CN101556240B - Chlorophyll measuring apparatus based on RGB (red, green and blue) three-primary colors digital signals - Google Patents

Chlorophyll measuring apparatus based on RGB (red, green and blue) three-primary colors digital signals Download PDF

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CN101556240B
CN101556240B CN2009100689776A CN200910068977A CN101556240B CN 101556240 B CN101556240 B CN 101556240B CN 2009100689776 A CN2009100689776 A CN 2009100689776A CN 200910068977 A CN200910068977 A CN 200910068977A CN 101556240 B CN101556240 B CN 101556240B
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light
chlorophyll
digital signal
module
pin
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CN101556240A (en
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何明霞
张素娟
李进才
王璞
李萌
张旭
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Tianjin University
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Tianjin University
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of photoelectric measurement, relating to a chlorophyll measuring apparatus. A mechanical structure part of the device comprises a light source, a T-shapedobject stage and a sensor seat, wherein the light source contains a white light LED, the bottom of the sensor seat is provided with a color sensor, and a photophobic probe structure is formed by the light source, the object stage and the sensor seat; a circuit part of the apparatus comprises a light source module driving the white light LED, a digital signal sensor module and a digital signal processing and controlling module; the digital signal sensor module collects the light intensity information of red light, green light and blue light in probe light transmitting an object to be measured at different time by the color sensor, and transforms light intensity signals into square signals for outputting; the digital signal processing and controlling module captures the three square signalsso as to obtain frequency signals representing the light intensity information of red light, green light and blue light, and simultaneously calculates the chlorophyll content in the objected to be me asured according to the multiplex linear regression equation between the three frequency signals and the chlorophyll content. The apparatus has the advantages of simple and stable lighting source, relatively accurate measured chlorophyll content and the like.

Description

A kind of chlorophyll measuring apparatus based on the Red Green Blue digital signal
Technical field
The invention belongs to the photoelectric measurement technical field, relate to a kind of optical electron surveying instrument that is used to measure chlorophyll content of plant, particularly relate to a kind of chlorophyll measuring apparatus based on the Red Green Blue digital signal.
Background technology
Chlorophyll is that green plants carries out photosynthetic material base, is the important indicator of the growth of research plant, physiological metabolism and nutrition condition.The chlorophyll content of measuring plant leaf blade can be for the research physiological feature, recommend nitrogen application, tap the production potential and variety source etc. provides scientific basis.The plant leaf blade measuring chlorophyll content mainly contains three kinds of chemical analysis, computer vision method and chlorophyll instrument methods.This quantivative approach precision of chemical analysis is higher, need grind blade but produce chlorophyll solution, wastes time and energy, and has destroyed leaf tissue, is only applicable to laboratory measurement.The computer vision method can be applicable to vehicle-mounted farmland diagnostic system, is a kind of quick, non-contacting measuring method, but its realization needs the participation and the mass data storehouse deposit of host computer, and the total system volume is bigger, carries inconvenience.Chlorophyll instrument method is to see through light or catoptrical relevant information by what read plant leaf blade, draws a kind of method of plant leaf chlorophyll content.Chlorophyll instrument method has in real time, fast, does not destroy advantages such as blade.The most representative in the existing portable chlorophyll instrument is the SPAD502 of Japanese Minolta company.SPAD502 inside has sends the LED that wavelength is the light of 650nm and 940nm (LightEmitting Diode, light emitting diode), and chlorophyll has higher absorbance to the infrared light of 650nm, and extremely low to the infrared light absorbance of 940nm.The principle of work of SPAD502 is to be reference with the 940nm infrared light, measures the absorbance of blade at the 650nm place.Because SPAD502 only utilizes the photo measure of two wave bands, the absorbance information that obtains is limited, so measuring accuracy is lower.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention is exactly at the deficiencies in the prior art, and a kind of chlorophyll measuring apparatus is provided, and it has characteristics such as lighting source is simple, stable, and it is accurate that chlorophyll is measured relative content, and the apparatus structure dexterity is practical, be easy to carry.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of chlorophyll measuring apparatus based on the Red Green Blue digital signal, its physical construction partly comprises casing, rotating shaft, column, light source, T type objective table, sensor holder, plug is placed with white light LEDs in the described light source, and light source links to each other with cabinet by rotating shaft, plug, column, the sensor holder bottom is placed with color sensor, and T type loading stand is on sensor holder top; Light source, objective table and sensor holder constitute lucifuge formula sonde configuration; Its circuit part comprises the light source module that drives white light LEDs, digital signal sensors module, digital signal processing control module, USB flash disk data memory module, LCD LCD MODULE; Light source module drives white light LEDs, makes it send stable test white light; The digital signal sensors module sees through ruddiness in the detection light of determinand, green glow, blue light intensity signal and light intensity signal is converted into square-wave signal by the color sensor acquisition time; The digital signal processing control module is caught three kinds of square-wave signals, obtains characterizing the frequency signal of ruddiness, green glow, blue light intensity signal, and calculates the chlorophyll content of determinand according to the multiple linear regression equations between three kinds of frequency signals and the chlorophyll content.
As preferred implementation, chlorophyll measuring apparatus of the present invention, described color sensor is TCS230, three kinds of optical filters that correspond respectively to ruddiness, green glow, blue light are contained in its inside, optical filter timesharing gating is converted into the square wave digital signal with the transmitted light light intensity signal, and its square wave frequency is directly proportional with the transmitted light light intensity.Described T type objective table can have two kinds of structures, and a kind of is that upper and lower surface all is planes, and the centre is offered porose.Another kind is on first kind basis, offers a shallow big groove at the upper surface of objective table, offers a dark little groove in shallow big groove again, offers screw thread in the described little groove, is connected with a hollow cylinder by screw thread.
The present invention is a light source with stable white light, utilize the color sensor acquisition time to see through ruddiness, green glow, the blue light intensity signal for the treatment of measuring plants, light source is simple, stable, and compares with chlorophyll instrument SPAD502, the information of obtaining is horn of plenty more, can reach higher degree of accuracy; Light source of the present invention, objective table, sensor holder constitute a lucifuge formula sonde configuration together, and this structure is for the chlorophyll content in leaf blades measurement provides the lucifuge environment, guarantee that the light near normal that light source sends beats on objective table and sensor.In a word, chlorophyll measuring apparatus of the present invention, it is simple, stable to have a lighting source, chlorophyll content is measured relatively accurate, apparatus structure dexterous practical, characteristics such as be easy to carry.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the system architecture synoptic diagram;
Fig. 2 is the circuit diagram of light source module;
Fig. 3 is the TCS230 functional block diagram;
Fig. 4 is the digital signal sensors module circuit diagram;
Fig. 5 is a digital signal processing control module circuit diagram;
Fig. 6 is a main program flow chart;
Fig. 7 is the LCD MODULE circuit diagram;
Fig. 8 is a USB flash disk data memory module circuit diagram;
Fig. 9 is the voltage transformation module circuit diagram;
Figure 10 is the lithium cell charging module circuit diagram;
Figure 11 is the instrument mechanical construction drawing;
Figure 12 is objective table impeller structure figure;
Figure 13 is an objective table bacterium structural drawing.
Specific implementation method
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and example.
(1) functional module of instrument and circuit thereof
The chlorophyll measuring apparatus of this example, structure comprise the led light source module as shown in Figure 1, digital signal sensors module, digital signal processing control module, USB flash disk data memory module, LCD LCD MODULE, and the physical construction part of instrument.Testing light source is all band White LED, and light source module is used for LED and drives, and makes LED send stable test white light; The test white light is vertically beaten on plant leaf blade and is seen through plant leaf blade and received by digital signal sensors module main chip TCS230, TCS230 contains inside three kinds of optical filters corresponding to ruddiness (R), green glow (G), blue light (B), filter plate timesharing gating, the transmitted light light intensity signal is converted into square-wave signal, and square wave frequency is directly proportional with the transmitted light light intensity.Square-wave signal is input to the digital signal processing control module, this module main chip single-chip microcomputer utilizes inner integrated comparison/seizure/width modulation (CCP) module to carry out the seizure of square-wave signal, and adopt to survey periodic method and obtain R, G, the tripartite wave frequency of B, handle square wave frequency and calculate the chlorophyll content of institute's measuring plants blade according to its embedded mathematical model.
Below the selection of some functional modules is further described:
(1) light source module: adopting the high brightness full-spectrum LED is the instrument test radiant.LED test light light intensity changes with the variation of forward current, has guaranteed the stability of test light light intensity, and light-source system adopts special LED chip for driving---MAX1910 charge pump type LED chip for driving.This chip is transformed into the LED operating voltage with input voltage.Internal charge pump guarantees that SET end terminal voltage is 200mV, and the electric current of LED remains unchanged thereby assurance is flowed through, and has kept the brightness of LED.The MAX1910 volume is little, and peripheral circuit is simple, is that the ideal that is applied to portable instrument is selected.
Light source module has corresponding circuit, and as shown in Figure 2, its circuit is MAX1910 integrated circuit (IC) chip U5 by model, capacitor C 6-C10, and resistance R 9-R10, plug connector JP4, JP5 constitute; Capacitor C 6, C7 common end grounding, the other end links to each other by resistance R 9, the non-earth terminal of C7 directly links to each other with MAX1910 pin 2, pin 6, pin 8, the non-earth terminal of C6 links to each other with supply voltage VCC, 9 pin of 4 pin, the one termination U5 of one termination U5 of capacitor C 8,7 pin of 3 pin, the one termination U5 of capacitor C 9 one termination U5, the white light LEDs both positive and negative polarity links to each other with pin 2 with JP5 pin 1 respectively, JP5 pin 1 links to each other with capacitor C 10 1 ends and also receives 5 pin of U5, C10 other end ground connection, JP5 pin 2 receives 10 pin of U5 and by R10 ground connection, JP4 pin 2 links to each other with ground with voltage VCC respectively with pin 1.
(2) digital signal sensors module: receive to comprise the transmitted light of plant leaf blade chlorophyll content information and be converted into square-wave signal and export.Digital RGB color sensor is the TCS230 that U.S. TAOS company produces.It is industry first have the RBG color sensor of digital compatibility interface.TCS230 integrates photodiode array and electric current-frequency converter, light intensity signal is converted into the frequency signal of the square wave of dutycycle 50%.It has the output of 10 bit digital, and the resolving power height is that core sensor can be made spectrophotometric substitute products with it.TCS230 adopts the SOIC surface-adhered type encapsulation of 8 pins, and volume is little, and its peripheral circuit is simple, is applicable to portable equipment.The typical frequencies output area of TCS230 color sensor: 2Hz~500KHz, the gating of passage and output-scale-factor is configurable, can adapt to different measurement ranges.Select required wave filter by pin S2, S3, select 100%, 20%, 2% output-scale-factor or power remove pattern by pin S0, S1.The TCS230 structured flowchart as shown in Figure 3, Color Channel, output-scale-factor are selected as shown in table 1.
Table 1 Color Channel, output-scale-factor are selected
S0 S1 Output-scale-factor S2 S3 Color
L L Power remove L L Red
L H 2% L H Blue
H L 20% H L Do not have
H H 100% H H Green
The digital signal sensors module has corresponding circuit, and as shown in Figure 4, it is the integrated circuit U4 of TCS230D by model, capacitor C 29, and single-pole double-throw switch (SPDT) S4-S5, resistance R 28 is formed; 6,7,8 pin of integrated circuit U4 are connected respectively to 17,2,3 pin that the single-chip microcomputer model is PIC18F4523,5 pin of U4 meet supply voltage VCC simultaneously, 3,4 pin ground connection, 1, the public pole of 2 pin order double-pole double throw switch S4 and S5, the other two ends of single-pole double-throw switch (SPDT) one end ground connection, the other end meets the anodal VCC of supply voltage by resistance R 28, and U4 pin 3, pin 4 link to each other and be connected to U4 pin 5 by C29.
(3) digital signal processing control module: finish collection and the processing and the control of system's medium frequency signal by single-chip microcomputer.Single-chip microcomputer model: the PIC18F4523 of MICROCHIP company.Advantages such as the PIC series monolithic adopts reduced instruction set computer, Harvard's bus structure, and gets finger with pipeline system, and it is strong to have an antijamming capability, and travelling speed is fast.The command byte of PIC18F4523 single-chip microcomputer is 16, belongs to the high-grade single-chip microcomputer of PIC series, can be implemented in line debugging and online programming.
Frequency collection is finished by the CCP module of PIC single-chip microcomputer.CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM) module is made as trap mode, going up of input square wave jumped along as interrupt event, set up array T[n].Jump on each along the place, single-chip microcomputer all produces interruption, and CCP1 catches this value of TMR1H:TMR1L constantly, and deposits it in T[n] in, cycle of square wave can be obtained thus.Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) program adopts the C language compilation, under the MPLAB environment, carries out on-line debugging with ICD2.Main program flow chart as shown in Figure 5, S0, S1, S2, S3 are respectively reset key, initiating key, display key and reset key among the figure.
The digital signal processing control module has corresponding circuit, and as shown in Figure 6, it is the integrated circuit U1 chip of PIC18F4523 by model, capacitor C 11-C14, and crystal oscillator Y1, resistance R 12-R27, little button 1-4, plug connector JP10 forms; Capacitor C 11 and C12 parallel connection and terminate to 11 pin of U1 and meet the anodal VCC of supply voltage, the other end is received 12 pin and the ground connection of U1, U1 pin 13 connects 2 ends of crystal oscillator Y1 and passes through capacitor C 13, C14 connects 1 end of crystal oscillator and links to each other with 14 pin of U1, the 19-22 of U1, the 27-30 pin connects the supply voltage positive pole by pull-up resistor R20-R27, and be connected to the D0-D7 of LCD MODULE web member JP12 and the 15-22 pin of USB flash disk memory module U6 (CH375), keypad 2,3,42 end ground connection, 1 end is by resistance R 15, R17, R19 meets the anodal VCC of supply voltage, 34 of U1,35,6 pin are by resistance R 14, R16, R18 receives keypad 2,3,41 end, 2 end ground connection of keypad 1,1 end is by resistance R 12, R13 connects positive source, 1 termination R12 and the R13 connecting place of U1, and be connected to 1 pin of JP10, the 2 termination VCC of JP10,3 end ground connection, 4,5 termination U1 pin 40,39,6 ends are unsettled.
(4) LCD MODULE: this module is used for test data and shows, employing has that low-power consumption, volume are little, the LCD (LCD) of light weight, LCM128643 for Qingyun Chuangxin Science ﹠ Tech Co Ltd, Beijing, it adopts 8 bit parallel data transfer modes, include the DC-DC circuit, operating voltage is 5V, and the exemplary operation electric current is 2.7mA, adopt the COB encapsulation, show by Micro Controller Unit (MCU) driving LCD.The I/O mouth APORTD mouth of single-chip microcomputer PIC18F4523 directly is connected with the 8 bit data mouths of LCD, carries out exchanges data and instruction transmission.Simultaneously, single-chip microcomputer utilizes pin RB1, RB4, RB5, RC1, RC0 to link to each other with RS, RW, E, CSB, the CSA pin of LCD, the character and the direction of control data exchange.The inner integrated required negative voltage source of LCM128643 is in the circuit of reality, with V oBe connected on the adjustable end of potentiometer, potentiometer two stiff ends are connected on V OutOn the pin of GND, can be by regulating V oVoltage change the brightness of LCD
LCD MODULE has corresponding circuit, and as shown in Figure 7, the plug connector JP12 of LCD MODULE circuit wherein links to each other with LCD LCM128643C, and the JP12 peripheral circuit is by resistance R 29-R32, single-pole double-throw switch (SPDT) S6, and capacitor C 19 is formed; 20 pin of 3 pin of slide rheostat R32 one termination JP12 and another termination of ground connection JP12, output terminal connects JP12 pin 5 in the middle of it, single-pole double-throw switch (SPDT) S6 common port connects for VCC and ground by R30, R31 respectively, S6 is the optional termination JP12 pin 17 in two ends in addition, JP12 pin 19 meets VCC by R29, by electrochemical capacitor C19 ground connection, and JP12 pin 18 ground connection, pin 4 meets VCC, and JP12 pin 1,2,6,7,8 connects U1 pin 15,16,34,37,38.
(5) the USB flash disk data memory module is used for the immediate access measurement data, this modular circuit as shown in figure 10, circuit is by integrated circuit (IC) chip U6, plug connector JP11, resistance R 26, R33, R34, capacitor C 22-C28, crystal oscillator Y2 forms; Integrated circuit U6 is the usb bus interface chip, model is CH375, U6 pin 28 meets VCC, VCC is by C26 ground connection, and U6 pin 2 meets VCC by C22, and U6 pin 9 is by C23 ground connection, U6 pin 13 is by C24 ground connection, pin 14 is by C25 ground connection, crystal oscillator Y2 one termination U6 pin 13, another termination U6 pin 14, U6 pin 24 is by resistance R 33 sending and receiving optical diode D2 negative poles, the D2 positive pole meets supply voltage VCC, U6 pin 5,12,23 equal ground connection, U6 pin 1,3,4,8,27 respectively with U1 pin 33,9,8,6,10 link to each other, JP11 pin 1 is by C28 ground connection and pass through R34, C27 ground connection, R34, the public termination supply voltage of C27 VCC, JP11 pin 2, pin 3 connects U6 pin 10, pin 11, JP11 pin 4 ground connection.This circuit input end connects single-chip microcomputer and can realize inserting at any time the function that computing machine carries out data read.
(6) voltage transformation module also has corresponding circuit, and as shown in Figure 9, wherein circuit is by integrated circuit M1 chip, resistance R 6-R8, and capacitor C 3-C5, diode D3-D5, plug connector JP2, JP3, single-pole double-throw switch (SPDT) S1, S2 form; Integrated circuit M1 is the voltage transitions chip, model is MAX667, single-pole double-throw switch (SPDT) S1 common port and diode D3, the D4 negative pole links to each other, and pass through D3, D4 respectively with anode (JP1 pin 2), DC voltage VCCS links to each other, S1 two ends in addition has an end by shunt capacitance C3, C4 ground connection also is connected to M1 pin 8, resistance R 6 one termination M1 pin 8, another termination M1 pin 3 also passes through R7 ground connection, resistance R 8 one termination M1 pin, 2 another termination M1 pin 7 also link to each other with D5 is anodal, and C5 one another termination of end ground connection M1 pin 2 also links to each other plug connector JP2 with the S2 public pole, the corresponding pin of JP3 pin links to each other, pin 1 connects one of S2 residue two ends, pin 2 ground connection, M1 pin 4,5,6 ground connection, the D5 minus earth.
(7) the lithium cell charging module is used for providing power supply to this instrument, is convenient to the open air and carries.This module has corresponding circuit, and as shown in Figure 8, lithium cell charging modular circuit wherein is BQ2057W by integrated circuit (IC) chip U2 model, resistance R 1-R5, and capacitor C 0-C2, triode Q1, diode D1, plug connector JP0, JP1 form; Integrated circuit U2 is the battery charge chip, triode Q1 model is FZT788B, pass through shunt capacitance C0 between DC voltage VCCS and the ground GND, C1 connects, C0, C1 DC voltage VCCS end links to each other with U2 pin 3, U2 pin 1 links to each other with dc voltage VCCS by resistance R 1, U2 pin 2 links to each other with anode, resistance R 2 one ends link to each other with DC voltage VCCS, and the other end connects U2 pin 4 and by R1 ground connection, diode D1 positive pole links to each other with U2 pin 5, negative pole is by resistance R 5 ground connection, U2 pin 6 ground connection, U2 pin 8 connect DC voltage VCCS end, and triode Q1 pin 3 connects U2 pin 1, pin 1 connects U2 pin 7 by resistance R 4, pin 2 and pin 4 are by capacitor C 2 ground connection and connect anode, and anode connects 2 ends of JP1, and negative pole connects 1 end of JP1, DC voltage VCCS connects 2 ends of JP0, and ground connects 1 end of JP0.
(2) the mechanical composition structure of instrument
Below the physical construction of this instrument is further described:
As shown in figure 11, instrument physical construction partly comprises casing 1, rotating shaft 2, and connecting rod 3, column 4, light source 5, objective table 6, sensor holder 7, plug 8 is equipped with white light LEDs in the light source 5.The bottom of sensor holder 7 wherein is fixed with color sensor TCS230.Light source 5, objective table 6, sensor holder 7 constitute a lucifuge formula sonde configuration together, this structure provides the lucifuge environment for the chlorophyll content in leaf blades measurement, this structure guarantees that the light near normal that light source sends beats on objective table and sensor, and light source 5 can lift the measurement that realizes the picking and placeing of blade, fixing and big blade.Objective table wherein has two kinds of structures: a kind of is objective table leaf 6.1, is used for the plant leaf blade nondestructive measurement, and this structure is a projective table type structure, and upper and lower surface all is the plane, and there is one 4 * 4cm the centre 2Square hole, the structure of objective table leaf is as shown in Figure 1; Another kind of objective table is an objective table bacterium 6.2, be used for the measurement of various mushrooms, this structure is to dig two grooves that vary in size on objective table leaf upper surface basis, the vat 6.2.1 degree of depth is 2mm, the sulculus 6.2.2 degree of depth is 5mm, and it is that the screw thread of 1mm is used for fixing the wave carrier piece that is loaded with mushroom, dark externally threaded hollow cylinder 6.2.3 of 1mm and little groove fit that 5mm depth recess inside surface has internal diameter.The structure of objective table bacterium as shown in figure 13.Casing 1 is used for the installation of electronic circuit board in this physical construction, and connecting rod is by on the connecting rod, form under the connecting rod; Plug 8 is big by plug, the plug combo becomes.Rotating shaft 2, connecting rod 3, column 4, plug 8 are connected casing 1 with probe segment, their inside all has dead slot and realizes that circuit is connected between casing and probe segment electronic circuit board.
(3) based on the plant leaf blade chlorophyll content measuring method of this chlorophyll instrument
The acquisition of the embedded regression equation of RGB chlorophyll instrument:
Prepare a collection of plant sample blade, utilize RGB chlorophyll instrument to measure each leaf samples of plant.Led light source irradiation plant sample blade measurement zone during measurement, the transmitted light that passes blade is received by color sensor module and exports three square-wave signals of corresponding transmitted light redness (R), green (G), blue (B) intensity signal by this module, and square wave frequency is directly proportional with light intensity.The digital signal processing control module is caught three kinds of square-wave signals and is handled the frequency that obtains square-wave signal, frequency signal is carried out the LCD liquid crystal display and be sent to the USB flash disk storage.Utilizing spectrophotometer method to carry out each leaf samples chlorophyll content measures.Frequency values and chlorophyll content are sent to computing machine, utilize that the regress function carries out multiple linear regression to frequency values, chlorophyll content among the mathematical tool Matlab, obtain this instrument and carry out chlorophyll content and measure required regression equation, the regression equation coefficient is the parameter that RGB chlorophyll instrument need dispose when measuring.
When treating the measuring plants blade and measure, at first, utilize keyboard that chlorophyll measuring apparatus is carried out parameter configuration according to the multiple linear regression equations that obtains, obtain the embedded regression equation of RGB chlorophyll instrument; During measurement, the digital signal processing control module is at first gathered three kinds of square-wave signals and is calculated the square-wave signal frequency, the digital signal processing control module is according to frequency signal and embedded multiple linear regression equations then, calculate chlorophyll content, last digital signal processing control module is sent to LCD liquid crystal display and USB flash disk data storage with square-wave signal frequency, chlorophyll content.
Regression equation modelling of the present invention is according to being lambert-law of Beer and additive property thereof, and the RGB regression equation is:
h 0+h 1log 10R t+h 2log 10B t+h 3log 10G t=bc
In the formula: R tIt is transmit red light intensity frequency; G tIt is transmit green intensity frequency; B tIt is transmit blue intensity frequency; B is a measured leaf thickness; C is a chlorophyll concentration; h 0, h 1, h 2, h 3Be the regression equation coefficient, these coefficients are by a large amount of measurement data R t, G t, B t(be square wave digital signal f1, f2 f3) carries out polynary linear regression fit with chlorophyll content and obtains.
Being measured as example with the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content describes: choose the multi-disc cucumber leaves and make a collection of sample, utilize RGB chlorophyll instrument that each sample is measured the square-wave signal frequency values that characterizes the transmitted light intensity signal, be designated as R t, B t, G t, utilize spectrophotometer to record the chlorophyll content of leaf samples, utilize that the regress function carries out multiple linear regression to frequency values, chlorophyll content among the mathematical tool Matlab, obtain this instrument and carry out chlorophyll content and measure required regression equation:
-34.54+13.79log 10(R t)-93.58log 10(B t)+56.51log 10(G t)=y
In the formula: R tIt is transmit red light intensity frequency; G tIt is transmit green intensity frequency; B tIt is transmit blue intensity frequency; Y is the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content; The-34.54,13.79, the-93.58, the 56.51st, the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content is measured equation coefficient, respectively the h in the corresponding regression equation 0, h 1, h 2, h 3Utilizing Matlab that following formula is carried out multiple linear regression analysis gets: R 2=0.57, R=0.755, n=21, R are linearly dependent coefficient.According to the look-up table in the equation of linear regression test of significance approach equation of linear regression is significantly checked.Look-up table is the form that critical R value that the statist calculates according to significance of correlation coefficient t method of inspection is listed, and sees Table 1.Look-up table is that to look into degree of confidence according to degree of freedom n-2 be 0.05 and 0.01 o'clock critical R value, R 0.05 (n-2), R 0.01 (n-2), during check, with what calculate | R| and R 0.05 (n-2), R 0.01 (n-2)Relatively, make statistical inference.Table look-up in this test R 0.01 (n-2)=0.665, R 0.05 (n-2)=0.575, by 0.755>0.665, regression equation is for extremely remarkable, and the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content is measured regression model and set up.
Measure regression model according to the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content RGB chlorophyll instrument is carried out the parameter setting, be about to-34.54,13.79 ,-93.58,56.51 and be input to RGB chlorophyll instrument, obtain RGB chlorophyll instrument and measure the embedded regression model of cucumber leaves chlorophyll content by button.
The conspicuousness numerical tabular of form in the look-up table: r and R, table (2)
The conspicuousness numerical value of table 2r and R
(4) the plant leaf blade chlorophyll content is measured multivariate regression model
Further specify the multivariate regression model and the principle thereof that are adopted:
(1) sets up regression equation according to lambert-law of Beer and absorbance additive property
Lambert-law of Beer:
A = log 10 I t I 0 = log 10 1 T = Kbc - - - ( 1 )
The absorbance additive property:
A = A 1 + A 2 + . . . + A i = log 10 I t I 0 = log 10 1 T = K 1 bc 1 + K 2 bc 2 + . . . K i bc i - - - ( 2 )
When RGB chlorophyll instrument test white light passes plant leaf blade, R, G, three kinds of light light intensity of B can decay, the part of decay is absorbed by chlorophyll and causes, another part is by the absorption of other materials in the blade or block and cause, the decay that other factors cause can be regarded as by a kind of specific concentration extinction material and cause, the relation of setting up RGB chlorophyll apparatus measuring value and chlorophyll content according to lambert-law of Beer and absorbance additive property has:
Ruddiness: log 10 R 0 R t = K R bc + K xr bc x - - - ( 3 )
Green glow: log 10 G 0 G t = K G bc + K xg bc x - - - ( 4 )
Blue light: log 10 B 0 B t = K B bc + K xb bc x - - - ( 5 )
In the formula: R 0Be red-emitting intensity, R tBe transmit red light intensity, K RBe proportionality constant between ruddiness and chlorophyll, K XyBe proportionality constant between ruddiness and special extinction material, G 0Be transmitting green light intensity, G tBe transmit green intensity, K GBe proportionality constant between green glow and chlorophyll, K XgBe proportionality constant between green glow and special extinction material, B 0Be the emission blue light strength, B tBe transmit blue intensity, K BBe proportionality constant between blue light and chlorophyll, K XyBe proportionality constant between blue light and special extinction material, b is a vane thickness, and c is a chlorophyll concentration, c xBe special extinction material concentration.
With (3), (4), (5) weighting summation, will with the cancellation of particular matter continuous item, the influence of eliminating other material absorbing in the blade or blocking has after the arrangement:
K 0-(αlog 10R t+βlog 10G t+γlog 10B t)=K 1bc (6)
Nonmonochromatic light can exert an influence to measuring equation, but this influence only causes the change of measuring the equation constant.Put in order measuring equation, be expressed as at last
h 0+h 1log 10R t+h 2log 10B t+h 3log 10G t=bc (7)
(2) image factoring of RGB data check
Adopt desirable controlled ticker tape material to (7) formula indirect verification, prove between RGB logarithm value and chlorophyll content it is linear relationship.At first with SPAD502 the different ticker tape of green intensity is measured, utilized Matlab multiple regression function regress to set up the relation between RGB logarithm value and SPAD value and obtain coefficient of multiple correlation R then with RGB chlorophyll instrument.RGB chlorophyll instrument is measured the ticker tape equation:
-37.76log 10(R t)+6.44log 10(B t)+5.63log 10(G t)+85.24=SPAD (8)
Linearly dependent coefficient R=1.00, regression equation is for extremely remarkable.RGB logarithm value and SPAD value linear dependence, SPAD value and chlorophyll content linear dependence.Regression equation (7) obtains preliminary identification.
(2) RGB chlorophyll instrument compares to the test of cucumber leaves and data processing and with SPAD502
When obtaining the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content, cucumber leaves be to damage, therefore, when comparing RGB chlorophyll instrument and SPAD502 measurement effect, should before measuring the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content, rgb value, SPAD value be measured with spectrophotometer.
Metering system: get two groups of cucumber leaves samples, first group of cucumber leaves is 21, and second group is 19.Every leaf is a sample, and each sample standard deviation is measured with RGB chlorophyll instrument, SPAD502, spectrophotometer, obtains rgb value, SPAD value, the chlorophyll content of every leaf respectively.Utilize card punch on every leaf, to get 8 small pieces subsamples (2 small pieces are got in top, middle and upper part, middle and lower part, bottom), be used for the measurement of rgb value, SPAD value, every subsample rgb value, SPAD value are the average of every subsample multimetering, every leaf rgb value, SPAD value are the mean value of 8 subsample rgb values, SPAD value, represent with Rt, Gt, Bt, SPAD respectively, carry out the mensuration of every leaf chlorophyll content again with spectrophotometer, represent with y.
Utilize Matlab that first group of cucumber leaves handled, obtain RGB chlorophyll apparatus measuring value and chlorophyll content relational expression
13.786log 10(R t)-93.5786log 10(B t)+56.5052log 10(G t)=y (9)
R 2=0.57,R=0.755,n=21。Table look-up (2): R 0.01 (n-2)=0.665, R 0.05 (n-2)=0.575, by 0.755>0.665, for extremely remarkable, multiple linear regression equations is set up.With second group of cucumber leaves RGB chlorophyll apparatus measuring value and chlorophyll content substitution formula (9), to cucumber leaves measure equation (9) checking, R at this moment 2=0.5619, R=0.75, n=22.Table look-up (2): R 0.01 (n-2)=0.652, R 0.05 (n-2)=0.563,0.75>0.652, still for extremely remarkable, checking cucumber leaves measure equation (9) is set up.
Utilize Matlab to obtain relational expression between first group of cucumber leaves SPAD value and the chlorophyll content:
1.93SPAD+0.06=y (10)
R 2=0.7746,R=0.88,n=21。With second group of cucumber leaves measured value SPAD and chlorophyll content value substitution formula (10), R2=0.3668, R=0.6056, n=22.Linearly dependent coefficient when relatively second group of cucumber leaves measured, 0.727>0.702, RGB chlorophyll instrument repeatability when measuring the cucumber leaves chlorophyll content is good than SPAD502.Show that RGB chlorophyll instrument can be used for the measurement of chlorophyll content in leaf blades, measurement effect can compare favourably with SPAD502.

Claims (4)

1. chlorophyll measuring apparatus based on the Red Green Blue digital signal, its physical construction partly comprises casing, rotating shaft, column, light source, T type objective table, sensor holder, plug, be placed with white light LEDs in the described light source, the sensor holder bottom is placed with color sensor, and T type loading stand is on sensor holder top; Light source, objective table and sensor holder constitute lucifuge formula sonde configuration, and light source is connected to column by rotating shaft, and sensor holder links to each other with cabinet by connecting rod, and column is fixed on the connecting rod; Its circuit part comprises the light source module that drives white light LEDs, digital signal sensors module, digital signal processing control module, USB flash disk data memory module, LCD display module; Light source module drives white light LEDs, makes it send stable test white light; The digital signal sensors module sees through ruddiness in the detection light of determinand, green glow, blue light intensity signal and light intensity signal is converted into square-wave signal by the color sensor acquisition time; The digital signal processing control module is caught three kinds of square-wave signals, obtain characterizing the frequency signal of ruddiness, green glow, blue light intensity signal, and calculate the chlorophyll content of determinand according to the multiple linear regression equations between three kinds of frequency signals and the chlorophyll content, described multiple linear regression equations is formed by the data fitting that the different ticker tape sample of green intensity is measured.
2. chlorophyll measuring apparatus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described color sensor is TCS230, three kinds of optical filters that correspond respectively to ruddiness, green glow, blue light are contained in its inside, optical filter timesharing gating is converted into the square wave digital signal with the transmitted light light intensity signal, and its square wave frequency is directly proportional with the transmitted light light intensity.
3. chlorophyll measuring apparatus according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the upper and lower surface of described T type objective table all is planes, and the centre is offered porose.
4. chlorophyll measuring apparatus according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: the upper surface of described T type objective table offers a shallow big groove, in shallow big groove, offer a dark little groove again, offer screw thread in the described little groove, be connected with a hollow cylinder by screw thread.
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