CN104126366A - Harvester for producing solid biomass fuel or fodder - Google Patents

Harvester for producing solid biomass fuel or fodder Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104126366A
CN104126366A CN201410361538.5A CN201410361538A CN104126366A CN 104126366 A CN104126366 A CN 104126366A CN 201410361538 A CN201410361538 A CN 201410361538A CN 104126366 A CN104126366 A CN 104126366A
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machine
hydraulic
car
raw materials
feed
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CN104126366B (en
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吕和永
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吕和永
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Abstract

The invention discloses a harvester for producing solid biomass fuel or fodder and belongs to the technical field of agricultural machinery. The harvester comprises a harvester body. The harvester body is a carrier of the whole harvester and comprises a walking system and a steering system. The harvester body is provided with a raw material recycling machine, a pulverizer, a forming machine, a finished product hopper, a power device and a cab. The raw material recycling machine is used for picking up and cutting up biomass raw materials. The pulverizer is used for pulverizing the biomass raw materials which are cut up. The forming machine is used for compression forming of the pulverized biomass raw materials. The finished product hopper is used for containing formed products. The power device is used for providing power. A hydraulic system is adopted for transmission and control, the raw material recycling machine, the pulverizer, the forming machine and the walking system of the harvester body are driven by respective hydraulic motors independently, and the hydraulic motors are connected in parallel. The harvester can collect, pulverize and compress the aired biomass raw materials while walking, so that the problem that the receiving, conveying and storage cost is high in the production process of solid biomass fuel (fodder) is solved.

Description

Reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed
Technical field
The invention belongs to agricultural machinery technological field, particularly a kind of reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed.
Background technology
The method of producing in the market biomass solid fuel or feed mainly contains: in split type device fabrication for fixed-site (first method), with removable living beings production base station, in the places of origin of raw materials, produce (second method) and with combination collection forming integrated machine production (the third method) etc.Wherein first method mainly by artificial or single devices to biomass material (being mainly agricultural crop straw, forestry waste and pasture herbage) collect, transport, pulverizing and compact formed.Along with social development, majority have been reluctant that dry picture reclaims the dirty work stalk, although stalk purchasing price is very high, relatively do manual work that it is very low to reclaim the income of stalk, thus people to stalk, recovery does not have enthusiasm.This mode of artificial results has limited the industrialized development that the biomass solid fuels such as stalk are recycled greatly.Even if someone is ready to reclaim stalk or picks up briquetting by single devices, but bulk density is lower, cause transportation, storage cost very high.Second method can significantly reduce transportation, storage cost, but compiling costs is still higher.The third method can reduce receipts, transportation, storage cost simultaneously, but prior art scheme is still immature, and machine construction is more complicated, and adjustable controllability is not strong.There is researcher to propose to follow with relevant device the production that grain combine carries out biomass solid fuel or feed, or get motive power of combine harvester or with its walking, but can combine provide that can enough power, equipment adapt to the moisture content of raw material, whether raw material stoving is easy and can relatively multiple combine be brought into play the problems such as equipment capacity and be all difficult to solve.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to, for the problem that biomass material in prior art is received, transportation, storage cost is high, provides a kind of controllability simple in structure, adjustable the strong reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed.
Reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention, comprise car body, car body is the carrier of whole machine, himself is containing running gear and steering, it is characterized in that: car body is provided with for picking up and shred the raw materials recovery machine of biomass material, for the cracker that the biomass material of chopping is pulverized, the biomass material of pulverizing is carried out to the forming machine of compression forming, finished product hopper for splendid attire shaped article, for power set and the driver's cabin of power are provided, raw materials recovery in this reaping machine collection biomass solid fuel or feed production process, pulverize, compressing in one, can Zi Zou limit, limit be collected by the biomass material through airing, pulverize also compressing, adopt hydraulic system transmission, control, raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine, car body running gear is driven separately by hydraulic motor separately respectively, each hydraulic motor is in state in parallel.
Utilize reaping machine provided by the invention biomass material can be pressed into high-density biology matter solid fuel or feed.Thereby receipts, the high problem of transportation, storage cost in biomass solid fuel or feed production process have been solved.
1, provide a kind of concrete structure
A kind of reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention, raw materials recovery in this reaping machine collection biomass solid fuel or feed production process, pulverize, compressing in one, raw materials recovery machine is movably attached on car body, raw materials recovery machine is connected with cyclone dust collector by connected the first conveyance conduit (this pipeline can be flexible pipe or part is flexible pipe), cyclone dust collector is arranged on the top of cracker, cracker is connected with gathering unit by connected the second conveyance conduit, gathering unit can be cyclone dust collector or cloth bag etc., gathering unit is arranged on the top of forming machine, finished product hopper, power set, driver's cabin, cracker and forming machine are directly fixedly connected on car body.
2, hydraulic drive
Reaping machine of the present invention, adopts hydraulic system transmission, control.
Power set consist of the hydraulic power unit of driven by engine, and the parts that respectively need power to reaping machine provide motion-promotion force respectively.Describedly need the motion of the parts of power to be controlled by hydraulic valve.Power set comprise engine, hydraulic pump and auxiliary equipment, and auxiliary equipment comprises hydraulic oil unit, overflow valve etc., and the hydraulic oil of pressure stability is provided to system through hydraulic system house steward.Hydraulic pump preferably adopts constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump.
A kind of kind of drive is as follows:
The power intake of raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine, car body running gear is installed respectively described hydraulic motor, and each hydraulic motor is controlled rotating speed by flow speed control valve separately, is controlled break-make and the flow direction of fluid by reversal valve.The hydraulic motor of car body running gear is reversing motor, to control car body, advances or falls back.The flow speed control valve of car body running gear needs check valve in parallel.
Car body steering, can adopt Hydraulic Power Transmission System, and the hydraulic oil of Integral steering device is provided by hydraulic system house steward, Integral steering device with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel.
The engine of the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention can adopt program control system (PLC control system) to control its rotating speed, for example be controlled at a definite value (as 1200,1500,2000r/min), when hydraulic pump load variations, engine speed can keep constant substantially.So just do not need driver constantly engine throttle to be controlled, and can avoid causing because engine speed is too low the too low phenomenon of system oil pressure.
Hydraulic system house steward's bypass is connected with overflow valve, and overflow valve outlet is connected to fuel tank.When hydraulic pump adopts constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump, the outlet pressure of setting up hydraulic pump is setting value, and this numerical value is system oil pressure, makes a little higher than system oil pressure of overflow valve oil pressure relief, and overflow valve mainly plays system overpressure protective effect like this, rather than voltage stabilizing overflow effect.This cooperation of engine, constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump, overflow valve can be the hydraulic power that whole machine provides pressure stability, with the fluctuation of load, does not fluctuate, and owing to there is no overflow, also saves energy.
3, raw materials recovery machine syndeton
In order to make to contact with ground all the time for the production of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or feed raw materials recovery machine when the complicated ground operation, so that the picking up of biomass material, the present invention has provided a kind of preferred version for the connected mode of raw materials recovery machine and car body:
Raw materials recovery machine can be provided with land wheel, to facilitate it for the recovery of biomass material.
Raw materials recovery machine can adopt parallelogram bindiny mechanism with being connected of car body.Car body, raw materials recovery machine, two parallel linking arms form parallelogram sturcutre, two parallel linking arms are and are flexibly connected with car body and raw materials recovery machine, this parallelogram sturcutre provides power for raw materials recovery machine moves ahead, allow again raw materials recovery machine land wheel keep contacting with ground, make raw materials recovery machine have flexibility.
In order to solve for the production of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or the feed problem that raw materials recovery function is mentioned when the not operation, on car body, be provided with suspension rod, suspension rod is connected with raw materials recovery machine through lift cylinder and the elevator chain that is connected with lift cylinder, by the lifting of lift cylinder, when whole not operation of device, raw materials recovery machine is mentioned.Being conducive to like this machine can walk at a high speed when transfer tasks place.
In lift cylinder Hydraulic Power Transmission System, the hydraulic oil of lift cylinder is provided by hydraulic system house steward, lift cylinder with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel.
4, hopper form
The present invention is for solving the problem of discharging inconvenience, designed a kind of hopper, make finished product hopper carry out discharging by the hydraulic means of self, the version of the hopper of design is as follows: hopper is by inclined bottom plate, backboard, the side plate of front vertical plate and both sides forms, front vertical plate, inclined bottom plate is fixedly connected with side sheet room, backboard is fixedly connected on backboard axle sleeve, backboard axle sleeve is connected with oscillating motor, can directly connect, or on backboard axle sleeve and oscillating motor output shaft, gear is installed respectively, when being rotated, oscillating motor can drive backboard axle sleeve to rotate simultaneously, backboard also just can be around back shaft Unscrew.
Inclined bottom plate relative level line has an inclination alpha, makes α angle be greater than the angle of repose of finished product material.When backboard cuts out like this, hopper can be collected finished product material, all landings of finished product material while opening.
In finished product hopper oscillating motor Hydraulic Power Transmission System, finished product hopper oscillating motor is with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel, and its hydraulic oil is provided by hydraulic system house steward.
The Integral steering device of finished product hopper oscillating motor, lift cylinder, car body steering uses state in parallel connection, and use in parallel with each hydraulic motor.Finished product hopper oscillating motor is controlled by finished product hopper oscillating motor reversal valve, and lift cylinder is controlled by lift cylinder reversal valve, and car body steering is controlled by driver's cabin.
This hopper construction is simple, and discharging is convenient, and driver can be at driver's cabin direct control.But compare with rectangle hopper, bucket capacity is little.
5, workflow
Cyclone dust collector is picked up, shreds and thrown to raw materials recovery machine to raw materials such as ground agricultural crop straw, woodland fallen leaves weeds or herbages, cyclone dust collector is collected and dedusting the raw material of chopping, the raw material of collecting enters cracker and pulverizes, raw material after pulverizing enters in forming machine after gathering unit is collected, by the biomass material compression forming of pulverizing, shaped article slips in finished product hopper from forming machine discharging opening.Through discharging, finished product material is discharged to certain fixed location, car to be transported is transported.
6, control the method for biomass material moisture content
The raw materials such as the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention can gather in crops complete, stalk are gathered in the crops after tedding through suitable natural drying especially machinery again.So that raw material moisture content is suitable for is compressing.
To the control of raw material moisture content, be that in biomass compression molding process, especially to design and develop the emphasis of producing biomass solid fuel or feed integrally forming equipment be also difficult point.Forming machine on market as stalk block making machine or straw granulator generally higher to the requirement of raw material moisture content, between 10%-15%.But as maize straw, at harvesting moisture content of straws harvest time up to 70%-80%.Existing technology is generally first to reclaim and dry, and oven dry can consume appreciable energy.
Being applicable to reaping machine provided by the invention raw materials used can, by a kind of method of effective, practical reduction living beings moisture content, be exactly that the especially artificial machinery of natural drying teds.
As maize straw, after harvesting harvesting, can throw and fall to the ground, after some choppings, leave again.Now can make stalk first natural drying a period of time in the ground, then with stalk tedder, stalk be tedded and put together.Machinery teds relative natural drying can make moisture content in stalk scatter and disappear speed height a lot, and large-scale tedder operating efficiency is very high, can reach 50 mu/hour.Therefore machinery teds and can effectively reduce raw material moisture content not allow again cost recovery increase more.
And for the more sparse place of biomass solid raw material, first with stalk tedder, collect to put together and with the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention, gather in the crops the operating efficiency that can improve this machine again.
Biomass solid raw material natural drying especially machinery is tedded, and is to make to produce biomass solid fuel or feed integrally forming equipment can be realized and a practical focus technology method.
Forming machine can use " living beings are timely technology for compressing and forming on the spot " and " EcoTre System technology (ETS technology) " can reduce this machine to the requirement of raw material moisture content (8%-35%), is more conducive to the recovery to biomass solid raw material.
7, other
Engine can be selected liquefied natural gas engine, to reduce production costs.Wherein liquefied natural gas bottle is arranged on the position of favourable topping up, and fuel is used up Shi Kedao gas station or carried out easily topping up with LNG tank car.Gas cylinder can be designed to Easy dismountable, when fuel is used up, with there being the professional of qualification to pull down gas cylinder, with special-purpose vehicle, collect Hou Zaidao gas station topping up, now use bailout bottle to produce.This kind of method can be used easily in remote districts Liquefied Natural Gas fuel.
The control assembly that the driver's cabin of the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention is entire machine.PLC control system, each hydraulic control valve, instrument display system are set in it and turn to, other facilities such as light, braking, fire-fighting, air-conditioning.PLC control system is controlled simultaneously each operational factor of machine is monitored engine speed, as pressure, temperature, rotating speed etc.Each operational factor is arranged and reports to the police and shut down numerical value, by the real-time monitoring of PLC control system, protect the unlikely damage of each parts.Hydraulic control valve comprises reversal valve and flow speed control valve etc., is connected respectively, in order to control hydraulic motor and hydraulic cylinder action by fluid pressure line with hydraulic system house steward with executive component (hydraulic motor, hydraulic cylinder).Instrument display system shows the real-time numerical value of each parameter, so that driver operates reaping machine.
The raw materials recovery machine of the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention can adopt yellow storage recycling machine, and cracker can adopt the main frame of stalk crasher, and forming machine can adopt the main frame of straw granulator or the main frame of stalk block making machine.
Can be after cracker, forming machine top or other positions add water spray damping device, with adjusting water content content, because stalk may cause moisture too low through being exposed to the sun.
Because of Huang storage recycling machine and stalk crasher production capacity generally large (as 6 tons per hour), and stalk block making machine production capacity generally less (as 3 tons per hour), for expanding the production capacity of this machine, can, by the use in parallel of plural forming machine, make big scale production equipment (engine and hydraulic pump all have high-power product or two in parallel uses of hydraulic pump).
This reaping machine car body can adopt wheeled or adopt crawler travel form, crawler travel form can reduce machine at the resistance of field walking.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
1, the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention is for integrating raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine, can be in crops ground, woodland or grassland directly collect also compression forming to biomass solid raw material (being mainly agricultural crop straw, woodland fallen leaves weeds and pasture herbage), need not artificially collect raw material, can full mechanization operation.Solve the receipts in biomass solid fuel (feed) production, the problem that transportation, storage cost is high.
2, the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention is full hydraulic system, and raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine, car body running gear are driven separately by hydraulic motor separately.
All variant because of different biomass materials pulverizing pressing process, even the different pressing process of pulverizing of same raw material moisture content are also not quite similar.Can be by the governor motor flow speed control valve aperture separately rotating speed that feed change recycling machine, cracker, forming machine and car body are walked at any time in results process, observation actual production effect also makes a record, and sums up the optimum data that can obtain output and energy loss-rate through contrast.
Especially car body walking power and raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine power are separate, and while making to control output by the control car body speed of travel, the running parameter of raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine is unaffected.
Because hydraulic system connects by fluid pressure line, without deceleration gear, flexible configuration, has simplified device structure.
Hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor operating efficiency are all more than 80%, and energy transmission efficiency is high, are conducive to save production cost.
Low speed high torque hydraulic motor has the high feature of the low moment of torsion of rotating speed, can realize direct-connected with working machine, does not need deceleration device, and drive mechanism is greatly simplified.
Hydraulic system self has defencive function in addition, is unlikely to the phenomenon that occurs that as electromotor vexed machine easily burns.
While adopting constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump, can reduce the overflow of hydraulic oil, reduce energy consumption.
Under power, hydraulic motor weight is 1/6 of electromotor, therefore adopt hydraulic system can alleviate more greatly gross weight of equipment amount.Make machine low in field walking energy consumption.
These advantages are that non-hydraulic system transmission is not facile above.The application of hydraulic system is one of focus technology of the present invention, and the one-body molded equipment that makes to produce biomass solid fuel or feed is more feasible, and operability is stronger, more practical.
3, the especially artificial machinery of natural drying that utilizes provided by the invention teds the method that reduces biomass material moisture content, practical and effective.Make to produce biomass solid fuel or feed integrally forming equipment raw material stoving equipment needn't be set again, simplified device structure, saved oven dry energy consumption.
Although the method is subject to weather effect more serious, can rob and receive farming season grain as combine, by strengthening reaping machine production capacity, the methods such as multimachine device operation are simultaneously gathered in the crops biomass material.
Biomass material natural drying especially machinery is tedded to reduce the method for moisture content, is to make to produce biomass solid fuel or feed integrally forming equipment can be realized and the another focus technology method of practicality.
4, the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention is simple in structure understands, each critical piece can directly adopt matured product in the market, maybe needs power input and connection, fixed form through simple transformation.Modular arrangements, design R&D costs are low, are easy to understand grasp convenient for maintaining etc.
5, the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention is biomass solid fuel (feed) former independently, needn't supporting with grain combine (also can support the use).
6, with the actual use experience of Huang storage recycling machine, this device also can adapt to the upright raw materials such as maize straw.
7, better monoculture level land or the ground, gentle slope of being used in of the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention, area is larger, the region that biomass material moisture is close.To reduce test, adjust number of times, performance production capacity.
8, the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention is better is used in trees compared with the more smooth forest land of proper alignment, so that this device enters forest land, collects fallen leaves and weeds.Now can change driver's cabin into console, people walks with equipment and controls.
9, the better grassland that is used in of the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention, collects compression to herbage, as feed, uses.
10, the reaping machine production cost for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed provided by the invention is low, and operating efficiency is high, and especially practicality is high, can use by spread.Finished product briquetting bulk density and coal facies are near, are suitable for long distance transportation, abundant and not build the place of biomass power plant especially applicable to biomass solid raw material resources.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the reaping machine overall schematic for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed;
Fig. 2 is the reaping machine hydraulic scheme for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed;
Fig. 3 is for the production of the raw materials recovery machine of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or feed and car body connection diagram;
Fig. 4 is the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed while travelling on uneven ground, the state diagram of raw materials recovery machine;
Fig. 5 be reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed when soft terrain travels, the state diagram of raw materials recovery machine;
Fig. 6 is the reaping machine hopper construction form schematic diagram for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed.
Number in the figure: 1, raw materials recovery machine; 2, the first conveyance conduit; 3, cyclone dust collector; 4, cracker; 5, the second conveyance conduit; 6, gathering unit; 7, forming machine; 8, finished product hopper; 9, power set; 10, driver's cabin; 11, car body; 12, linking arm; 13, suspension rod; 14, lift cylinder; 15, elevator chain; The land wheel of 1.1 raw materials recovery machines;
21, manometer; 22, accumulator; 23, check valve one; 24, oil strainer; 25, engine; 26, fuel tank; 27, hydraulic pump; 28, overflow valve; 29, hydraulic system house steward; 30, forming machine reversal valve; 31, cracker reversal valve; 32, raw materials recovery machine reversal valve; 33, forming machine flow speed control valve; 34, cracker flow speed control valve; 35, raw materials recovery machine flow speed control valve; 36, raw materials recovery machine hydraulic motor; 37, cracker hydraulic motor; 38, forming machine hydraulic motor; 39, check valve two; 40, car body running gear flow speed control valve one; 41, car body hydraulic motor travel motor; 42, car body running gear flow speed control valve two; 43, check valve three; 44, finished product hopper oscillating motor; 45, car body steering; 46, lift cylinder reversal valve; 47, finished product hopper oscillating motor reversal valve; 48, car body running gear reversal valve;
61, inclined bottom plate; 62, backboard; 63, backboard axle sleeve; 64, back shaft; 65, side plate; 66 front vertical plates.
Embodiment
The following examples can make those skilled in the art more fully understand the present invention, but do not limit the present invention in any way.
1 one kinds of reaping machines for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed of embodiment
A kind of reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed, comprise car body 11, the carrier that car body 11 is whole machine, himself is containing running gear and steering, car body 11 is provided with for picking up and shred the raw materials recovery machine 1 of biomass material, for the cracker 4 that the biomass material of chopping is pulverized, the biomass material of pulverizing is carried out to the forming machine 7 of compression forming, finished product hopper 8 for splendid attire shaped article, for power set 9 and the driver's cabin 10 of power are provided, raw materials recovery in this reaping machine collection biomass solid fuel or feed production process, pulverize, compressing in one, can Zi Zou limit, limit be collected by the biomass material through airing, pulverize also compressing, adopt hydraulic system transmission, control, raw materials recovery machine 1, cracker 4, forming machine 7, car body running gear is respectively by hydraulic motor 36 separately, 37, 38, 41 drive separately, each hydraulic motor is in state in parallel.
1, provide a kind of concrete structure, as shown in Figure 1:
Reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed, raw materials recovery in this reaping machine collection biomass solid fuel or feed production process, pulverize, compressing in one, raw materials recovery machine 1 is movably attached on car body 11, raw materials recovery machine 1 is connected with cyclone dust collector 3 by connected the first conveyance conduit 2 (this pipeline can be flexible pipe or part is flexible pipe), cyclone dust collector 3 is arranged on the top of cracker 4, cracker 4 is connected with gathering unit 6 by connected the second conveyance conduit 5, gathering unit 6 can be cyclone dust collector or cloth bag etc., gathering unit 6 is arranged on the top of forming machine 7, finished product hopper 8, power set 9, driver's cabin 10, cracker 4 and forming machine 7 are directly fixedly connected on car body 11.
Raw materials recovery machine 1 for the production of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or feed can adopt yellow storage recycling machine, and cracker 4 can adopt the main frame of stalk crasher, and forming machine 7 can adopt the main frame of straw granulator or the main frame of stalk block making machine.
This reaping machine car body can adopt wheeled or adopt crawler travel form, crawler travel form can reduce machine at the resistance of field walking.
Can be after cracker, forming machine top or other positions add water spray damping device, with adjusting water content content, because stalk may cause moisture too low through being exposed to the sun.
2, hydraulic drive
The reaping machine of the present embodiment, adopts hydraulic system transmission, control.
Hydraulic power unit by driven by engine forms power set 9, and the parts that respectively need power to reaping machine provide motion-promotion force respectively.Describedly need the motion of the parts of power to be controlled by hydraulic valve.
Provide a kind of concrete kind of drive as shown in Figure 2.
Power set 9 consist of the hydraulic power unit of driven by engine, comprise engine 25, hydraulic pump 27 and auxiliary equipment, and auxiliary equipment comprises hydraulic oil unit, overflow valve 28 etc., and the hydraulic oil of pressure stability is provided to system through hydraulic system house steward 29.Hydraulic pump 27 preferably adopts constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump.The power intake of raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine, car body running gear is installed respectively described hydraulic motor 36,37,38,41, each hydraulic motor is in state in parallel, each hydraulic motor is controlled rotating speed by flow speed control valve 35,34,33,40,42 separately, is controlled break-make and the flow direction of fluid by reversal valve 32,31,30,48.The hydraulic motor 41 of car body running gear is reversing motor, to control car body, advances or falls back.The flow speed control valve of car body running gear needs check valve 39,43 in parallel.
Concrete connection can be as follows:
The power intake connecting engine 25 of hydraulic pump 27, the oil-in of hydraulic pump 27 connects the fuel tank 26 of hydraulic oil unit, and its outlet connects oil strainer 24, and oil strainer 24 outlets connect check valve, and check valve outlet is connected to hydraulic system house steward 29;
Hydraulic system house steward's bypass is connected with overflow valve 28, and overflow valve 28 outlets are connected to fuel tank;
Hydraulic system house steward's bypass is also connected with accumulator 22 and manometer 21;
Three reversal valves (can select two hand-operated direction valves), 32,31,30 oil-ins are connected to respectively hydraulic system house steward 29, and outlet is connected with flow speed control valve 35,34,33 separately respectively.Three flow speed control valve 35,34,33 outlets are connected with hydraulic motor 36,37,38 separately respectively.Hydraulic motor 36,37,38 outlets are connected to fuel tank.
The oil-in of the reversal valve 48 of car body walking Hydraulic Power Transmission System is connected to hydraulic system house steward 29, and oil return opening is connected to fuel tank 26, and two other power oil delivery outlet is connected to respectively the flow speed control valve 40,42 of hydraulic motor 41 oil-feed sides and oil return side.The outlet of two flow speed control valves 40,42 is connected to respectively the entering of car body running gear hydraulic motor 41, oil return opening.Flow speed control valve 40,42 check valve 39,43 respectively in parallel in this car body walking Hydraulic Power Transmission System.(in this system, hydraulic motor enters, oil return opening function can change mutually, and when hydraulic motor reverses, oil-in becomes and oil return opening, and oil return opening becomes oil-in.)
Car body steering, can adopt Hydraulic Power Transmission System, and in car body steering hydraulic transmission system, the hydraulic oil of Integral steering device is provided by hydraulic system house steward, Integral steering device with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel; Connected mode can be as follows: the oil-in of the Integral steering device in car body steering is connected to hydraulic system house steward, and oil return opening is connected to fuel tank.If the total pipe pressure of hydraulic system and the required oil pressure of Integral steering device are not inconsistent, can supercharging decompressor be set at Integral steering device in-line.
The engine 25 of the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed that the present embodiment provides can adopt program control system (PLC control system) to control its rotating speed, for example be controlled at a definite value (as 1200,1500,2000r/min), when hydraulic pump load variations, engine speed can keep constant substantially.So just do not need driver constantly engine throttle to be controlled, and can avoid causing because engine speed is too low the too low phenomenon of system oil pressure.
When hydraulic pump adopts constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump; the outlet pressure of setting up hydraulic pump is setting value, and this numerical value is system oil pressure, makes a little higher than system oil pressure of overflow valve 28 oil pressure relief; overflow valve mainly plays system overpressure protective effect like this, rather than voltage stabilizing overflow effect.This cooperation of engine, constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump, overflow valve can be the hydraulic power that whole machine provides pressure stability, with the fluctuation of load, does not fluctuate, and owing to there is no overflow, also saves energy.
3, raw materials recovery machine syndeton
In order to make to contact with ground all the time for the production of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or feed raw materials recovery machine when the complicated ground operation, so that the picking up of biomass material, the present embodiment has provided a kind of preferred version for the connected mode of raw materials recovery machine and car body:
Raw materials recovery machine 1 can be provided with land wheel 1.1, to facilitate it for the recovery of biomass material.
Raw materials recovery machine can adopt parallelogram bindiny mechanism with being connected of car body, as shown in Figure 3.Car body 11, raw materials recovery machine 1, two parallel linking arms 12 form parallelogram sturcutres, two parallel linking arms 12 are and are flexibly connected with car body 11 and raw materials recovery machine 1, this parallelogram sturcutre provides power for raw materials recovery machine moves ahead, allow again raw materials recovery machine land wheel 1.1 keep contacting with ground, make raw materials recovery machine have flexibility.
In order to solve for the production of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or the feed problem that raw materials recovery function is mentioned when the not operation, on car body 11, be provided with suspension rod 13, suspension rod 13 is connected with raw materials recovery machine 1 through lift cylinder 14 and the elevator chain 15 that is connected with lift cylinder 14, by the lifting of lift cylinder 14, when whole not operation of device, raw materials recovery machine is mentioned.Being conducive to like this machine can walk at a high speed when transfer tasks place.
In lift cylinder Hydraulic Power Transmission System, the hydraulic oil of lift cylinder 14 is provided by hydraulic system house steward, lift cylinder 14 with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel; Connected mode can be as follows: the oil-in of lift cylinder reversal valve 46 is connected to hydraulic system house steward 29, and oil return opening is connected to fuel tank 26, and two other power oil delivery outlet is connected to respectively the entering of lift cylinder 14, oil return opening.
In reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed, raw materials recovery machine syndeton is after improving, and when reaping machine travels on uneven ground, the state diagram of raw materials recovery machine as shown in Figure 4; When soft terrain travels, the state diagram of raw materials recovery machine as shown in Figure 5.
4, hopper form
Finished product hopper 8 can carry out discharging by the hydraulic means of self, has designed a kind of hopper of reaping machine, preferably adopts a kind of version (cutaway view that Fig. 6 is hopper) as shown in Figure 6.Hopper is comprised of the side plate 65 of inclined bottom plate 61, backboard 62, front vertical plate 66 and both sides, front vertical plate 66, inclined bottom plate 61 are fixedly connected with 65 of side plates, backboard 62 is fixedly connected on backboard axle sleeve 63, backboard axle sleeve 63 is connected with oscillating motor, can directly connect, or on backboard axle sleeve 63 and oscillating motor output shaft, gear is installed respectively, and when being rotated, oscillating motor can drive backboard axle sleeve 63 to rotate simultaneously, and backboard 62 also just can be around back shaft 64 Unscrews.
Inclined bottom plate 61 relative level lines have an inclination alpha, make α angle be greater than the angle of repose of finished product material.When backboard cuts out like this, hopper can be collected finished product material, all landings of finished product material while opening.
In finished product hopper oscillating motor Hydraulic Power Transmission System, finished product hopper oscillating motor is with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel, and its hydraulic oil is provided by hydraulic system house steward.
Connected mode can be as follows: the oil-in of finished product hopper oscillating motor reversal valve 47 is connected to hydraulic system house steward 29, and oil return opening is connected to fuel tank 26, and two other power oil delivery outlet is connected to respectively the entering of finished product hopper oscillating motor 44, oil return opening.
This hopper construction is simple, and discharging is convenient, and driver can be at driver's cabin direct control.But compare with rectangle hopper, bucket capacity is little.
5, workflow
Cyclone dust collector 3 is picked up, shreds and thrown to the raw materials such as 1 pair of ground agricultural crop straw of raw materials recovery machine, woodland fallen leaves weeds or herbage, the raw material of 3 pairs of choppings of cyclone dust collector is collected and dedusting, the raw material of collecting enters cracker 4 and pulverizes, raw material after pulverizing enters in forming machine 7 after gathering unit 6 is collected, by the biomass material compression forming of pulverizing, shaped article slips in finished product hopper 8 from forming machine 7 discharging openings.Through discharging, finished product material is discharged to certain fixed location, car to be transported is transported.
Embodiment 2
Exemplify a kind of making for the production of the mode of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or feed
1, required parts
Choose from the market yellow storage reaping machine as raw materials recovery machine, choose stalk crasher (not translator) as cracker, choose stalk block making machine (main frame, not translator and reducing gear) as forming machine.Choose respectively other accessories of liquid natural gas engine, constant pressure variable plunger pump, hydraulic motor, hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic oil unit, Vehicle Driving Cycle system synthesis (wheel, drive axle, steeraxle and suspension etc.), PLC module and this machine.
2, make reaping machine
As shown in Figure 1, hydraulic scheme as shown in Figure 2 for this reaping machine overall schematic.
First with steel and Vehicle Driving Cycle system synthesis, make a car body, hydraulic motor is arranged on to the power intake that drives back axle, the Integral steering device of steering is connected to hydraulic system house steward by hydraulic oil pipe.
(can referenced patent: 201120267907.6) simply transform to Huang storage reaping machine, remove the hydraulic lift mechanism on it, at its input shaft end, hydraulic motor is installed, utilize mechanism shown in Fig. 3 that Huang is store to reaping machine and be movably attached on car body, and the guide shell of Huang being store to reaping machine is connected on cyclone dust collectors with cylindrical shape flexible pipe.
The raw material that the top that cyclone dust collectors are arranged on stalk crasher throws Huang storage reaping machine is collected also dedusting.
Stalk crasher power intake is installed to hydraulic motor, and be fixed on car body.
The outlet of stalk crasher is connected to another cyclone dust collectors by pipeline, and these cyclone dust collectors are as gathering unit and be arranged on the top of stalk block making machine.
Stalk block making machine power intake is installed to hydraulic motor, be then fixed on car body.
Make a hopper and be fixedly mounted on car body, its bottom plate for tilting, rear portion is valve, and valve opens or closes by oscillating motor, and the finished product material while opening in hopper can be slipped on ground automatically, as shown in Figure 6.That is: hopper is comprised of the side plate 65 of inclined bottom plate 61, backboard 62, front vertical plate 66 and both sides, front vertical plate 66, inclined bottom plate 61 are fixedly connected with 65 of side plates, backboard 62 is fixedly connected on backboard axle sleeve 63, backboard axle sleeve 63 is connected with oscillating motor, can directly connect, or on backboard axle sleeve 63 and oscillating motor output shaft, gear is installed respectively, and when being rotated, oscillating motor can drive backboard axle sleeve 63 to rotate simultaneously, and backboard 62 also just can be around back shaft 64 Unscrews.Inclined bottom plate 61 relative level lines have an inclination alpha, make α angle be greater than the angle of repose of finished product material.When backboard cuts out like this, hopper can be collected finished product material, all landings of finished product material while opening.In finished product hopper oscillating motor Hydraulic Power Transmission System, finished product hopper oscillating motor is with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel, and its hydraulic oil is provided by hydraulic system house steward.
Power set are the hydraulic power unit of driven by engine.Comprise engine 25, hydraulic pump 27 and auxiliary equipment, auxiliary equipment comprises hydraulic oil unit, overflow valve 28 etc., and the hydraulic oil of pressure stability is provided to system through hydraulic system house steward 29.Hydraulic pump 27 adopts constant pressure variable plunger pump.Liquefied natural gas engine is fixedly mounted on car body, and gas bomb is installed the position of more favourable topping up and replacing, and makes the protective devices such as guardrail in order to avoid gas bomb is collided.
By shaft coupling, constant pressure variable plunger pump is arranged on to engine power output, with pipeline, is connected to Hydraulic Station.
Hydraulic Station is taken into account valve etc. containing fuel tank, hydraulic oil filter, electric heater unit, thermometer, liquid level.Make the outlet of hydraulic oil container fluid close with plunger pump height, in order to avoid plunger pump oil suction is difficult.
The hydraulic oil being provided by plunger pump leads to respectively yellow storage recycling machine, stalk crasher, stalk block making machine and the hydraulic motor of car body running gear, the Integral steering device of car body steering, hopper oscillating motor and lift cylinder.Each hydraulic motor, Integral steering device, hopper oscillating motor and lift cylinder are in state in parallel, and wherein the hydraulic motor of yellow storage recycling machine, stalk crasher, stalk block making machine, car body running gear is controlled by flow speed control valve separately respectively.
Driver's cabin is the operating control device of whole machine.The control valve of each hydraulic motor and hydraulic cylinder is all arranged in driver's cabin, to control to adjust.By instrument respectively by engine speed, system oil pressure, oil temperature, the yellow storage recycling machine speed of mainshaft, pulverizer main shaft rotating speed, the stalk block making machine speed of mainshaft, main shaft bearing temperature and other parameter displays in driver's cabin and simultaneously by data access in PLC.Driver's cabin also arranges the installations and facilities such as illumination, braking, air-conditioning and fire-fighting.
By PLC set-up of control system, in driver's cabin, it is a certain set-point (as 1500r/min) that PLC control system can maintain engine speed by program.PLC monitors and protects each parameter, the shutdown etc. of reporting to the police as system oil temperature is high.PLC can also process driver to other instructions.
3, workflow
Raw material chopping recovery-cyclone dust removal collection-pulverizing-cyclone dust removal collection-compressing-discharging
4, take harvesting corn straw solid fuel illustrates results process as example.
Ranch generally carries out harvest corn with corn combine, and maize straw leaves (after the chopping having, dishing out) on the ground again.Schilling stalk is natural drying a period of time on the ground, then it is tedded to put together (it is more much higher than natural drying that machinery teds efficiency) with stalk tedder.When moisture content of straws is suitable, (10%-15%) gathers in the crops with regard to the machine with the present embodiment.
First turn on the power switch, start PLC and instrument system.Ato unit, makes its preheating under idling mode, and plunger pump is followed engine and done and slowly run.After preheating, make PLC by control of engine speed at 1500r/min.After now plunger pump rises to setting value by system oil pressure, the swashplate angle of pump is zero, in meta.
Open gradually yellow storage recycling machine, stalk crasher, the reversal valve of stalk block making machine control loop, flow speed control valve, make its hydraulic motor start to rotate, after observing normally, make these three equipment rotating speeds rise to setting value.
Operation lift cylinder, falls yellow storage recycling machine, land wheel kiss the earth.
Open car body running gear reversal valve, flow speed control valve, make machine walk forward.Adjust direction of travel, on Bian Zizou limit, farm, make yellow storage recycling machine shred recovery to the stalk of putting together.Stalk is fallen in finished product hopper through chopping, pulverizing, after compressing.
Hopper reaches edge of a field discharging by machine after filling, and during discharging, with oscillating motor, opens hopper backboard, makes finished product material automatically be slipped to ground, and stand-by loading machine installs in transport vehicle to be transported.
The above; be only the present invention's embodiment preferably, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to this, is anyly familiar with in technical scope that those skilled in the art disclose in the present invention; the variation that can expect easily or replacement, within all should being encompassed in protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of claim.

Claims (10)

1. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed, comprise car body (11), the carrier that car body (11) is whole machine, himself,, containing running gear and steering, is characterized in that: car body (11) is provided with for picking up and shred the raw materials recovery machine (1) of biomass material, for the cracker (4) that the biomass material of chopping is pulverized, the biomass material of pulverizing is carried out to the forming machine (7) of compression forming, finished product hopper (8) for splendid attire shaped article, for power set (9) and the driver's cabin (10) of power, the raw materials recovery in this reaping machine collection biomass solid fuel or feed production process are provided, pulverize, compressing in one, can Zi Zou limit, limit be collected by the biomass material through airing, pulverizing is also compressing, adopts hydraulic system transmission, control raw materials recovery machine (1), cracker (4), forming machine (7), car body running gear is respectively by hydraulic motor (36 separately, 37, 38, 41) drive separately, each hydraulic motor is in state in parallel.
2. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: raw materials recovery machine (1) is movably attached on car body (11), raw materials recovery machine (1) is connected with cyclone dust collector (3) by connected the first conveyance conduit (2), cyclone dust collector (3) is arranged on the top of cracker (4), cracker (4) is connected with gathering unit (6) by connected the second conveyance conduit (5), gathering unit (6) is arranged on the top of forming machine (7), finished product hopper (8), power set (9), driver's cabin (10), cracker (4) and forming machine (7) are directly fixedly connected on car body (11).
3. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: power set (9) consist of the hydraulic power unit of driven by engine, the parts that respectively need power to reaping machine provide motion-promotion force respectively, describedly need the motion of the parts of power to be controlled by hydraulic valve, power set (9) comprise engine (25), hydraulic pump (27) and auxiliary equipment, through hydraulic system house steward (29), provide the hydraulic oil of pressure stability to system.
4. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the power intake of raw materials recovery machine, cracker, forming machine, car body running gear is installed respectively described hydraulic motor (36,37,38,41), each hydraulic motor is in state in parallel, each hydraulic motor is controlled rotating speed by flow speed control valve (35,34,33,40,42) separately, is controlled break-make and the flow direction of fluid by reversal valve (32,31,30,48); The hydraulic motor of car body running gear (41) is reversing motor, to control car body, advances or falls back, and the flow speed control valve of car body running gear needs check valve in parallel (39,43).
5. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: raw materials recovery machine (1) is provided with land wheel (1.1), to facilitate it for the recovery of biomass material, raw materials recovery machine adopts parallelogram bindiny mechanism with being connected of car body, car body (11), raw materials recovery machine (1), two parallel linking arms (12) form parallelogram sturcutre, and two parallel linking arms (12) are and are flexibly connected with car body (11) and raw materials recovery machine (1).
6. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: on car body (11), be provided with suspension rod (13), suspension rod (13) is connected with raw materials recovery machine (1) through lift cylinder (14) and the elevator chain (15) that is connected with lift cylinder (14), by the lifting of lift cylinder (14), when not operation of reaping machine, raw materials recovery machine is mentioned; In lift cylinder Hydraulic Power Transmission System, the hydraulic oil of lift cylinder (14) is provided by hydraulic system house steward, lift cylinder (14) with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel.
7. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: finished product hopper (8) can carry out discharging by the hydraulic means of self, hopper is by inclined bottom plate (61), backboard (62), the side plate (65) of front vertical plate (66) and both sides forms, front vertical plate (66), between inclined bottom plate (61) and side plate (65), be fixedly connected with, backboard (62) is fixedly connected on backboard axle sleeve (63), backboard axle sleeve (63) is connected with oscillating motor, when being rotated, oscillating motor can drive backboard axle sleeve (63) to rotate simultaneously, make the backboard (62) can be around back shaft (64) Unscrew,
Inclined bottom plate (61) relative level line has an inclination alpha, makes α angle be greater than the angle of repose of finished product material;
In finished product hopper oscillating motor Hydraulic Power Transmission System, finished product hopper oscillating motor is with each hydraulic motor in state in parallel, and its hydraulic oil is provided by hydraulic system house steward.
8. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1; it is characterized in that: hydraulic pump (27) adopts constant-pressure variable hydraulic pump; engine is selected liquefied natural gas engine; and adopt PLC control system to be controlled at certain value to its rotating speed; hydraulic system house steward's bypass is connected with overflow valve (28); the outlet pressure of setting up hydraulic pump is setting value; this numerical value is system oil pressure; make a little higher than system oil pressure of overflow valve (28) oil pressure relief, make overflow valve mainly play system overpressure protective effect.
9. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the control assembly that driver's cabin is entire machine, PLC control system, each hydraulic control valve, instrument display system are set in it and turn to, other facilities such as light, braking, fire-fighting, air-conditioning, PLC control system is controlled simultaneously each operational factor of machine is monitored engine speed, each operational factor is arranged and reports to the police and shut down numerical value, by the real-time monitoring of PLC control system, protect the unlikely damage of each parts; Hydraulic control valve comprises reversal valve and flow speed control valve, by fluid pressure line, be connected with executive component with hydraulic system house steward respectively, in order to control hydraulic motor and hydraulic cylinder action, instrument display system shows the real-time numerical value of each parameter, so that driver operates reaping machine.
10. the reaping machine for the production of biomass solid fuel or feed according to claim 1, is characterized in that: after cracker, forming machine top adds water spray damping device.
CN201410361538.5A 2014-07-28 2014-07-28 For the production of the reaping machine of biomass solid fuel or feed Active CN104126366B (en)

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CN104475189A (en) * 2014-12-12 2015-04-01 苏州青青生态种植园 Crushing device for straw crushing production line
CN105850381A (en) * 2016-06-10 2016-08-17 辽阳市永福新农机有限公司 Machine integrating straw picking, soil dust removing and straw processing
CN109018790A (en) * 2018-08-17 2018-12-18 重庆左岸环境服务股份有限公司 A kind of branch crushes clearing and transporting vehicle and its dynamical system
CN109577780A (en) * 2018-12-20 2019-04-05 安徽新华学院 It is a kind of rotatably to move up car door
CN109999720A (en) * 2019-04-30 2019-07-12 江苏三一环境科技有限公司 Granule-forming machine and agricultural machine system
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CN109577780A (en) * 2018-12-20 2019-04-05 安徽新华学院 It is a kind of rotatably to move up car door
CN109999720A (en) * 2019-04-30 2019-07-12 江苏三一环境科技有限公司 Granule-forming machine and agricultural machine system
CN110692370A (en) * 2019-09-10 2020-01-17 长沙中能装备制造有限公司 Self-walking straw extrusion molding machine and field straw extrusion molding method

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