CN104126413A - Method for producing straw mushrooms by using cassava residues, mulberry stems and sugarcane leaves - Google Patents

Method for producing straw mushrooms by using cassava residues, mulberry stems and sugarcane leaves Download PDF

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CN104126413A
CN104126413A CN201410304620.4A CN201410304620A CN104126413A CN 104126413 A CN104126413 A CN 104126413A CN 201410304620 A CN201410304620 A CN 201410304620A CN 104126413 A CN104126413 A CN 104126413A
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mushroom
temperature
cultivating
fermentation
straw
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CN104126413B (en
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黄长云
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Guangxi junbaoyan Food Co.,Ltd.
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GUANGXI NANNING BEIBU GULF MODERN AGRICULTURE Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for producing straw mushrooms by using cassava residues, mulberry stems and sugarcane leaves. The method comprises the following steps: fermenting straw mushroom cultivation materials at a high temperature in advance, smashing the cassava residues, the mulberry stems and the sugarcane leaves, adding lime and thermophilic bacteria, fully mixing the materials, spraying water, and covering the mixture with a thin film for fermenting; turning the mixture covered with the film, scattering peanut bran and fish meal into the cultivation materials, mixing the materials evenly, piling the mixture, covering the piled mixture with a film for fermenting for two days, turning for 2-3 times, mixing the materials evenly, heating the mixture to 70-80 DEG C, sterilizing the heated mixture for 15 hours, and cooling the sterilized mixture to the room temperature, and keeping the temperature at 30-35 DEG C; and inoculating a strain, wherein the straw mushrooms grow 8-10 days later. According to the method, the raw materials are fermented by using the thermophilic bacteria, so that the raw materials can be thoroughly decomposed easily, the biological efficiency of the raw materials is increased, the yield of the straw mushrooms is increased, the temperature in a high-temperature period is raised, the growing temperature of the straw mushrooms can be reached rapidly, and the energy consumption of a mushroom house is lowered. The method is suitable for year-round planting.

Description

Utilize manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce the method for straw mushroom
Technical field
The invention belongs to fungus growing technique, relate to a kind of method of utilizing high temperature bacterium fermentation manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce straw mushroom.
Background technology
Straw mushroom (Fructificatio Volvariella volvacea) originates from the Nanhua Temple in Shaoguan, Guangdong, 300Nian Qian China has started artificial cultivation, in the about thirties in this century, by overseas Chinese, import countries in the world into, it is a kind of important tropical and subtropical zone mushroom class, it is the third-largest culturing edible fungus in the world, China's straw mushroom output occupies first of the world, is mainly distributed in South China.Straw mushroom is nutritious, delicious flavour.The fresh mushroom of every 100g contains 207.7mg vitamin C, 2.6g sugar, 2.68g crude protein, 2.24g fat, 0.91g ash content.Straw mushroom protein is containing 18 seed amino acids, and wherein essential amino acid accounts for 40.47-44.47%.In addition, also contain the multiple mineral elements such as phosphorus, potassium, calcium, there is the effect of hypotensive, cancer-resisting, inhibition tumor growth.
Straw mushroom belongs to high temperature modification straw rotting fungus class, has another name called Chinese mushroom, Volvariella volvacen, the suitableeest summer culture.
Volvaria volvacea cultivation growth conditions:
(1) temperature: straw mushroom belongs to high warm nature mushroom, the temperature of growing 10-44 ℃, to the requirement of temperature because of kind, the period of growing different.Basidiospore: rudiment temperature is 30-40 ℃, and in the time of 40 ℃, germination rate is the highest, 35 ℃ are taken second place, and 30 ℃ of following germination rates are minimum, higher than 45 ℃ or all do not germinate lower than 25 ℃.Mycelial growth: at 10-44 ℃ of temperature, all can grow, but poor growth during lower than 20 ℃ grows in the time of 15 ℃ atomic, during to 10 ℃, almost stops growing, 5 ℃ following or 45 ℃ cause above mycelia dead.Fruit body development: fruit body development temperature 24-33 ℃, with 28-32 ℃ of optimum, lower than 20 ℃ or during higher than 35 ℃, fruit body is difficult to form.
(2) moisture: straw mushroom is suitable to grow under higher levels of humidity condition, and composts or fertilisers of cultivating water content is in 70% left and right, and relative air humidity 90-95% is suitable.Air humidity is lower than 80% time, and sporophore growth is slow, and rough surface is matt, and higher than 96% time, mushroom body is downright bad and morbidity easily.
(3) illumination: straw mushroom vegetative growth phase requires not tight to illumination, without can normal growth under optical condition, proceeds to the induction that generative growth phase needs light, could produce fruit body.But avoid high light, suitable illumination 50-100lx.The color and luster of fruit body is relevant with illumination power, and under high light, straw mushroom color is pitch black, band gloss, and under the low light level, look dimer, even white.
(4) nutrient: research shows, glucose, fructose, sucrose, peptone, asparagine, glutaminase etc. are all the good carbon and nitrogen sources of straw mushroom.
(5) acid-base value (pH): straw mushroom requires between 4-10.3 pH, basidiospore germination rate is the highest during with pH 7.5, and mycelia and fruit body stage, with pH 4.7-6.5 and 8 suitable.
From above-mentioned, see, straw mushroom is nutritious, delicious flavour, apparent availability is large, but to Volvaria volvacea cultivation material and temperature, the requirement of appropriateness is high especially, waste cotton preferably in planting material, the straw mushroom that Volvaria volvacea cultivation material generally all requires more than 50% waste cotton better to turn out at present, described waste cotton is waste and old bat, flour cotton-wool or the short cellucotton of processing bat or cotton dress, because no matter be south or northern, keep the temperature of the Volvaria volvacea cultivation of 35 ℃-45 ℃ to be all not easy very much, so southern straw mushroom room can only lean on regulation and control temperature accurately, humidity and pH, and waste cotton just can cultivate high-quality straw mushroom as harsh conditions such as Volvaria volvacea cultivation material, really be to be not easy very much.
Along with the development of mushroom industry, it is also increasing to raw-material demand, and the road of walking the variation of edible fungus culturing raw material and localization is imperative.At present people have also tested raw material and method that can cultivating straw mushroom.
For example: Chinese patent: the cultivation method of Volvaria volvacea cultivation material and composting process thereof and straw mushroom; application (patent) number: the CN02138390.1 applying date: 2002.10.08 application publication number: CN1402963 Shen Qing Publication day: 2003.03.19, application (patent right) people: Jiang Jianxin; Invention (design) people: Jiang Jianxin; Address: 212364 Xin Shang villages, Jiang Shu town, Danyang, Jiangsu Province, summary: the invention belongs to fungus growing technique, relate to the cultivation method of a kind of Volvaria volvacea cultivation material and composting process and straw mushroom.This planting material includes 9~10 parts of broken unginned cottons and 1 part of quicklime and appropriate moisture.Its composting process is: the first step, and will break and add water after unginned cotton and quicklime uniform mixing and stir, make broken unginned cotton suction moisture content, then pile squarely stockpile having peace of mind, then stockpile is covered with plastic film, bank up and ferment for 72 hours; Second step, by the planting material turning after fermentation, beat loose, transport mushroom room, be placed on the mushroom bed on cultivating stand, mushroom room is closed, with heating system, heat and make indoor temperature rise to 65~70 ℃, and keep 6~8 hours, then cool to 50~55 ℃, then keep 6~8 hours, carry out completing composting process after secondary fermentation.The present invention can improve the average yield of straw mushroom unit are, and cultivation process is not subject to the restriction of season, weather and region, and growth cycle is short, stable yield.
Chinese patent and for example: a kind of Volvaria volvacea cultivation method that adds increasing agent; application (patent) number: the CN201210381800.3 applying date: 2012.10.10 application publication number: CN102845231A Shen Qing Publication day: 2013.01.02, application (patent right) people: Jiangsu Province Agriculture Science Institute; Invention (design) people: Hou Lijuan; Song Jin Di; Li Huiping; Woods Jin Sheng; Malin; Qu Shaoxuan; Address: 210014 No. 50, Zhong Ling streets, Nanjing, summary: the present invention relates to the Volvaria volvacea cultivation method that adds increasing agent a kind of, belong to Volvaria volvacea cultivation method.Because of the output of straw mushroom, compare with other edible mushrooms, have the problem that output and biological efficiency are low.At present, one of approach that solves straw mushroom low yield is to use increasing agent, and there is not yet in the cultivation of straw mushroom, take the report that calcium acetate is increasing agent.The calcium acetate aqueous solution of the present invention was used in the spice phase, can improve significantly the output of straw mushroom.Also have simultaneously and make the growing way of mycelia strong, mycelia is pure white dense, is covered with the charge level time fast, reduces the advantage of the incidence of damage by disease and insect.This increasing agent is convenient to production application, and cost is low, effective, simple to operate.
Chinese patent and for example: a kind of Volvaria volvacea cultivation matrix and circulating cultivation straw mushroom method thereof; application (patent) number: the CN201110043802.7 applying date: 2011.02.23 application publication number: CN102173949A Shen Qing Publication day: 2011.09.07, application (patent right) people: Nanjing Institute of Vegetable Science; Invention (design) people: Mao Jiugeng; Cai Lusha; Tang Maohua; Zhang Yanyan; Rui Shanya; Li Ying; Chen Lili; Address: 211155 Heng Xi town, Jiangning District, Nanjing Nanjing Institute of Vegetable Science Technology Parks, summary: the invention discloses a kind of Volvaria volvacea cultivation matrix and circulating cultivation straw mushroom method thereof.In this matrix, contain Chinese medicine slag, straw and increasing agent, wherein the proportioning of Chinese medicine slag and straw is Chinese medicine slag 70%~90%, straw 10%~30% by weight, increasing agent adds by the consumption of 5~10kg/m3, does is described increasing agent by weight percentage composition meter by vitamin B1? 0.006%~0.01%, general calcium 15%~20%, quicklime 40%~60%, magnesium sulfate 1.5%~2%, zinc sulphate 0.2%~0.4%, boron fertilizer 0.2%~0.3%, triacontanol 0.2%~0.4%, starch 22%~37% mixes.The present invention has realized the regeneration of resource; Substrate fermentation time pipe nipple approximately the energy; Matrix can improve straw mushroom yield and quality, increases the content of the Flavonoid substances of straw mushroom; Adopt repeatedly circulating cultivation method, improve matrix availability, reduce production costs.
Chinese patent and for example: Volvaria volvacea cultivation method; application (patent) number: the CN200910192785.6 applying date: 2009.09.28 application publication number: CN101692771A Shen Qing Publication day: 2010.04.14, application (patent right) people: Guangzhou City Baiyun District Agricultural Scientific Research Center; Garden, Yongchun edible mushroom (Huizhou) Co., Ltd; Invention (design) people: Cao Xuewen; Hu Zesheng; Guan Yantao; Cai Yuecai; Xie Yanhua; Zeng Zhizhong; Xu Linli; Address: 510425 No. 3080, Airdrome Road, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, summary: the present invention relates to Volvaria volvacea cultivation method, belong to fungus growing technique.In the composition of composts or fertilisers of cultivating of the present invention, include 7~8 parts of fresh corn clothings, 2~3 parts of fresh corn stigmas, fresh corn clothing, fresh corn stigma are processed with grinding and wire kneading machine simultaneously, respectively corn clothing is processed into soft thread, corn stigma is prescinded and broken, raw material after two kinds of processing is fully mixed, the moisture control of composts or fertilisers of cultivating is 65~70% simultaneously; After composts or fertilisers of cultivating machines, in can be used for Volvaria volvacea cultivation or putting between reservoir, storage, compacting sealing is preserved.The present invention utilizes the waste material anniversary after processing of sweet corn to produce nuisanceless straw mushroom, turns waste into wealth, and resource circulation utilization, can using water wisely resource, reduces sewage discharge, preserves the ecological environment, and reduces production costs, and the quality of improving product, increases economic benefit.
Chinese patent and for example: a kind of method of utilizing Xingbao mushroom bacterium slag for cultivating straw mushroom; application (patent) number: the CN201110310156.6 applying date: 2011.10.13 application publication number: CN102498930A Shen Qing Publication day: 2012.06.20, application (patent right) people: Chengdu Rong Zhen Bacteria Co., Ltd.; Invention (design) people: Li Zongtang; Address: 610,000 5 groups, war flag villages, Tang Chang town, Pixian County, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, summary: the present invention relates to technical field of edible fungi production, relate in particular to a kind of method of utilizing Xingbao mushroom bacterium slag for cultivating straw mushroom, comprise the following steps successively: the processing of Xingbao mushroom bacterium slag, the preparation of medium, the fermentation of medium, the sowing of straw mushroom, cultivate and send out bacterium, management of producing mushroom, gathers.The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention has realized the utilization again of Xingbao mushroom bacterium slag, reduced bacterium slag muck and put the environmental pollution causing.The present invention has increased the kind of Culture raw materials of straw mushrrom, and newly-increased culturing raw material is our factory's waste material of edible mushroom, has reduced expensive that nonlocal allocation and transportation bring.
Chinese patent and for example: highly efficient tier rack type straw mushroom cultivation method, application (patent) number: the CN200510033303.4 applying date: 2005.02.28 application publication number: CN1826859 Shen Qing Publication day: 2006.09.06, application (patent right) people: Guangdong Microbes Inst, invention (design) people: Yang little Bing, address: 510070 biotechnology mansions, No. 100, XianLie Middle Road, GuangZhou City, GuangDong Province, summary: a kind of method that the present invention relates to Volvaria volvacea cultivation, relate in particular to a kind of with straw, the highly efficient tier rack type straw mushroom cultivation method that the materials such as dregs of rice unginned cotton are primary raw material, raw material is by conventional formulation, add in addition vegetable garden soil, the earth such as pond sludge and quicklime mix, compound is added to clear water or nutrient solution is mixed thoroughly, concentrate sterilizing, cooling, add again after bacterial classification is mixed thoroughly and spread in the plastic crate of bedstead or customization, with the thick plastic film evenly punching in advance, cover whole charge level tension, material temperature is cultivated 8-at 28-38 ℃ 10 days can fruiting.The present invention can increase straw mushroom output and quality, and raising production operation efficiency, operating environment clean, and improves composts or fertilisers of cultivating insulation water retention property, easily realizes mechanization production operation.
Chinese patent and for example: the method that the whole excellent corncob raw material of take are substrate culture straw mushroom, application (patent) number: the CN201310486073.1 applying date: 2013.10.17 application publication number: CN103503696A Shen Qing Publication day: 2014.01.15 applies for (patent right) people: Institute of Microbiology, Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences; Invention (design) people: Ma Qingfang; Zhang Jiechi; Zhang Piqi; Dai Xiaodong; Liu Jianing; Kong Xianghui; Han Zenghua; Wang Yujiang; Address: 150010 No. 68, Zhao Lin streets, Road Inside Area, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, summary: the method that the whole excellent corncob raw material of take are substrate culture straw mushroom, it belongs to Volvaria volvacea cultivation field.The present invention will solve the long technical problem of existing fermentation material cultivating straw mushroom growth cycle.The inventive method is that the dry whole excellent corncob without going mouldy is exposed to the sun, with lime water be dipped to corncob without white core till, after the cow dung of drying being pulverized, add water heap fermentation simultaneously, obtain the cow dung of fermenting; In cultivation canopy, play furrow, ridge-up bed is poured water drenched, in ridge-up bed, first spread the whole excellent corncob of one deck after lime water is processed, spread one deck fermentation cow dung, then spread one deck straw mushroom wheat second class inoculum, the whole excellent corncob of paving one deck after lime water is processed, cover again one deck compound, then spray pyrethrin pesticide after evenly spreading one deck straw mushroom wheat second class inoculum, lid mulch film, complete sowing, then gather after hair tube reason, management of producing mushroom; Wherein said compound is mixed by 98% fermentation cow dung and 2% wheat bran by weight percentage.Only 20~25 days production cycle of the present invention.
Chinese patent and for example: a kind of method of utilizing Sugarcane Leaves and blade tip to make Volvaria volvacea cultivation material, application (patent) number: the CN201310559268.4 applying date: 2013.11.12 application publication number: CN103553827A Shen Qing Publication day: 2014.02.05 applies for (patent right) people: Wu Fangcheng; Invention (design) people: Wu Fangcheng; Address: 315505 No. 111, South Roads, industrial park town, Xi Wu street, Fenghua City, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, summary: the present invention is a kind of Volvaria volvacea cultivation material, it is characterized in that take that Sugarcane Leaves and blade tip are as primary raw material, be aided with the auxiliary materials such as pond sludge, bacterium slag, pulverized limestone, land plaster, the water content of planting material is 60%-62%.Content of the present invention also comprises the preparation method of this planting material.The invention has the advantages that: the one, sugarcane leaf, the sugarcane tip pass through sunlight exposure, limewash is prewetted and the windrow fermentation of ventilating, and the macromolecular substances such as raw fiber are decomposed into and are conducive to the simple material that straw mushroom mycelia absorbs, and have promoted the growth of straw mushroom mycelia; The 2nd, planting material reasonable mixture ratio, balanced in nutrition, straw mushroom growing way is good, and output is high, and its biological efficiency reaches 26.4%-28.5%; The 3rd, not only the harmless treatment for sugarcane top provides a solution, also for Volvaria volvacea cultivation has found a kind of new matrix.Chinese patent and for example: a kind of many branches Volvaria volvacea cultivation base and preparation method thereof, application (patent) number: the CN201310383532.3 applying date: 2013.08.29 application publication number: CN103497038A Shen Qing Publication day: 2014.01.08, application (patent right) people: Qian Xi mountain villa, Hefei City Agro-ecology garden Co., Ltd, invention (design) people: Liu Xuesong, address: 231200 Nan Tang villages, Hua Gang town, Feixi County, Hefei City, Anhui Province, summary: the present invention relates to a kind of many branches Volvaria volvacea cultivation base and be prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: peach branch 30-40, pear tree sawdust 20-30, tea tree branch powder 10-20, vinegar grain 12-15, wheat bran 14-15, purple sweet potato powder 5-7, Testa sojae atricolor 3-5, onion-skin 2-3, angelica powder 1-2, reticulate millettia powder 1-2, melanterite powder 1-2, brier powder 1-3, moringa seeds 1-2, shrimp shell meal 6-7, zeolite powder 1-2, lepidolite powder 4-6, beet tops powder 1-2, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2-0.3, quicklime 2-3, fish soup 16-19, land plaster 1-4, Nutrition Soil 2-4.With the straw mushroom that this medium cultivates, there is mineral matter, trace element, vitamin, feature that amino acid content is high, reduced the pollution of heavy metal simultaneously, long-term edible have enrich blood, moistening face; And fast growth, output is high.
For another example Chinese patent: a kind of method of utilizing Jiaobai leaf to make Volvaria volvacea cultivation material; application (patent) number: CN201310515427.0, the applying date: 2013.10.28 application publication number: CN103524248A Shen Qing Publication day: 2014.01.22 applies for (patent right) people: Wu Fangcheng; Invention (design) people: Wu Fangcheng; Address: 315505 No. 111, South Roads, industrial park town, Xi Wu street, Fenghua City, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, summary: the present invention is a kind of Volvaria volvacea cultivation material, it is characterized in that take that Jiaobai leaf is as primary raw material, be aided with the auxiliary materials such as cotton seed hulls, cow dung, lime, land plaster, the water content of planting material is 60%-62%.Content of the present invention also comprises the preparation method of this planting material.The invention has the advantages that: the one, Jiaobai leaf soaks through sunlight exposure, limewash and heap fermentation is processed, and the macromolecular substances such as cellulose, hemicellulose is decomposed into and is conducive to the simple material that straw mushroom mycelia absorbs, and has promoted the growth of straw mushroom mycelia; The 2nd, planting material reasonable mixture ratio, bacterium material good permeability, moisture capacity are strong, and straw mushroom fruiting is neat, and output is high, and its biological efficiency reaches 26.7%-30.4%; The 3rd, not only the harmless treatment for Jiaobai leaf provides a solution, also for Volvaria volvacea cultivation has found a kind of new matrix.
Disclosed patent documentation respectively has advantage above, all for cultivating straw mushroom provides different method and culture matrixes, also reached different requirements, but straw mushroom belongs to high temperature modification straw rotting fungus class, and growth temperature is had relatively high expectations, above patent can not fine solution in the problem of spring, autumn, winter planting straw mushroom, need to reach straw mushroom growth demand by the high medium such as quilts or dependence booth temperature control or Artificial Control temperature, and the degraded of raw material organic substance is slow, biological efficiency is low, and straw mushroom yields poorly.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is for above problem, utilize high temperature bacterium fermentation manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce the method for straw mushroom, using manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top as straw mushroom matrix, the quantity of the matrix that has additional nutrients megathermal period microorganism, accelerate the rapid conversion of difficult degradation raw material organic substance, promote organic matter degradation, raising megathermal period temperature, prolongation megathermal period to accelerate raw material and become thoroughly decomposed, improve raw material biological efficiency, straw mushroom abundant nutrition material is provided.The present invention utilizes high temperature bacterium fermentation manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce the method for straw mushroom, can reach fast the growth temperature of straw mushroom, is applicable to annually cultivating, has improved the output of straw mushroom simultaneously.
 
Technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
Utilize manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce a method for straw mushroom, it is characterized in that, its process is as follows:
(1) sterilization in mushroom room and charging: charging is sterilized with 40% formaldehyde fumigation the previous day, every cubic metre with 15g, the laggard row ventilation of sterilizing, formaldehyde odor disappearance rear feeding; The thickness of Volvaria volvacea cultivation material and consumption: expect thick 10-15cm, consumption is 7.5-10kg/m 2;
Described Volvaria volvacea cultivation material comprises the raw material of following parts by weight: manioc waste 20-40, mulberry bar 15-25, sugarcane top 30-50, peanut press pulp 5-8, fish meal 3-5;
(2) sowing
According to 0. 3~0.4kg/m 2seeding quantity bacterial classification is sprinkling upon to Volvaria volvacea cultivation material surface equably, and then cover plastic film, room temperature maintains 28~30 ℃, material temperature keeps 33~36 ℃; Sow after 3 days the plastic film that covers charge level is all opened, the dry place of bedside and charge level is mended wet with shower nozzle, and to keep charge level moistening, relative air humidity requires to reach 90-95%;
(3) spray fruiting water
After planting the 5th day spray fruiting water, composts or fertilisers of cultivating moisture control, 80~85%, suitably ventilates after water spray, and the temperature in mushroom room keeps 33~35 ℃;
(4) fruiting period management
Spray water and within one day, suitably increase afterwards illumination, promote straw mushroom fruit body primordium to form, during material temperature be controlled at 33~36 ℃, mushroom room relative air humidity is controlled at 80~95%, suitably moisturizing makes charge level profit and wet.The ventilation of mushroom room, avoids and allows wind directly blow bed surface, and mushroom room keeps certain scattered beam, and illumination is 50~IOOLUX approximately, avoids sunshine shining directly mushroom bed; During knot mushroom, the respiration of fruit body strengthens, and emits a large amount of carbonic acid gas, and accumulation too much can affect the growth of fruit body.Especially under high temperature, high humidity environment, improper ventilation, easily produces miscellaneous bacteria, thus during fruit-body formation, should carry out in time ventilation, to keep mushroom room to have sufficient fresh air.Ventilation will be carried out according to climatic variation, when temperature is low, will in the afternoon carry out at morning, when temperature is high, will sooner or later carry out.
(5) strictly controlling terrible umbrella occurs
In Volvaria volvacea cultivation process, modal competition miscellaneous bacteria is black juice ghost umbrella and film ghost umbrella.Ghost umbrella is generally after planting about 7 days, to occur straw mushroom, if extract not in time, ripe rear spore spreads very soon.Prevention method is strictly to culture material sterilization, and particularly temperature will be strictly controlled in after fermentation, and composts or fertilisers of cultivating can spray 2.5% lime clarified solution after after planting 5-6 days and fruiting simultaneously, makes the pH of composts or fertilisers of cultivating remain on 8-9, as found, terrible umbrella should extract in time.
(6) adopt mushroom
After planting 6-7 days visible a small amount of young mushrooms, 8-10 days start to gather, and pin the composts or fertilisers of cultivating of growth place while gathering by proficiency, one hand-held mushroom body left rotation and right rotation, and take gently, as be to grow thickly, application pocket knife extracts one by one, or plucks simultaneously when in one clump, major part is applicable to gathering.While adopting mushroom, must guard against and choose, to avoid affecting mycelia, fruiting after impact.After gathering, the impurity of mushroom pin is removed totally, and calibrate and packing, the freezer of putting into 10-15 ℃ is fresh-keeping.
Above-described Volvaria volvacea cultivation material need to carry out hot fermentation in advance, and its process is as follows:
(1) first manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top are smashed, added the high temperature bacterium of the lime and the 2-4% that account for total composts or fertilisers of cultivating consumption 2~4%, trickle after fully mixing, water content 65-70%, pH value is 8-9, covers film, fermentation 3-5 days;
(2) by the planting material turning after fermentation, then peanut press pulp and fish meal are sprinkled in composts or fertilisers of cultivating, mix thoroughly, recurrence heap, overlay film fermentation 2 days, so carries out, after turning 2-3 time, mixing thoroughly, is warmed up to 70-80 ℃, keeps sterilizing in 15 hours, and maintenance 30-35 ℃ lowers the temperature.
Described high temperature bacterium is the compound bacteria of lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and cellulose decomposition bacteria, and parts by weight are 1:1:1; Its cultivating process need to carry out high temperature acclimation, high temperature acclimation be by from microorganism center or market lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and the cellulose decomposition bacteria bought with containing weight content 20-30% domestic birds and animals ight soil, the rubbish mud of 20-30%, the ferrous sulfate that adds 2-6%, all the other are sugarcane top, after fermentation is become thoroughly decomposed completely to 50-70 ℃, the fermentation mud of obtaining is as high temperature bacterium.
The present invention utilizes compost principle, utilize the effect of multiple-microorganism, by lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and cellulose decomposition bacteria process high temperature acclimation, can be to plant Organic residues, carry out mineral, humification and innoxious, make domestic birds and animals ight soil, the nutrient of the organic of the various complexity such as rubbish mud, be converted into soluble nutrient and humus, utilize ferrous sulfate deodorizing simultaneously, the high temperature producing during accumulation kills germ, worm's ovum and the weed seed bringing in raw material, reaches innoxious object.
The compost megathermal period is the Main Stage that organic macromolecule destroys, ruptures and decompose, and is also the important stage that guarantees compost hazard-free.But due to the impact of temperature, the microbial population of compost megathermal period is very restricted, and has greatly limited the fast degradation of large molecule hard-degraded substance.High temperature bacterium have metabolism fast, active high, for time heat endurance short, enzyme high, build the features such as hot conditions kill pathogenic bacteria, biological transformation for organic substance under hot environment has immeasurable effect, compare and there is higher microbial metabolic activity and organic matter degradation rate with normal temperature bacterium, in solid waste, utilize field to have broad application prospects, by inoculation high temperature degradation bacterium, can increase the quantity of compost megathermal period microorganism, accelerate the rapid conversion of refractory organic compounds, thereby effectively improve composting efficiency.There are some researches show that in compost, inoculating high temperature degradation bacterium can promote organic matter degradation, improves compost megathermal period temperature, extend megathermal period quickening compost maturity.
Manioc waste of the present invention, it is the waste material of tapioca processing factory, almost there is no any use, factory is generally deposited in pond, peasants are transported back the part material as fermentation fertilizer, much do not use and can only let alone smelly contaminated environment, but it also contains part sugar, starch and vitamin and abundant organic matter, vitamin wherein, starch and abundant organic matter, as straw mushroom matrix, are a kind of good comprehensive utilizations.
Mulberry bar is also one of agriculture waste material, and in silkworm culture zone, annual peasants look healthy and strong for mulberry leaf, need to carry out the summer and cut down with the autumn and cut down, and the mulberry bar that cuts down out is generally burnt.Mulberry bar is fully utilized, can turn waste into wealth, the nutriment that also takes full advantage of mulberry bar is cultivated straw mushroom.We also know, the mulberry leaf in mulberry tree, Sang Bai are a kind of good medicinal materials, and mulberry bar must be also useful to health as cultivating straw mushroom raw material.
In like manner, sugarcane top is agricultural residue, if peasants need not be as fuel, just stacking is rotten smelly in the ground, but sugarcane top also contains partial starch, vitamin and abundant organic matter, as straw mushroom matrix, is also a kind of good comprehensive utilization.
   
the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The present invention utilizes high temperature bacterium fermentation manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top are as straw mushroom matrix, the quantity of the matrix that has additional nutrients megathermal period microorganism, accelerate the rapid conversion of difficult degradation raw material organic substance, promote organic matter degradation, improve megathermal period temperature, extending megathermal period quickening raw material becomes thoroughly decomposed, improve raw material biological efficiency, straw mushroom abundant nutrition material is provided, the quality of improving product, improved the output of straw mushroom, increase economic benefit, can reach fast the growth temperature of straw mushroom simultaneously, be applicable to annually cultivating, cultivation process is not subject to season, the restriction of weather and region, growth cycle is short.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
Volvaria volvacea cultivation stockpile system:
A: first 200 kilograms of manioc wastes, 150 kilograms of mulberry bars and 300 kilograms of sugarcane tops are smashed, added 20 kilograms of lime and 20 kilograms of high temperature bacterium, trickle after fully mixing, water content 65-70%, pH value is 8-9, covers film, fermentation 3-5 days;
B: the planting material turning by after fermentation, then 50 kilograms of peanut press pulps and 30 kilograms of fish meal are sprinkled in composts or fertilisers of cultivating, mix thoroughly, recurrence heap, overlay film fermentation 2 days, so carries out, after turning 2-3 time, mixing thoroughly, is warmed up to 70-80 ℃, keeps sterilizing in 15 hours, and maintenance 30-35 ℃ lowers the temperature.
High temperature bacterium is the compound bacteria by lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and cellulose decomposition bacteria combination, parts by weight are 1:1:1, its cultivating process need to carry out high temperature acclimation, high temperature acclimation be by from microorganism center or market lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and the cellulose decomposition bacteria bought with containing weight content 20-30% domestic birds and animals ight soil, the rubbish mud of 20-30%, adds the ferrous sulfate of 2-6%, and all the other are straw, after fermentation is become thoroughly decomposed completely to 50-70 ℃, the fermentation mud of obtaining is as high temperature bacterium.
Volvaria volvacea cultivation method:
A: the sterilization in mushroom room and charging: charging is sterilized with 40% formaldehyde fumigation the previous day, every cubic metre with 15g, the laggard row ventilation of sterilizing, formaldehyde odor disappearance rear feeding; The thickness of composts or fertilisers of cultivating and consumption: expect thick 10-15cm, consumption is 7.5-10kg/m2;
B: sowing
According to the seeding quantity of 0. 3~0.4kg/m2, bacterial classification is sprinkling upon to composts or fertilisers of cultivating surface equably, and then covers plastic film, room temperature maintains 30 ℃, and material temperature keeps 35 ℃; Sow after 3 days the plastic film that covers charge level is all opened, the dry place of bedside and charge level is mended wet with shower nozzle, and to keep charge level moistening, relative air humidity requires to reach 90-95%;
C: spray fruiting water
After planting the 5th day spray fruiting water, composts or fertilisers of cultivating moisture control, 80~85%, suitably ventilates after water spray, and the temperature in mushroom room keeps 33~35 ℃;
D: fruiting period management
Spray water and within one day, suitably increase afterwards illumination, promote straw mushroom fruit body primordium to form, during material temperature be controlled at 35~38 ℃, mushroom room relative air humidity is controlled at 80~95%, suitably moisturizing makes charge level profit and wet.The ventilation of mushroom room, avoids and allows wind directly blow bed surface, and mushroom room keeps certain scattered beam, and illumination is 50~IOOLUX approximately, avoids sunshine shining directly mushroom bed; During knot mushroom, the respiration of fruit body strengthens, and emits a large amount of carbonic acid gas, and accumulation too much can affect the growth of fruit body.Especially under high temperature, high humidity environment, improper ventilation, easily produces miscellaneous bacteria, thus during fruit-body formation, should carry out in time ventilation, to keep mushroom room to have sufficient fresh air.Ventilation will be carried out according to climatic variation, when temperature is low, will in the afternoon carry out at morning, when temperature is high, will sooner or later carry out.
E: strictly control terrible umbrella and occur
In Volvaria volvacea cultivation process, modal competition miscellaneous bacteria is black juice ghost umbrella and film ghost umbrella.Ghost umbrella is generally after planting about 7 days, to occur straw mushroom, if extract not in time, ripe rear spore spreads very soon.Prevention method is strictly to culture material sterilization, and particularly temperature will be strictly controlled in after fermentation, and composts or fertilisers of cultivating can spray 2.5% lime clarified solution after after planting 5-6 days and fruiting simultaneously, makes the pH of composts or fertilisers of cultivating remain on 8-9, as found, terrible umbrella should extract in time.
F: adopt mushroom
After planting 6-7 days visible a small amount of young mushrooms, 8-10 days start to gather, and pin the composts or fertilisers of cultivating of growth place while gathering by proficiency, one hand-held mushroom body left rotation and right rotation, and take gently, as be to grow thickly, application pocket knife extracts one by one, or plucks simultaneously when in one clump, major part is applicable to gathering.While adopting mushroom, must guard against and choose, to avoid affecting mycelia, fruiting after impact.After gathering, the impurity of mushroom pin is removed totally, and calibrate and packing, the freezer of putting into 10-15 ℃ is fresh-keeping.
Embodiment 2
Volvaria volvacea cultivation stockpile system:
A: first 400 kilograms of manioc wastes, 250 kilograms of mulberry bars and 500 kilograms of sugarcane tops are smashed, added 20 kilograms of lime and 30 kilograms of high temperature bacterium, trickle after fully mixing, water content 65-70%, pH value is 8-9, covers film, fermentation 3-5 days;
B: the planting material turning by after fermentation, then 40 kilograms of peanut press pulps and 30 kilograms of fish meal are sprinkled in composts or fertilisers of cultivating, mix thoroughly, recurrence heap, overlay film fermentation 2 days, so carries out, after turning 2-3 time, mixing thoroughly, is warmed up to 70-80 ℃, keeps sterilizing in 15 hours, and maintenance 30-35 ℃ lowers the temperature.
High temperature bacterium is the compound bacteria by lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and cellulose decomposition bacteria combination, parts by weight are 1:1:1, its cultivating process need to carry out high temperature acclimation, high temperature acclimation be by from microorganism center or market lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and the cellulose decomposition bacteria bought with containing weight content 20-30% domestic birds and animals ight soil, the rubbish mud of 20-30%, adds the ferrous sulfate of 2-6%, and all the other are cornstalk, after fermentation is become thoroughly decomposed completely to 50-70 ℃, the fermentation mud of obtaining is as high temperature bacterium.
Volvaria volvacea cultivation method is identical with embodiment 1.
Adopt above-described embodiment to cultivate straw mushroom, even if winter, temperature was lower, still can utilize manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to cultivate the straw mushroom that obtains high yield, do not need to use the high medium such as quilts.In south, even if spring and autumn temperature is down to 25 left and right, do not need to rely on booth temperature control or Artificial Control temperature yet.
To be the present invention and waste cotton 60% composts or fertilisers of cultivating, do not adopt manioc waste, the culture bed result of measuring temperature of mulberry bar and sugarcane top composts or fertilisers of cultivating plantation straw mushroom 10Tian Shidui center of high temperature bacterium of the present invention:
Atmospheric temperature 20℃ Straw mushroom growing state Cost compare
Embodiment of the present invention composts or fertilisers of cultivating temperature 37℃ Well Composts or fertilisers of cultivating cost is low
Containing waste cotton 60% composts or fertilisers of cultivating temperature 38℃ Well Composts or fertilisers of cultivating cost is high
Do not adopt manioc waste, mulberry bar and the sugarcane top composts or fertilisers of cultivating temperature of high temperature bacterium of the present invention 31℃ Slowly Composts or fertilisers of cultivating cost is low

Claims (3)

1. utilize manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce a method for straw mushroom, it is characterized in that, its process is as follows:
(1) sterilization in mushroom room and charging: charging is sterilized with 40% formaldehyde fumigation the previous day, every cubic metre with 15g, the laggard row ventilation of sterilizing, formaldehyde odor disappearance rear feeding; The thickness of Volvaria volvacea cultivation material and consumption: expect thick 10-15cm, consumption is 7.5-10kg/m 2;
Described Volvaria volvacea cultivation material comprises the raw material of following parts by weight: manioc waste 20-40, mulberry bar 15-25, sugarcane top 30-50, peanut press pulp 5-8, fish meal 3-5;
(2) sowing
According to 0. 3~0.4kg/m 2seeding quantity bacterial classification is sprinkling upon to Volvaria volvacea cultivation material surface equably, and then cover plastic film, room temperature maintains 28~30 ℃, material temperature keeps 33~36 ℃; Sow after 3 days the plastic film that covers charge level is all opened, the dry place of bedside and charge level is mended wet with shower nozzle, and to keep charge level moistening, relative air humidity requires to reach 90-95%;
(3) spray fruiting water
After planting the 5th day spray fruiting water, composts or fertilisers of cultivating moisture control, 80~85%, suitably ventilates after water spray, and the temperature in mushroom room keeps 33~35 ℃;
(4) fruiting period management
Spray water and within one day, suitably increase afterwards illumination, promote straw mushroom fruit body primordium to form, material temperature is controlled at 35~38 ℃ during this time, mushroom room relative air humidity is controlled at 80~95%, and suitably moisturizing makes charge level profit and do not wet, the ventilation of mushroom room, avoid and allow wind directly blow bed surface, mushroom room keeps certain scattered beam, and illumination is 50~IOOLUX approximately, avoids sunshine shining directly mushroom bed;
(5) strictly controlling terrible umbrella occurs
Composts or fertilisers of cultivating can spray 2.5% lime clarified solution after after planting 5-6 days and fruiting, makes the pH of composts or fertilisers of cultivating remain on 8-9, finds that terrible umbrella should extract in time;
(6) adopt mushroom
After planting 6-7 days visible a small amount of young mushrooms, 8-10 days start to gather, and pin the composts or fertilisers of cultivating of growth place while gathering by proficiency, one hand-held mushroom body left rotation and right rotation, and take gently, after gathering, the impurity of mushroom pin is removed clean, and calibrate and packing, the freezer of putting into 10-15 ℃ is fresh-keeping.
2. the method for utilizing manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce straw mushroom according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described Volvaria volvacea cultivation material need to carry out hot fermentation in advance, and its process is as follows:
(1) first manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top are smashed, added the high temperature bacterium of the lime and the 2-4% that account for total composts or fertilisers of cultivating consumption 2~4%, trickle after fully mixing, water content 65-70%, pH value is 8-9, covers film, fermentation 3-5 days;
(2) by the planting material turning after fermentation, then peanut press pulp and fish meal are sprinkled in composts or fertilisers of cultivating, mix thoroughly, recurrence heap, overlay film fermentation 2 days, so carries out, after turning 2-3 time, mixing thoroughly, is warmed up to 70-80 ℃, keeps sterilizing in 15 hours, and maintenance 30-35 ℃ lowers the temperature.
3. the method for utilizing manioc waste, mulberry bar and sugarcane top to produce straw mushroom according to claim 2, is characterized in that: described high temperature bacterium is the compound bacteria of lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and cellulose decomposition bacteria, and parts by weight are 1:1:1; Its cultivating process need to carry out high temperature acclimation, high temperature acclimation be by from microorganism center or market lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis and the cellulose decomposition bacteria bought with containing weight content 20-30% domestic birds and animals ight soil, the rubbish mud of 20-30%, the ferrous sulfate that adds 2-6%, all the other are sugarcane top, after fermentation is become thoroughly decomposed completely to 50-70 ℃, the fermentation mud of obtaining is as high temperature bacterium.
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CN105061074A (en) * 2015-08-18 2015-11-18 安徽中祝农业发展有限公司 Straw mushroom culture medium prepared from fruit and vegetable wastes and preparation method of straw mushroom culture medium
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CN107114116A (en) * 2016-10-11 2017-09-01 广西职业技术学院 A kind of pleurotus eryngii mushroom bran cured material bag-cultured straw mushroom moisturizing yield-increasing technology
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