CN102798601B - Soil organic matter detection apparatus and detection method - Google Patents

Soil organic matter detection apparatus and detection method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102798601B
CN102798601B CN201210286344.4A CN201210286344A CN102798601B CN 102798601 B CN102798601 B CN 102798601B CN 201210286344 A CN201210286344 A CN 201210286344A CN 102798601 B CN102798601 B CN 102798601B
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pedotheque
module
detection
light
sampling
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CN201210286344.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102798601A (en
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章海亮
何勇
陈纳
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浙江大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a soil organic matter detection apparatus, which comprises a sampling vehicle, a sampling module arranged at the bottom of the sampling vehicle, an illumination probe module used for emitting detection light to the soil sample in the sampling module, a spectrum acquisition module used for receiving the soil sample reflected light, and a spectrum processing module used for receiving and processing the signals from the spectrum acquisition module. The structure of the soil organic matter detection apparatus is compact, the used LED spot light source has the characteristics of less energy consumption, strong stability and strong mobility, and the detection apparatus is suitable for on-site detection, and the detection structure is not influenced by external light. The invention also discloses a method for detecting the soil organic matter by using the soil organic matter detection apparatus, the method has the advantages of high detection precision, fast speed and strong stability, and can realize the real time monitoring of the soil organic matter.

Description

A kind of soil organism pick-up unit and detection method

Technical field

The present invention relates to Soil Testing, be specifically related to a kind of soil organism pick-up unit and detection method.

Background technology

The soil organism is the important composition composition of solid phase of soil part, is one of important indicator of reflect soil fertility height, has vital role for improving the aspect such as soil physical property, raising soil fertilizer ability.

Although the content of the soil organism only accounts for a very little part for soil total amount, it is significant to aspects such as Zinc fractions, environmental protection and agriculture and forestry sustainable developments.

The content of the soil organism is widely different in different soils, and what content was high reaches more than 20 ~ 30% (as peat soils, some fertile forest soil etc.), content low less than 0.5 ~ 1% (as desert soil and aeolian sandy soil etc.).In pedology, generally the soil of the content of organic matter in arable layer more than 20% is called organic soil, the soil of the content of organic matter below 20% is called mineral soil.

The soil organism generally exists with three types state:

(1) fresh organism: enter the residual body of the animal and plant be not yet decomposed by the microorganisms in soil, they still maintain the features such as original form;

(2) organism decomposed: through the decomposition of microorganism, make the residual body of animal and plant entered in soil lose the features such as original form, organic matter is decomposed, and mutually tangles, in brown, comprise the simple organic compound of organic decomposition product and new synthesis;

(3) soil ulmin: a kind of brown that organic matter also synthesizes after microbial decomposition again or dun macromolecular colloid material, combine closely with soil mineral grogs, be the Main Morphology type that the soil organism exists, account for 85% of soil organism total amount.

The preprocess method of application number to be the disclosure of the invention of 200910156632.6 a kind of during moveable-type soil detects sample, comprise the following steps: a, obtain pedotheque at soil surveying point place, and placing it on well heater, described well heater is arranged on grinding unit; B, described well heater dry pedotheque; C, mobile described well heater or sieve, import grinding unit by pedotheque; Grinding unit is utilized to grind the pedotheque of its inside; D, make sieve in running order, overturn described grinding unit, the pedotheque after grinding is sieved.

Application number is the pretreatment unit that the utility model of 200920295569.X discloses sample in the detection of a kind of moveable-type soil, and described pretreatment unit comprises: for splendid attire and the grinding unit grinding pedotheque; For screening the sieve of the rear pedotheque of grinding; For placing, the well heater of heating soil sample; Described well heater and sieve are arranged on grinding unit.

Existing soil organic matter content measures based on chemical analysis method, needs professional's sample preparation, and has that sample preparation is loaded down with trivial details, detection time is long and the shortcoming such as testing cost is high.

Summary of the invention

The invention provides a kind of soil organism pick-up unit and detection method, the field quick detection of pedotheque organic matter can be realized, simple to operate, easy to use.

A kind of soil organism pick-up unit, comprising:

Sampling vehicle;

Be arranged on the sampling module bottom described sampling vehicle;

For launching the illumination probe module detecting light to the pedotheque in sampling module;

For receiving the spectra collection module of pedotheque reflected light;

For receiving and processing the spectral manipulation module of the signal from described spectra collection module.

Described sampling module is arranged on bottom sampling vehicle, pedotheque sampling and sample making course disposablely can be completed in the process that sampling car advances, after pedotheque sample preparation completes, described illumination probe module launches the detection light of specific wavelength to pedotheque, reflected light is obtained after pedotheque reflection, described spectra collection module acquires reflected light, is processed by the signal of described spectral manipulation module to gathered reflected light, obtains the content of organic matter of pedotheque.

As preferably, described illumination probe module is included in LED point light source array and condenser lens that light path is arranged successively, each one of the LED light source that described LED point light source array comprises 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm, all LED light sources are circular arrangement and are uniformly distributed.

Described LED electrical array of source sends the detection light of different wave length, exposes on pedotheque after the detection light line focus lens focus of different wave length.

As preferably, the optical axis of every LED light source and the axis of described annular are in angle of 45 degrees.

In angle of 45 degrees, i.e. the optical axis of all LED light sources and the axes intersect of described annular, this intersection point is positioned at the detection light light path working direction that LED light source sends for the optical axis of described every LED light source and the axis of described annular.

As preferably, described spectra collection module comprises the optical fiber receiving sample reflection light and the light sensor receiving this optical fiber institute transmission signal.

The detection light of the corresponding different wave length of described light sensor is arranged, namely corresponding wavelength 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm are respectively equipped with light sensor, and described light sensor receives the reflected light from the different wave length of pedotheque.

As preferably, described sampling module comprises the camera bellows, compact heap and the twin wrest that connect successively along sampling vehicle working direction, described camera bellows bottom surface is with thief hatch, and the signals collecting end of described LED point light source array, condenser lens and optical fiber is all arranged in described camera bellows.

When sampling vehicle advances, upper soll layer is first removed by described twin wrest, utilize described compact heap by pedotheque compacting, sampling vehicle moves on, remove topsoil the pedotheque of compacting enters in described camera bellows, described LED point light source array emitter detects light, pedotheque is exposed to after line focus lens focus, reflected light is obtained after pedotheque reflection, described fiber-optic signal collection terminal gathers reflected light signal, this signal to spectral manipulation module, after treatment, obtains the pedotheque content of organic matter through Optical Fiber Transmission.

Pedotheque is placed in described camera bellows, avoids the interference that extraneous light gathers for pedotheque reflected light signal, improves the degree of accuracy that the pedotheque content of organic matter is measured.

As preferably, described sampling vehicle threaded engagement has the leading screw vertically arranged, bottom and the described compact heap of described leading screw are rotatably assorted and axial limiting, and the top of described leading screw is fixed with rotating handles.

Rotate described rotating handles, described compact heap can be regulated relative to the height of soil, also namely regulate soil packing degree.When sampling vehicle advances, upper soll layer is first removed by described twin wrest, and compact heap marches to this soil surface, by rotating rotating handles, compact heap is declined, by pedotheque compacting, sampling vehicle moves on, and removes topsoil the pedotheque of compacting and enters in described camera bellows.

In order to make the compacting of pedotheque more convenient, preferably, the bottom surface of described compact heap is inclined-plane, and this side, inclined-plane is connected with the bottom surface of twin wrest is concordant, and opposite side reduces gradually.When described sampling vehicle advances, after upper soll layer is removed by twin wrest, compact heap marches to this soil, because the side of compact heap away from twin wrest reduces gradually, when sampling vehicle is advanced, can complete the compacting of pedotheque simultaneously.

A kind of soil organism of the present invention structure of the detecting device is compact, LED point light source less energy consumption used and stability is strong, and movability is strong, be applicable to Site Detection, detection architecture is not disturbed by extraneous light, and accuracy of detection is high, speed is fast, can meet the demand detected in real time soil organic matter content.

Present invention also offers a kind of method utilizing described soil organism pick-up unit to detect the soil organism, comprise the steps:

(1) utilize described sampling module to gather pedotheque, utilize the detection light that described illumination probe module is 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm to pedotheque emission wavelength;

(2) utilize described spectra collection module to receive the reflected light of pedotheque, utilize spectral manipulation module to extract the reflectivity of pedotheque at different wave length place;

(3) spectral manipulation module is utilized to be passed through by gained reflectivity equation calculates the pedotheque content of organic matter;

Wherein, C is the pedotheque content of organic matter;

λ i is the wavelength detecting light;

The detection light reflectance that R (λ i) is wavelength X i;

A 0~ a 7be respectively :-111.6,124.2,6.4 ,-633.8 ,-367.5,918.9 ,-206.4,117.6;

B is: 32.2.

Be the reflective information of the detection light of 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm to wavelength by extraction pedotheque, obtain the reflectivity of pedotheque at different wave length place, gained reflectivity is brought into calculate the pedotheque content of organic matter.

Described middle coefficient a 0~ a 7and b is by after the test different soils sample content of organic matter, utilizes partial least square method modeling to obtain.

As preferably, before launching detection light to described pedotheque, strike off pedotheque superficial layer and compacting.The content of organic matter of pedotheque superficial layer is different from pedotheque, after being removed by pedotheque superficial layer, reduces the error measured the pedotheque content of organic matter.Pedotheque compacting can avoid the measuring error brought of different shatter value sample.

Soil organism detection method provided by the invention, accuracy of detection is high, and speed is fast, and stability is strong, can realize the Real-Time Monitoring of the soil organism.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is a kind of soil organism pick-up unit of the present invention schematic diagram;

Fig. 2 is a kind of soil organism pick-up unit of the present invention sampling module schematic diagram.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, a kind of soil organism pick-up unit of the present invention is described in detail.

A kind of soil organism pick-up unit of the present invention, comprise sampling vehicle, be arranged on sampling module bottom sampling vehicle, for launch to the pedotheque in sampling module detect light illumination probe module, for receive pedotheque reflected light spectra collection module and for receiving and processing the spectral manipulation module of the signal from spectra collection module.

Sampling vehicle comprises car body 15 and wheel 1, and conveniently moving is suitable for the in-site measurement of pedotheque organic matter.

Illumination probe module is included in LED point light source array and condenser lens that light path is arranged successively, LED point light source array comprises each one of the LED light source of 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm, all LED light sources are circular arrangement and are uniformly distributed, and the optical axis of every LED light source and the axis of annular are in angle of 45 degrees.

Be provided with constant-current supply 14 and power regulator device 13 in car body, produce 24v direct current, power to LED point light source.

Spectra collection module comprises the optical fiber 2 receiving sample reflection light and the light sensor 7 receiving this optical fiber 2 transmission signals, the detection light of the corresponding LED point light source different wave length of light sensor 7 is arranged, namely corresponding wavelength 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm are respectively equipped with light sensor 7, and light sensor 7 receives the reflected light of the different wave length from pedotheque.

Sampling module comprises the camera bellows 17, compact heap 19 and the twin wrest 20 that connect successively along sampling vehicle working direction, camera bellows 17, compact heap 19 and twin wrest 20 can be one-body molded, also can be welded into a whole, camera bellows 17 bottom surface is with thief hatch, the signals collecting end of LED point light source array, condenser lens and optical fiber 2 is all arranged in camera bellows 17, camera bellows 17 top is provided with through hole 16, and optical fiber 2 runs through this through hole 16, makes the signals collecting end of optical fiber 2 be arranged in camera bellows 17.

Sampling vehicle threaded engagement has the leading screw 6 vertically arranged, bottom and the compact heap 19 of leading screw 6 are rotatably assorted and axial limiting, and compact heap 19 top is provided with the perforate 18 with leading screw 6 threaded engagement, and the top of leading screw 6 is fixed with rotating handles 8.

The bottom surface of compact heap 19 is inclined-plane, and this side, inclined-plane is connected with the bottom surface of twin wrest 20 is concordant, and opposite side reduces gradually.

Spectra collection module and spectral manipulation module are positioned at sampling vehicle, illumination probe module of the present invention, spectra collection module and spectral manipulation module are consuming parts, in order to ensure illumination probe module, the normal work of spectra collection module and spectral manipulation module, illumination probe module is should be understood under the prerequisite not having specified otherwise, spectra collection module and spectral manipulation module are all connected with the power supply matched, illumination probe module, spectra collection module and spectral manipulation module can adopt same general supply, also according to actual needs power supply can be set separately, or by illumination probe module, the transmission of the circuit realiration power supply signal between spectra collection module and spectral manipulation module.Spatial relation between each consuming parts does not strictly limit, but adopts the circuit arrangement that integrated level is higher as much as possible for the ease of processing and installation.

Sampling vehicle is also provided with corresponding spectra collection module switch 12, the master switch 11 of whole soil organism pick-up unit and the display screen 10 of spectral manipulation resume module result.

Spectral manipulation module comprises circuit board PCM-9361, and carry out communication by com port and RS232 line and display screen 10, circuit board PCM-9361 is powered to display screen 10 by USB line, circuit board PCM-9361 by data line by data write/read data-carrier store.

When a kind of soil organism pick-up unit of the present invention works, mobile sampling vehicle is to needing the sampled point measuring the soil organism, twin wrest 20 removes soil surface layer, compact heap 19 obtains pedotheque by going out the soil compression after scalping, pedotheque moves in camera bellows 17, illumination probe module is close to pedotheque, open master switch 11, the detection light of different wave length is launched to pedotheque, open spectra collection module switch 12, detect light after pedotheque reflection, gather reflected signal by optical fiber 2 and be passed to spectral manipulation module, after spectral manipulation resume module, by the display of the content of organic matter of pedotheque on the display screen 10.

The present invention utilizes described soil organism pick-up unit to detect the method for the soil organism, and 8, a kind of method utilizing the described soil organism pick-up unit detection soil organism as arbitrary in claim 1 ~ 7, it is characterized in that, comprise the steps:

(1) utilize described sampling module to gather pedotheque, utilize the detection light that described illumination probe module is 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm to pedotheque emission wavelength;

(2) utilize described spectra collection module to receive the reflected light of pedotheque, utilize spectral manipulation module to extract the reflectivity of pedotheque at different wave length place;

(3) spectral manipulation module is utilized to be passed through by gained reflectivity equation calculates the pedotheque content of organic matter;

Wherein, C is the pedotheque content of organic matter;

λ i is the wavelength detecting light;

The detection light reflectance that R (λ i) is wavelength X i;

A 0~ a 7be respectively :-111.6,124.2,6.4 ,-633.8 ,-367.5,918.9 ,-206.4,117.6;

B is: 32.2.

The soil organic matter content unit calculated by this formula is g/kg.

Utilize the index of correlation of method establishment model provided by the invention in table 1, wherein, during modeling set representations Modling model, utilize the reflectivity of pedotheque and existing method to test the content of organic matter matching obtained and obtain model equation, forecast set represents, after having set up model, the content of organic matter matching using pedotheque to obtain according to model equation obtains typical curve.

Table 1

Embodiment 1 ~ 10

Utilize apparatus and method provided by the invention to test the pedotheque content of organic matter, test result is in table 2.

Table 2

By table 2 data, can find out, it is close that the soil organic matter content utilizing the inventive method to record and existing method test the data obtained, and utilizes the present invention can Fast Measurement soil with organic matter content, reliable results.

Claims (1)

1. utilize soil organism pick-up unit to detect a method for the soil organism, it is characterized in that, described soil organism pick-up unit comprises:
Sampling vehicle;
Be arranged on the sampling module bottom described sampling vehicle, this sampling module comprises the camera bellows, compact heap and the twin wrest that connect successively along sampling vehicle working direction;
The bottom surface of described compact heap is inclined-plane, and this side, inclined-plane is connected with the bottom surface of twin wrest is concordant, and opposite side reduces gradually;
Described sampling vehicle threaded engagement has the leading screw vertically arranged, bottom and the described compact heap of described leading screw are rotatably assorted and axial limiting, and the top of described leading screw is fixed with rotating handles;
For launching the illumination probe module detecting light to the pedotheque in sampling module; Described illumination probe module is included in LED point light source array and condenser lens that light path is arranged successively, each one of the LED light source that described LED point light source array comprises 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm, all LED light sources are circular arrangement and are uniformly distributed; The optical axis of every LED light source and the axis of described annular are in angle of 45 degrees;
For receiving the spectra collection module of pedotheque reflected light, this spectra collection module comprises the optical fiber receiving sample reflection light and the light sensor receiving this optical fiber institute transmission signal;
Described camera bellows bottom surface is with thief hatch, and the signals collecting end of described LED point light source array, condenser lens and optical fiber is all arranged in described camera bellows;
For receiving and processing the spectral manipulation module of the signal from described spectra collection module;
The method of the described detection soil organism, comprises the steps:
(1) described sampling module is utilized to gather pedotheque, strike off pedotheque superficial layer and compacting, utilize the detection light that described illumination probe module is 420nm, 450nm, 486nm, 583nm, 650nm, 740nm, 920nm and 1130nm to pedotheque emission wavelength;
(2) utilize described spectra collection module to receive the reflected light of pedotheque, utilize spectral manipulation module to extract the reflectivity of pedotheque at different wave length place;
(3) spectral manipulation module is utilized to be passed through by gained reflectivity equation calculates the pedotheque content of organic matter;
Wherein, C is the pedotheque content of organic matter;
λ i is the wavelength detecting light;
The detection light reflectance that R (λ i) is wavelength X i;
A 0~ a 7be respectively :-111.6,124.2,6.4 ,-633.8 ,-367.5,918.9 ,-206.4,117.6;
B is: 32.2.
CN201210286344.4A 2012-08-13 2012-08-13 Soil organic matter detection apparatus and detection method CN102798601B (en)

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CN103234922A (en) * 2013-03-29 2013-08-07 浙江大学 Rapid soil organic matter detection method based on large sample soil visible-near infrared spectrum classification
CN103471990B (en) * 2013-08-23 2015-10-28 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 The On-line Measuring Method of the salinization soil content of organic matter
CN103528966B (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-10-28 浙江工业大学 The organic spectra collection method in the depth of soil face of cylinder and device thereof
CN103528974A (en) * 2013-09-18 2014-01-22 浙江工业大学 Method and device for determining content of organic matters in black soil in Northeast China based on spectral characteristic wavelength
CN104181109B (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-04-20 浙江大学 For the device of field test earth pillar EO-1 hyperion
CN104089968A (en) * 2014-07-18 2014-10-08 上海化工研究院 Device for detecting heavy metal in soil on site by rotary bucket type XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) method
CN105319172B (en) * 2015-11-17 2018-02-16 中国计量学院 Soil nutrient detection means based on visible and near infrared spectrum technology
CN106248468A (en) * 2016-10-09 2016-12-21 塔里木大学 A kind of detection method of humic acids from different soils content

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