas pumping drilling in phase transformation fracturing region to coal seam carrying out gas pumping.In extraction process, according to the change of gas pumping effect, repetition waterpower phase transformation fracturing can be carried out to boring, reach the object improving gas permeability of coal seam and efficient mash gas extraction.

Description

A kind of low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of mash gas extraction method, especially a kind of method being applicable to high gassy and low permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping.

Technical background

Coal is the basic energy resource of China, and along with the increase of mining depth, gas has become the principal element of serious threat Safety of Coal Mine Production.The mine of China more than 90% is pit mining, account for the high methane of mine sum 51% and coal and gas outburst mine at recovery process along with a large amount of Gas, the threat of gas explosion and Gas Outburst is also more and more serious, therefore, Gas Disaster has become the most important factor of restriction mining of efficient intensify technical development and safety in production.Because the most of coal seam of China all belongs to high gassy and low permeability coal seam, the major measure solving the gas problem in high gassy and low permeability coal seam recovery process implements coal bed gas extraction in advance, the conventional effective influence basin of gas pumping method is little, the spacing of wells 0.5 ~ 2m, work plane drilling construction engineering quantity is large, extraction efficiency is low, some mine extractions are even several years for up to 1 year, still do not reach national gas pumping standard, high gassy and low permeability coal seam is difficult to play ideal effect.To accomplish that extraction is up to standard, eliminating coal-bed gas disaster, needing to take anti-reflection method, expand the effective influence basin of one borehole, improve gas pumping effect.The anti-reflection measure of high gassy and low permeability coal seam release of current employing adopts artificial method to loosen original coal body in advance, improve the gas permeability in coal seam, the method mainly taked has deep hole standing shot, water jet slotting technique, hydraulic flushing technology and down-hole coal bed hydraulic fracturing technology etc.There is the problems such as single measure holes that effective influence basin is little, workload is large, complicated construction technique in deep hole standing shot, water jet slotting technique, hydraulic flushing technology.Conventional downhole hydraulic fracturing technique can realize large-scale coal seam pressure relief comparatively speaking, owing to adopting big-flow high-pressure water filling, water under high pressure is subject to the impact in stress in coal bed distribution and main crack, coal seam, uncontrollable crack propagation direction, can cause part coal mass relief like this, part stress in coal bed is concentrated, while release, also easily produce high stress concentration zone, concentrated stress can reach about 3 ~ 4 times of virgin stress, is difficult to the overall release of forming region anti-reflection.

Summary of the invention

Technical problem: the object of the invention is for high gassy and low permeability coal seam, a kind of new high gassy and low permeability coal seam is provided to strengthen the method for gas pumping, utilize the Transformation Principle of water, coal-bed flooding technology is combined with Refrigeration Technique, by the phase transformation of water, fracturing is carried out to coal seam, in coal body, form complicated fracture network, thus increase gas flow channel in coal seam.

Technical scheme: low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method of the present invention, comprises the following steps:

A. in heading, phase transformation fracturing unit is arranged along concordant to direction, coal seam, each phase transformation fracturing unit comprises a water injection hole, two freezing holes and two thermometer holes, implementation process is as follows: technology hole depth of constructing in coal seam is the water injection hole of 80 ~ 200m first routinely, then be construct a freezing hole paralleled with water injection hole respectively in 5 ~ 10m position at water injection hole both sides spacing distance L, at two thermometer holes of constructing respectively between freezing hole and water injection hole, the distance N of thermometer hole and water injection hole is 3m, and the aperture of thermometer hole is 75mm, hole depth is 30m;

B. in water injection hole, send into high pressure water injection pipe, adopt capsule hole to carry out sealing of hole to water injection hole, then in thermometer hole, send into temperature pick up, send into the degree of depth and be not less than 20m, carry out injection hole sealing to thermometer hole afterwards, the length of sealing of hole section is not less than 12m; In two freezing holes, send into freezing pipe respectively, send into the degree of depth and be not less than 80% of the freezing hole degree of depth, carry out injection hole sealing afterwards;

C. high pressure water injection pipe is connected with high pressure water-injection pump, be 3-15MPa water under high pressure by high pressure water injection pipe to injection pressure in water injection hole, when around water injection hole, rib occurs that infiltration phenomenon or water injection pressure reduce suddenly or sustained water injection pressure stop water filling without during significant change;

D. the freezing pipe in freezing hole is connected with down-hole freezing system, by freezing pipe, freezing fracturing is carried out to coal seam, in phase transformation fracturing process, temperature signal in coal seam is transferred to digital temperature display instrument through data wire by temperature pick up respectively that be located in two thermometer holes, by the temperature in coal seam in digital temperature display instrument Real-Time Monitoring two thermometer holes, when the temperature in coal seam reaches-3 DEG C in two thermometer holes, then judge that the coal seam in this phase transformation fracturing unit is freezed; By the phase transformation of water, fracturing is carried out to coal seam, in coal body, form complicated fracture network, thus increase gas flow channel in coal seam;

E. after completing phase transformation fracturing, close freezing system, coal seam after freezing gradually under absorption well amount of heat start to melt, when the temperature that digital temperature display instrument shows in two thermometer holes is all greater than 3 DEG C, then think to freeze within the scope of phase transformation fracturing water in coal seam all from solid state transformed for liquid, complete the phase transformation fracturing process of a unit;

F. water injection hole is connected with methane gas extraction pipeline, carries out gas pumping in the unit of technology after phase transformation fracturing routinely;

G. repeat step a, b, c, d, e, f, carry out phase transformation fracturing and the gas pumping of next unit, go round and begin again, until the phase transformation fracturing completed in all unit and gas pumping.

When phase transformation fracturing region is carried out in gas pumping process, when gas density, changes in flow rate are abnormal, can this phase transformation fracturing unit be repeated water filling, be freezed, strengthen the gas permeability of coal seam in phase transformation fracturing region, reach the effect of strengthening gas pumping.

Beneficial effect: owing to have employed technique scheme, utilize the Transformation Principle of water, coal-bed flooding technology is combined with Refrigeration Technique, by the phase transformation of water, fracturing is carried out to coal seam, freeze the effect that influence area coal body is subject to expansion force, force the larger crack propagation UNICOM in coal seam, and impel micro hole crack formed and open gradually, form new regeneration fracture network, the flow channel of gas in coal seam is provided, change coal body mechanical property, improve the gas permeability of high gas layer, improve the Gas Flow state in coal seam.The drilling gas extraction radius of influence can reach 10 ~ 40m, and compared with common extraction borehole, the effective extraction radius of influence of single hole expands 5 ~ 20 times, and mash gas pumping drilling number reduces 20% ~ 60%.Simultaneously, the secondary interstice that waterpower phase transformation produces in coal seam constantly produces and expands, effectively can increase the flow channel of frozen region coal-bed gas from both macro and micro aspect, the permeability coefficient in coal seam can improve 30 ~ 200 times, and single hole gas pumping amount on average can reach 0.8m 3/ min, gas extraction concentration can reach 30 ~ 90%, and stope gas pumping rate reaches more than 50%, solves the problem that high methane ground air-permeability coal-bed gas extraction efficiency is low, the extraction cycle long, extraction borehole influence basin is little.Its method is simple, and easy to operate, implementation result is good, and safety is high, has stronger coal seam applicability, has practicality widely in the art.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is work plane horizontal direction of the present invention construction schematic diagram;

Fig. 2 is the A-A work plane vertical direction construction schematic diagram of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is the B-B water injection hole connected system sectional drawing of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is the C-C freezing hole connected system sectional drawing of Fig. 1;

Fig. 5 is the D-D thermometer hole connected system sectional drawing of Fig. 1.

In figure: 1-coal seam, 2-water injection hole, 3-1-freezing hole, 3-2-freezing hole, 4-1-thermometer hole, 4-2-thermometer hole, 5-high pressure water injection pipe, 6-capsule hole, 7-temperature pick up, 8-data wire, 9-digital temperature display instrument, 10-injection hole sealing section, 11-freezing pipe, 12-high pressure water-injection pump, 13-stop valve, 14-freezing system.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, one embodiment of the present of invention are further described:

Low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method of the present invention, concrete steps are as follows:

A. in heading, phase transformation fracturing unit is arranged along concordant to direction, coal seam 1, each phase transformation fracturing unit comprises a water injection hole 2, two freezing holes 3 and two thermometer holes 4, implementation process is as follows: technology is constructed aperture 75 ~ 130mm in coal seam 1 first routinely, hole depth is the water injection hole 2 of 80 ~ 200m, then be construct a freezing hole 3 paralleled with water injection hole 2 respectively in 5 ~ 10m position at water injection hole 2 both sides spacing distance L, to construct respectively between two freezing holes 3 and water injection hole 2 thermometer hole 4, thermometer hole 4 is 3m with the distance N of water injection hole 2, the aperture of thermometer hole 4 is 75mm, hole depth is 30m,

B. in water injection hole 2, high pressure water injection pipe 5 is sent into, the capsule hole 6 pairs of water injection holes 2 adopting routine techniques to use carry out sealing of hole, then in thermometer hole 4, send into temperature pick up 7, send into the degree of depth and are not less than 20m, carry out injection hole sealing to thermometer hole 4 afterwards, the length of sealing of hole section 10 is not less than 12m; In two freezing holes 3, send into freezing pipe 11 respectively, send into the degree of depth and be not less than 80% of freezing hole 3 degree of depth, carry out injection hole sealing afterwards;

C. high pressure water injection pipe 5 is connected with high pressure water-injection pump 12, be 3-15MPa water under high pressure by high pressure water injection pipe 5 to injection pressure in water injection hole 2, the water of normal temperature is made to inject coal seam by boring 2, when water injection hole 2 surrounding rib occurs that infiltration phenomenon or water injection pressure reduce suddenly or sustained water injection pressure without significant change time, close the stop valve 13 in water injection hole 2 aperture; Stop water filling, the water of injection remains in coal seam and continues seepage flow and enters more small crack;

D. the freezing pipe 11 in freezing hole 3 is connected with down-hole freezing system 14, by refrigeration freezing technology, injection coal bed drilling and water-cooled are around frozen, Free water in freezing process in cracks in coal seam is solid-state by liquid conversion gradually, undergo phase transition change, in the process of phase transformation, the volume of water can expand and increase about 9.1%, produces expanded destruction to coal body, promotes generation and the expansion of coal body internal crack; Freezing fracturing is carried out by freezing pipe 11 pairs of coal seams 1, in phase transformation fracturing process, temperature signal in coal seam 1 is transferred to digital temperature display instrument 9 through data wire 8 by temperature pick up 7 respectively that be located in two thermometer holes 4, by the temperature in coal seam in digital temperature display instrument 9 Real-Time Monitoring two thermometer holes 4, when the temperature in coal seam reaches-3 DEG C in two thermometer holes 4, then judge that the coal seam in this phase transformation fracturing unit has realized freezing;

E., after completing phase transformation fracturing, close freezing system 14, the coal seam 1 after freezing gradually under absorption well amount of heat start to melt, improve the expansion in the through and crack of coal body hole in melting process further, strengthen the effect of phase transformation fracturing.When the temperature that digital temperature display instrument 9 shows in two thermometer holes 4 is all greater than 3 DEG C, then think to freeze within the scope of phase transformation fracturing water in coal seam 1 all from solid state transformed for liquid, complete the phase transformation fracturing process of a unit;

F. after completing freeze thawing, high pressure water injection pipe in water injection hole 2 is connected with methane gas extraction pipeline, gas pumping is carried out routinely in the unit of technology after phase transformation fracturing, also multiple mash gas pumping drilling of can constructing to coal seam 1 in phase transformation fracturing influence area carries out gas pumping, to improve the efficiency of gas pumping;

When phase transformation fracturing region is carried out in gas pumping process, when gas density, changes in flow rate are abnormal, can this phase transformation fracturing unit be repeated water filling, be freezed, strengthen the gas permeability of coal seam in phase transformation fracturing region, reach the effect of strengthening gas pumping; Abnormal conditions comprise the flow of gas, concentration reduces suddenly, and flow decays to reduced levels (<0.005m in the short time (<10 days) 3/ min);

G. repeat step a, b, c, d, e, f, carry out phase transformation fracturing and the gas pumping of next unit, go round and begin again, until the phase transformation fracturing completed in all unit and gas pumping.

Claims (2)

1. a low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method, is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
A. in heading, phase transformation fracturing unit is arranged along concordant to coal seam (1) direction, each phase transformation fracturing unit comprises a water injection hole (2), two freezing holes (3) and two thermometer holes (4), implementation process is as follows: technology construction hole depth in coal seam (1) is the water injection hole (2) of 80 ~ 200m first routinely, then be construct a freezing hole (3) paralleled with water injection hole (2) respectively in 5 ~ 10m position at water injection hole (2) both sides spacing distance L, to construct respectively between two freezing holes (3) and water injection hole (2) thermometer hole (4), thermometer hole (4) is 3m with the distance N of water injection hole (2), the aperture of thermometer hole (4) is 75mm, hole depth is 30m,
B. in water injection hole (2), high pressure water injection pipe (5) is sent into, capsule hole (6) is adopted to carry out sealing of hole to water injection hole (2), then in thermometer hole (4), temperature pick up (7) is sent into, send into the degree of depth and be not less than 20m, carry out injection hole sealing to thermometer hole (4) afterwards, the length of sealing of hole section (10) is not less than 12m; In two freezing holes (3), send into freezing pipe (11) respectively, send into the degree of depth and be not less than 80% of freezing hole (3) degree of depth, carry out injection hole sealing afterwards;
C. high pressure water injection pipe (5) is connected with high pressure water-injection pump (12), be 3-15MPa water under high pressure by high pressure water injection pipe (5) to injection pressure in water injection hole (2), when around rib occurs that infiltration phenomenon or water injection pressure reduce suddenly to water injection hole (2) or sustained water injection pressure stop water filling without during significant change;
D. the freezing pipe (11) in freezing hole (3) is connected with down-hole freezing system (14), by freezing pipe (11), freezing fracturing is carried out to coal seam (1), in phase transformation fracturing process, temperature signal in coal seam (1) is transferred to digital temperature display instrument (9) through data wire (8) by temperature pick up (7) respectively that be located in two thermometer holes (4), by the temperature in digital temperature display instrument (9) Real-Time Monitoring two interior coal seams of thermometer hole (4), when in two thermometer holes (4), the temperature in coal seam reaches-3 DEG C, then judge that the coal seam in this phase transformation fracturing unit is freezed,
E. after completing phase transformation fracturing, close freezing system (14), coal seam (1) after freezing gradually under absorption well amount of heat start to melt, when the temperature in digital temperature display instrument (9) display two thermometer holes (4) is all greater than 3 DEG C, then think to freeze within the scope of phase transformation fracturing water in coal seam (1) all from solid state transformed for liquid, complete the phase transformation fracturing process of a unit;
F. water injection hole (2) is connected with methane gas extraction pipeline, carries out gas pumping in the unit of technology after phase transformation fracturing routinely;
G. repeat step a, b, c, d, e, f, carry out phase transformation fracturing and the gas pumping of next unit, go round and begin again, until the phase transformation fracturing completed in all unit and gas pumping.
2. low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: when phase transformation fracturing region is carried out in gas pumping process, when gas density, changes in flow rate are abnormal, this phase transformation fracturing unit is repeated water filling, freezed, strengthens the gas permeability of coal seam in phase transformation fracturing region.
CN201410386481.4A 2014-08-07 2014-08-07 A kind of low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method CN104265354B (en)

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AU2015299587A AU2015299587B2 (en) 2014-08-07 2015-07-31 Enhanced phase-change fracking gas extraction method for low-permeability coal bed
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