CN106285681B - A kind of hard coal seam top plate fracturing device and method - Google Patents

A kind of hard coal seam top plate fracturing device and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106285681B
CN106285681B CN201610997771.1A CN201610997771A CN106285681B CN 106285681 B CN106285681 B CN 106285681B CN 201610997771 A CN201610997771 A CN 201610997771A CN 106285681 B CN106285681 B CN 106285681B
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China
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fracturing
water
drilling
pressure
injection pipe
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CN201610997771.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106285681A (en
Inventor
翟成
徐吉钊
秦雷
于国卿
孙勇
董若蔚
武尚俭
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中国矿业大学
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/18Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for brown or hard coal

Abstract

A kind of hard coal seam top plate fracturing device and method, are primarily adapted for use in that hardness is big, intensity is high and the goaf tight roof fracturing of compact structure.First to tight roof construction fracturing drilling and monitoring drilling to set depth, the water injection pipe of external fixed point fracturing device is sent into fracturing drilling of the both ends using super pressure-resistant hole packer sealing.The pressure water that frequency is 6Hz is uniformly mixed into slurries with static breaking agent through pinpointing the water outlet in fracturing device, if temperature monitoring device monitors that temperature rises, stops water filling;When temperature drops to initial temperature, carry out pulsed hydraulic fracturing operation, acted on by " water attack " and " water wedge " of different frequency pressure water, the rock stratum zone of action is produced accumulation alternation damage.In dynamic fracturing process, the numerical fluctuations of fracturing drilling external connected electronic pressure gauge are monitored in real time, be there are flowing out if pressure value is greatly reduced and monitors in drilling, are stopped fracturing work.This method cost is low, easy to operate, can effectively improve top plate fracturing efficiency.

Description

A kind of hard coal seam top plate fracturing device and method
Technical field
It is especially a kind of to be suitable for that hardness is big, intensity the present invention relates to a kind of hard coal seam top plate fracturing device and method High and compact structure goaf tight roof fracturing.
Background technology
As working face is constantly pushed ahead, top plate length is left in goaf and area of suspension roof continues to increase, not only easily Gas local accumulation is caused, and the impulsion pressure of overlying rock and remote formation can be subject to, it is easy to induces top plate and collapses and emit thing Therefore, it is therefore desirable to advance fracturing is carried out to goaf top plate, makes it purposefully be caving and is deposited in goaf, subtract Few methane accumulation and the generation of roof accident.Usually, it is caving when directly top intensity is relatively low by rock stratum dead weight, works as top plate When rock strength is larger, the mode such as generally use high-pressure hydraulic pressure break or deep hole blasting overhead caving.
However, traditional caving mode is there is certain the defects of property, for example, high-pressure hydraulic pressure break is required to provide big stream The water injection equipment of high pressure water is measured, usual this kind of equipment volume is huge, it is difficult to carry out the work in goaf, in addition, to drilling Sealing requirements it is very high, it is difficult to ensure that the continuity of bore inner high pressure water, in addition simple high-pressure hydraulic fracturing process is not The propagation direction of borehole fissure can be controlled;Deep hole blasting then needs to fill substantial amounts of high explosives, easily in bore inner shape Into stronger shock wave, larger stress disturbance is caused to internal rock stratum, there is the security risk for inducing dynamic disaster, and it is only right The extent of the destruction of drilling surrounding country rock is larger, is not easy to realize orientation fracturing.In addition, if tight roof mining height is bigger and top plate is pre- When in the range of fracturing without lamination, traditional overhead caving mode fracturing direction controllability is poor.Therefore, for above-mentioned Problem, there is an urgent need for the top plate fracturing device and method of a kind of new type of safe, can not only high efficiency reduction tight roof rock strength, And can ensure to increase crushing rock formation degree, prevent the appearance of bump.
The content of the invention
Technical problem:The purpose of the present invention is overcome the shortcoming present in the prior art, there is provided it is a kind of it is easy to operate, Cost is low, the preferable hard coal seam top plate fracturing device of effect and method.
Technical solution:The hard coal seam top plate fracturing device of the present invention, including stretch into the water injection pipe in fracturing drilling, water filling Multiple fixed point fracturing devices are interval with pipe, super pressure-resistant hole packer is respectively equipped with inside and outside water injection pipe, fracturing drilling is outer Portion is equipped with dynamic pulsation fracturing device and temperature monitoring device;
The dynamic pulsation fracturing device includes electronic pressure gage, water filling hose, overflow valve, sebific duct, frequency converter, pulsation Water injecting pump and water storage tank, electronic pressure gage are installed in the port position that water injection pipe is connected, water filling hose one end with outside water injection pipe Dew end is connected, and the other end is connected sebific duct by overflow valve, and sebific duct is respectively communicated to water storage tank and pulsed infusion pump, pulsation Water injecting pump is connected by cable with frequency converter;
The temperature monitoring device includes conducting wire, signal integrator and temperature collection console, one end of conducting wire and cause Split the conducting wire that thermocouple is drawn in drilling to be connected, the other end is connected with signal integrator, and signal integrator is controlled with temperature collection Platform is connected.
The water filling hose is equipped with one-way cock.
The fixed point fracturing device includes the floral tube with slot, pipe collar, flower that floral tube and water injection pipe are connected as a single entity The centre of pipe is provided with the gauze bag of static breaking agent powder, and the outside of gauze bag is equipped with the chuck of thermocouple.
Using the hard coal seam top plate fracturing method of above device, include the following steps:
A. fracturing of being constructed respectively in tight roof using drilling machine drills and monitoring drills to set depth;
B. the conveying fixed point fracturing device into fracturing drilling, first passes through super pressure-resistant hole packer by the water injection pipe that one end is closed, Then the multiple fixed point fracturing devices of spacing distance connection are sent into fracturing drilling in the lump on water injection pipe, respectively cause multiple fixed points The thermocouple split on device is led to outside drilling with conducting wire along water injection pipe, at fracturing drilling 3m positions, utilizes super resistance to press seal Hole device seals fracturing drilling;
C., dynamic pulsation fracturing device and temperature monitoring device, record fixed point fracturing device are set in the aperture of fracturing drilling The hole wall temperature in middle chuck region is T0
D. start pulsed infusion pump, adjust frequency converter by pressure water that frequency is 6Hz through overflow valve → water filling hose → mono- To valve → water injection pipe → fixed point fracturing device, it flow in fracturing device in the gauze bag equipped with static breaking agent, is pulsing Under the reciprocating impact effect of pressure water, water is sufficiently mixed into slurries, slurries seepage flow to chuck with the static breaking agent in gauze bag With the region between fracturing borehole wall;
E. using the louver wall temperature T in chuck region in temperature collection console record slurry reaction exothermic process, if T >T0And when continuing to rise, close pulsed infusion pump;
F. when T is persistently reduced and levels off to T0When, start pulsed infusion pump, continue pulsed infusion to the pressure of electronic pressure gage After force value rises, frequency converter is adjusted, water injection frequency alternately changes between 6Hz~20Hz;Continue to be filled to electronic pressure gage number Value is greatly lowered, and closes frequency converter, keeps pressure to carry out water filling, when water of the monitoring drilling outflow with white crystal grain When, coupling fracturing terminates.
The fracturing drilling and monitoring drilling are at a distance of 5-10m.
The inertia white sand grains of insoluble in water, grain are added with static breaking agent powder in the fracturing device in gauze bag Footpath scope is 40~60 mesh, and compressive resistance is 50~60MPa.
The thermocouple model K-type selected in the chuck, sensitivity are 0.5 DEG C, and temperature detection range is 10~150 DEG C, it is 5MPa that can bear maximum pressure.
Beneficial effect:By adopting the above-described technical solution, the present invention is by by the crack high density and arteries and veins of stable state fracturing The advantages such as the tired fracturing of dynamic hydraulic fracturing combine, and then solve serial problem existing for traditional overhead caving mode.The One step is reacted by static breaking agent, and the explosion time of traditional crack explosive moment is elongated so that and rock stratum produces fatigue damage, Farthest reduce ABNORMAL STRESS disturbance.At the same time by the strong expansive force squeezing action of static breaking agent, make drilling rock nearby Layer is effectively formed fixed point fracture area, substantially reduces the shock wave effect to rock stratum around.Second step fills fluctuation pressure water The crack of fracture area is completely pinpointed, reversed fatigue loading is carried out to rock stratum according to certain frequency, makes to produce accumulation inside roof strata Fatigue damage, finally make crack further expand to form the plane of disruption, efficiently solve roof strata fixed point segmentation reduction, Increase roof strata fracture controllability and degree of fragmentation.Realize stable state fracturing technology and the coupling of pulsed hydraulic fracturing technology causes Split, so as to improve roof flaking ratio, avoid top plate large area across falling to trigger hurricane accident.Its is simple in structure, and method is easy, uses Effect is good, in the art with wide applicability.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the hard coal seam top plate fracturing device of the present invention and the embodiment schematic diagram of method;
Fig. 2 is fixed point fracturing device schematic diagram in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is dynamically pulse in Fig. 1 fracturing device and temperature monitoring device schematic diagram.
In figure:1- fracturings drill, 2- monitoring drillings, the super pressure-resistant hole packers of 3-, 4- fixed point fracturing devices, 4-1- pipe collars, 4- 2- chucks, 4-3- gauze bags, 4-4- slots, 4-5- floral tubes, 5- water injection pipes, 6- one-way cocks, 7- electronic pressure gages, 8- notes Water tube hose, 9- overflow valves, 10- sebific ducts, 11- frequency converters, 12- pulsed infusions pump, 13- water storage tanks, 14- conducting wires, 15- signals integrate Device, 16- temperature collection consoles, 17- tight roofs, A- dynamic pulsation fracturing devices, B- temperature monitoring device.
Embodiment
One embodiment of the present of invention is further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
As shown in Figure 1, the hard coal seam top plate fracturing device of the present invention, including the water injection pipe 5 in fracturing drilling 1 is stretched into, Multiple fixed point fracturing devices 4 are interval with water injection pipe 5, super pressure-resistant hole packer 3 is respectively equipped with inside and outside water injection pipe 5, causes Split the outside of drilling 1 and be equipped with dynamic pulsation fracturing device A and temperature monitoring device B;The fixed point fracturing device 4 is included with seamed The floral tube 4-5 of groove 4-4, the pipe collar 4-1 that floral tube 4-5 and water injection pipe 5 are connected as a single entity, the centre of floral tube 4-5 are provided with static break The outside of the gauze bag 4-3 of broken dose of powder, gauze bag 4-3 are equipped with the chuck 4-2 of thermocouple.The dynamic pulsation fracturing device A includes electronic pressure gage 7, water filling hose 8, overflow valve 9, sebific duct 10, frequency converter 11, pulsed infusion pump 12 and water storage tank 13, electricity Sub- pressure gauge 7 is installed in the port position that water injection pipe 5 is connected, and the water filling hose 8 is equipped with one-way cock 6;Water filling is soft 8 one end of pipe is connected with 5 exposed junction of water injection pipe, and the other end is connected sebific duct 10 by overflow valve 9, and sebific duct 10 is respectively communicated to Water storage tank 13 and pulsed infusion pump 12, pulsed infusion pump 12 are connected by cable with frequency converter 11;The temperature monitoring device B Including conducting wire 14, signal integrator 15 and temperature collection console 16, one end and the thermocouple in fracturing drilling 1 of conducting wire 14 are drawn Conducting wire be connected, the other end is connected with signal integrator 15, and signal integrator 15 is connected with temperature collection console 16.
The hard coal seam top plate fracturing method of the present invention, comprises the following steps that:
A. drilling machine construction fracturing drilling 1 and monitoring drilling 2 to set depth in tight roof 17 respectively is utilized;The cause Drilling 1 and monitoring drilling 2 are split at a distance of 5-10m;
B. the conveying fixed point fracturing device 4 into fracturing drilling 1, first passes through super pressure-resistant sealing of hole by the water injection pipe 5 that one end is closed Device 3, is connected the long water injection pipe of specific section by pipe collar 4-1, fixed at a certain distance to pinpoint fracturing device 4 and have The chuck 4-2 of thermocouple, makes the multiple fixed point fracturing devices 4 of spacing distance connection on water injection pipe 5 be sent into the lump in fracturing drilling 1, The thermocouple conducting wire 14 on multiple fixed point fracturing devices 4 is led to outside drilling along water injection pipe 5 respectively, apart from fracturing drilling 1 3m positions at, fracturing drilling 1 is sealed using super pressure-resistant hole packer 3;
C. after, dynamic pulsation fracturing device A and temperature monitoring device B, dynamic are connected respectively in the aperture of fracturing drilling 1 Pulsation fracturing device A connections are mainly shown as:Electronic pressure gage 7 is installed in the port position that water injection pipe 5 is connected, water filling hose 8 one end are connected with 5 exposed junction of water injection pipe, and the other end is connected sebific duct 10 by overflow valve 9, and sebific duct 10 is respectively communicated to store Water tank 13 and pulsed infusion pump 12, pulsed infusion pump 12 are connected by cable with frequency converter 11;Temperature monitoring device B connections are main Show as:One end of conducting wire is connected with the conducting wire 14 that thermocouple in fracturing drilling is drawn, and the other end is connected with signal integrator 15, Signal integrator 15 is connected with temperature collection console 16, and the hole wall temperature in chuck 4-2 regions is in record fixed point fracturing device 4 T0
D. start pulsed infusion pump 12, adjust frequency converter 11 by frequency be 6Hz pressure water through overflow valve 9 → water filling hose 8 → one-way cock, 6 → water injection pipe 5 → fixed point fracturing device 4, flow in fracturing device 4 and the gauze bag of static breaking agent is housed In 4-3, under the reciprocating impact effect of fluctuation pressure water, water is sufficiently mixed into slurries with the static breaking agent in gauze bag 4-3, Slurries seepage flow is to the region between chuck 4-2 and fracturing borehole wall;Static state in the fracturing device 4 in gauze bag 4-3 is broken The inertia white sand grains of insoluble in water is added with broken dose of powder, particle size range is 40~60 mesh, and compressive resistance is 50~60MPa; The thermocouple model K-type selected in the chuck 4-2, sensitivity are 0.5 DEG C, and temperature detection range is 10~150 DEG C, can It is 5MPa to bear maximum pressure;
E. the louver wall temperature in chuck 4-2 regions in slurry reaction exothermic process is recorded using temperature collection console 16 T, if T>T0And when continuing to rise, close pulsed infusion pump 12;
F. when T is persistently reduced and levels off to T0When, start pulsed infusion pump 12, continue pulsed infusion to electronic pressure gage 7 Pressure value rise after, adjust frequency converter 11, water injection frequency between 6Hz~20Hz alternately change;Sustained water injection is to electronics pressure 7 numerical value of power table is greatly lowered, and closes frequency converter 11, keeps pressure to carry out water filling, when 2 outflow of monitoring drilling is with white During the water of crystal grain, coupling fracturing terminates.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of hard coal seam top plate fracturing device, including fracturing drilling(1), it is characterised in that:Further include and stretch into fracturing drilling (1)Interior water injection pipe(5), water injection pipe(5)On be interval with multiple fixed point fracturing devices(4), water injection pipe(5)Inside and outside point She You not super pressure-resistant hole packer(3), the fracturing drilling(1)Outside is equipped with dynamic pulsation fracturing device(A)Filled with temperature monitoring Put(B);
The dynamic pulsation fracturing device(A)Including electronic pressure gage(7), water filling hose(8), overflow valve(9), sebific duct (10), frequency converter(11), pulsed infusion pump(12)And water storage tank(13), electronic pressure gage(7)It is installed in water injection pipe(5)It is connected Port position, water filling hose(8)One end and water injection pipe(5)Exposed junction is connected, and the other end passes through overflow valve(9)By sebific duct(10) Connect, sebific duct(10)It is respectively communicated to water storage tank(13)And pulsed infusion pump(12), pulsed infusion pump(12)Pass through cable With frequency converter(11)Connection;
The temperature monitoring device(B)Including conducting wire(14), signal integrator(15)With temperature collection console(16), conducting wire (14)One end and fracturing drill(1)The conducting wire that interior thermocouple is drawn is connected, the other end and signal integrator(15)It is connected, signal Integrator(15)With temperature collection console(16)It is connected.
A kind of 2. hard coal seam top plate fracturing device according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The water filling hose (8)It is equipped with one-way cock(6).
A kind of 3. hard coal seam top plate fracturing device according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The fixed point fracturing dress Put(4)Including with slot(4-4)Floral tube(4-5), by floral tube(4-5)With water injection pipe(5)The pipe collar being connected as a single entity(4-1)、 Floral tube(4-5)Centre be provided with the gauze bag of static breaking agent powder(4-3), gauze bag(4-3)Outside be equipped with thermocouple Chuck(4-2).
4. a kind of usage right requires the hard coal seam top plate fracturing method of 1,2 or 3 described devices, it is characterised in that:Including such as Lower step:
A. using drilling machine respectively in tight roof(17)Interior construction fracturing drilling(1)Drill with monitoring(2)To set depth;
B. drill to fracturing(1)Interior conveying fixed point fracturing device(4), first by the water injection pipe of one end closing(5)Through super resistance to press seal Hole device(3), then in water injection pipe(5)Upper spacing distance connects multiple fixed point fracturing devices(4)Fracturing drilling is sent into the lump(1) It is interior, respectively by multiple fixed point fracturing devices(4)On thermocouple conducting wire(14)Along water injection pipe(5)It is outer to lead to drilling, in distance Fracturing drills(1)At 3m positions, super pressure-resistant hole packer is utilized(3)Drill to fracturing(1)Sealed;
C. drill in fracturing(1)Aperture set dynamic pulsation fracturing device(A)And temperature monitoring device(B), record fixed point cause Split device(4)Middle chuck(4-2)The hole wall temperature in region is T0
D. pulsed infusion pump is started(12), adjust frequency converter(11)By frequency be 6Hz pressure water through overflow valve(9)→ water filling Hose(8)→ one-way cock(6)→ water injection pipe(5)→ fixed point fracturing device(4), it flow to fracturing device(4)In equipped with static state The gauze bag of cracking agent(4-3)It is interior, under the reciprocating impact effect of fluctuation pressure water, water and gauze bag(4-3)Interior static state is broken Broken dose is sufficiently mixed into slurries, slurries seepage flow to chuck(4-2)With the region between fracturing borehole wall;
E. temperature collection console is utilized(16)Record chuck in slurry reaction exothermic process(4-2)The louver wall temperature in region T is spent, if T>T0And when continuing to rise, close pulsed infusion pump(12);
F. when T is persistently reduced and levels off to T0When, start pulsed infusion pump(12), continue pulsed infusion to electronic pressure gage(7) Pressure value rise after, adjust frequency converter(11), water injection frequency alternately change between 6Hz ~ 20Hz;Continue to be filled to electronics pressure Power table(7)Numerical value is greatly lowered, and closes frequency converter(11), keep pressure to carry out water filling, when monitoring drills(2)Elution band When having the water of white crystal grain, coupling fracturing terminates.
A kind of 5. hard coal seam top plate fracturing method according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:The fracturing drilling(1) Drill with monitoring(2)At a distance of 5-10 m.
A kind of 6. hard coal seam top plate fracturing method according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:The fracturing device(4) Middle gauze bag(4-3)The inertia white sand grains of insoluble in water is added with interior static breaking agent powder, particle size range is 40 ~ 60 Mesh, compressive resistance are 50 ~ 60MPa.
A kind of 7. hard coal seam top plate fracturing method according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:The chuck(4-2) The thermocouple model K-type of interior selection, sensitivity are 0.5 DEG C, and temperature detection range is 10 ~ 150 DEG C, and can bear maximum pressure is 5MPa。
CN201610997771.1A 2016-11-11 2016-11-11 A kind of hard coal seam top plate fracturing device and method CN106285681B (en)

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CN108756883A (en) * 2018-06-11 2018-11-06 陕西煤业化工技术研究院有限责任公司 A kind of coal mine tight roof slip casting fracturing process and system
CN109538209B (en) * 2018-09-11 2020-01-21 中国矿业大学 Method for weakening hard roof of coal seam based on electric pulse technology
CN109441421A (en) * 2018-11-16 2019-03-08 中国海洋石油集团有限公司 A method of strengthening waterpower percussive pressure and splits fracturing effect
CN109372510B (en) * 2018-11-26 2020-08-25 武汉工程大学 Method for fracturing limestone top plate by using carbon dioxide and water mixed fluid
CN110173247A (en) * 2019-05-19 2019-08-27 中铁十九局集团矿业投资有限公司 A kind of Roof Control fracturing process of soft broken top plate ore body back production
CN110208087B (en) * 2019-06-05 2020-01-07 东北石油大学 Rock strength calculation method under pulsating fracturing cyclic load
CN111236907A (en) * 2019-12-20 2020-06-05 中国矿业大学 Liquid nitrogen circulating cold shock permeability increasing method based on multi-parameter monitoring
CN111255454A (en) * 2020-01-17 2020-06-09 天地科技股份有限公司 Method for directional roof cutting and pressure relief of hard roof of coal mine

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CN102720528B (en) * 2012-07-03 2014-05-14 中国矿业大学 Underground coal mine repeating pulsation hydrofracture strengthened gas extracting method
CN104265354B (en) * 2014-08-07 2016-04-20 中国矿业大学 A kind of low air permeability coal seam waterpower phase transformation fracturing strengthening gas pumping method
CN105134284B (en) * 2015-08-03 2017-05-31 中国矿业大学 One kind is based on horizontal orientation drilling liquid nitrogen circulating freezing resistance anti-reflection mash gas extraction method
CN105422164B (en) * 2015-12-14 2018-03-06 河南理工大学 Hydrofracturing is anti-reflection to aid in coal seam efficient water injection method and apparatus
CN105971660B (en) * 2016-05-05 2017-11-14 中国矿业大学 Ultrasonic cavitation and hydraulic fracturing joint incentive coal bed gas pumping method

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