CN103217342A - Micro-torsion testing platform - Google Patents

Micro-torsion testing platform Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103217342A
CN103217342A CN2013101338082A CN201310133808A CN103217342A CN 103217342 A CN103217342 A CN 103217342A CN 2013101338082 A CN2013101338082 A CN 2013101338082A CN 201310133808 A CN201310133808 A CN 201310133808A CN 103217342 A CN103217342 A CN 103217342A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
column
hole
universal stage
moved
torsion
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CN2013101338082A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
董景石
王良亮
孙尽举
刘祖飞
朱明民
梅钦
刘庆财
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吉林大学
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Priority to CN2013101338082A priority Critical patent/CN103217342A/en
Publication of CN103217342A publication Critical patent/CN103217342A/en

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Abstract

The invention discloses a micro-torsion testing platform which is aimed at overcoming the problems of low testing precision and small test object range of a current torsion testing machine in a mechanical property test of torsion under a micro-torsion/deformation service condition. The micro-torsion testing platform comprises a precise adjusting unit, a precise electric control turn table, a torque/angular displacement signal detecting unit and a clamping unit, wherein the precise adjusting unit comprises a base, a movable cross beam, an adjusting screw, a left upright post, a right upright post, a top beam and an XY two-dimensional precise displacement platform; the precise electric control turn table is installed on a table top of the XY two-dimensional precise displacement platform; the torque/angular displacement signal detecting unit comprises a micro-torque sensor and a high-precision circular grating, the micro-torque sensor is installed on the bottom surface of the movable cross beam, and the high-precision circular grating is installed on a loading platform of the precise electric control turn table; and the clamping unit comprises a fixed clamp holder and a movable clamp holder, the fixed clamp holder is installed on the bottom end face of the micro-torque sensor, and the movable clamp holder is installed on the table top of the precise electric control turn table.

Description

Little test platform that reverses
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of material mechanical test machine, or rather, the present invention relates to a kind of little test platform that reverses.
Background technology
Materials mechanics experimental is the important means of test material performance, and wherein twisting test is one of important content of materials mechanics experimental.At present material is reversed Mechanics Performance Testing, generally adopt the material torsion testing machine to carry out.According to the torque sensor difference of coupling, this class testing machine moment of torsion range does not wait from 1Nm to 1000Nm, only can satisfy the demand that sample under the big load working condition of engineering bound pair reverses test.Continuous development along with science and technology and industrial level, the Measurement of Material Mechanical Performance precision there is higher requirement, torsion testing machine majority at present commonly used is being measured material mechanical performance under big load working condition, therefore can't accurately test the physical construction that obtains under little moment of torsion/distortion service condition or the twisting property of microscale structure.
In addition, the existing main experimental subjects of torsion testing machine is a metal material, towards nonmetal, the little torsion testing machine of bio-medical material is also rare.And along with the development of biomechanics, the biomechanics measuring accuracy required more and more higher, as the bone material Mechanics Performance Testing.The range of existing torsion testing machine often exceeds the scope of osteometry, and can't carry out Dynamic High-accuracy to little moment of torsion/distortion and detect.
Therefore research and develop little test platform that reverses, reverse the mechanics performance test research with what carry out physical construction under little moment of torsion/distortion service condition or microscale structure, to the optimization of machinery, bioengineering relevant design, the raising in apparatus performance and life-span and application of novel material etc. have crucial meaning.
Summary of the invention
Technical matters to be solved by this invention is to overcome existing torsion testing machine to reverse the problem that the mechanical property test measuring accuracy is low, the subjects scope is little under little moment of torsion/distortion service condition, a kind of physical construction under little moment of torsion/distortion service condition or little test platform that the reverses twisting property testing experiment and that necessarily reverse the torsional fatigue test under the condition of microscale structure of being used for is provided, and this test platform is applicable to bio-medical material, hard brittle material etc.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention adopts following technical scheme to realize: described topworks comprises accurate adjustment unit, accurate automatically controlled universal stage, moment of torsion/angular displacement signal detecting unit and grip unit;
Described accurate adjustment unit comprises base, moved cross beam and XY two dimension precision displacement table.XY two dimension precision displacement table is assemblied on the last workplace of base.
Accurate automatically controlled universal stage adopts bolt to be installed on the table top of XY two dimension precision displacement table.
Described moment of torsion/angular displacement signal detecting unit comprises small torque sensor and high precision circle grating.Small torque sensor is installed on the bottom surface of moved cross beam, and high precision circle grating is installed on the accurate automatically controlled universal stage plummer by the pilot hole on its flange face.
Described grip unit comprises decides clamper and moving clamper.Decide on the bottom face that clamper is installed in small torque sensor, moving clamper is installed on the table top of accurate automatically controlled universal stage.
Accurate adjustment unit described in the technical scheme also comprises left column, adjusts screw rod, back timber and right column.
Left column and right column vertically are installed on the two ends of base, and left column adopts nut to fixedly connected with the through hole assembling back, two ends of right column upper end and back timber.Adjust the upper end of screw rod and the back timber threaded hole of back timber center and be connected, adjust the lower end of screw rod and insert in the adjustment screw vent of moved cross beam, round nut and locked spacer are installed in adjusts screw rod from the external part of moved cross beam bottom surface.The two ends of moved cross beam adopt clearance fit to be sleeved on left column and the right column.
Moved cross beam described in the technical scheme is the flat-type structural member, the moved cross beam center section is set to disc, be provided with the adjustment screw vent that the adjustment screw rod is installed in the center of disc, disk diameter to two ends be provided with the identical rectangular flat of structure, the outer end of two rectangular flats is provided with bolt hole, the axis of rotation square crossing of the axis of rotation of bolt hole and adjustment screw vent, the inboard of two bolt holes is provided with left column through hole and the right column through hole that left column and right column are installed, the left column through hole is parallel with the axis of rotation of adjusting screw vent with the axis of rotation of right column through hole, two flexible openings of rectangular flat arranged outside that structure is identical, the axis of rotation coplane of two elastic openings and left column through hole and right column through hole and and the left column through hole be communicated with the right column through hole.
The model of the XY two dimension precision displacement table described in the technical scheme is XY-R-90, and it is provided with the differential head that carries out directions X and Y direction manual fine-tuning with the directions X two sides vertical with the Y direction XY two dimension precision displacement table.
Accurate automatically controlled universal stage described in the technical scheme comprises stepper motor, electric machine support, spring coupling, turbine and worm decelerator and universal stage.
Described stepper motor is installed on the end of electric machine support, the other end of electric machine support is fixed on the universal stage side, the output terminal of stepper motor is connected with worm screw one end in being placed in universal stage by spring coupling, the worm screw worm gear interior with being placed in universal stage is meshed, worm gear is fixedlyed connected with universal stage, the axis of rotation conllinear of worm gear and universal stage.
Small torque sensor described in the technical scheme is made of four identical elastic beam, four identical resistance strain gage, upper substrate and infrabasal plates of structure of structure.The xsect of the elastic beam that described four structures are identical is a rectangle, upper substrate and infrabasal plate are the disc-like structural member, the circumferential through hole that is used for installing and locating that evenly is provided with of upper substrate and infrabasal plate, four identical elastic beams of structure are evenly arranged between the upper substrate and infrabasal plate of parallel placement vertically, post resistance strain gage apart from infrabasal plate end 1/3 elastic beam length place on the elastic beam of the even layout that four structures are identical, four identical resistance strain gages of structure connect into full-bridge circuit.
Compared with prior art the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
It is 1. of the present invention that little to reverse test platform easy to operate, sample be easy to install and error little.Owing to adopt vertical mount scheme, eliminated the additional bending moment influence that gravity brings, adopt XY two dimension precision displacement table to carry out the fine setting of sample holder, then can effectively reduce the experimental error that coaxiality deviation brings.
2. little test platform measuring accuracy height that reverses of the present invention.Accurate automatically controlled universal stage drives resolution can reach 0.001 °, and torque power output and angular displacement output with small resolution are provided; Small torque sensor torsion-testing scope is 0-0.5Nm, and precision is 0.05mNm, can realize the high Precision Detection to little moment of torsion.
3. little test platform that reverses of the present invention can necessarily reverse material torsional fatigue characteristic test under the condition.Member often is subjected to the effect of alternate load under arms in the process and member is produced fatigure failure, so the torsional fatigue characteristic is an important parameter of material mechanical performance.
4. of the present invention little to reverse test platform applied widely, physical construction or microscale structure twisting property testing experiment under the little moment of torsion/distortion service condition that is constituted applicable to bio-medical material, hard brittle material etc.
Description of drawings
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
Fig. 1 is little structure composition frame chart that reverses test platform of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is that little structure of reversing test platform of the present invention is formed front view;
Fig. 3 is the front view that little moved cross beam structure of reversing in the test platform to be adopted of the present invention is formed;
Fig. 4-a is the front view that little small torque sensor structure of reversing in the test platform to be adopted of the present invention is formed;
Fig. 4-b is the cut-open view at little small torque sensor A-A place of reversing in the test platform to be adopted among Fig. 4-a;
Fig. 4-c is little circuit diagram that reverses small moment of torsion full bridge measurement in the test platform of the present invention;
Fig. 5-a is little XY two dimension precision displacement table front view that reverses in the test platform of the present invention;
Fig. 5-b be of the present invention little reverse XY two dimension precision displacement table B direction in the test platform to view;
Fig. 6-a is little accurate automatically controlled universal stage front view that reverses in the test platform of the present invention;
Fig. 6-b be of the present invention little reverse accurate automatically controlled universal stage A direction in the test platform to view;
Among the figure: 1. base, 2. left column, 3. moved cross beam, 4. adjustment screw rod, 5. back timber, 6. right column, 7. small torque sensor is 8. decided clamper, 9. sample, 10. moving clamper, 11. accurate automatically controlled universal stages, 12.XY two dimension precision displacement table, 13. stepper motor, 14. electric machine support, 15. spring couplings, 16. universal stages.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is explained in detail:
With reference to figure 1, little test platform that reverses of the present invention is made up of control section and topworks.Control section comprises computing machine and controller, and installation test software on the computing machine is used to be provided with experimental test parameter and analytical test data; Controller comprises microprocessor, power amplification circuit, detector amplifier, A/D change-over circuit.Power amplification circuit amplifies the signal that microprocessor produces, and drives accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11 work; Detector amplifier carries out linear amplification with the output voltage of little torque sensor; Analog voltage signal after the A/D change-over circuit amplifies detector amplifier converts digital quantity to and sends in the microprocessor and handle, and microprocessor transfers in the computing machine by serial line interface again.Topworks is used for sample is loaded test, and topworks is electrically connected with controller, and the control of controlled device also is transferred to controller with measuring-signal.
Consult Fig. 2, described topworks comprises accurate adjustment unit, accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11, moment of torsion/angular displacement signal detecting unit and grip unit.
Described accurate adjustment unit comprises Z axle lift adjustment mechanism, XY two dimension precision displacement table 12.
Described Z axle lift adjustment mechanism by base 1, left column 2, moved cross beam 3, adjust screw rod 4, back timber 5, right column 6 and form.
Consult Fig. 3, described moved cross beam 3 is the flat-type structural member, moved cross beam 3 centre positions are set to disc-shaped structure spare, be provided with the adjustment screw vent that adjustment screw rod 4 is installed in the center of disk, disk diameter to two ends be provided with the identical rectangular flat of structure, the outer end of two rectangular flats is provided with bolt hole, the axis of rotation square crossing of the axis of rotation of bolt hole and adjustment screw vent, the inboard of two bolt holes is provided with left column through hole and the right column through hole that left column 2 and right column 6 are installed, the left column through hole is parallel with the axis of rotation of adjusting screw vent with the axis of rotation of right column through hole, two flexible openings of rectangular flat arranged outside that structure is identical, the axis of rotation coplane of two elastic openings and left column through hole and right column through hole and and the left column through hole be communicated with the right column through hole, during bolt in screwing the inserting bolt through hole, make left column through hole and the distortion of right column through hole on the moved cross beam 3 and be fixedly clamped on left column 2 and right column 6.
Left column 2 and right column 6 are parallel to each other and vertically are installed on the two ends on plane on the base 1, left column 2 inserts in the last left column through hole and last right column through hole at back timber 5 two ends with right column 6 upper ends, left column 2 is connected with the bottom surface contact at back timber 5 two ends with the annular end face of right column 6 upper ends, adopts nut that back timber 5 is fixedlyed connected with right column 6 upper ends with left column 2 again; Adjust the upper end of screw rod 4 and the back timber threaded hole of back timber 5 centers and constitute screw thread pair, adjusting the lower end of screw rod 4 inserts in the adjustment screw vent of moved cross beam 3 centers, and adopt round nut and locked spacer to be installed in and adjust screw rod 4 from the external part of moved cross beam 3 bottom surfaces, realize adjusting the axial location of screw rod 4 in the adjustment screw vent of moved cross beam 3; Left column through hole on the moved cross beam 3 and right column through hole adopt clearance fit to be sleeved on left column 2 and the right column 6.
Adjust screw rod 4 by rotation and drive moved cross beam 3 to proper height, the nut that screws moved cross beam 3 two ends makes moved cross beam 3 be fixed on a certain position of left column 2 and right column 6, realize the location adjustment of Z direction, to adapt to the installation clamping of differing heights size sample.
Consult Fig. 5-a and Fig. 5-b, described XY two dimension precision displacement table 12 can be bought on market and obtain, and the used model of the present invention is XY-R-90.Be provided with on the two sides vertical with X, the Y direction of XY two dimension precision displacement table 12 and regulate the differential head, but manual adjustments differential head carries out the fine setting of X and Y-axis respectively, precision reaches 0.01mm.XY two dimension precision displacement table 12 is assemblied on the last workplace of base 1.
Consult Fig. 6-a and Fig. 6-b, the automatically controlled universal stage 11 of described precision comprises stepper motor 13, electric machine support 14, spring coupling 15, turbine and worm decelerator and universal stage 16 compositions.Stepper motor 13 is installed in an end of electric machine support 14, the other end of electric machine support 14 is fixed on universal stage 16 sides, the output terminal of stepper motor 13 is connected with worm screw one end in being placed in universal stage 16 by spring coupling 15, worm screw and the worm gear engagement that is placed in the universal stage 16, worm gear is fixedlyed connected with universal stage 16, the axis of rotation conllinear of worm gear and universal stage 16.Thereby stepper motor 13 rotates and drives universal stage 16 rotations that link to each other with worm gear, and resolution can reach 0.001 °.Accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11 adopts bolt to be installed on the table top of XY two dimension precision displacement table 12 by universal stage 16, accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11 is connected with controller electric wire in the control section, can provide by pulse/direction control mode to have that high-resolution torque power is exported and angular displacement is exported.
Described moment of torsion/angular displacement signal detecting unit comprises small torque sensor 7 and high precision circle grating.
Described small torque sensor 7 is made of four identical elastic beam, upper substrate and infrabasal plates of structure, the xsect of the elastic beam that four structures are identical is a rectangle, upper substrate and infrabasal plate are the disc-like structural member, the circumferential of upper substrate and infrabasal plate evenly is provided with the through hole that is used for installing and locating, and four identical elastic beams of structure are evenly arranged between the upper substrate and infrabasal plate of parallel placement vertically.Small torque sensor upper substrate is connected with moved cross beam 3, infrabasal plate with decide clamper and be connected.Post resistance strain gage apart from infrabasal plate end 1/3 elastic beam length place on the elastic beam of the even layout that four structures are identical, four identical resistance strain gages of structure connect into full-bridge circuit.When elastic body was subjected to torsional interaction, elastic beam produced flexural deformation, and foil gauge produces strain, and resistance value changes, and full-bridge circuit output differential voltage signal has been realized the conversion of force signal to electric signal to controller.
Described high precision circle grating model is HeidenhainRCN727, and high precision circle grating is installed on accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11 plummers by the pilot hole on its flange face, and high precision circle grating is connected with controller electric wire in the control section simultaneously.
Described grip unit comprises decides clamper 8 and moving clamper 10.Decide clamper 8 and be installed in the bottom face of small torque sensor 7 by threaded hole, moving clamper 10 with decide clamper 8 and centrally be installed on accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11 table tops, moving clamper 10 is along with automatically controlled universal stage 11 rotations of precision in the test process.By accurate adjustment unit location, but sample 9 centering clampings are being decided between clamper 8 and the moving clamper 10.
Consulting Fig. 4-c, is the electric resistance strain film method full bridge measurement circuit diagram on the small torque sensor 7 among the figure, and its test philosophy is: according to paster mode and Analysis of materials mechanics suffered torque T of many beam types torsion structure and elastic beam reading strain ε dBe directly proportional.Be carried in the moment of torsion at sample two ends:
T = ERδh 2 6 ( l 2 - a ) ϵ d - - - ( 1 )
In the formula: E is the elasticity modulus of materials of elastic beam, and R is the distance of elastic beam to the pedestal center, and δ is the width of elastic beam, and h is the thickness of elastic beam, and l is the length of elastic beam, and a is the distance of paster place apart from beam-ends, ε dBe reading strain.
By (1) formula as can be seen, linear between moment of torsion and the strain.So by full-bridge circuit and controller processing strain signal is converted to voltage signal, then torque T and output voltage U 0The pass is:
T = 2 ERδh 2 3 U AC K ( l 2 - a ) U 0 - - - ( 2 )
K is the foil gauge sensitivity coefficient in the formula, U ACBe the electric bridge input voltage.
By (2) formula as can be known the resistance-strain method can realize detection of dynamic experimental test process torque value easily.Small torque sensor 7 torsion-testing scopes are 0-0.5Nm, and precision is 0.05mNm, can satisfy the high Precision Detection of the little moment of torsion of twisting test.
Specify little test process that reverses test platform of the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
At first adjust, sample 9 centrally be installed in decide to carry out following steps then between clamper 8 and the moving clamper 10 by XY two dimension precision displacement table 12 and Z axle elevating mechanism:
1. by parameters such as software setting rotational pulse equivalent, travelling speed, range ability, signal level, backlass and rotation modes, controller produces pulse signal, through signal condition, drives accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11 work, drives sample and reverses.
2. acquisition angles signal and torque signal.Angle signal is measured by the high precision rotary encoder that is built in accurate automatically controlled universal stage 11 and is obtained, and torque signal is handled by the control circuit of small torque sensor 7 and obtained.
3. angle signal and the torque signal that collects transferred to computing machine, obtain angle value and torque value, and export a series of moments of torsion and angle value by processing.
4. judge whether to satisfy test condition.This test condition is: whether moment of torsion or angle value reach the setting value of experimental test, or whether duration of test runs reaches the setting value of experimental test.If judge it is to enter step 5; If judge not to be, get back to step 1 and continue test.
5. according to a series of moments of torsion and the angle value that obtain in the step 3, carry out data processing, obtain the Mechanics Performance Testing result according to the principle of mechanical test.Comprise: torsional rigidity, shear modulus G, shear resistance τ, torque T-angle θ curve and shearing stress τ-shear strain gamma curve etc.
6. output result.
Little test platform automaticity height that reverses provided by the invention, be applicable to the physical construction under little moment of torsion/distortion service condition that bio-medical material, hard brittle material etc. are constituted or the twisting property testing experiment of microscale structure, and necessarily reverse torsional fatigue test research under the condition, to the optimization of machinery, bioengineering relevant design, the raising in apparatus performance and life-span and application of novel material etc. have crucial meaning.

Claims (6)

1. little test platform that reverses comprises topworks, it is characterized in that, described topworks comprises accurate adjustment unit, accurate automatically controlled universal stage (11), moment of torsion/angular displacement signal detecting unit and grip unit;
Described accurate adjustment unit comprises base (1), moved cross beam (3) and XY two dimension precision displacement table (12); XY two dimension precision displacement table (12) is assemblied on the last workplace of base (1);
Accurate automatically controlled universal stage (11) adopts bolt to be installed on the table top of XY two dimension precision displacement table (12);
Described moment of torsion/angular displacement signal detecting unit comprises small torque sensor (7) and high precision circle grating; Small torque sensor (7) is installed on the bottom surface of moved cross beam (3), and high precision circle grating is installed on accurate automatically controlled universal stage (11) plummer by the pilot hole on its flange face;
Described grip unit comprises decides clamper (8) and moving clamper (10); Decide clamper (8) and be installed on the bottom face of small torque sensor (7), moving clamper (10) is installed on the table top of accurate automatically controlled universal stage (11).
2. according to the described little test platform that reverses of claim 1, it is characterized in that described accurate adjustment unit also comprises left column (2), adjusts screw rod (4), back timber (5) and right column (6);
Left column (2) and right column (6) vertically are installed on the two ends of base (1), and left column (2) adopts nut to fixedly connected with the equipped back of the two ends through hole of right column (6) upper end and back timber (5); Adjusting the upper end of screw rod (4) and the back timber threaded hole of back timber (5) center is connected, adjust the lower end of screw rod (4) and insert in the adjustment screw vent of moved cross beam (3), round nut and locked spacer are installed in adjusts screw rod (4) from the external part of moved cross beam (3) bottom surface; The two ends of moved cross beam (3) adopt clearance fit to be sleeved on left column (2) and the right column (6).
3. according to the described little test platform that reverses of claim 1, it is characterized in that, described moved cross beam (3) is the flat-type structural member, moved cross beam (3) center section is set to disc, be provided with the adjustment screw vent that adjustment screw rod (4) is installed in the center of disc, disk diameter to two ends be provided with the identical rectangular flat of structure, the outer end of two rectangular flats is provided with bolt hole, the axis of rotation square crossing of the axis of rotation of bolt hole and adjustment screw vent, the inboard of two bolt holes is provided with left column through hole and the right column through hole that left column (2) and right column (6) are installed, the left column through hole is parallel with the axis of rotation of adjusting screw vent with the axis of rotation of right column through hole, two flexible openings of rectangular flat arranged outside that structure is identical, the axis of rotation coplane of two elastic openings and left column through hole and right column through hole and and the left column through hole be communicated with the right column through hole.
4. according to the described little test platform that reverses of claim 1, it is characterized in that, the model of described XY two dimension precision displacement table (12) is XY-R-90, and it is provided with the adjusting differential head that carries out directions X and Y direction manual fine-tuning with the directions X two sides vertical with the Y direction XY two dimension precision displacement table (12).
5. according to the described little test platform that reverses of claim 1, it is characterized in that the automatically controlled universal stage of described precision (11) comprises stepper motor (13), electric machine support (14), spring coupling (15), turbine and worm decelerator and universal stage (16);
Described stepper motor (13) is installed on the end of electric machine support (14), the other end of electric machine support (14) is fixed on universal stage (16) side, the output terminal of stepper motor (13) is connected by spring coupling (15) worm screw one end interior with being placed in universal stage (16), worm screw is connected with a joggle with the worm gear that is placed in the universal stage (16), worm gear is fixedlyed connected with universal stage (16), the axis of rotation conllinear of worm gear and universal stage (16).
6. according to the described little test platform that reverses of claim 1, it is characterized in that described small torque sensor (7) is made of four identical elastic beam, four identical resistance strain gage, upper substrate and infrabasal plates of structure of structure;
The xsect of the elastic beam that described four structures are identical is a rectangle, upper substrate and infrabasal plate are the disc-like structural member, the circumferential through hole that is used for installing and locating that evenly is provided with of upper substrate and infrabasal plate, four identical elastic beams of structure are evenly arranged between the upper substrate and infrabasal plate of parallel placement vertically, post resistance strain gage apart from infrabasal plate end 1/3 elastic beam length place on the elastic beam of the even layout that four structures are identical, four identical resistance strain gages of structure connect into full-bridge circuit.
CN2013101338082A 2013-04-18 2013-04-18 Micro-torsion testing platform CN103217342A (en)

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CN104132855A (en) * 2014-07-29 2014-11-05 贵州大学 Structural member torsion test method and device
CN104897484A (en) * 2015-05-25 2015-09-09 山西省交通科学研究院 Torsional shear test system and method for geosynthetics
CN104897484B (en) * 2015-05-25 2017-11-10 山西省交通科学研究院 A kind of geosynthetics torsion shear test system and method
CN105606459A (en) * 2016-02-04 2016-05-25 香港城市大学深圳研究院 In-situ torque testing device for micro-nano scale materials and observing device
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Application publication date: 20130724