CN103265355B - Plant growth matrix with high water retention for spray seeding revegetation and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Plant growth matrix with high water retention for spray seeding revegetation and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN103265355B
CN103265355B CN201310157761.3A CN201310157761A CN103265355B CN 103265355 B CN103265355 B CN 103265355B CN 201310157761 A CN201310157761 A CN 201310157761A CN 103265355 B CN103265355 B CN 103265355B
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plant growth
moisture
spraying
soil
growth medium
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CN103265355A (en
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李春林
曲宁
张志红
刘晓
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Qingdao Pingdu Guanzhong New Material Technology Co.,Ltd.
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QINGDAO GUANZHONG ECOLOGICAL CO Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a plant growth matrix with high water retention for spray seeding revegetation and a preparation method thereof. The plant growth matrix comprises an upper layer and a lower layer, wherein the lower layer is a plant growth matrix layer, and the upper layer is an organic matter covering layer covered on the plant growth matrix layer. According to the invention, perlite and montmorillonite with high hydroscopicity are applied to modification of the matrix for spray seeding revegetation, an organic matter is used to cover the surface of the plant growth matrix, a preparation process for the matrix is optimized, and thus, the disadvantage that moisture in a common matrix easily volatilizes is improved; the matrix for spray seeding revegetation has good adhesion, can be firmly attached on the surface of a bare rock side slope, well absorbs and maintains moisture, uninterruptedly provides moisture and nutrient elements needed by plant growth, guarantees revegetation of the side slope and has the advantages of low cost and easiness in manufacturing. Through implementation of a technical scheme in the invention, it is overcome that vegetation easily dies from drought after spray seeding of nonlocal soil on a side slope in an arid rainless region in China.

Description

Plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting and the preparation method with high-moisture-retention
Technical field
The present invention relates to plant growth medium and water-retaining method thereof, relate in particular to a kind of plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting and preparation and water-retaining method with high-moisture-retention, can be widely used in the technical fields such as recovering plant cover of mine, territory greening, public works, road and bridge engineering, agricultural planting.
Background technology
Slope vegetation protection is exactly by the plant protection side slope of living, to alleviate domatic unstable and erosion damage.Slope vegetation protection method is the earliest for the shore protection of river levee and the improvement in deserted mountain, the hydraulic pressure spraying sowing technology that begins one's study the thirties in 20th century, and for agricultural and road slope engineering.The greening side slope starting of Japan early, its dominant ideas are " build with greening and synchronize and carry out ", 20th century 70, the eighties, Japan has developed multiple " spraying greening " operating technique for rock slope in succession, can be applicable to the steeper soft rock of the gradient, hard rock side slope and acidity, strongly-acid soil-slope.In Japan, conventional method for greening side slope has reinforced concrete box planting method, volume paving planting method, belt to move native planting method, fiber greening method, ecological cellular concrete greening method, thick-layer matrix injection greening method etc.In recent years, China started modern technique and the successful experience of foreign, progressively from traditional greening modes such as grass-seed, turfing that spread, changed the novel greening guard technologies such as modern hydraulic pressure is sowed grass seeds by duster, geotechnological gauze pad grass planting, turf grass planting into.These technology are the integration engineering technology that integrate multidisciplinary, and their application has improved the whole landscape effect of the quick surviving rate of soil property, rock side slope grass planting and highway, Along Railway to a great extent.
In recent years, side slope vegetation ecological recovery technology is popularized on a large scale, all kinds of slope vegetation protection technology are applied to the infrastructure projects construction such as road engineering, hydroelectric development, mining, public works, a large amount of exposed rock side slope forming for recovery project process of construction.The rock side slope occurring in engineering construction has the advantages that the gradient is steep, surface is hard, land occupation condition is severe, easily causes soil erosion, and natural landscape is destroyed, and region environment worsens.Being accompanied by China's urbanization paces accelerates, capital construction is fast-developing, particularly the construction of national high-grade highway net carries out, original vegetation is destroyed in peripheral region, produce a large amount of exposed slope of rock mass, if administer not in time, not only affected Landscape Ecological, also destroyed the balance of nature of this area, some is domatic even there is serious geologic hazard hidden danger.
Some unit in charge of construction has taked multiple governance approach for rock side slope, but owing to being subject to the restriction of technique means, weather condition etc., engineering effort is unsatisfactory.The method for greening side slope that patent CN 201210211584.8 announces, fixing domatic by fixing a plurality of short U-shaped steel nails on domatic, then by shotcrete machine, spray and smear soil paste formation cultivation soil layer, this greening method has simple to operate, safety and stability high, but the method reaches the effect that side slope continues greening.Patent CN 201010505321.9 discloses a kind of method that adopts three dimensional network hydraulic pressure alien earth sparging method to carry out completely decomposed siltstone slope greening, this invention is conducive to fast quick-recovery slope vegetation and covers, improve survival rate and the stability of rock side slope artificial plant group, but because rock side slope condition is poor, use three dimensional network technology owing to cannot changing Soil Slope condition, plant mortality ratio is high, can not reach good greening and slope protection effect.
Summary of the invention
For addressing the above problem, be necessary to research and develop a kind of new medium, make it not only have good protection effect, and good water-retaining property, cost is low, and application suits large area to popularize.The invention provides a kind of water-retaining method that is suitable for spraying and seeding afforesting matrix, its objective is China's drought area slope Revegetation weak effect, the problem of native side slope inferior and naked rock vegetation on slope difficulty of solving.The present invention utilizes vegetation ecology theoretical basis, has set up a kind of water conservation technology that is suitable for spraying and seeding afforesting matrix.Relate to bank protection and planted the proportioning of raw matrix and the selection of bank protection plant, overcome the contradiction between simple engineering bank protection and environmental destruction, reach the effect of beautifying the environment, promote that the eubiosis is recovered, for erosion control and the restoration of the ecosystem of all kinds of side slopes of China provides new engineering and method simultaneously.
The technical solution used in the present invention is: a kind of preparation method with the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting of high-moisture-retention: carry out as follows:
1. first prepare a kind of association of soil thing, the components by weight percent of this association of soil thing comprises clayey soil, perlite, montmorillonite, organic matter, mixes thoroughly.
2. then in association of soil thing, add slow-release fertilizer, stablizer, mix thoroughly.
3. in another container, implantation temperature, at the clear water of 15 ℃ ~ 30 ℃, then slowly adds the granule agent of formula quantity, and uniform stirring 10 ~ 20 minutes, makes an agent solution.
4. after the association of soil thing making, an agent solution and plant seed being mixed, add water and stir, make the muddy spraying and seeding afforesting matrix with crumb structure, re-use spray seeder and sowed grass seeds by duster on region to be afforested, form hypothallus;
5. on the hypothallus forming at aforementioned region after sowing grass seeds by duster, cover the water conservation layer that one deck 10~30mm is thick;
6. observe the growing way situation of plant after sowing grass seeds by duster.
The volume parts of described each component of hypothallus is: clayey soil 30 ~ 38, perlite 15 ~ 20, montmorillonite 13 ~ 19, organic matter 36 ~ 40, slow-release fertilizer 3, stablizer 1 ~ 3, an agent 0.35 ~ 0.85, plant seed 0.5 ~ 3, clear water 36 ~ 45.
Described water conservation layer adopts and becomes thoroughly decomposed straw as tectum, and cover thickness is in 10~30mm left and right.
Described clayey soil is deep layer mineral substance soil, and the volumn concentration of viscosity grogs is greater than 60%; The content volume percentage composition of soil colloid is greater than 30%; Cation exchange capacity is greater than 15me/100g; Specific conductivity is between 0.35 ~ 2.8ms/cm.
Described perlitic diameter is 1 ~ 5mm.
The cation exchange capacity of described montmorillonite is greater than 65me/100g.
Described slow-release fertilizer is composite fertilizer special and calcium superphosphate, and composite fertilizer special and calcium superphosphate volume ratio are 1:1, and composite fertilizer special is the fertilizer that contains nitrogen phosphorus, potassium nutrition, and wherein the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is 13:10:10.
Described stablizer is cationic emulsified bitumen, and its effect is the crumb structure lasting stability that makes the spraying and seeding afforesting matrix of preparation, and can on matrix top layer, form the stable film of one deck, has resistance of rainwater washing against and suppresses the effect that moisture evaporates.
The agent of described granule is polyacrylic ester, has the slurry mixture of making and granuleization occurs reacts, and allows the matrix formation crumb structure of sowing grass seeds by duster.
Described water conservation layer comprises organic matter and tackiness agent, and the organic straw for becoming thoroughly decomposed, is through fermenting raw materials gained, adopts normal fermentation technique; Tackiness agent can be glued together loose organic matter, is convenient to sow grass seeds by duster on domatic with spray gun, and the domatic rear difficult drop-off of sowing grass seeds by duster.Advantage of the present invention and effect: the perlite of high-hydroscopicity and montmorillonite are applied to the modification of spraying and seeding afforesting matrix, also apply organic matter and cover plant growth medium surface, and by the optimization to matrix composition technique, make common water supply in media hold volatile shortcoming and be improved.
This spraying and seeding afforesting matrix has good attaching, can firmly be attached to naked rock side slope surface, can be good at absorbing and keeping moisture simultaneously, the continual required moisture of plant-growth and the nutritive element of providing, for slope vegetation restoration provides safeguard, and with low cost, manufacture simple.
Lightweight feature when perlite has saturated water suction, efficiently solves the Load Problems of hillside fields structure, and the material of avoiding sowing grass seeds by duster is overweight and peel off; It is strong that montmorillonite has water absorbability, and the admixture such as silt has plasticity-and cohesiveness; Organic tectum has water-absorbent and prevents the characteristic of moisture evaporation.
By the enforcement of technical solution of the present invention, can solve well after China's drought area slope alien earth sparging, vegetation subjects to drought stress and dead problem.
Embodiment
Embodiment mono-, company of Baogang (group) tailing dam slope vegetation restoration engineering:
This engineering is domatic is that sandy soil and mine tailing doping mixed type are domatic, and soil condition is poor, and periphery weather condition are severe, drought, and wind-force is larger.We take following methods to carry out spraying and seeding afforesting for this reason.
(1) slope surface treatment: manually remove surperficial danger stone, loose stone and other weeds and waste, guarantee slope leveling.
(2) domatic shaping: in the larger location of grade of side slope, adopt machinery or manually cut slope, making the gradient be suitable for sowing grass seeds by duster operation and plant-growth.
(3) lay wire netting: lapping from bottom to top, the lap length between wire netting is not little 10 centimetres, adopts anchoring piece that wire netting is fixed.
(4) sow grass seeds by duster base material and seed: the clear water preparing in proportion, plant growth medium and seed are added to spray seeder feed bin, and (about 8 minutes) stir; Subsequently the granule agent solution preparing is injected to spray seeder feed bin, (about 3 minutes) stir; Then substratum is sowed grass seeds by duster domatic upper, form hypothallus.The material mixture ratio of this substratum (hypothallus) is as follows:
Clayey soil 35%; Perlite 30%; Montmorillonite 18%; Pericarppium arachidis hypogaeae (becoming thoroughly decomposed) 35%; Stablizer 1%; Slow-release fertilizer 3%; Granule agent 0.65%; Clear water 40%; Plant seed 1.5%.
Wherein, the proportioning of plant seed is: locust tree, 7g; Torch, 5g; Caragana microphylla, 4g; False indigo, 6g; Stem or leaf of Shrub Lespedeza, 5g; Family elm, 5g; White thorn, 4g; Arrow-leaved oleaster, 12g; Alfalfa, 8g.
(5) the water conservation layer of sowing grass seeds by duster: with spray seeder, Pericarppium arachidis hypogaeae (becoming thoroughly decomposed) is sowed grass seeds by duster on the surface of base material and Seed Layer, form the water conservation layer of thick 10~30mm.
(6) maintenance management: patent of the present invention has adopted more advanced water conservation technology, reduces later stage water seasoning cost greatly, only need water a small amount of water and just can guarantee the germination of seed, emerge and the growth of seedling.
Construct after 1 year, domatic plant community forms, and vegetation is in great numbers, and part arbor is if the height of locust tree, elm is over 2 meters.
Embodiment bis-,
The substratum material mixture ratio of adjusting in embodiment mono-is as follows:
Clayey soil 33%; Perlite 32%; Montmorillonite 2 0%; Rice husk (becoming thoroughly decomposed) 35%; Stablizer 1.2%; Slow-release fertilizer 4%; Granule agent 0.6%; Clear water 38%; Plant seed 2%.
Wherein, the proportioning of plant seed is: locust tree, 7g; Torch, 5g; Caragana microphylla, 4g; False indigo, 6g; Stem or leaf of Shrub Lespedeza, 5g; Family elm, 5g; White thorn, 4g; Arrow-leaved oleaster, 12g; Alfalfa, 8g.
(1) slope surface treatment: manually remove surperficial danger stone, loose stone and other weeds and waste, guarantee slope leveling.
(2) domatic shaping: in the larger location of grade of side slope, adopt machinery or manually cut slope, making the gradient be suitable for sowing grass seeds by duster operation and plant-growth.
(3) lay wire netting: lapping from bottom to top, the lap length between wire netting is not little 10 centimetres, adopts anchoring piece that wire netting is fixed.
(4) sow grass seeds by duster base material and seed: the clear water preparing in proportion, plant growth medium and seed are added to spray seeder feed bin, and (about 8 minutes) stir; Subsequently the granule agent solution preparing is injected to spray seeder feed bin, (about 3 minutes) stir; Then substratum is sowed grass seeds by duster domatic upper, form hypothallus.
(5) the water conservation layer of sowing grass seeds by duster: with spray seeder, rice husk (becoming thoroughly decomposed) is sowed grass seeds by duster on the surface of base material and Seed Layer, form the water conservation layer of thick 10~30mm.
(6) maintenance management: patent of the present invention has adopted more advanced water conservation technology, reduces later stage water seasoning cost greatly, only need water a small amount of water and just can guarantee the germination of seed, emerge and the growth of seedling.
Construct after 1 year, domatic plant community forms, and vegetation is in great numbers.

Claims (9)

1. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention, is characterized in that, comprises hypothallus and water conservation layer, and the hypothallus being comprised of plant growth medium is positioned at lower floor, the water conservation layer of sowing grass seeds by duster on hypothallus; Described water conservation layer adopts organic matter and the tackiness agent after fermentation, and thickness is 10~30mm, and blending ratio organic and tackiness agent is 25: l; Described organic matter is the straw becoming thoroughly decomposed, and is through fermenting raw materials gained, adopts normal fermentation technique; Described tackiness agent is a kind of polyacrylamide substances.
2. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described hypothallus comprises clayey soil, perlite, montmorillonite, organic matter, slow-release fertilizer, stablizer, an agent, plant seed and clear water.
3. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention according to claim 2, it is characterized in that, in described hypothallus, the parts by weight of each component are: clayey soil 30~38, perlite 15~20, montmorillonite 13~19, organic matter 36~40, slow-release fertilizer 3, stablizer 1~3, agent 0. 35~0. 85, plant seed 0. 5~3, clear water 36~45.
4. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention according to claim 2, it is characterized in that, described clayey soil is deep layer mineral substance soil, in cohesive soil, the particle diameter of particle is that the volume ratio of 0.5~3mm, particle is greater than 60%, the volume content of soil colloid is greater than 30%, cation exchange capacity is greater than 15me/100g, specific conductivity 0. 35~2. between 8ms/cm.
5. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention according to claim 2, is characterized in that, described perlitic diameter is 1~5mm; The cation exchange capacity of described montmorillonite is greater than 65me/100g; Described slow-release fertilizer is composite fertilizer special and calcium superphosphate, and composite fertilizer special and calcium superphosphate volume ratio are 1: 1, and composite fertilizer special is the fertilizer that contains nitrogen phosphorus, potassium nutrition, and wherein the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is 13: 10: 10.
6. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention according to claim 2, is characterized in that, described stablizer is cationic emulsified bitumen.
7. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention according to claim 2, is characterized in that, described granule agent is polyacrylic ester.
8. the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention according to claim 2, is characterized in that, described plant seed is: locust tree, and torch, caragana microphylla, false indigo, Stem or leaf of Shrub Lespedeza, family elm, stings arrow-leaved oleaster and alfalfa in vain; Described organic matter is the straw becoming thoroughly decomposed, and is through fermenting raw materials gained, adopts normal fermentation technique.
9. a preparation method for the plant growth medium for spraying and seeding afforesting with high-moisture-retention of claim 1-8 described in any one, is characterized in that, carries out as follows:
(1) first prepare a kind of association of soil thing, this association of soil thing comprises clayey soil, perlite, montmorillonite, organic matter, mixes thoroughly;
(2) then in association of soil thing, add slow-release fertilizer, stablizer, mix thoroughly;
(3) in another container, implantation temperature, at the clear water of 15 ℃~30 ℃, then slowly adds the granule agent of formula quantity, and uniform stirring 10~20 minutes, makes an agent solution;
(4) by adding water after the association of soil thing making, an agent solution and plant seed mixing, stir, make the muddy spraying and seeding afforesting matrix with crumb structure, re-use spray seeder and sowed grass seeds by duster on region to be afforested, form described hypothallus;
(5) on above-mentioned hypothallus, cover the water conservation layer that one deck 10~30mm is thick.
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CN108246798B (en) * 2017-12-28 2020-04-17 青岛冠中生态股份有限公司 Method for restoring heavy metal contaminated soil by using spray-seeding technology
CN110128189A (en) * 2018-02-02 2019-08-16 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 Improve the preparation method and application of the solid mineral composition of prairie soil fertility
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Denomination of invention: Plant growth matrix with high water retention for spray seeding revegetation and preparation method thereof

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Address after: Cui Jia Ji Zhen Nan Wai Huan, Pingdu City, Qingdao City, Shandong Province

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