CN103197690A - Light-tracking sensor for solar power generation - Google Patents

Light-tracking sensor for solar power generation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103197690A
CN103197690A CN201310092715XA CN201310092715A CN103197690A CN 103197690 A CN103197690 A CN 103197690A CN 201310092715X A CN201310092715X A CN 201310092715XA CN 201310092715 A CN201310092715 A CN 201310092715A CN 103197690 A CN103197690 A CN 103197690A
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sensor
photoresistance
spot
light
circuit board
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CN201310092715XA
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CN103197690B (en
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张相军
张毅
汪芊芊
骆子重
赵尚杰
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Harbin University of Technology Robot Group Co., Ltd.
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The invention provides a light-tracking sensor for solar power generation, and belongs to the technical field of light-tracking sensors. The light-tracking sensor for the solar power generation comprises a sensor shell, a convex lens of the sensor, a photoresistor and a circuit board, wherein the photoresistor is fixed on the circuit board, the convex lens of the sensor is arranged on a shell on the upper portion of the shell of the sensor, and the lower end of the shell of the sensor is fixedly connected with the circuit board. The light-tracking sensor for the solar power generation has the advantages that in the process of design of the sensor and control of the sensor, sun paths are discretized according to a pyramid suede structure on the surface of a monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic board, and motion times of light-tracking electricity generation are truly quantized through deductions of geometry mathematics. Therefore, a motor does not need to chase light in real time, or blindly and intermittently chase the light.

Description

A kind of solar electrical energy generation is with the sensor of following spot
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of solar electrical energy generation with the sensor of following spot, belong to sensor technical field.
Background technology
Photovoltaic generation has series of advantages such as stable performance, equipment life is long, reliability is high, maintenance is little, but because the low randomness of solar energy density is big, the general investment of photovoltaic generating system is big, cost is high.
Traditional solar power system mainly adopts fixed installation or utilizes software algorithm to realize following spot merely at present.The product of fixed installation can not be adjusted the attitude of solar energy system according to the variation of position of sun, causes the collection of sun power and utilization factor low, and long-range cost of investment is big.And the software that adopts geographic position and the temporal information merely generating set of following spot owing to have a lot of problems to be difficult to be considered in the algorithm, usually produces the solar panel acrokinesia or produces misoperation.
And the product that minority adopts sensor to follow spot is installed in the equipment of following spot on the solar panel mostly, and namely every solar panel all need be installed the equipment of following spot, thereby the quantity of the equipment of following spot is many, has increased cost.Simultaneously, the existing equipment of following spot adopts the method for following spot (be that sensor control solar panel is aimed at the sun in real time, reality there is no need like this) of continous way mostly, and power consumption causes misoperation greatly and easily, has also increased cost accordingly.
In addition, mostly the researcher is designed to the double-axis tracking device with the equipment of following spot, though one of them motor has played certain effect for the location of solar azimuth, can omit by the follow spot mounting means of system of improvement fully, therefore this double-axis tracking method cost is big, and cost performance is also low.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is in order to solve the problem that prior art exists, the product that namely adopts sensor to follow spot is installed in the equipment of following spot on the solar panel mostly, they be that every solar panel all need be installed the equipment of following spot, thereby the quantity of the equipment of following spot is many, has increased cost.Simultaneously, the existing equipment of following spot adopts the method for following spot of continous way mostly, and power consumption causes misoperation greatly and easily, has also increased cost accordingly.And then provide a kind of solar electrical energy generation with the sensor of following spot.
The objective of the invention is to be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of solar electrical energy generation is with the sensor of following spot, the convex lens, photoresistance and the circuit board that comprise sensor outer housing, sensor, described photoresistance is fixed on the circuit board, the convex lens of sensor are arranged on the upper body of sensor outer housing, fixedly connected with circuit board in the lower end of sensor outer housing.
Solar electrical energy generation of the present invention has the following advantages with the sensor of following spot: in the process of Design of Sensor and control track of sun has been carried out discretize, really quantized the times of exercise of following spot and generating electricity.Motor both need not be followed spot in real time, also needn't follow spot intermittence blindly.By the simplification model of following spot, needing two motors to cooperate the basis of control to reduce the use of a motor usually at least, cut down the consumption of energy simultaneously, reduce cost, reduced the misoperation of system, thereby reached the purpose of efficient stable.And it is compatible preferably that itself and existing photovoltaic power generation apparatus are had.
 
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the cross-sectional view that solar electrical energy generation is used the sensor of following spot;
Fig. 2 is the plan structure synoptic diagram that solar electrical energy generation is used the sensor of following spot;
Fig. 3 is the calculating synoptic diagram of photoresistance distance;
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of device of solar generating;
Fig. 5 is the circuit diagram that solar electrical energy generation is used the sensor of following spot;
When Fig. 6 is the sunlight direct projection on solar panel all light can be absorbed twice synoptic diagram;
All light can be absorbed twice synoptic diagram when Fig. 7 was sunlight with 20 degree incident angle directive solar panels;
Fig. 8 part light that is sunlight with greater than the incident angle directive solar panel of 20 degree the time can only be absorbed synoptic diagram once;
Fig. 9 be with the track of the sun discrete be the synoptic diagram of five zones (discrete sky);
Figure 10 is the synoptic diagram in the zone of angle between 15 degree are spent to 45 on sunlight and sea level;
Figure 11 arrives the synoptic diagram of zone 1 and 5 unified managements with early morning and regional planning constantly at dusk;
Figure 12 is the synoptic diagram in the zone of angle between 45 degree are spent to 75 on sunlight and sea level;
Figure 13 is the synoptic diagram in the zone of angle between 75 degree are spent to 105 on sunlight and sea level;
Figure 14 is the theoretical Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) illustraton of model of following spot.By two motors (day motor and season motor forms), the east of following the tracks of the sun respectively rises that the west falls to moving and the sun moves with the north and south in season.
Figure 15 be solar panel when being placed horizontally on the equator maximum incident angle of North and South direction be the synoptic diagram of 23.5 degree;
Figure 16 is that solar panel is placed on tropic of Cancer synoptic diagram to be 23.5 degree with the sea level.
Figure 17 be Northern Hemisphere sun power in summer more than winter, make suitably dextrorotation of aa ', α is reduced, thereby θ 1 is reduced, θ 2 increases synoptic diagram, sun power in summer that can the better utilization Northern Hemisphere.
Figure 18 is beyond the tropic of Cancer of the Northern Hemisphere, makes suitably dextrorotation of aa ' again, α is reduced, thereby θ 1 is reduced again, and θ 2 increases synoptic diagram again, thereby comes better utilization sun power in summer with the low-density energy of sacrificing winter.
Figure 19 is through the single motor model figure after simplifying.
Figure 20 is the device of solar generating control flow chart.
 
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing: present embodiment has provided detailed embodiment being to implement under the prerequisite with the technical solution of the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the related a kind of solar electrical energy generation of present embodiment is with the sensor of following spot, the convex lens 2, photoresistance 3 and the circuit board 4 that comprise sensor outer housing 1, sensor, described photoresistance 3 is fixed on the circuit board 4, the convex lens 2 of sensor are arranged on the upper body of sensor outer housing 1, fixedly connected with circuit board 4 in the lower end of sensor outer housing 1.
As shown in Figure 3, described circuit board 4 is provided with five row's photoresistance 3, is followed successively by first row's photoresistance A, second row's photoresistance B, the 3rd row's photoresistance C, the 4th row photoresistance D and the 5th row's photoresistance E from a side of circuit board 4 to opposite side.
As shown in Figure 3, focal distance f=the 13.2mm of the convex lens 2 of described sensor, be provided with a straight line F vertical with circuit board 4 between the convex lens 2 of sensor and the 3rd row photoresistance C, first arranges angle φ 1=45 ° between photoresistance A and the straight line F, second arranges angle φ 2=15 ° between photoresistance B and the straight line F, the 4th arranges angle φ 3=45 ° between photoresistance D and the straight line F, and the 5th arranges angle φ 4=75 ° between photoresistance E and the straight line F; Between the 5th row photoresistance E and the straight line F apart from d1=49.26mm, between the 4th row photoresistance D and the straight line F apart from d2=13.2mm, between second row photoresistance B and the straight line F apart from d3=3.5mm, first arrange between photoresistance A and the straight line F apart from d4=13.2mm.
As shown in Figure 4, present embodiment is to use the above-mentioned solar electrical energy generation device of solar generating of the sensor of following spot, comprise solar panel 11, stepper motor 12, pillar 13, central control system 14, base 15, accumulator system 16, the convex lens 17 of Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT), cone 18 and the sensor 19 of following spot, described cone 18 is fixed on the side on the base 15, fixedly there are the convex lens 17 of Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) the upper end of cone 18, bottom in the cone 18 is provided with the sensor 19 of following spot, pillar 13 is fixedly arranged on the opposite side of base 15, fixedly there are stepper motor 12 and solar panel 11 in the upper end of pillar 13, and central control system 14 and accumulator system 16 all are fixed on the base 15.
Solar electrical energy generation is the solar azimuth pick-up unit that relies on photodiode and optical device with the sensor (abbreviation sensor) of following spot.When with the suitable convex lens of focal length with sunshine (approximate directional light) at the cone inner focusing.According to the geometric optical imaging principle, directional light can (cone bottom) form an effective hot spot in the focal plane.This moment suitable arrangement light sensor on the focal plane, by single-chip microcomputer timesharing ground sensor is carried out the AD sampling after, again sampled value is compared and sorts, just can obtain the positional information of effective hot spot this moment.
In order to improve the photoelectric transformation efficiency of monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic battery panel, often its surface is made into the suede structure of " pyramid-like " shape, utilize the sunken luminous effect of " pyramid-like " suede structure, can reduce the reflectivity of sunlight, strengthen the absorptivity of sunlight, thereby improve the conversion efficiency of photogenerated current density and photovoltaic cell.
When the sunlight direct projection is on the desirable textured mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic panel (at this moment, the incident angle of sunlight is 0 degree), all light can both be absorbed (see figure 6) twice; Along with the incident angle of sunlight constantly increases, sunlight is constantly mobile, increases to 20 when spending until the incident angle of sunlight, and this moment, all light can both be absorbed (see figure 7) twice just; After incident angle is greater than 20 degree, a part of sunlight can not be absorbed twice, and the monocrystalline silicon surface (see figure 8) just is reflected out after only being absorbed once.Therefore, for desirable textured mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic battery panel, when incident angle was spent smaller or equal to 20, monocrystalline silicon differed very little for the absorptivity of light.At this, we might as well be called this phenomenon " the maximum tolerance incident angle of textured mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell ", are called for short at " maximum tolerance angle ".
Consider that actual suede structure may be unsatisfactory, the part defective may appear in " pyramid-like " structure on its surface, the mixed economy factor, and actual maximum tolerance angle is taken as 15 degree usually.
Be 15 degree according to actual maximum tolerance angle, can with sky discrete be five regional (see figure 9)s.On a fixing sea level, the sun is risen by the east on this sea level, and the west falls, and moves by counterclockwise in Fig. 8.In the process of two 15 degree that the sun has just risen and fallen soon, i.e. early morning generally and dusk, the intensity of illumination of this moment is extremely faint, there is no need to follow spot, and therefore these two zones is neglected.
And then, along with the sun constantly moves, when the angle on sunlight and sea level in 15 degree (see figure 10) between 45 degree time, this zone is axis of symmetry with the heavy line 1 in scheming, so at this moment, only need to guarantee that the solar cell board plane is vertical with solid line 1, just can guarantee that regional solar angle is always less than actual maximum tolerance angle 15 degree at 1 o'clock.As previously mentioned, the sunlight in early morning can be grouped into regional 1 unified management, namely when the angle on sunlight and sea level at 0 degree between 45 degree time, solar panel is vertical with light 1 all the time.In like manner can get regional 5 situation (seeing Figure 11).
In like manner, along with the sun constantly moves, we are easy to draw the correlation circumstance (seeing Figure 12 and Figure 13) in zone 2,3 and 4.
In order more clearly to express this process, now this process is tabulated to show explanation (seeing Table 1)
The process of the discrete sky of table 1.
In sum, solar panel only need in time be finished the purpose that the generating of following spot just can be efficiently finished in five actions in one day.That is to say, need only sensor energy these five zones of perception and make the task that corresponding actions just can be finished the discovery of following spot.This is one of principle of distributing of front photoresistance just also.
Can not only improve the generating efficiency of solar panel so greatly, more can reduce the loss of electric machine, reduce the motor misoperation, thereby reduce the cost of solar electrical energy generation.
The control strategy of sensor of following spot at first need be considered based on earth model.
When being reference frame with the earth, sun's motion can be decomposed into two parts: a part is that the east of the sun in one day rises the west and falls, and another part is sun north and south motion along with season.From theoretical analysis, if the solar panel of the generating of following spot will well be followed spot, just must follow the tracks of these two kinds of motions.Therefore, the theoretical generating mould plate of following spot is made up of two motors at least, does radially for one and rotates, and one axially rotates (seeing Figure 14).One of them motor is responsible for following the tracks of east in the sun one day and is risen the west motion that falls, and here we are called " day motor ", and another motor is responsible for following the tracks of that the sun is with the north and south motion in season in 1 year, and here we are called " season motor ".
(see Figure 15) when a solar panel is placed horizontally on the equator, according to relevant astronomic knowledge, the moved farthest of North and South direction can only arrive the north and south tropic in the sun 1 year.In 1 year, the incident angle of North and South direction maximum only is 23.5 degree so.Therefore, in 1 year, the incident angle most of the time of the solar panel North and South direction of this region is all less than the 20 theoretical maximum tolerance angles of spending, and the abundantest most times of solar energy resources in almost having comprised 1 year in the scope at the actual theoretical maximum tolerance angles of 15 degree.Can be drawn by above analysis, be placed horizontally at solar panel on the equator needs " season motor " just can finish preferably to follow spot generating hardly in 1 year task.
When a solar panel that is on the tropic of Cancer, with its when being 23.5 degree and placing with the sea level (seeing Figure 16), still can obtain the same conclusion with equatorial positions---do not need " season motor ".In like manner can get the situation of the tropic of Capricorn.
The situation of comprehensive equatorial positions and tropic position, north and south, can reach a conclusion: the Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) of following spot in the tropic scope of north and south by rational installation, can not need " season motor " still can better finish to follow spot the task of generating.
When solar panel is in outside the tropic of north and south, because this region solar energy resources in summer is abundanter, and winter is less.Therefore can suitably regulate the angle on solar panel and sea level, can better utilization solar energy resources in summer, this moment the mixed economy factor, with still can yet be regarded as a kind of selection (seeing Figure 17 and Figure 18) of wisdom of " season motor " omission.
Comprehensive above analysis, behind the angle on our reasonable Arrangement solar panel and sea level, can find in the contribution rate of the Sino-Japan motor of Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) of following spot extremely low, and day a motor increased energy consumption and loss, unreasonable.Therefore we can choose the scheme of a compromise, as shown in figure 19, only with a day motor control solar panel and follow spot.Improved device all is being better than traditional type aspect energy consumption, cost, the steering wheel control, and improved device is with respect to traditional, and structure is simpler.
The above; only be the preferable embodiment of the present invention; these embodiments all are based on the different implementations under the general idea of the present invention; and protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto; anyly be familiar with those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the present invention discloses; the variation that can expect easily or replacement all should be encompassed within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. a solar electrical energy generation is with the sensor of following spot, it is characterized in that, the convex lens (2), photoresistance (3) and the circuit board (4) that comprise sensor outer housing (1), sensor, described photoresistance (3) is fixed on the circuit board (4), the convex lens of sensor (2) are arranged on the upper body of sensor outer housing (1), fixedly connected with circuit board (4) in the lower end of sensor outer housing (1).
2. solar electrical energy generation according to claim 1 is with the sensor of following spot, it is characterized in that, described circuit board (4) is provided with five row's photoresistance (3), is followed successively by first row's photoresistance (A), second row's photoresistance (B), the 3rd row's photoresistance (C), the 4th row's photoresistance (D) and the 5th from a side of circuit board (4) to opposite side and arranges photoresistance (E).
3. solar electrical energy generation according to claim 2 is with the sensor of following spot, it is characterized in that, focal length (the f)=13.2mm of the convex lens of described sensor (2), the convex lens of sensor (2) and the 3rd are arranged and are provided with a straight line (F) vertical with circuit board (4) between the photoresistance (C), first arranges angle φ 1=45 ° between photoresistance (A) and the straight line (F), second arranges angle φ 2=15 ° between photoresistance (B) and the straight line (F), the 4th arranges angle φ 3=45 ° between photoresistance (D) and the straight line (F), and the 5th arranges angle φ 4=75 ° between photoresistance (E) and the straight line (F); Between the 5th row photoresistance (E) and the straight line (F) apart from d1=49.26mm, between the 4th row photoresistance (D) and the straight line (F) apart from d2=13.2mm, between second row photoresistance (B) and the straight line (F) apart from d3=3.5mm, first arrange between photoresistance (A) and the straight line (F) apart from d4=13.2mm.
CN201310092715.XA 2013-03-22 2013-03-22 A kind of solar electrical energy generation sensor of following spot Active CN103197690B (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070256732A1 (en) * 2006-05-02 2007-11-08 Ming-Hsien Shen Photovoltaic module
CN101626211A (en) * 2009-04-04 2010-01-13 张晋 Single tooth-shaped band driving group synchronous tracking sunlight automatic tracking device based on running track from sun to earth
US20100313933A1 (en) * 2008-02-21 2010-12-16 Jianguo Xu Reflector-solar receiver assembly and solar module
CN101943917A (en) * 2010-09-08 2011-01-12 上海理工大学 Light ray automatic-tracking device
CN102354222A (en) * 2011-08-08 2012-02-15 上海聚恒太阳能有限公司 Shadow-free tracking method for double-axis solar photovoltaic array power generation system
CN102360226A (en) * 2011-08-30 2012-02-22 陈燕 Method for tracking sunlight energy

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070256732A1 (en) * 2006-05-02 2007-11-08 Ming-Hsien Shen Photovoltaic module
US20100313933A1 (en) * 2008-02-21 2010-12-16 Jianguo Xu Reflector-solar receiver assembly and solar module
CN101626211A (en) * 2009-04-04 2010-01-13 张晋 Single tooth-shaped band driving group synchronous tracking sunlight automatic tracking device based on running track from sun to earth
CN101943917A (en) * 2010-09-08 2011-01-12 上海理工大学 Light ray automatic-tracking device
CN102354222A (en) * 2011-08-08 2012-02-15 上海聚恒太阳能有限公司 Shadow-free tracking method for double-axis solar photovoltaic array power generation system
CN102360226A (en) * 2011-08-30 2012-02-22 陈燕 Method for tracking sunlight energy

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