CN103954103B - A kind of corn ear Quick air drier and method - Google Patents

A kind of corn ear Quick air drier and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103954103B
CN103954103B CN201410167378.0A CN201410167378A CN103954103B CN 103954103 B CN103954103 B CN 103954103B CN 201410167378 A CN201410167378 A CN 201410167378A CN 103954103 B CN103954103 B CN 103954103B
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air
corn ear
cylindrical shell
cylinder
dry
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CN201410167378.0A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103954103A (en
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贾曦
丁照华
赵海军
方志军
崔海燕
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山东省农业科学院玉米研究所
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Abstract

A kind of corn ear Quick air drier and method, this air-dry machine comprises cylindrical shell, end cap is provided with at the top of cylindrical shell and bottom, cavity in cylindrical shell is followed successively by heating cabinet, Jun Fengcang, air drying cabin and exhaust passage from bottom to top, the bottom of heating cabinet is provided with electric heating tube, cylindrical shell is provided with blast orifice, is provided with homogenating plate, and is provided with temperature sensor between heating cabinet and equal wind storehouse in Jun Fengcang; Air drying cabin inwall is placed a rotating disk, rotating disk is provided with through hole, and cylindrical shell is provided with the charging side door being convenient to open, and is provided with flexible clamping plate on the cylinder inner wall of air channel; Be provided with temperature sensor and humidity sensor in an exhaust gas, and be provided with display panels in the outside of cylindrical shell.Also disclose air-dry method.The venthole entering air drying cabin puts in order, large flow-rate gas stream, and air-flow simultaneously inside and outside corn ear both sides carry out air-dry, can be formed air-dry fast, air-dry speed improves more than 4 times than natural air drying.

Description

A kind of corn ear Quick air drier and method

Technical field

The program relates to a kind of small lot corn ear Quick-air-drying Apparatus and method for for corn variety seed selection being applicable to laboratory and using, mainly for breeding link.

Background technology

The corn drying machinery sold in the market is mainly used in commodity food dries, and does not also have the corn ear dryer that breeding is special.And commercially available dryer mainly has following characteristics: one is for drying corn kernel; Two is that volume is comparatively large, oven dry amount is large, cannot be used for the test baked seed of negligible amounts; Three is that temperature is high, dewatering speed fast, can affect the activity of corn seed for corn seed oven dry; Four is thermal source used mainly coal, fuel oil or other biological matter fuel.

In corn breeding process, there is special feature: first the amount of being is few, be badly in need of exploitation and be suitable for a small amount of baked seed of multi items and the laboratory special equipment ensureing the automation do not mixed; Two are corn seeds is fruit ears, and be not seed, air-dry speed is slow and inside and outside inconsistent; Three is the activity that must ensure maize seed in air drying process, therefore has particular/special requirement to temperature, must not more than 40 DEG C; Four is that drying time is as far as possible short, carries out adding for breeding after being convenient to the seed species test of north results in summer to Hainan; Five is forbid to mix mutually, ensures purity.

In view of crop breeding feature, test corn seed amount is few, forbids to mix between different seed, and dewatering speed can not be too fast, and bake out temperature should not be too high, otherwise the easy inactivation of seed, keep the germination percentage that seed is higher after drying.Based on above feature, existing corn drying machinery has the feature of the following aspects to be unsuitable for breeding baked seed: one be corn seed results be fruit ear, water content too high (about 35%) can not threshing, threshing badly broken by force, for seed dry machinery be not suitable for corn ear dry; Two is that grain weight in breeding process is few, can not mix between different seed, and the dryer of existing rotation, stirring-type is unsuitable for testing baked seed; Three are targets that existing drying plant is pursued is dewatering efficiencies, and need not keep seed activity, so dehydration efficiently easily causes FCR de-vitalizing seed, breeding research work cannot be continued; Four are test Seed Treatment places be laboratory is not large-sized workshop, is not suitable for utilizing fire coal, combustion gas, fuel oil or other biological fuel as thermal source raw material.

Summary of the invention

In order to solve the deficiency of existing equipment and technology, the invention provides a kind of corn ear Quick air drier and method, for testing the flash baking of seed fruit ear and drying rear its seed activity of maintenance.

The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:

A kind of corn ear Quick air drier, comprises the cylindrical shell with heat-insulation layer, is provided with end cap, it is characterized in that at the top of described cylindrical shell and bottom:

Cavity in described cylindrical shell is followed successively by heating cabinet, Jun Fengcang, air drying cabin and exhaust passage from bottom to top,

The bottom of described heating cabinet is provided with at least one group of electric heating tube, and on the cylinder lateral wall at heating cabinet place, be provided with a blast orifice, and described blast orifice connects an air blast outward;

Between described heating cabinet and equal wind storehouse, be provided with a homogenating plate, described homogenating plate is provided with some equal air holes, and described equal air holes is punching hole, and is provided with temperature sensor in described equal wind storehouse;

Described air drying cabin inwall has an annular baffle ring, baffle ring is provided with steel ball rolling channel, described baffle ring is placed by steel ball rolling channel the rotating disk of a circle, described rotating disk is provided with one week through hole be evenly arranged, and correspondingly at each through hole position arrange one for clamping the fastening and loading device of air channel cylinder, the cylindrical shell at corresponding air drying cabin place is provided with the charging side door being convenient to open, between described side door and cylindrical shell, there is lockset;

The diameter of described air channel cylinder between 8cm to 10cm, and is provided with the flexible clamping plate circumferentially arranged on the cylinder inner wall of air channel;

Described exhaust passage is the inverted cone shape closed up, and is provided with temperature sensor and humidity sensor in described exhaust passage, and arranges electric ventilating valve at the top of described exhaust passage, for controlling the speed be vented,

And for regulating and carry out two temperatures sensor the control system of temperature monitoring to blower air quantity, and be provided with display panels in the outside of cylindrical shell.

Further, described flexible clamping plate is rubber strip, and described rubber strip is arranged on the cylinder of air channel by the mode embedded, and uses fastening steel circle to carry out fastening in the outside of air channel cylinder.

Further, described electric heating tube is annular, is arranged at the bottom of the storehouse of heating cabinet by concentrically ringed mode.

A kind of corn ear Quick-air-drying method, comprises the following steps,

Step one, holes drilled through vertically on the corncob of corn ear, and corn ear is vertically filled in the cylinder of air channel, the air channel cylinder being filled with corn ear is the most at last fixed in the air drying cabin of air-dry machine, and ensures that all through holes of rotating disk are all in unimpeded state;

Step 2, opens air blast and carries out air blast, simultaneously open temp monitoring system, and when the temperature in equal wind storehouse is lower than 30 degree, electric heating tube is opened and carried out auxiliary heating, and when the temperature in equal wind storehouse is higher than 35 degree, electric heating tube stops heating; Air blast 72 hours is so carried out according to above-mentioned condition; In the process of hot wind flow, the moisture in corn ear is taken away;

Step 3, when corn ear moisture content of kernels reaches below 25%, can manually or mechanical threshing and seed embryo portion intact time, air blast turns off the blast, and completes air-dry, take out corn ear can carry out next step species test work.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:

1, the venthole entering air drying cabin puts in order, large flow-rate gas stream, and air-flow simultaneously inside and outside corn ear both sides carry out air-dry, can make cob partial dehydration fast, promote dewatering efficiency, air-dry speeds comparable natural air drying improves more than 4 times.

2, in order to test being perfectly safe of seed, omnidistance temperature-controllable, and be in non high temperature state, vitality for corn seed does not affect, temperature control signals is from the hot air temperature entering air drying cabin, instead of air drying cabin actual temperature, is convenient to carry out air-dry quality control.Guarantee that air drying cabin temperature is no more than 40 DEG C and adjustable, and by adjustment bottom blast acc power and top outlet valve size adjustment drying rate, make its dewatering speed be unlikely to too fast, guarantee seed activity.

3, employ homogenating plate, make the temperature entering air drying cabin relatively more even, air-dry effect is better.

4, structural design makes it form cross-ventilation from bottom to top, saves the energy.

5, results fruit ear in field directly enters air-dry machine and dries, and is air-dryly in lower temperature, and seed activity is better.

6, the fruit ear of results loads air channel according to kind 3form inner wrapping in cylinder to avoid mixing.

7, adopt electrical heating, clean energy, safety are easy to regulable control, are suitable for using in laboratory.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 of the present inventionly schemes in the eyes.

Fig. 2 is the stereogram of air-dry machine cylindrical shell.

Fig. 3 is the A--A sectional view of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 is the installation graph of a relation (for ease of representing installation relation, only having drawn an air channel cylinder in figure) of rotating disk and air channel cylinder.

Fig. 5 is the top view of Fig. 4.

Fig. 6 is B--B sectional view in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7 is that corn ear is to put procedure schematic diagram in the cylinder of air channel.

Fig. 8 is the top view of Fig. 7.

Fig. 9 is C--C sectional view in Fig. 8.

Figure 10 is the schematic diagram of homogenating plate.

Figure 11 is a kind of pattern rotating disk being covered with through hole.

Figure 12 is the sectional perspective design sketch of rubber strip.

In figure: 1 cylindrical shell, 11 end caps, 12 side doors, 2 heating cabinets, 21 electric heating tubes, 22 blast orifices, 23 high power air blowers; 3 equal wind storehouses, 31 temperature sensors, 32 homogenating plates, 33 punching hole, 31 ' temperature sensor, 34 humidity sensors, 4 air drying cabins, 41 baffle rings, 5 exhaust passages, 6 rotating disks, 61 through holes, 62 screw shells, 63 glands, 7 air channel cylinders, 71 Flange-shaped Parts convex edges, 72 fastening steel circles, 73 right-angled intersection bars, 74 rubber strips, 75 turbulent projections.

Detailed description of the invention

Corn breeding demand, the general single cropping of enterprise more than medium Breeding Scale cultivates combination about 20,000, can produce new seed 2.4 ten thousand parts, about every part of seed is about 3-5 fringe.Quantity is quite huge.

In order to accelerate corn breeding paces, northern area, China Guangxi all utilizes Hainan to carry out adding for breeding, and due to Hainan climatic characteristic, generally left and right sowing will be advisable at the bottom of September, late sowing declines because of the too high setting percentage that causes of latter temperature.Therefore rear species test to be dried as early as possible after northern area harvest corn, to add generation to Hainan.Corn content large (reaching about 30-35%) when northern com (especially Huang-Huai-Hai region) is gathered in the crops, weather is not easy to dry easily go mouldy and makes seed devitalization.If dry, need larger place, and be easy to mix, and run into rain then add larger workload.So utilize cluster drying machine to carry out baked seed, safe and efficient, within general 3-4 days, by baked seed, can reach species test condition, comparatively dryness in the sun shortens about 30 days, is just in time suitable for South of Hainan numerous sowing needs.

The biological characteristics of corn seed drying course: corn is in cereal crop seed, belong to large semina, the volume of embryo almost accounts for about 1/3 of whole seed, and weight accounts for 10% ~ 12% of wholegrain, owing to containing more hydrophilic group in embryo, moisture absorption easier than endosperm.When seed moisture content is higher, the moisture of embryo is higher than endosperm, and the embryo of dry seed, moisture is but lower than endosperm.Therefore water imbibition is comparatively strong, and respiratory capacity is more much bigger than other seed corns, the poor stability during oven dry.

Corncob is in milking maturity and wax ripeness stage soft and succulency.Time ripe, the superficial cell lignifying of axle becomes hard, and axle center (marrow) tissue is but very soft, and permeability is better, has stronger hygroscopicity.Seed raw on cob, and the size of its moisture is decided by cob to a certain extent.Moist cob moisture is greater than seed, and the cob moisture of drying is then few than seed.Therefore the too fast cob water content that may cause of dewatering speed is too high, makes neutron absorption cob moisture on the contrary and causes moisture to raise.Therefore based on corn seed feature, need dewatering speed moderate, the breeding tailored version cluster drying machine of evenly dehydration.

As shown in Figures 1 to 10, a kind of corn ear Quick air drier, comprises the cylindrical shell 1 with heat-insulation layer, is provided with end cap 11 at the top of cylindrical shell 1 and bottom, and the overall steel joist that adopts makes, and coordinates iron sheet coated, inwall uses thermal insulation material and carries out isothermal holding.And the cavity in cylindrical shell 1 is followed successively by heating cabinet 2, all wind storehouse 3, air drying cabin 4 and exhaust passage 5 from bottom to top, wherein the cylindrical shell at the place, side of air drying cabin is provided with the side door 12 being convenient to open, for picking and placeing corn ear.The operation being convenient to people when handle height on side door designs is as the criterion.

The bottom of heating cabinet 2 is provided with at least one group of electric heating tube 21.This electric heating tube is disc type heating tube, regulates its heating power by Intelligent temperature controller, and Intelligent temperature controller control inerface and display panels are arranged on the lateral surface of cylindrical shell, are electrically connected by holding wire.The heating power of electric heating tube regulates between 4000 watts at 100 watts.And a blast orifice 22 is provided with on cylindrical shell 1 sidewall at heating cabinet 2 place, described blast orifice connects a high power air blowers 23 outward; By high-power blower air blast, form hot blast, the temperature of hot blast is detected by the temperature sensor 31 be arranged in equal wind storehouse 3, and the data collected are returned to the adjustment that Intelligent temperature controller carries out temperature.Generally there are two kinds of mode of operations, in summer, because the temperature of air self is higher, reach air drying condition, now use natural wind.At spring and autumn, can heating element heater be opened, carry out auxiliary heating, the temperature of air-flow is reasonably arranged.

A homogenating plate 32 is provided with between heating cabinet 2 and equal wind storehouse 3, for the steel plate of circle, homogenating plate 32 offers some equal air holes, described equal air holes is punching hole 33, make hot-air from heating cabinet in the process through homogenating plate, reasonably distributed, formed and stablize and uniform air-flow.In Jun Fengcang, being provided with temperature sensor 31, for monitoring the temperature of hot blast herein, in theory, controlling below 40 degree, should regulate when temperature is more than 40 degrees Celsius.

Air drying cabin 4 is air-dry main place, the inwall of air drying cabin 4 bottom welds an annular baffle ring 41, being provided with the annular recess for placing steel ball, piling steel ball in groove, form a steel ball rolling channel at this baffle ring 41 upper surface.Then on baffle ring, the rotating disk 6 of a circle is placed by steel ball rolling channel.Rotating disk 6 adopts steel plate to be obtained by Linear cut, rotating disk is provided with the through hole 61 that is evenly arranged for one week (in order to increase air-dry quantity, Appropriate application inner space, also through hole can be increased in inside, as shown in Figure 11), by making air drying cabin and Jun Fengcang carry out through, form the passage of wind.And on the upside of the rotating disk that each through hole 61 position is corresponding, arrange one for clamping the fastening and loading device of air channel cylinder.This fastening and loading device comprises and is arranged on screw shell 62 on rotating disk and a threaded gland 63 of tool, and have in the lower edge of air channel cylinder 7 for gland with the use of Flange-shaped Parts convex edge 71, screwed by gland and air channel cylinder can be fixed in corresponding fastening and loading device.Air channel cylinder is wherein dismantled and assembled, to pick and place corn ear.

The cylindrical shell at corresponding air drying cabin place being provided with the side door for picking and placeing corn ear being convenient to open, between described side door 12 and cylindrical shell 1, there is lockset; Under normal circumstances, the height according to human body designs, and is convenient to open.Because rotating disk is rotary, can pick and place corn ear wherein easily.

Air channel cylinder 7 be diameter 8 centimetres to 10 between, employing sheet metal makes, three strip holes arranged vertically are evenly had in the circumference of air channel cylinder 7, rubber strip 74 is inlaid with in strip hole, rubber strip section is T-shaped, and it is fastening to use fastening steel circle 72 to carry out, rubber strip 74 forms the tenderness grip block of three wings in the inner chamber of air channel cylinder, can regulate the placement space of corn ear easily, to adapt to the change of corn ear size dimension, corn ear is made to be in vertical state.And be provided with right-angled intersection bar 73 in the bottom of air channel cylinder, form a support.For increasing the action of turbulent flow of air-flow in the cylinder of air channel, rubber strip arranges turbulent projection 75, and this turbulent projection has irregular shape, and make the hot-air in passage be in turbulent condition, air-dry effect reaches maximization, as Figure 12.

The exhaust passage 5 on top is the inverted cone shape closed up, and in described exhaust passage, be provided with temperature sensor 31 ' and humidity sensor 34, for monitoring the temperature and humidity of air draft, and arranges the speed that electric ventilating valve controls exhaust at the top of described exhaust passage 5.In running, by the heating power and exhaust velocity regulating blower air quantity, electric heating tube, system is effectively regulated, form a kind of effective control system.

A kind of corn ear Quick-air-drying method, comprises the following steps,

Step one, holes drilled through vertically on the corncob of corn ear, and vertical for corn ear is filled in the cylinder of air channel, the air channel cylinder being filled with corn ear is the most at last fixed in the air drying cabin of air-dry machine, and ensures that all through holes of rotating disk are in happy state;

Step 2, opens air blast and carries out air blast, simultaneously open temp monitoring system, when the temperature in equal wind storehouse is lower than 30 degree, electric heating tube is opened and is carried out auxiliary heating, when the temperature in equal wind storehouse is higher than 35 degree, point heating tube stops heating, so carries out air blast about 72 hours; In the process of hot wind flow, the moisture in corn ear is taken away, reach air-dry object;

Step 3, when moisture content of kernels reaches below 25%, (can manually or mechanical threshing, and when seed embryo portion is intact), air blast turns off the blast, and completes air-dry, and taking out corn ear can carry out species test work.

Embodiment recited above is only be described the preferred embodiment of the present invention; not scope of the present invention is limited; under not departing from the present invention and designing the prerequisite of spirit; relevant technical staff in the field, to various distortion of the present invention and improvement, all should expand in protection domain as determined in claims of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a corn ear Quick air drier, comprises the cylindrical shell with heat-insulation layer, is provided with end cap, it is characterized in that at the top of described cylindrical shell and bottom:
Cavity in described cylindrical shell is followed successively by heating cabinet, Jun Fengcang, air drying cabin and exhaust passage from bottom to top,
The bottom of described heating cabinet is provided with at least one group of electric heating tube, and on the cylinder lateral wall at heating cabinet place, be provided with a blast orifice, and described blast orifice connects an air blast outward;
Between described heating cabinet and equal wind storehouse, be provided with a homogenating plate, described homogenating plate is provided with some equal air holes, and described equal air holes is punching hole, and is provided with temperature sensor in described equal wind storehouse;
Described air drying cabin inwall has an annular baffle ring, baffle ring is provided with steel ball rolling channel, described baffle ring is placed by steel ball rolling channel the rotating disk of a circle, described rotating disk is provided with one week through hole be evenly arranged, and correspondingly at each through hole position arrange one for clamping the fastening and loading device of air channel cylinder, the cylindrical shell at corresponding air drying cabin place is provided with the charging side door being convenient to open, between described side door and cylindrical shell, there is lockset;
The diameter of described air channel cylinder between 8cm to 10cm, and is provided with the flexible clamping plate circumferentially arranged on the cylinder inner wall of air channel, and described flexible clamping plate arranges turbulent projection;
Described exhaust passage is the inverted cone shape closed up, and is provided with temperature sensor and humidity sensor in described exhaust passage, and arranges the electric ventilating valve for controlling the speed be vented at the top of described exhaust passage,
And for regulating and carry out two temperatures sensor the control system of temperature monitoring to blower air quantity, and be provided with display panels in the outside of cylindrical shell.
2. a kind of corn ear Quick air drier according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described flexible clamping plate is rubber strip, and described rubber strip is arranged on the cylinder of air channel by the mode embedded, and uses fastening steel circle to carry out fastening in the outside of air channel cylinder.
3. a kind of corn ear Quick air drier according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described electric heating tube is annular, is arranged at the bottom of the storehouse of heating cabinet by concentrically ringed mode.
4. a corn ear Quick-air-drying method, comprises the following steps,
Step one, holes drilled through vertically on the corncob of corn ear, and corn ear is vertically filled in the cylinder of air channel, the air channel cylinder being filled with corn ear is the most at last fixed in the air drying cabin of air-dry machine, rotating disk is provided with one week through hole be evenly arranged, correspondingly at each through hole position arranging one for clamping the fastening and loading device of air channel cylinder, being screwed by gland and air channel cylinder is fixed in corresponding fastening and loading device, and ensureing that all through holes of rotating disk are all in unimpeded state;
Step 2, opens air blast and carries out air blast, simultaneously open temp monitoring system, and when the temperature in equal wind storehouse is lower than 30 degree, electric heating tube is opened and carried out auxiliary heating, and when the temperature in equal wind storehouse is higher than 35 degree, electric heating tube stops heating; Air blast 72 hours is so carried out according to above-mentioned condition; In the process of hot wind flow, the moisture in corn ear is taken away;
Step 3, when corn ear moisture content of kernels reaches below 25%, can manual threshing or mechanical threshing and seed embryo portion intact time, air blast turns off the blast, and completes air-dry, takes out corn ear and can carry out next step species test work.
CN201410167378.0A 2014-04-24 2014-04-24 A kind of corn ear Quick air drier and method CN103954103B (en)

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CN105830579A (en) * 2016-03-22 2016-08-10 甘肃省敦煌种业股份有限公司研究院 Processing method of high-quality corn seed
CN105865170A (en) * 2016-04-26 2016-08-17 四川蓉幸实业有限公司 High-precision cyclic heating drying system for rhizoma gastrodiae medicinal materials
CN105910399A (en) * 2016-04-29 2016-08-31 四川蓉幸实业有限公司 High-precision drying system for radix notoginseng medicine
CN105783450A (en) * 2016-04-29 2016-07-20 四川蓉幸实业有限公司 Multi-circuit temperature-control drying system for radix notoginseng
CN106359577A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-01 安徽省华丰农产品专业合作社 Quick drying device for maize
CN106387043A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-15 安徽省华丰农产品专业合作社 Rapid corn air-drying system
CN106359575A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-01 安徽省华丰农产品专业合作社 Mildew-proof quick drying device for corn
CN107345741A (en) * 2017-08-03 2017-11-14 合肥念萍电子商务有限公司 A kind of timber drying unit

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FR2930630A1 (en) * 2008-04-25 2009-10-30 Marcel Herve Soc Par Actions S Cell for drying grains such as wheat, corn, sunflower or canola seed, comprises a closed volume bounded by a peripheral wall, an upper wall forming a roof and a floor
CN101816326A (en) * 2010-05-04 2010-09-01 张建臣 Natural air dryer of grains
CN102260559A (en) * 2011-05-31 2011-11-30 李柏荣 High-quality coal product production plant and production system
CN202382528U (en) * 2011-12-02 2012-08-15 河南科技大学 Wood drying equipment
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WO2008038528A1 (en) * 2006-09-27 2008-04-03 Kaneko Agricultural Machinery Co., Ltd. Grain drying device
FR2930630A1 (en) * 2008-04-25 2009-10-30 Marcel Herve Soc Par Actions S Cell for drying grains such as wheat, corn, sunflower or canola seed, comprises a closed volume bounded by a peripheral wall, an upper wall forming a roof and a floor
CN101816326A (en) * 2010-05-04 2010-09-01 张建臣 Natural air dryer of grains
CN102260559A (en) * 2011-05-31 2011-11-30 李柏荣 High-quality coal product production plant and production system
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