CN104082126A - Soybean sexual hybridization method - Google Patents

Soybean sexual hybridization method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104082126A
CN104082126A CN201410335057.7A CN201410335057A CN104082126A CN 104082126 A CN104082126 A CN 104082126A CN 201410335057 A CN201410335057 A CN 201410335057A CN 104082126 A CN104082126 A CN 104082126A
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China
Prior art keywords
soybean
flower
link
emasculation
sexual hybridization
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CN201410335057.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
曹金锋
胡铁欢
卢思慧
孙永媛
高广居
吴凤训
刘永震
刘同才
刘宝卿
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沧州市农林科学院
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Priority to CN201410335057.7A priority Critical patent/CN104082126A/en
Publication of CN104082126A publication Critical patent/CN104082126A/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to the field of hybridization breeding, and specifically relates to a soybean sexual hybridization method. The soybean sexual hybridization method comprises the following nine links: (1) fixing flower buds; (2) removing sprout for the first time, namely only reserving quasi-hybrid flower buds in the whole inflorescence, and completely removing the rest of flower buds; (3) removing calyx, namely removing calyx lobus at the upper half part of the calyx while reserving the basic cylindrical structure of the calyx; (4) castrating; (5) belaying, namely coiling a short wire into an annular slipknot to gently tie a flower stalk after passing through the flower; (6) taking flowers, namely before 6 a.m. the next day after castrating, picking flowers with unopened petals and uncracked carina on a plant with typical male parent variety characters as a pollen taking object; (7) pollinating at 6-8 a.m. the next day after castrating; (8) putting up brass plates; and (9) managing in the later period. The hybrid survival rate and hybrid efficiency are greatly improved according to the soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the invention.

Description

Soybean sexual hybridization method

Technical field

The present invention relates to crossbreeding field, in particular to a kind of soybean sexual hybridization method.

Background technology

Crossbreeding be generally acknowledge the most generally at present, the most effective a kind of breeding method.Sexual hybridization technology is widely used as the sport technique segment in crossbreeding, but result of use is different.Be hybridized to motility rate height except outside the Pass some environmental conditions and parent material have, also with crossover process in the operation of too many levels have direct relation.And the crossbreeding of carrying out according to prior art is hybridized to motility rate generally lower, be only 20%-40%, hybridization efficiency also remains at low levels always, be only 50-60/(people hour).

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to by the effective control to nine links in crossover process, make to be hybridized to motility rate and hybridization efficiency increases substantially.

A kind of soybean sexual hybridization method is provided in an embodiment of the present invention, has comprised following nine links:

(1) determine flower bud;

(2) for the first time except sprouting: whole inflorescence only retains the bud of intending hybridization, and all the other buds are removed completely;

(3) remove calyx: the calyx lobe of calyx the first half is extractd, retained the tubular structure of sepal base portion;

(4) emasculation;

(5) rope: by short-term dish knot that can be undone by a pull circlewise, overlapped gently flower, and tied up on anthocaulus;

(6) get flower: before at 6 in morning of second day of emasculation, have on the plant of male parent kind typical case proterties, select defloration lobe is not opened, keel not yet split flower as getting powder object;

(7) pollination: the 6-8 point of the next morning that the operating time is emasculation;

(8) list;

(9) final-period management.

Soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the invention,, all extracts the bud of having opened and young tender bud except sprouting by for the first time, only retains the bud of intending hybridization, has ensured the centralizedly supply of nutrient.

Be to make bud expose corolla except going calyx processing, object after sprouting for the first time, this link is transitional link, but essential.Bud is gone to calyx processing, and main effect has following two: the one, can improve in the link of emasculation the success rate of disposable emasculation (being the disposable operation of removing corolla and stamen that completes); The 2nd, in pollination link, after past calyx is processed, the column cap of bud is out exposed, there is no stopping of sepal, and the pollen of male parent is spread upon on column cap easily, and this link is an important ring that increases substantially hybridization efficiency.

Concerning crossbreeding, traditional labeling method is often to make playing cards of a Huadu bolt, and duplicate record, not only loses time but also waste material, from checking that surviving results at least will check 3 times, works very heavy.Be rope operation and the present invention adopts, by short-term dish knot that can be undone by a pull circlewise, overlapped gently flower, not loose tying up on anthocaulus not tightly.Tension often whole flower is seized, and crosses the loose flower that can be held afterwards and has bored gap and formed pseudo-assorted pod.This link not only can improve hybridization efficiency, and can effectively prevent from forming pseudo-assorted pod.

In addition, inventor was chosen in before at 6 in the morning of second day of emasculation getting to take time, and was also through a large amount of confirmations, completed to get flower and get flower than other times section to be hybridized to motility rate high before at 6 in morning of second day of emasculation, and concrete outcome is shown in test example 2.

Soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the present invention, nine links in crossover process are optimized, by having ensured that except sprouting operation hybridization pod has sufficient nutrient supply, by completing before getting the time spent and be chosen at 6 in morning of second day of emasculation, and pollination time is controlled to the 6-8 point in the morning of second day of emasculation, significantly improve and be hybridized to motility rate.Go calyx processing that follow-up emasculation operation and pollination are processed by increase and be easy to carry out, not only improved hybridization efficiency, and can effectively prevent from forming pseudo-assorted pod.Operate and avoided conventional tag method often to do a Huadu wanting board of bolt by rope, and duplicate record, not only lose time but also waste material, from checking that surviving results at least will check 3 times, the very heavy drawback of working, has greatly shortened the time making marks, thereby has significantly improved hybridization efficiency.Soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the present invention, each link is all linked with one another, indispensable.By the effective control to nine links, can increase substantially hybridization efficiency, outstanding behaviours generally remains on 60%-70% being hybridized to motility rate, and Gao Zheke reaches more than 80%; Hybridization efficiency be 150-180/(people hour), be the 2-4 of traditional operation doubly.

Preferably, described in link (1) to determine flower bud be to select the full large bud in stem middle part.

Inventor finds in long-term practice, selects full large bud to be hybridized to motility rate apparently higher than small bud; Select stem middle part bud, be hybridized to motility rate and can remain on more than 60%, stem top bud is lower, and bottom bud is difficult to successfully, even if bottom energy successfully, also can cause the come off generation of this physiological phenomenon of colored pod because of group structure.Therefore, what in the present invention, select is that the full large bud in stem middle part is hybridized as female parent, has effectively improved and has been hybridized to motility rate.

Preferably, the described emasculation in link (4) is disposable emasculation, and method of operating is: under oblique to keel direction along vexil, clamp 1/3 place, petal top, slight oblique vexil direction pulls up.

If disposable emasculation suitable operation can disposablely complete the operation of removing corolla and stamen, select correct method of operating, can improve the successful probability of disposable emasculation, thereby can save the plenty of time, particularly, in the case of how spending of plan hybridization counts, can significantly improve hybridization efficiency.The position of clamping petal is most important to disposable emasculation success or not, if the position of petal of folder is too high, can not disposable removal corolla and stamen, and also need to remove separately corolla and stamen; If the position of the petal of folder is too low, whole flower may be extractd, also need again to select bud.The position of therefore, clamping petal in disposable emasculation operation is very large on the impact of hybridization efficiency.

Preferably, the time of described disposable emasculation is 4-7 point in afternoon.

Preferably, in link (5), in order to distinguish different hybrid combination, described short-term has different colors.

The flower of same hybrid combination uses the short-term of same color, and different hybrid combination is used the short-term of different colours.Can easily the flower of Different Cross Combinations be made a distinction like this, and reduce the probability that the flower of hybrid combination is mixed up.

Preferably, the described pollination method of operating in link (7) is: the sepal at the keel place that tears, from separating corolla between two keel, expose flower pesticide, press from both sides out pollen load from filigree middle part, flower pesticide is spread upon on column cap, or pollen load is inserted on style.

Preferably, in link (8) described in list and hang a board into the original position a hybrid combination and final position are each.

Traditional labeling method is often to make playing cards of a Huadu bolt, and duplicate record, not only loses time but also waste material, from checking that surviving results at least will check 3 times, works very heavy.And the present invention is because taked rope operation above, so only need respectively hang a board in the original position of a hybrid combination (first flower) and final position (last flower), and write hybrid combination code name or title, pollination date and operator's name exactly, and on working copy, perform record, conveniently check and results.Can greatly reduce like this quantity of listing, both save the time, save again the material of making board, also alleviate from checking the loaded down with trivial details work that need to repeatedly check playing cards of gathering in the crops that survives.

Preferably, the described final-period management in link (9) comprises for the second time except sprouting.

Preferably, described for the second time except sprouting for carrying out initial examination in pollination after 5-7 days, will survive the bud newly growing on inflorescence beyond pod and this joint position except clean, the flower not surviving comes off together with rope.

Be to remove totally by surviving the bud newly growing on inflorescence pod and this joint position except sprouting for the second time, and the flower not surviving come off together with short-term.Object is prevent from surviving the bud that newly grows on inflorescence beyond pod and this joint position and survive pod contention nutrient, ensures the nutrient supply to hybridization pod.

Preferably, before the described pollination operation of carrying out in link (7), check on described bud whether have the stamen of not removing, if there is the stamen of not removing, between link (6) and link (7), increase emasculation operation.

Soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the invention, (all linked with one another between each link by nine links in optimization crossover process, indispensable), particularly go calyx processing, select stem privileged site, sizeable bud by increase, strict control got time spent and pollination time, and rope operates and optimization is listed processes operation by increasing, and by optimizing disposable emasculation operation, increase substantially and be hybridized to motility rate and hybridization efficiency, outstanding behaviours generally remains on 60%-70% being hybridized to motility rate, and Gao Zheke reaches more than 80%; Hybridization efficiency be 150-180/(people hour), be the 2-4 of traditional operation doubly.

Embodiment

Below by specific embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail.

Embodiment 1

(1) select large bud 40-50 full conduct of stem middle part maternal;

(2) whole inflorescence only retains the bud of intending hybridization, and all the other buds are removed completely;

(3) calyx lobe of calyx the first half is extractd, retained the tubular structure of sepal base portion;

(4) 4-7 point carries out disposable emasculation processing to the bud of the 40-50 as maternal in the afternoon, and method of operating is: under oblique to keel direction along vexil, clamp 1/3 place, petal top, slight oblique vexil direction pulls up, and avoids and hinder column cap in operating process;

(5) by short-term dish knot that can be undone by a pull circlewise, overlapped gently flower, tied up on anthocaulus, and in operating process, avoided and hinder column cap;

(6) before at 6 in the morning of second of emasculation day, have on the plant of male parent kind typical case proterties, select defloration lobe is not opened, keel not yet split 50-60 flower as getting powder object;

(7) at the 6-8 point of the next morning of emasculation, check on bud whether have the stamen of not removing, if there is the stamen of not removing, carry out emasculation operation; If the stamen of not removing, directly pollination, method of operating is: the sepal at the keel place that tears, from separating corolla between two keel, expose flower pesticide, press from both sides out pollen load from filigree middle part, flower pesticide is spread upon on column cap, or pollen load is inserted on style, in operating process, avoid and hinder column cap;

(8) respectively hang a board at original position and the final position of a hybrid combination, and on board, write code name or title, pollination date and operator's name of hybrid combination exactly, and on working copy, perform record, convenient inspection and results;

(9) carry out initial examination in pollination after 5-7 days, will survive the bud newly growing on inflorescence beyond pod and this joint position except clean, the flower not surviving comes off together with rope.

(10) to hybrid soybean field loosen the soil, weeding, drought fill with the necessary management such as waterlogging row, especially note eating the preventing and controlling of pod insect, reduce injured kernel and occur; When results, gather in the crops in time by combination in batches, reduce human damage, after airing, concentrate threshing, arrange, deposit.

Soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the invention, (all linked with one another between each link by nine links in optimization crossover process, indispensable), particularly go calyx processing, select stem privileged site, sizeable bud by increase, strict control got time spent and pollination time, and rope operates and optimization is listed processes operation by increasing, and by optimizing disposable emasculation operation, increase substantially and be hybridized to motility rate and hybridization efficiency, outstanding behaviours generally remains on 60%-70% being hybridized to motility rate, and Gao Zheke reaches more than 80%; Hybridization efficiency be 150-180/(people hour), be the 2-4 of traditional operation doubly.

Test example 1

Investigate the impact of different pollination times on Rate of Soybean Crossing Success, A processes and represents that pollination time is that afternoon of emasculation, and B processes and represents that pollination time is the 6-8 point of the next morning of emasculation, and all the other operations are all in the same manner as in Example 1.Concrete outcome is in table 1.

The pollination time that table 1 is different and be hybridized to the relation between motility rate

As can be seen from Table 1, the 6-8 point pollination of the next morning of emasculation, is hybridized to motility rate generally higher, be 60%-85%, and the pollination that afternoon of emasculation is hybridized to motility rate generally lower, is only 20%-35%.Therefore, the 6-8 point that pollination time is chosen in to the next morning of emasculation carries out, and can significantly improve and be hybridized to motility rate.

Test example 2

Investigating different getting takes time on being hybridized to the impact of motility rate.A process representative get flower the morning 7-11 point carry out, B processes representative and gets to spend before at 6 in the morning and carry out, all the other operations are all in the same manner as in Example 1.Concrete outcome is in table 2.

Table 2 difference is got and is taken time and be hybridized to the relation between motility rate

As can be seen from Table 2, the morning, 7-11 point was got flower, was hybridized to motility rate generally lower, was only 20%-36%; And got flower before at 6 in the morning, and be hybridized to motility rate generally higher, be 64%-80%.Therefore, will get to take time to be chosen in to carry out significantly improving before at 6 in the morning and be hybridized to motility rate.

Test example 3

Investigate soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the present invention and the impact of other cross methods on hybridization efficiency, hybridization efficiency is to weigh by the flower number of everyone emasculation per hour and pollination.A process representative according to document " cross method of soybean and skill " (in big, Li Lei, Li Zhi, Wang Min. journal of crops; 06 phase in 2005) technology recorded carries out soybean hybridization, and B processes representative and carries out soybean hybridization according to the method for the embodiment of the present invention 1.Concrete outcome is in table 3.

The impact of the different cross methods of table 3 on hybridization efficiency

As can be seen from Table 3, the hybridization efficiency that the technology of recording according to document is carried out soybean hybridization processing is very low, be only 50-60/(people hour), and the hybridization efficiency of soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the present invention is very high, for 150-180/(people hour), be the 2-4 of prior art doubly.As can be seen here, soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the present invention can significantly improve hybridization efficiency.

In sum, soybean sexual hybridization method provided by the invention, (all linked with one another between each link by nine links in optimization crossover process, indispensable), particularly go calyx processing by increase, select stem privileged site, sizeable bud, strict control got time spent and pollination time, and rope operates and optimization is listed processes operation by increasing, and by optimizing disposable emasculation operation, increase substantially and be hybridized to motility rate and hybridization efficiency, outstanding behaviours generally remains on 60%-70% being hybridized to motility rate, Gao Zheke reaches more than 80%, hybridization efficiency be 150-180/(people hour), be the 2-4 of traditional operation doubly.

The foregoing is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not limited to the present invention, for a person skilled in the art, the present invention can have various modifications and variations.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment of doing, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a soybean sexual hybridization method, is characterized in that, comprises following nine links:
(1) determine flower bud;
(2) for the first time except sprouting: whole inflorescence only retains the bud of intending hybridization, and all the other buds are removed completely;
(3) remove calyx: the calyx lobe of calyx the first half is extractd, retained the tubular structure of sepal base portion;
(4) emasculation;
(5) rope: by short-term dish knot that can be undone by a pull circlewise, overlapped gently flower, and tied up on anthocaulus;
(6) get flower: before at 6 in morning of second day of emasculation, have on the plant of male parent kind typical case proterties, select defloration lobe is not opened, keel not yet split flower as getting powder object;
(7) pollination: the 6-8 point of the next morning that the operating time is emasculation;
(8) list;
(9) final-period management.
2. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, it is to select the full large bud in stem middle part that described in link (1) determined flower bud.
3. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described emasculation in link (4) is disposable emasculation, and method of operating is: under oblique to keel direction along vexil, clamp 1/3 place, petal top, slight oblique vexil direction pulls up.
4. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 3, is characterized in that, the time of described disposable emasculation is 4-7 point in afternoon.
5. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in link (5), in order to distinguish different hybrid combination, described short-term has different colors.
6. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described pollination method of operating in link (7) is: the sepal at the keel place that tears, from separating corolla between two keel, expose flower pesticide, press from both sides out pollen load from filigree middle part, flower pesticide is spread upon on column cap, or pollen load is inserted on style.
7. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, lists described in link (8) as the original position a hybrid combination and final position is each hangs a board.
8. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the described final-period management in link (9) comprises for the second time except sprouting.
9. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 8, it is characterized in that, described for the second time except sprouting for carrying out initial examination in pollination after 5-7 days, will survive the bud newly growing on inflorescence beyond pod and this joint position except clean, the flower not surviving comes off together with rope.
10. soybean sexual hybridization method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, before the described pollination operation of carrying out in link (7), check and on described bud, whether have the stamen of not removing, if there is the stamen of not removing, between link (6) and link (7), increase emasculation operation.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107258531A (en) * 2017-07-31 2017-10-20 扬州大学 A kind of simple isolation method of eggplant florescence pollination

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002007504A2 (en) * 2000-07-26 2002-01-31 Stine Seed Farm, Inc. Hybrid soybeans and methods of production
US20040049817A1 (en) * 2002-09-10 2004-03-11 Monsanto Technology, L.L.C. Soybean cultivar SN64195
CN1618275A (en) * 2004-10-21 2005-05-25 焦剑锋 Method for cultivation of hybridized soyabean
CN101601370A (en) * 2009-07-08 2009-12-16 孟庆林 A kind of kind method for planting of hybrid soybean
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Application publication date: 20141008