CN103197690B - A kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot - Google Patents

A kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103197690B
CN103197690B CN201310092715.XA CN201310092715A CN103197690B CN 103197690 B CN103197690 B CN 103197690B CN 201310092715 A CN201310092715 A CN 201310092715A CN 103197690 B CN103197690 B CN 103197690B
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sensor
photoresistance
row
spot
straight line
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CN103197690A (en
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张相军
张毅
汪芊芊
骆子重
赵尚杰
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Harbin University of Technology Robot Group Co., Ltd.
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The invention provides a kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot, belong to sensor technical field of following spot.The present invention includes sensor outer housing, the convex lens of sensor, photoresistance and circuit board, described photoresistance is fixing on circuit boards, and the convex lens of sensor are arranged in the upper body of sensor outer housing, and the lower end of sensor outer housing is fixedly connected with circuit board.Solar electrical energy generation of the present invention sensor of following spot has the following advantages: in the design of sensor and the process of control, track of sun has been carried out discretize by " pyramid-like " suede structure according to monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic panel surface, has really quantized by the derivation of geometry teaching the times of exercise generated electricity of following spot.Motor both need not be followed spot in real time, also need not interval blindly follow spot.

Description

A kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot, belong to sensor technical field.
Background technology
Photovoltaic generation has the series of advantages such as stable performance, equipment life is long, reliability is high, maintenance is little, but due to the low randomness of solar energy density large, photovoltaic generating system is generally invested greatly, cost is high.
Solar power system traditional at present mainly adopts fixed installation or utilizes merely software algorithm to realize following spot.The product of fixed installation can not according to the attitude of the change adjustment solar energy system of position of sun, cause the collection of sun power and utilization factor low, long-range cost of investment is large.And adopt merely the software of geographic position and temporal information to follow spot generating set, owing to there being a lot of problem to be difficult to be considered in algorithm, usually producing solar panel acrokinesia or produce misoperation.
And the equipment of following spot is arranged on solar panel by product that minority adopts sensor to follow spot mostly, namely every block solar panel all needs installation equipment of following spot, and the quantity of equipment of thus following spot is many, adds cost.Meanwhile, existing equipment of following spot adopts the method for following spot of continous way (namely sensor controls solar panel and aims at the sun in real time, and reality there is no need like this) mostly, consumes energy greatly and easily causes misoperation, also adding cost accordingly.
In addition, most researcher equipment de-sign of following spot becomes double-axis tracking device, although one of them motor serves certain effect for the location of solar azimuth, can omit by improving the mounting means of light tracing system completely, therefore this double-axis tracking method cost is large, and cost performance is also low.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to solve prior art Problems existing, the equipment of following spot is arranged on solar panel by product mostly that namely adopt sensor to follow spot, namely every block solar panel all needs installation equipment of following spot, and the quantity of equipment of thus following spot is many, adds cost.Meanwhile, existing equipment of following spot adopts the method for following spot of continous way mostly, consumes energy greatly and easily causes misoperation, also adding cost accordingly.And then a kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot is provided.
The object of the invention is to be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot, comprise sensor outer housing, the convex lens of sensor, photoresistance and circuit board, described photoresistance is fixing on circuit boards, the convex lens of sensor are arranged in the upper body of sensor outer housing, and the lower end of sensor outer housing is fixedly connected with circuit board; Described circuit board is provided with five row's photoresistance, is followed successively by first row photoresistance, second row photoresistance, the 3rd row's photoresistance, the 4th row's photoresistance and the 5th row's photoresistance from the side of circuit board to opposite side; Focal length=the 13.2mm of the convex lens of described sensor, the convex lens and the 3rd of sensor are arranged and to be provided with one article of straight line vertical with circuit board between photoresistance, the angle between first row photoresistance and straight line angle between second row photoresistance and straight line angle between 4th row's photoresistance and straight line angle between 5th row's photoresistance and straight line distance d1=49.26mm between 5th row's photoresistance and straight line, distance d2=13.2mm between 4th row's photoresistance and straight line, distance d3=3.5mm between second row photoresistance and straight line, the distance d4=13.2mm between first row photoresistance and straight line.
Solar electrical energy generation of the present invention sensor of following spot has the following advantages: in the design of sensor and the process of control, track of sun has been carried out discretize, has really quantized the times of exercise generated electricity of following spot.Motor both need not be followed spot in real time, also need not interval blindly follow spot.To be followed spot model by simplification simultaneously, coordinating the use basis controlled decreasing a motor usually at least needing two motors, reducing energy consumption, reducing costs, decrease the misoperation of system, thus reach the object of efficient stable.And make itself and existing photovoltaic power generation apparatus have good compatibility.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the cross-sectional view of solar electrical energy generation with sensor of following spot;
Fig. 2 is the plan structure schematic diagram of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot;
Fig. 3 is the calculating schematic diagram of photoresistance distance;
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of device of solar generating;
Fig. 5 is the circuit diagram of solar electrical energy generation with sensor of following spot;
When Fig. 6 is direct sunlight, on solar panel, all light can by the schematic diagram of absorption twice;
Fig. 7 is sunlight can by the schematic diagram of absorption twice with all light during 20 degree of incident angle directive solar panels;
When Fig. 8 is sunlight to be greater than the incident angle directive solar panel of 20 degree, some light can only by the schematic diagram absorbed once;
Fig. 9 be by discrete for the track of the sun be the schematic diagram of five regions (discrete sky);
Figure 10 is the schematic diagram in the region of angle between 15 degree to 45 degree on sunlight and sea level;
Figure 11 is by the schematic diagram of the regional planning in early morning and moment at dusk to region 1 and 5 unified management;
Figure 12 is the schematic diagram in the region of angle between 45 degree to 75 degree on sunlight and sea level;
Figure 13 is the schematic diagram in the region of angle between 75 degree to 105 degree on sunlight and sea level;
Figure 14 is theoretical Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) illustraton of model of following spot.By two motors (day motor and season motor form), respectively follow the tracks of the sun rise in east and drop in west motion and the sun move with the north and south in season.
Figure 15 be solar panel when being placed horizontally on equator the maximum incident angle of North and South direction be the schematic diagram of 23.5 degree;
Figure 16 is that solar panel is placed on tropic of Cancer schematic diagram to be 23.5 degree with sea level.
Figure 17 be Northern Hemisphere Summer sun power more than winter, make aa ' suitably dextrorotation, α is reduced, thus θ 1 can be made to reduce, θ 2 increases schematic diagram, better can utilize the sun power in summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
Figure 18 is beyond the tropic of Cancer of the Northern Hemisphere, then makes aa ' suitably dextrorotation, and α is reduced, thus θ 1 can be made to reduce again, θ 2 increases schematic diagram again, thus better utilizes sun power in summer with the low-density energy of sacrificing winter.
Figure 19 is through the single motor model figure after simplification.
Figure 20 is device of solar generating control flow chart.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail: the present embodiment is implemented under premised on technical solution of the present invention, gives detailed embodiment, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, a kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot involved by the present embodiment, comprise sensor outer housing 1, the convex lens 2 of sensor, photoresistance 3 and circuit board 4, described photoresistance 3 is fixing on the circuit board 4, the convex lens 2 of sensor are arranged in the upper body of sensor outer housing 1, and the lower end of sensor outer housing 1 is fixedly connected with circuit board 4.
As shown in Figure 3, described circuit board 4 is provided with five row's photoresistance 3, is followed successively by first row photoresistance A, second row photoresistance B, the 3rd row's photoresistance C, the 4th row photoresistance D and the 5th row photoresistance E from the side of circuit board 4 to opposite side.
As shown in Figure 3, the focal distance f=13.2mm of the convex lens 2 of described sensor, the convex lens 2 and the 3rd of sensor are arranged and to be provided with one article of straight line F vertical with circuit board 4 between photoresistance C, the angle between first row photoresistance A and straight line F angle between second row photoresistance B and straight line F angle between 4th row photoresistance D and straight line F angle between 5th row photoresistance E and straight line F distance d1=49.26mm between 5th row photoresistance E and straight line F, distance d2=13.2mm between 4th row photoresistance D and straight line F, distance d3=3.5mm between second row photoresistance B and straight line F, the distance d4=13.2mm between first row photoresistance A and straight line F.
As shown in Figure 4, the present embodiment is the device of solar generating using above-mentioned solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot, comprise solar panel 11, stepper motor 12, pillar 13, central control system 14, base 15, accumulator system 16, the convex lens 17 of Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT), cone 18 and sensor 19 of following spot, described cone 18 is fixed on the side on base 15, the upper end of cone 18 is fixed with the convex lens 17 of Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT), bottom in cone 18 is provided with sensor 19 of following spot, the opposite side of base 15 is fixed with pillar 13, the upper end of pillar 13 is fixed with stepper motor 12 and solar panel 11, central control system 14 and accumulator system 16 are all fixed on base 15.
Solar electrical energy generation is the solar azimuth pick-up unit relying on photodiode and optical device with sensor of following spot (abbreviation sensor).When with the suitable convex lens of focal length by sunshine (less parallel light) at cone inner focusing.According to geometric optical imaging principle, directional light can form an effective light spot at focal plane (bottom cone).Now suitable on focal plane layout light sensor, by single-chip microcomputer timesharing AD sampling is carried out to sensor after, then carry out contrasting and sort to sampled value, just can obtain the positional information of now effective light spot.
In order to improve the photoelectric transformation efficiency of monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic battery panel, the normal suede structure its surface being made into " pyramid-like " shape, utilize the sunken luminous effect of " pyramid-like " suede structure, positive light reflectance can be reduced, strengthen the absorptivity of sunlight, thus improve the conversion efficiency of photogenerated current density and photovoltaic cell.
When on direct sunlight to desirable textured mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic panel (now, the incident angle of sunlight is 0 degree), all light can by absorption twice (see Fig. 6); Along with the incident angle of sunlight constantly increases, sunlight is movement constantly, until when the incident angle of sunlight increases to 20 degree, now just all light can by absorption twice (see Fig. 7); After incident angle is greater than 20 degree, a part of sunlight by absorption twice, only can not be absorbed once and is just reflected monocrystalline silicon surface (see Fig. 8).Therefore, for desirable textured mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic battery panel, when incident angle is less than or equal to 20 degree, monocrystalline silicon is very little for the absorptivity difference of light.At this, this phenomenon might as well be called " the maximum tolerance incident angle of textured mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell " by we, is called for short at " maximum tolerance angle ".
Consider that actual suede structure may be unsatisfactory, may there is segmental defect, mixed economy factor in " pyramid-like " structure on its surface, actual maximum tolerance angle is taken as 15 degree usually.
Be 15 degree according to actual maximum tolerance angle, can by discrete for sky be five regions (see Fig. 9).On a fixing sea level, the sun is risen by the east on this sea level, and west falls, and presses counterclockwise movement in fig. 8.Just to have risen and soon in the process of two 15 degree that falls at the sun, i.e. early morning under normal circumstances and dusk, intensity of illumination is now extremely faint, there is no need to follow spot, and is therefore neglected in these two regions.
And then, along with the sun constantly moves, when the angle on sunlight and sea level is between 15 degree to 45 degree (see Figure 10), this region with the heavy line 1 in scheming for axis of symmetry, so at this moment, only need ensure that solar cell board plane is vertical with solid line 1, solar angle when just can ensure region 1 is always less than 15 degree, actual maximum tolerance angle.As previously mentioned,
The sunlight in early morning can be grouped into region 1 unified management, namely when the angle on sunlight and sea level is between 0 degree to 45 degree,
Solar panel is vertical with light 1 all the time.The in like manner situation (see Figure 11) in attainable region territory 5.
In like manner, along with the sun constantly moves, we are easy to the correlation circumstance (see Figure 12 and Figure 13) drawing region 2,3 and 4.
In order to more clearly express this process, show this procedure list to show explanation (see table 1)
The process of the discrete sky of table 1.
In sum, solar panel only in time need complete the object that five actions just efficiently can complete generating of following spot in one day.That is, if these five regions of sensor energy perception and make corresponding actions just can complete follow spot find task.One of the principle of this also distribution of photoresistance above just.
The generating efficiency of solar panel can not only be improved so greatly, more can reduce the loss of electric machine, reduce motor misoperation, thus reduce the cost of solar electrical energy generation.
First the control strategy of sensor of following spot needs to consider based on earth model.
When taking the earth as reference frame, sun's motion can be decomposed into two parts: a part is the sun rising in east and drop in west in a day, another part be the sun along with season north-south movement.From theoretical analysis, if the solar panel of a generating of following spot will well be followed spot, these two kinds motions just must be followed the tracks of.Therefore, theoretical generation model plate of following spot at least is made up of two motors, and one is done radial rotating, and one axially rotates (see Figure 14).One of them motor is responsible for following the tracks of the sun and is risen in east and drop in west motion in one day, and here we are called " day motor ", and tracking is responsible for by another motor, and in 1 year, the sun is with the north-south movement in season, and here we are called " season motor ".
When one piece of solar panel is placed horizontally at (see Figure 15) on equator, according to relevant astronomic knowledge, the moved farthest of sun North and South direction in a year can only arrive the north and south tropic.So in 1 year, the maximum incident angle of North and South direction is only 23.5 degree.Therefore, in 1 year, the incident angle most of the time of the solar panel North and South direction of this region is all less than the theoretical maximum tolerance angle of 20 degree, and almost contains most times that in 1 year, solar energy resources is the abundantest in the scope at the actual theoretical maximum tolerance angle of 15 degree.Can be drawn by above analysis, the solar panel be placed horizontally on equator needs " season motor " just can complete preferably in 1 year to follow spot generating electricity of task hardly.
Be in the solar panel on the tropic of Cancer when one piece, by its with sea level be 23.5 degree place time (see Figure 16), still can obtain the same conclusion with equatorial positions---do not need " season motor ".In like manner can obtain the situation of the tropic of Capricorn.
The situation of comprehensive equatorial positions and tropic position, north and south, can reach a conclusion: the Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) of following spot within the scope of the tropic of north and south, " season motor " by rational installation, can not be needed still better to complete follow spot the task of generating.
When solar panel is in outside the tropic of north and south, because this region solar energy resources in summer is abundanter, and winter is less.Therefore suitably can regulate the angle on solar panel and sea level, can better utilize solar energy resources in summer, now mixed economy factor, " season motor " be omitted the selection (see Figure 17 and Figure 18) of a kind of wisdom of still can yet be regarded as.
Comprehensive above analysis, after the angle on our reasonable Arrangement solar panel and sea level, can find in the contribution rate of the Sino-Japan motor of Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) of following spot extremely low, and day motor add energy consumption and loss, unreasonable.Therefore we can choose the scheme of a compromise, as shown in figure 19, only control solar panel with day motor and follow spot.The device improved all is better than traditional type in energy consumption, cost, servos control, and the device improved is relative to traditional, and structure is simpler.
The above; be only the present invention's preferably embodiment; these embodiments are all based on the different implementations under general idea of the present invention; and protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto; anyly be familiar with those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the present invention discloses; the change that can expect easily or replacement, all should be encompassed within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot, comprise sensor outer housing (1), the convex lens (2) of sensor, photoresistance (3) and circuit board (4), described photoresistance (3) is fixed on circuit board (4), the convex lens (2) of sensor are arranged in the upper body of sensor outer housing (1), and the lower end of sensor outer housing (1) is fixedly connected with circuit board (4); It is characterized in that, described circuit board (4) is provided with five row's photoresistance (3), is followed successively by first row photoresistance (A), second row photoresistance (B), the 3rd row's photoresistance (C), the 4th row's photoresistance (D) and the 5th row's photoresistance (E) from the side of circuit board (4) to opposite side; Focal distance f=the 13.2mm of the convex lens (2) of described sensor, the convex lens (2) and the 3rd of sensor are arranged and to be provided with one article of straight line (F) vertical with circuit board (4) between photoresistance (C), angle φ 1=45 ° between first row photoresistance (A) and straight line (F), angle φ 2=15 ° between second row photoresistance (B) and straight line (F), angle φ 3=45 ° between 4th row's photoresistance (D) and straight line (F), the angle φ 4=75 ° between the 5th row's photoresistance (E) and straight line (F); Distance d1=49.26mm between 5th row's photoresistance (E) and straight line (F), distance d2=13.2mm between 4th row's photoresistance (D) and straight line (F), distance d3=3.5mm between second row photoresistance (B) and straight line (F), the distance d4=13.2mm between first row photoresistance (A) and straight line (F).
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DE102018002404A1 (en) * 2018-03-23 2019-09-26 Azur Space Solar Power Gmbh Sonnennachführeinheit
WO2021242208A1 (en) * 2020-05-29 2021-12-02 Dokuz Eylül Üni̇versi̇tesi̇ Rektörlüğü A localization system

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CN101943917A (en) * 2010-09-08 2011-01-12 上海理工大学 Light ray automatic-tracking device
CN102354222A (en) * 2011-08-08 2012-02-15 上海聚恒太阳能有限公司 Shadow-free tracking method for double-axis solar photovoltaic array power generation system
CN102360226A (en) * 2011-08-30 2012-02-22 陈燕 Method for tracking sunlight energy

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101626211A (en) * 2009-04-04 2010-01-13 张晋 Single tooth-shaped band driving group synchronous tracking sunlight automatic tracking device based on running track from sun to earth
CN101943917A (en) * 2010-09-08 2011-01-12 上海理工大学 Light ray automatic-tracking device
CN102354222A (en) * 2011-08-08 2012-02-15 上海聚恒太阳能有限公司 Shadow-free tracking method for double-axis solar photovoltaic array power generation system
CN102360226A (en) * 2011-08-30 2012-02-22 陈燕 Method for tracking sunlight energy

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