CN102613050B - Soilless cultivation method of fruits and vegetables - Google Patents

Soilless cultivation method of fruits and vegetables Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102613050B
CN102613050B CN2012100881486A CN201210088148A CN102613050B CN 102613050 B CN102613050 B CN 102613050B CN 2012100881486 A CN2012100881486 A CN 2012100881486A CN 201210088148 A CN201210088148 A CN 201210088148A CN 102613050 B CN102613050 B CN 102613050B
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water
nutrient solution
cultivation bed
bed
planting
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CN102613050A (en
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何寒
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Tangshan also Feng Agriculture Technology Co., Ltd.
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何寒
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of facility agricultural production, relates to a soilless cultivation technique, and particularly relates to a soilless cultivation method of fruits and vegetables. The method particularly includes cultivation bed construction for soilless cultivation and a management method of seedlings after planting, wherein crop straws and animal wastes which are abandoned generally in rural area and have wide sources serve as raw materials and are fermented through effective microorganism (EM) beneficial bacterium with high purity and content, so that a culture medium which has rich nutrition, high quality and low cost is prepared, and an automatic water and nutrient fluid supply system is established based on construction of infrastructure, so that simple automation is achieved in the production process and labor efficiency is improved greatly. The soilless cultivation method of fruits and vegetables has the advantages of being few in investment, low in cost, capable of saving fertilizers and labor, convenient to operate, high in yield, and good in product quality. Besides, organic agriculture is introduced into soilless cultivation, and the soilless cultivation method of fruits and vegetables is a simple soilless cultivation technique which combines the organic agriculture and inorganic agriculture and has high benefit and low cost. Farmers are free from heavy physical labor and the method is suitable for current national condition.

Description

A kind of soilless culture method of gourd, fruit and vegetable
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of crop cultivation technique without soil, belong to the industrialized agriculture production field, be specifically related to a kind of soilless culture method of gourd, fruit and vegetable.
Background technology
Traditional gourd, fruit and vegetable is in the process of plantation, because plantation year after year, continuous cropping obstacle is big especially, causes taking place a lot of damage by disease and insect; And because the long-term chemical fertilizer that uses, make soil structure that the variation of essence take place, descending, harden etc. such as soil fertility causes crop yield seriously to be glided.More seriously make the quality of gourd, fruit and vegetable have not a particle of guarantee because use chemical fertilizer to reach the agricultural chemicals that sprays as prevention and elimination of disease and pests.In addition, traditional gourd, fruit and vegetable in production management process, also have loaded down with trivial details, the amount of labour used is big, production efficiency is low, cost is high, characteristics such as of poor benefits.
Along with the continuous upgrading of agrotechnique research and development, adopt the soilless culture pattern of various ways to come crop culture on the basis of crop tradition plantation, the pattern of soilless culture at present mainly contains: water planting, gas (mist) training, substrate culture etc.
Water planting refers to that root system of plant directly contacts with nutrient solution, without the cultivation method of matrix.This mode can occur lacking the O2 phenomenon, if improper measures can influence root system respiration, causes the death of material root when serious.
Mist (gas) training is nutrient solution is compressed into mist and directly is sprayed onto on the root system of crop, and root system hangs in the space of container, and the nutrient solution of this method can be recycling, guarantees that simultaneously crop root has sufficient oxygen.But the method cost of equipment is too high, needs to consume a large amount of electric energy, and can not have a power failure, and does not have the leeway of buffering.
Substrate culture is a kind of mode of popularizing area maximum in the soilless culture.It refers to replace soil with matrix, and the root system of crop is fixed in the matrix, by the method for soilless culture drip irrigation or trickle irrigation, supplies with crop alimentary liquid.Application number is 200710187268.0 " simple high-efficient soilless culture technique ", this invention is to utilize reproducible sawdust, stalk, sugared slag, mushroom slag the like waste, make nutrition complete, abundant, coordinate rationally, and " the rich matrix of supporting " that permeability is good, water holding is high, replacing artificial preparation chemotrophy liquid provides nutrition for plant, carries out soilless culture, and the equipment, the facility that reduce soilless culture drop into, reduce production costs, improving product quality is key of the present invention and purpose.
Application number is 02136660.8 " vegetables, melon and fruit tree organic soilless cultivation technology ", this invention is combined organic farming and cultivation technique without soil cleverly, can produce vegetables, the melon and fruit meet organic food and green food standard, this invention technology comprises that requirement, the construction of cultivating groove, the cultivation matrix of cultivating facility are selected, preparation and the use of the selection of solid organic fertilizer, liquid organic fertilizer, grow seedlings, irrigation technique, damage by disease and insect prevent smelting tech.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention just provides the soilless culture method of brand-new a kind of gourd, fruit and vegetable.Specifically comprise: the cultivation bed construction method of soilless culture; As raw material, prepare medium nutritious, that thing favorable rates honest and clean through the fermentation of the EM of high-purity, high-load beneficial bacterium with the general abandoned in rural area and raw material agricultural crop straw, animal wastes widely; Set up automatic water-supply, nutrient solution system in infrastructure construction and realized easy automation in the production process, improved efficiency to a great extent; Management method after the planting seedlings.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
1, a kind of soilless culture method of gourd, fruit and vegetable comprises in the technical scheme: the foundation of the construction of cultivation bed, cultivation bed water system, the preparation of medium and application method, the preparation method of nutrient solution, the management method after the planting seedlings;
The method of construction of described cultivation bed is as follows:
(1) the cultivation bed is built the place: selective light is built booth according to ground sufficient, the well-ventilated, and the cultivation bed is built in the booth;
(2) construction of cultivation bed: cultivation bed length with booth be complementary, the wide 1~1.2m of being builds furrow, builds the edge of bed that height is 20~25cm on the furrow limit with fragment of brick; After the cultivation bed is built up, the thick sealed polyethylene plastic of shop one deck 0.1mm in bed, the moisture, the nutrient solution that infect and avoid using with the sick worm that prevents in the soil run off; Cultivate the aisle of staying 40~50cm between the bed for two;
The water system method for building up of described cultivation bed is as follows:
(1) lay droping irrigating pipe in the cultivation bed surface middle, every interval 30~50cm punches the weeper that specification is 1~2mm at pipeline the right and left on the droping irrigating pipe;
(2) droping irrigating pipe is connecting water pump, supply water, during nutrient solution by the water pump supply, and water, nutrient solution by droping irrigating pipe and from the weeper ejection for the plant absorbing of field planting on the weeper next door;
(3) water pump be by the time relay or intermittently time controller control, the time relay or intermittently the effect of time controller be by the people when spray water for configuring, nutrient solution, after the parameter of spray water how long, nutrient solution, the time relay or intermittently time controller will be that the parameter that sets is controlled water pump and carried out work and supply water, nutrient solution to plant according to the people;
(4) establish tank at the head of a bed of cultivation bed, water pump is placed in the tank;
Preparation and the application method of described medium are as follows:
(1) composition of raw material and proportioning: the solid EM preparation 0.6% of agricultural crop straw 55%, animal wastes 35%, pond sludge 9%, living bacteria count 〉=10,000,000,000/g, sucrose 0.4%, water is an amount of;
(2) preparation method and process: earlier with a small amount of clean water sucrose is diluted to sucrose and is dissolved in the water fully, mix the EM preparation in water again and mix thoroughly and must produce usefulness EM bacterium liquid; Agricultural crop straw, animal wastes, pond sludge mixed and stir mixed material; With mixed material with produce with EM bacterium liquid, water mixes again and stir, and the water content of mixed material is adjusted to 55~60%; Mixed material is piled the bar stack that wide 2m, high 1m, length are not limit, and hide tightly with plastic foil cloth, carry out anaerobic fermentation; When temperature in the compound reaches 60 ℃, keep 6~8 days laggard windrows of fermentation and turn over, hide the tight fermentation 6~8 days that continues with Polypropylence Sheet again after heap climbs over, compound overstrike or pitchy, softness of holding is flexible, finishes fermentation process and gets medium;
(3) medium application method: after the sealed polyethylene plastic that shop one deck 0.1mm is thick in the cultivation bed, will ferment the medium shop and impose in the cultivation bed, medium dispensing thickness is 20~25cm;
Described nutrient solution is to prepare according to different crops and the required nutrient of each vegetative stage of crop;
Management method after the described planting seedlings is as follows:
(1) seedling is selected: seed is through sowing, breed the seedling of back about 25~30 days, no damage by disease and insect, robust plant;
(2) planting seedlings: adopt the field planting of duplicate rows dislocation field planting method, about spacing in the rows 30cm, every capable plant starts water system water supply pouring field planting water immediately apart from cultivating about bed inner edge 10cm after the field planting;
(3) management of supplying water: the needs according to vine growth and development are supplied with moisture, by the setting-up time relay or intermittently time controller control water pump and supply water to plant automatically;
(4) for nutrient management: the needs according to vine growth and development are supplied with and nutrient solution, and nutrient solution prepares at tank, and then by the setting-up time relay or intermittently time controller control water pump automatically to plant for nutrient solution;
(5) final-period management: manage to crop harvesting according to routine according to different crop varieties and the different vegetative stage of crop.
The existing following advantage of the present invention:
1, simple, the easily enforcement of method technology proposed by the invention.
2, it is extensive, cheap to implement the raw material sources that the present invention forms.
3, by implementing the present invention, both trans-utilization general outcast agricultural crop straw and animal wastes in the rural area had in a large number prolonged industrial chain, made the multistage increment of agricultural resources, increased the industry added value, increased farmers' income.
4, by implementing the present invention, the water that growing process absorbs, nutrient solution can be realized supply automatically, and labour intensity has reduced, and efficient has but improved, but the cost that infrastructure drops into is very low.
5, by implementing the present invention, the water that growing process absorbs, nutrient solution are to be transported to plant roots by droping irrigating pipe, spread one deck plastic foil in the cultivation bed, moisture, the nutrient solution effectively avoiding using run off, inculcate how much moisture, nutrient solution, plant can both absorb fully, and the availability of liquid manure is very high.
6, by implementing the present invention, just fertilizer is prepared into nutrient solution in tank when giving crop fertilization, is transported to plant roots by droping irrigating pipe then.Fertilising efficient is: one starts water system, and nutrient solution only needs just be all on board several seconds, has realized that fertilising is both concentrated, saves time again and saves trouble.And traditional fertilizing method is respectively each strain plant to be applied fertilizer one by one, time-consuming effort again.
7, by implementing the present invention, be rich in the agricultural crop straw of various nutrient elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and animal via and cross the EM beneficial bacterium fermentation that utilizes high-purity, high-load and effectively remove the noxious bacteria that contains the material the inside and worm's ovum etc. later, and be transformed into culture matrix nutritious, that the thing favorable rates is honest and clean; This matrix quality is loose, takes root so be conducive to plant, and his gas permeability is very good in addition, the metabolism and the respiration that just are conducive to root system of plant, so the root system of plant is just very flourishing, flourishing root system is more favourable plant absorbing nutrient just, so can promote the growth of plant above ground portion.
8, by enforcement the present invention, the plant strain growth stalwartness, damage by disease and insect takes place few, has reduced the pollution of chemical pesticide, and the clean health of product, quality better have obtained better economic and social benefit.
9, by implementing the present invention, under the condition of soilless culture, soil condition poor area again can be planted out high yield, high-quality gourd, fruit and vegetable.
10, enforcement of the present invention, have small investment, cost low, laborsaving, economize soil, economize the distinguishing feature of fertile, easy to operate and product high yield and high quality, and, it imports soilless culture to organic farming, be a kind of organic high benefit that combines with inorganic agriculture, simple and easy cultivation technique without soil cheaply, simultaneously the peasant is freed from heavy manual labor, be fit to very much the present national conditions of China.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment method of the present invention is further specified.
A kind of soilless culture method of gourd, fruit and vegetable, embodiment is as follows:
1, build the cultivation bed:
(1) the cultivation bed is built the place: selective light is built booth according to ground sufficient, the well-ventilated, and the cultivation bed is built in the booth;
(2) construction of cultivation bed: cultivation bed length with booth be complementary, the wide 1~1.2m of being builds furrow, builds the edge of bed that height is 20~25cm on the furrow limit with fragment of brick; After the cultivation bed is built up, the thick sealed polyethylene plastic of shop one deck 0.1mm in bed, the moisture, the nutrient solution that infect and avoid using with the sick worm that prevents in the soil run off; Cultivate the aisle of staying 40~50cm between the bed for two.
2, the cultivation bed water system of Jian Liing:
(1) lay droping irrigating pipe in the cultivation bed surface middle, every interval 30~50cm punches the weeper that specification is 1~2mm at pipeline the right and left on the droping irrigating pipe;
(2) droping irrigating pipe is connecting water pump, supply water, during nutrient solution by the water pump supply, and water, nutrient solution by droping irrigating pipe and from the weeper ejection for the plant absorbing of field planting on the weeper next door;
(3) water pump be by the time relay or intermittently time controller control, the time relay or intermittently the effect of time controller be by the people when spray water for configuring, nutrient solution, after the parameter of spray water how long, nutrient solution, the time relay or intermittently time controller will be that the parameter that sets is controlled water pump and carried out work and supply water, nutrient solution to plant according to the people;
(4) establish tank at the head of a bed of cultivation bed, water pump is placed in the tank.
3, the preparation of medium and application method:
(1) composition of raw material and proportioning: the solid EM preparation 0.6% of agricultural crop straw 55%, animal wastes 35%, pond sludge 9%, living bacteria count 〉=10,000,000,000/g, sucrose 0.4%, water is an amount of;
(2) preparation method and process: earlier with a small amount of clean water sucrose is diluted to sucrose and is dissolved in the water fully, mix the EM preparation in water again and mix thoroughly and must produce usefulness EM bacterium liquid; Agricultural crop straw, animal wastes, pond sludge mixed and stir mixed material; With mixed material with produce with EM bacterium liquid, water mixes again and stir, and the water content of mixed material is adjusted to 55~60%; Mixed material is piled the bar stack that wide 2m, high 1m, length are not limit, and hide tightly with plastic foil cloth, carry out anaerobic fermentation; When temperature in the compound reaches 60 ℃, keep 6~8 days laggard windrows of fermentation and turn over, hide the tight fermentation 6~8 days that continues with Polypropylence Sheet again after heap climbs over, compound overstrike or pitchy, softness of holding is flexible, finishes fermentation process and gets medium;
(3) medium application method: after the sealed polyethylene plastic that shop one deck 0.1mm is thick in the cultivation bed, will ferment the medium shop and impose in the cultivation bed, medium dispensing thickness is 20~25cm.
4, prepare nutrient solution according to different crops and the required nutrient of each vegetative stage of crop.
5, the management method after the planting seedlings:
(1) seedling is selected: seed is through sowing, breed the seedling of back about 25~30 days, no damage by disease and insect, robust plant;
(2) planting seedlings: adopt the field planting of duplicate rows dislocation field planting method, about spacing in the rows 30cm, every capable plant starts water system water supply pouring field planting water immediately apart from cultivating about bed inner edge 10cm after the field planting;
(3) management of supplying water: the needs according to vine growth and development are supplied with moisture, by the setting-up time relay or intermittently time controller control water pump and supply water to plant automatically;
(4) for nutrient management: the needs according to vine growth and development are supplied with and nutrient solution, and nutrient solution prepares at tank, and then by the setting-up time relay or intermittently time controller control water pump automatically to plant for nutrient solution;
(5) final-period management: manage to crop harvesting according to routine according to different crop varieties and the different vegetative stage of crop.

Claims (1)

1. the soilless culture method of a gourd, fruit and vegetable, its feature comprises: the foundation of the construction of cultivation bed, cultivation bed water system, the preparation of medium and application method, the preparation method of nutrient solution, the management method after the planting seedlings;
The method of construction of described cultivation bed is as follows:
(1) the cultivation bed is built the place: selective light is built booth according to ground sufficient, the well-ventilated, and the cultivation bed is built in the booth;
(2) construction of cultivation bed: cultivation bed length with booth be complementary, the wide 1~1.2m of being builds furrow, builds the edge of bed that height is 20~25cm on the furrow limit with fragment of brick; After the cultivation bed is built up, the thick sealed polyethylene plastic of shop one deck 0.1mm in bed, the moisture, the nutrient solution that infect and avoid using with the sick worm that prevents in the soil run off; Cultivate the aisle of staying 40~50cm between the bed for two;
The water system method for building up of described cultivation bed is as follows:
(1) lay droping irrigating pipe in the cultivation bed surface middle, every interval 30~50cm punches the weeper that specification is 1~2mm at pipeline the right and left on the droping irrigating pipe;
(2) droping irrigating pipe is connecting water pump, supply water, during nutrient solution by the water pump supply, and water, nutrient solution by droping irrigating pipe and from the weeper ejection for the plant absorbing of field planting on the weeper next door;
(3) water pump be by the time relay or intermittently time controller control, the time relay or intermittently the effect of time controller be by the people when spray water for configuring, nutrient solution, after the parameter of spray water how long, nutrient solution, the time relay or intermittently time controller will be that the parameter that sets is controlled water pump and carried out work and supply water, nutrient solution to plant according to the people;
(4) establish tank at the head of a bed of cultivation bed, water pump is placed in the tank;
Preparation and the application method of described medium are as follows:
(1) composition of raw material and proportioning: the solid EM preparation 0.6% of agricultural crop straw 55%, animal wastes 35%, pond sludge 9%, living bacteria count 〉=10,000,000,000/g, sucrose 0.4%, water is an amount of;
(2) preparation method and process: earlier with a small amount of clean water sucrose is diluted to sucrose and is dissolved in the water fully, mix the EM preparation in water again and mix thoroughly and must produce usefulness EM bacterium liquid; Agricultural crop straw, animal wastes, pond sludge mixed and stir mixed material; With mixed material with produce with EM bacterium liquid, water mixes again and stir, and the water content of mixed material is adjusted to 55~60%; Mixed material is piled the bar stack that wide 2m, high 1m, length are not limit, and hide tightly with plastic foil cloth, carry out anaerobic fermentation; When temperature in the compound reaches 60 ℃, keep 6~8 days laggard windrows of fermentation and turn over, hide the tight fermentation 6~8 days that continues with Polypropylence Sheet again after heap climbs over, compound overstrike or pitchy, softness of holding is flexible, finishes fermentation process and gets medium;
(3) medium application method: after the sealed polyethylene plastic that shop one deck 0.1mm is thick in the cultivation bed, will ferment the medium shop and impose in the cultivation bed, medium dispensing thickness is 20~25cm;
Described nutrient solution is to prepare according to different crops and the required nutrient of each vegetative stage of crop;
Management method after the described planting seedlings is as follows:
(1) seedling is selected: seed is through sowing, breed the seedling of back about 25~30 days, no damage by disease and insect, robust plant;
(2) planting seedlings: adopt the field planting of duplicate rows dislocation field planting method, about spacing in the rows 30cm, every capable plant starts water system water supply pouring field planting water immediately apart from cultivating about bed inner edge 10cm after the field planting;
(3) management of supplying water: the needs according to vine growth and development are supplied with moisture, by the setting-up time relay or intermittently time controller control water pump and supply water to plant automatically;
(4) for nutrient management: the needs according to vine growth and development are supplied with and nutrient solution, and nutrient solution prepares at tank, and then by the setting-up time relay or intermittently time controller control water pump automatically to plant for nutrient solution;
(5) final-period management: manage to crop harvesting according to routine according to different crop varieties and the different vegetative stage of crop.
CN2012100881486A 2012-03-28 2012-03-28 Soilless cultivation method of fruits and vegetables Expired - Fee Related CN102613050B (en)

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CN103609406B (en) * 2013-11-25 2015-09-09 苏州维登农业有限公司 A kind of soilless culture method of serpent melon
CN104663377A (en) * 2013-11-26 2015-06-03 黄岚 Soilless culture method for chives
CN103782887A (en) * 2014-02-28 2014-05-14 凌爱秋 Method for soilless culture of vegetables
CN105210589A (en) * 2014-06-23 2016-01-06 广西田林县鑫福源山茶油开发有限公司 A kind of organic eight implantation methods crossing bamboo shoot
CN104871948A (en) * 2015-05-13 2015-09-02 常州大学 Thermal insulting aeration soilless culture greenhouse
CN106718719A (en) * 2016-11-18 2017-05-31 董维明 A kind of method of organic vegetable hydroponics
CN106613839A (en) * 2016-11-30 2017-05-10 湖州吴兴金农生态农业发展有限公司 Cultivation method for overlapping coco coir matrix strips on ridges used for melons, fruits and vegetables
CN107211860A (en) * 2017-07-03 2017-09-29 合肥卓畅农业科技有限公司 A kind of soilless culture substrate and preparation method thereof
CN109430024A (en) * 2018-12-19 2019-03-08 安徽尊贵现代农业科技有限公司 A kind of fruits and vegetables soilless culture method
CN110073964A (en) * 2019-06-01 2019-08-02 江苏丰收大地种业发展有限公司 A kind of device and method of vegetables organic soilless cultivation

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