CN101532936B - Method and device for evaluating inhibiting ability of drilling fluid on formation and decomposition of hydrate - Google Patents

Method and device for evaluating inhibiting ability of drilling fluid on formation and decomposition of hydrate Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101532936B
CN101532936B CN 200910061604 CN200910061604A CN101532936B CN 101532936 B CN101532936 B CN 101532936B CN 200910061604 CN200910061604 CN 200910061604 CN 200910061604 A CN200910061604 A CN 200910061604A CN 101532936 B CN101532936 B CN 101532936B
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China
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hydrate
pressure
temperature
gas
drilling fluid
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CN 200910061604
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101532936A (en
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宁伏龙
张凌
蒋国盛
涂运中
张昊
刘天乐
范勇
曹函
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中国地质大学(武汉)
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method and a device for evaluating inhibiting ability of drilling fluid on formation and decomposition of hydrate. The device comprises a high and low temperature experimental box (1), a high-pressure reaction kettle (2) in the high and low temperature experimental box, a pressure controlling system, a microvideo camera and a data acquisition and control system (12). The reaction kettle is connected with the pressure controlling system through high-pressure pipelines on the upper and lower parts of the kettle; data acquisition and control system is connected with sensors arrange at the bottom of the reaction kettle and a high-pressure control platform (13) through data acquisition signal wires, wherein drilling fluid (4) to be tested is put on the high-pressure control platform; the microvideo camera is arranged in an observation cylinder (21) extended into a working chamber outside the high and low temperature experimental box and approaches front end of the observation cylinder (21) having anti-fog transparent glass so as to observe. The invention provides the device to evaluate inhibiting experiments of drilling fluid in underground bored wells and frozen earth and marine bored wells on formation and decomposition of hydrate under different temperature and pressure.

Description

Appraisal drilling liquid forms and decomposes method and the device of inhibition ability to hydrate
Technical field
The present invention relates to construction of natural gas fields field, particularly a kind of appraisal drilling liquid forms and decomposes method and the device of inhibition ability to hydrate.
Background technology
Gas hydrate are by hydrone and the molecular seemingly ice and snow shape crystalline compounds with cage structure of hydrocarbon gas, have the characteristics such as energy density height, distribution is wide, reserves are large, are a kind of very potential new forms of energy and substitute energy.Since Britain Davy in 1810 since gas hydrate is found first in the laboratory, human research and the exploration that did not just stop again gas hydrate.And nineteen sixty is found large-scale gas hydrate at nature, has directly impelled many countries to turn one's attention to that this energy density is high, reserves are huge, the following potential new forms of energy of clean environment firendly.After entering 21 century, along with the energy shortage aggravation, oil gas price is surging, and the whole world has been accelerated exploitation, utilized the paces of gas hydrate.The countries such as many developed countries such as the U.S., Japan, Germany, Canada all drop into huge fund and carry out theory and the technical research relevant with exploitation with hydrate exploration.The U.S. has formulated methane hydrate research and development medium-term and long-term plans, estimates that carried out commercial runin in 2015 adopts, and Japan also plans formally to carry out in 2016 commodity production.China began gas hydrate are studied from late 1980s, although still be in the theory and practice exploratory stage, more existing departments have finished a series of previous research work.
Most gas hydrate of finding at present are arranged in the marine bottom sediments such as continental slope band, mid-oceanic ridge, submarine ridge, and therefore, the exploitation sea bed gas hydrate should be the center of gravity of future studies.But sea bottom hydrate is stored in the dark sedimentary formation of seabed 0-1000m, the sea water advanced 500m that surpasses, and the pattern of burying is very complicated.Since gas hydrate only can be under high pressure, cryogenic conditions stable existence, when natural gas hydrate stratum drilling well (advancing), reservoir stress discharges near the reservoir borehole wall and the shaft bottom, can cause reservoir pressure to reduce; Simultaneously, drilling process is a diabatic process, and the friction of bit cutting rock, shaft bottom drilling tool and the borehole wall and rock core all can produce a large amount of heat energy; In addition, if circulating mud temperature control is improper, drilling fluid also can with hydrate formation generation heat interchange, the high pressure, the cryogenic conditions that make hydrate at the bottom of the hole be able to stable existence are destroyed, and will cause inevitably hydrate to decompose.The free gas that decomposition of hydrate produces enters mud, can make again the gasification of drilling fluid height.Constantly enter drilling fluid along with decomposing the gas that produces, the density of drilling fluid descends, and the hydrostatic force of mud column reduces, and can accelerate the decomposition of hydrate again, thereby produce more gas, and this has just caused a vicious cycle.So in drilling process, the borehole wall peripherally variation of stressor layer and temperature will cause gas hydrate to decompose inevitably.When the solid water compound rises cementing or during the skeleton supporting role, decomposition itself will make slump in.And decompose the water cut that the water that produces has increased borehole wall stratum, and intergranular contact is weakened, cause the borehole wall unstable; Escaping gas has affected again proportion and the rheological of drilling fluid, and is more unfavorable to wellbore stability, even also may cause the drilling failures such as well kick and blowout.Decompose at last the gas enter in the well and return ground with drilling fluid on together, if Temperature-pressure Conditions is suitable in the well in this process, they can particularly form hydrate in the preventer at circulation of drilling fluid pipeline and valve again again, cause beyond thought drilling failure to occur, even can cause huge loss.
Therefore, the enforcement of natural gas hydrate stratum probing (well) at first will guarantee the temperature and pressure in the well is implemented reasonably control, guarantees the unlikely a large amount of decomposition of hydrate, avoid hydrate regeneration in circulation line, thereby reach the effect of stabilizing borehole.And to reach this target, drilling fluid just must prevent effectively that the hydrate in the borehole wall stratum from decomposing in a large number and entering the interior gas of pit shaft and form hydrate again.For this difficult problem, a lot of scientific research institutions have all set about studying in the world at present, research and solve the method for problem by the method for simulating lab test or on-the-spot drilling experiment.At present, aspect testing performance of drilling fluid, because the actual well drilled activity is few, in addition field experiment operational risk is large, cost is high, considers, and the laboratory experiment mode is the most rational selection.Yet, the at present domestic rejection evaluation experimental system that does not still have a cover drilling fluid that hydrate is formed and decomposes.In view of energy shortage and Gas Hydrate Resource Potential huge, develop and to test different wellbore fluids and tie up under different temperatures and the pressure condition, the inhibition ability of hydrate formation and the inhibition ability of decomposition of hydrate are estimated, and can optimize the simulating lab test system of additive for drilling fluid and hydrate inhibitor, particularly important to the exploration and development of gas hydrate.
Summary of the invention
Technical matters to be solved by this invention is: provide a kind of test with estimate different temperatures and pressure condition under different drilling fluid systems suppress that hydrates form and the method for capacity of decomposition, and utilize the preferred additive for drilling fluid of this simulating lab test device and hydrate inhibitor, thereby provide service for gas hydrate and deepwater petroleum exploration exploitation.
The present invention solves its technical matters by following technical scheme:
Appraisal drilling liquid provided by the invention forms and decomposes the device of inhibition ability to hydrate, the autoclave that provides water and rock gas to react is provided, the programmable high low temperature experimental box of the temperature required environment of reaction is provided, and control pressurer system, micro-photographing apparatus, data acquisition control system, wherein: autoclave is positioned in the high low temperature experimental box; Autoclave links to each other with control pressurer system by the high pressure line of its upper and lower; And data acquisition control system links to each other with the sensor of high voltage control platform in being installed on autoclave bottom and control pressurer system by the data acquisition signal line, is placed with drilling fluid to be measured on the high voltage control platform; Micro-photographing apparatus is placed on the inspection section of the operating room that is arranged in high low temperature experimental box, and the antifog clear glass of front end band that approaches inspection section is observed.
The invention provides and utilize said apparatus to realize that test and appraisal drilling liquid suppress the method for hydrate formation and capacity of decomposition, specifically adopt following methods:
A. hydrate forms the method that suppresses experiment:
Drilling fluid and desired gas are sent in the autoclave, regulate this reacting kettle inner pressure and temperature to setting value with the simulation drilling condition, and keep a period of time; Drilling fluid to be measured is in this reactor bottom during test, directly contact with gas, Real-time Collection reactor internal temperature and pressure data, by microexamination image in temperature, pressure and the reactor over time situation judge that drilling fluid to be measured suppresses the ability that hydrate forms;
B. decomposition of hydrate suppresses the method for experiment:
Place drilling fluid to be measured in autoclave inside with container in advance, and placing mold is intended the sand on stratum bottom this reactor, then water and gas are sent in the reactor, conditioned reaction still internal pressure and temperature to setting value with simulation stratum condition, and keep a period of time; When generating hydrate, tilt to make drilling fluid in the container contains hydrate bottom reactor sand to mix reactor, subsequently temperature of reaction kettle is elevated to design temperature, the hydrate of previous formation is progressively decomposed, Real-time Collection reactor internal temperature and pressure data judge that by the size of observing a certain heating-up time internal reaction still pressure increase this kind drilling fluid suppresses the ability of decomposition of hydrate.
The present invention also provides the purposes of utilizing said apparatus and method, the application of these apparatus and method in comprising gas hydrate, frozen soil and ocean deepwater oil/gas drilling.
The present invention has following main beneficial effect:
(1) can be under different temperatures and pressure condition, generate inhibition experimental technique and decomposition of hydrate inhibition experimental technique by hydrate, test different drilling fluid systems to the inhibition ability of hydrate formation and decomposition of hydrate, and then the evaluation of the above-mentioned two kinds of rejections of realization drilling fluid and the agent of drilling fluid relevant treatment and hydrate inhibitor is preferred.
(2) can be used for the drilling fluid system design studies of gas hydrate, frozen soil and ocean deepwater oil/gas drilling;
(3) can be used for hydrate scientific experiment and the research of related scientific research institutes;
(4) can be device and the technical service that petroleum drilling and geologic prospecting relevant enterprise and scientific research institutions provide the drilling fluid test;
(5) variation of pressure environment in the experimental system can be realized by supercharge pump and high voltage control platform, the variation of temperature environment in the experimental system can be realized by high low temperature experimental box.One of this experimental system principal feature is the autoclave of large volume, can guarantee the test volume that drilling fluid is large, and drilling fluid is contacted with gas fully; Two be that pressure and temperature control is convenient; Three experimental systems simple, reproducibility is strong.
In a word, the present invention can test the rejection of hydrate formation and decomposition drilling fluid under different temperatures and the pressure condition, the composition and decomposition situation of microexamination gas hydrate in pure water and porous medium (mainly being sand) visually, research is suitable for hydrate formation drilling well needs and can be used for frozen soil and the drilling fluid system of ocean deepwater drilling.All has important economic and social benefit for China's hydrate exploration exploitation, ocean deepwater drilling and Western Resource exploration.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is drilling fluid forms the inhibition experiment to hydrate device synoptic diagram.
Fig. 2 is that drilling fluid is to the device synoptic diagram of decomposition of hydrate inhibition experiment.
Fig. 3 is not for adding the temperature, pressure change curve of hydrate inhibitor drilling fluid.
Fig. 4 is for adding the temperature, pressure change curve of hydrate inhibitor drilling fluid.
Among the figure: 1. high low temperature experimental box; 2. autoclave; 3. temperature sensor; 4. drilling fluid to be measured; 5. pressure transducer; 6. transparent observing window; 7. advance the gas/liquid mouth; 8. venthole; 9. vacuum orifice; 10. needle-valve; 11. vacuum pump; 12. data acquisition control system; 13. high voltage control platform; 14. air compressor machine; 15. supercharge pump; 16. tensimeter; 17. stop valve; 18. source of the gas; 19. recovery gas cylinder; 20. micro-photographing apparatus; 21. inspection section; 22. base; 23. measuring cup; 24. pure water and sand.
Embodiment
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing.
One. appraisal drilling liquid forms and decomposes the device of inhibition ability to hydrate
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2: the autoclave 2 that provides water and rock gas to react is provided, the programmable high low temperature experimental box 1 of the temperature required environment of reaction is provided, and control pressurer system, micro-photographing apparatus, data acquisition control system 12.Wherein: autoclave is positioned in the high low temperature experimental box; Autoclave links to each other with control pressurer system by the high pressure line of its upper and lower; And data acquisition control system links to each other in-built pure water and the sand 24 that drilling fluid 4 to be measured and simulated formation are arranged of autoclave by the data acquisition signal line with the sensor of high voltage control platform 13 bottom being installed on autoclave; Micro-photographing apparatus is placed on extending in the inspection section 21 in the operating room of high low temperature experimental box outside, and approach inspection section 21 the antifog clear glass of front end band observe.
Described high low temperature experimental box 1, it is that the experimental box transformation of HLT705P comes by model.Transformation comprises: the top of experimental box operating room is by fixedly becoming the top cover that can conveniently open, the perforate of top cover center, and the diameter 8cm in hole is furnished with adiabatic port lid; The operating room opens in the front 4 holes, 4 holes point-blank, wherein the aperture in 1 hole is 15cm, its center line is aimed at the center of reactor transparent observing window, the inspection section that can use along the flexible front end of axially bored line the antifog clear glass sealing of heating is installed on the hole, and this cylinder extend into chamber inside, approaches the transparent observing window of reactor, micro-photographing apparatus is placed in the inspection section, and approaches antifog clear glass; Other 3 instrument connection specifications are the same, aperture 5cm, and wherein 2 holes are used to walk the high-pressure hose that links to each other with reactor, and the signal wire that links to each other with sensor is walked in the 3rd hole.
Described autoclave 2, it mainly is comprised of end cap, temperature sensor 3 and the pressure transducer 5 of reaction kettle body, reaction kettle cover, clip, watch window.Wherein: clip is waled from the outside with reaction kettle body and reaction kettle cover, and utilizes bolt to pass through locking without the screw thread unthreaded hole of its two ends; Described temperature and pressure sensor is threaded connection the bottom that is installed on reaction kettle body; Described end cap is bolted on the reaction kettle body; The reaction kettle body bottom connects a high-pressure hose, and reactor covers and is connected with two high-pressure hoses.
Described control pressurer system is comprised of vacuum pump 11, high voltage control platform 13, air compressor machine 14 and supercharge pump 15, wherein: air compressor machine is drawn two pipelines and is connected with supercharge pump with the high voltage control platform respectively, be respectively high voltage control platform and supercharge pump the driving source of the gas is provided, link to each other by high-pressure hose between supercharge pump and the high voltage control platform, vacuum pump links to each other with the reaction kettle cover by general flexible pipe.It is the CEJN700 inlet hose of 13.2mm, withstand voltage 70Mpa that high-pressure hose can adopt diameter.General flexible pipe can adopt the orange pvc pipe about bore 5mm.
Described data acquisition control system, its acquisition software by signal transmitting device, multifunctional data acquisition card, video frequency collection card, No. 8 relays and computer and upper operation thereof forms.Wherein: link to each other by signal wire between signal transmitting device and the temperature and pressure sensor, the signal transmitting device links to each other with multifunctional data acquisition card by data line; No. 8 relay input ends link to each other with multifunctional data acquisition card by data line, and output terminal links to each other with solenoid valve on the high voltage control platform by wire; Multifunctional data acquisition card and video frequency collection card are installed on the computer main board, and data acquisition software is housed on the host computer.
Described micro-photographing apparatus, can be formed by the ZOOM 70XL optical focal distance setting system of OPTEM company and the Digital CCD Imaging system of Pixera company 1,200,000 pixels, both link to each other by fixed interface, the optical focal distance setting system enlargement factor is got 10 times, and micro-photographing apparatus links to each other with video frequency collection card by data line.The product of the same type that described optical focal distance setting system and imaging system also can adopt other company to produce.
Two. appraisal drilling liquid forms and decomposes the method for inhibition ability to hydrate
1. hydrate forms the method that suppresses experiment:
Drilling fluid and desired gas (methane, rock gas etc.) are sent in the autoclave 2, regulate this reacting kettle inner pressure and temperature to setting value with simulation stratum condition, and keep a period of time; Drilling fluid 4 to be measured is in this reactor bottom during test, directly contact with gas, Real-time Collection reactor internal temperature and pressure data, by microexamination image in temperature, pressure and the reactor over time situation judge that it suppresses the ability that hydrate forms.Specific as follows:
(1) installation of experimental system and pressure testing: the mode installation of at first each system being pressed Fig. 1.Two watch windows on autoclave 2 (abbreviation reactor) top and a watch window of lower left side are equipped with blind lid, the watch window on right side, bottom is installed transparent overpressure resistant windows, micro-photographing apparatus 20 is put into inspection section 21 and is approached this transparent window, and distance is in 2cm.Because this experiment is gases used to be the inflammable gas of high pressure, for guaranteeing system and experimenter's safety, after each system's installation, the impermeability of necessary check valve, gas pipeline and reactor; Adopt water pressure testing checking system sealing, open air compressor machine 14, be pressurized to predetermined 25MPa by high voltage control platform 13 after, pressurize was observed 10 hours, the checking experiment system has or not leakage.
(2) reactor cleans: the checking experiment system is cleaned reactor and high-pressure hose by high voltage control platform 13 usefulness distilled water without after revealing, and then purges high-pressure hose with source of the gas 18, and guaranteeing does not have residual liquid in reactor and the connecting tube.
(3) feed liquor: reactor bottom feed tube one end put into the volume for preparing at the drilling fluid to be measured 4 of 0.4~1.5 liter of scope, open needle-valve 10 and vacuum pump 11, vacuumize by vacuum orifice 9, utilize pressure reduction with drilling fluid by advancing in the gas/liquid mouth 7 sucting reaction stills, then close needle-valve 10 and vacuum pump 11, feed tube is connected on the high voltage control platform 13 the discharge opeing needle-valve on the closing control platform; Again open vacuum pump 11 and needle-valve 10, extract as far as possible air in the reactor that has injected solution out, after about 30 minutes, close needle-valve 10 and vacuum pump 11.
(4) air inlet: open stop valve 17 and source of the gas 18, open air compressor machine 14, in reactor, pass into gas through advancing gas/liquid mouth 7 by supercharge pump 15 and high voltage control platform 13; Open data acquisition control system 12, by the variation of reactor temperature and pressure in temperature sensor 3 and the pressure transducer 5 monitoring intake processes, and record institute image data.To set pressure, kept 2~3 hours, after question response still internal pressure is stable, close the high pressure needle valve on source of the gas 18, stop valve 17 and the high voltage control platform 13, allow reaction gas reactor and drilling fluid fully mix, left standstill 10~13 hours.
(5) cooling is observed: start and set cooling value and the rate of temperature fall of high low temperature experimental box 1, begin cooling.Temperature (temperature in the drilling fluid and the temperature in the gas) and pressure by reactor inside in the data acquisition system (DAS) 12 monitoring temperature-fall periods change, and in conjunction with transparent observing window 6 and micro-photographing apparatus 20, have or not hydrate to form in the observing response still.Change (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4) and the image observed can suppress the ability that hydrate forms to drilling fluid system and estimates by the temperature in the reactor, pressure.
As shown in Figure 3: when not adding hydrate inhibitor (kinetic inhibitor), system pressure is down to 12.5Mpa by 18MPa, and pressure drop reaches 5.5MPa, and can see that temperature curve has very significantly rising, illustrates the generation highly significant of hydrate.And behind the PVP of adding 1%, system pressure is down to 17.5MPa by 18MPa, can be interpreted as a small amount of methane gas to dissolve in mud, and the variation of temperature is also very steady, illustrates in the reactor without hydrate.After experiment finishes, open reactor and observe, find that two kinds of drilling fluid compositions suppress the difference that hydrate generates performance, the variation that just can estimate in this way certain drilling fluid system and finish level thereof is strong and weak to the ability that the inhibition hydrate forms.
When experiment finishes, stop valve on discharge opeing needle-valve on the slow opening high pressure control desk 13 and the recovery gas cylinder 19, the venthole 8 that covers by reactor is recovered to recovery gas cylinder 19 with gas, after tensimeter 16 indications are stable, close the stop valve that reclaims on the gas cylinder 19, the unloader on the unlatching high voltage control platform is to system unload.
Repeat aforesaid operations, can form rejection to the hydrate of various drilling fluid systems and test and estimate.
2. decomposition of hydrate suppresses the method for experiment:
Place drilling fluid 4 to be measured in autoclave 2 inside with container in advance, and placing mold is intended pure water and the sand 24 on stratum bottom this reactor, then gas is sent in the reactor, conditioned reaction still internal pressure and temperature to setting value with simulation stratum condition, and keep a period of time; When generating hydrate, tilt to make drilling fluid in the container contains hydrate bottom reactor sand to mix reactor, subsequently temperature of reaction kettle is elevated to design temperature, the hydrate of previous formation is progressively decomposed, Real-time Collection reactor internal temperature and pressure data judge that by the size of observing a certain heating-up time internal reaction still pressure increase this kind drilling fluid suppresses the ability of decomposition of hydrate.Specific as follows:
(1) installation of experimental system, pressure testing and cleaning: first 4 watch windows on the reactor are all installed blind lid, operate equally by the described installation of hydrate formation inhibition experimental technique, pressure-measuring method, then open blind lid the drilling fluid to be measured 4 of volume in 0.4~-1 liter of scope for preparing put into measuring cup 23, measuring cup 23 cements on the base 22, and base 22 is fixed on the reactor bottom.In reactor, put into a certain amount of pure water and sand 24, connect each several part by installation shown in Figure 2.
(2) air inlet: open stop valve 17 and source of the gas 18, open air compressor machine 14, in reactor, pass into gas through advancing gas/liquid mouth 7 by supercharge pump 15 and high voltage control platform 13; Open data acquisition control system 12, by the variation of reactor temperature and pressure in temperature sensor 3 and the pressure transducer 5 monitoring intake processes, and record institute image data.To set pressure, kept 2~3 hours, after question response still internal pressure is stable, close the high pressure needle valve on source of the gas 18, stop valve 17 and the high voltage control platform 13, allow reaction gas reactor and drilling fluid fully mix, left standstill 10~13 hours.
(3) cooling is observed: open high low temperature experimental box 1 cooling, make in the sand of reactor bottom and progressively form hydrate, owing to be added with the hydrate formation inhibitor in the drilling fluid 4 to be measured, can not generate hydrate (seeing Fig. 4) under this temperature, pressure condition; Change by data acquisition control system 12 monitoring reaction temperature in the kettle and pressure, after pressure decreased arrives to a certain degree and keeps stablizing, illustrate that hydrate formation is finished in the reactor.The hydrate formation inhibitor can adopt the thermodynamics and kinetics inhibitor.
(4) heat up to observe: until hydrate form stable after, keep the temperature of high low temperature experimental box 1 cooling, autoclave 2 inclination certain angles (such as 45 degree), drilling fluid 4 to be measured is poured out in measuring cup 23, mix with the sand 24 that contains hydrate; The temperature of high low temperature experimental box is raise 2 ℃, thereby make decomposition of hydrate; Along with the decomposition of hydrate, reacting kettle inner pressure raises gradually; Judge that by the size of observing (such as 20 minutes) the internal reaction still internal pressure increase of certain heating-up time of certain heating gradient a certain drilling fluid suppresses the ability of decomposition of hydrate.When experiment finishes, stop valve on discharge opeing needle-valve on the slow opening high pressure control desk 13 and the recovery gas cylinder 19, the venthole 8 that covers by reactor is recovered to recovery gas cylinder 19 with gas, after tensimeter 16 indications are stable, close the stop valve that reclaims on the gas cylinder 19, the unloader on the unlatching high voltage control platform is to system unload.
Repeat aforesaid operations, can test and estimate the decomposition of hydrate rejection of various drilling fluid systems.
The present invention can adopt following methods to realize that hydrate generates the inhibition experiment:
A. the preparation of testing liquid: the drilling fluid to be measured 4 of 0.4~-1.5 liter of scope is injected autoclave 2, open data acquisition system (DAS) 12, by temperature sensor 3 and pressure transducer 5 monitoring record autoclaves 2 interior temperature and pressures; Open vacuum pump 11, vacuumize by vacuum orifice 9, vacuumize and close needle-valve 10 and vacuum pump 11 after complete;
B. the preparation of hydrate generation structure: the stop valve 17 of opening source of the gas 18, in described reactor, pass into gas by supercharge pump 15 and high voltage control platform 13, to set pressure, kept 2~3 hours, after this reacting kettle inner pressure is stable, close the high pressure needle valve on source of the gas 18 and the high voltage control platform 13, allow this reaction gas reactor and drilling fluid fully mix, left standstill 10~13 hours.The structure of high voltage control platform 13 sees also utility model patent (application number 200820230460.3), this high voltage control platform mainly comprises: metal cabinet and the overpressure protection mechanism of guidance panel are arranged, pressure testing control pipeline, row's gas/liquid pipeline and high pressure admission/liquid pipeline are installed; Pressure testing control pipeline is used for autoclave is carried out pressure testing; Be connected to overpressure protection mechanism at row's gas/liquid pipeline, overpressure protection mechanism has releasing pressure automatically and the manually setting of pressure release, is is manually opened and closed by the unloading port pressure release by computer instruction pilot relay, solenoid valve, the automatic open and close of Pneumatic valve or stop valve; High pressure admission/liquid pipeline is equipped with high pressure needle valve, is used for the control experimental gas and enters autoclave.
C. hydrate generates the observation that suppresses: start and set the cooling temperature of high low temperature experimental box 1, begin cooling; Temperature and pressure by reactor inside described in 12 pairs of building-up processes of data acquisition system (DAS) and the environment temperature of this reactor periphery is measured and preserve in real time, the temperature of reactor inside refer to temperature in the drilling fluid to be measured and the temperature in the gas; In conjunction with the inspection section 21 on the high low temperature experimental box 1, transparent observing window 6 and micro-photographing apparatus 20 on the reactor, have or not hydrate to form in the observing response still.
The present invention can also adopt following methods to realize that decomposition of hydrate suppresses experiment:
A. the preparation of testing liquid and hydrate generation structure: 0.4~1 liter drilling fluid to be measured 4 is put into measuring cup 23, and measuring cup is placed on the base 22; In autoclave 2, put into pure water and sand 24 by the amount of setting; Open data acquisition system (DAS) 12, by the variation of temperature sensor 3 and pressure transducer 5 monitorings and record autoclave 2 interior temperature and pressures; Open vacuum pump 11 and vacuumize, wait vacuumize complete after, close needle-valve 10 and vacuum pump 11;
B. test the generation of required hydrate: open the stop valve 17 on the source of the gas 18, in autoclave 2, pass into gas by supercharge pump 15 and high voltage control platform, to set pressure, close source of the gas; After setting the purpose temperature of high low temperature experimental box 1, start high low temperature experimental box 1 and begin cooling, make the water of described reactor bottom progressively generate hydrate, because the drilling fluid in the measuring cup 23 is added with the hydrate formation inhibitor, under this temperature, pressure condition, can not generate hydrate;
C. the preparation that suppresses of decomposition of hydrate: autoclave 2 internal pressures be reduced to a certain degree and keep stable after, illustrate that the hydrate synthetic reaction finishes; Then angle of autoclave 2 inclinations (such as 45 degree), drilling fluid 4 to be measured is poured out in measuring cup 23, covered on the hydrate of generation;
D. the observation of decomposition of hydrate inhibition: high low temperature experimental box 1 interior temperature is raise, thereby make decomposition of hydrate; Along with the decomposition of hydrate, reacting kettle inner pressure raises gradually; The size that increases by monitoring certain heating-up time internal reaction still pressure, appraisal drilling liquid suppresses the performance of decomposition of hydrate.
Three. the purposes of said apparatus and method
Apparatus and method provided by the invention are applied in and comprise in gas hydrate, frozen soil and the activity of ocean deepwater oil/gas drilling.Can test the rejection of hydrate formation and decomposition drilling fluid under different temperatures and the pressure condition, preferred additive for drilling fluid and hydrate inhibitor, research is suitable for hydrate formation drilling well needs and can be used for frozen soil and the drilling fluid system of ocean deepwater drilling.
Apparatus and method provided by the invention have following contribution:
(1) hydrate that can realize the large volume drilling fluid forms and decomposes the rejection experiment and estimate;
(2) realized decomposition of hydrate rejection evaluation to drilling fluid with this plain mode that tilts, thus before having captured better the experimental evaluation drilling fluid to this difficult problem of decomposition of hydrate inhibition ability;
(3) can test and estimate hydrate formation and the decomposition rejection of various drilling fluid systems;
(4) can passing through intuitively, mode forms the enforcement monitoring to the hydrate in the drilling fluid.

Claims (10)

1. an appraisal drilling liquid forms and decomposes the device of inhibition ability to hydrate, it is characterized in that comprising the autoclave (2) that provides water and rock gas to react, the programmable high low temperature experimental box (1) of the temperature required environment of reaction is provided, and control pressurer system, micro-photographing apparatus, data acquisition control system (12), wherein: autoclave is positioned in the high low temperature experimental box; Autoclave links to each other with high voltage control platform (13) by the high pressure line of its upper and lower; Control pressurer system is comprised of vacuum pump (11), high voltage control platform (13), air compressor machine (14) and supercharge pump (15), air compressor machine is drawn two pipelines and is connected with supercharge pump with the high voltage control platform respectively, be respectively high voltage control platform and supercharge pump the driving source of the gas is provided, link to each other by high-pressure hose between supercharge pump and the high voltage control platform, vacuum pump links to each other with the reaction kettle cover by high-pressure hose; And data acquisition control system links to each other with the temperature and pressure sensor that is installed on the autoclave bottom by the data acquisition signal line, is placed with drilling fluid to be measured (4) in the autoclave; Micro-photographing apparatus is placed on extending in the inspection section (21) in the operating room of high low temperature experimental box outside, and the antifog clear glass of front end band that approaches inspection section is observed.
2. device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that autoclave (2) mainly is comprised of end cap, temperature sensor (3) and the pressure transducer (5) of reaction kettle body, reaction kettle cover, clip, watch window, wherein: clip is waled from the outside with reaction kettle body and reaction kettle cover, and utilizes bolt to pass through locking without the screw thread unthreaded hole of its two ends; Described temperature and pressure sensor is threaded connection the bottom that is installed on reaction kettle body; Described end cap is bolted on the reaction kettle body; The reaction kettle body bottom connects a high-pressure hose, and reactor covers and is connected with two high-pressure hoses.
3. device according to claim 1 is characterized in that the structure of high low temperature experimental box (1) comprising: the top design of this experimental box operating room is the convenient top cover of opening, top cover center perforate and be furnished with adiabatic port lid; The operating room opens in the front 4 instrument connections, 4 instrument connections point-blank, wherein the aperture of 1 instrument connection is 15cm, this centerline hole is aimed at the center of the transparent observing window of autoclave (2), and the inspection section that can use along the flexible front end of axially bored line the antifog clear glass sealing of heating is housed on this hole; Other 3 instrument connection specifications are the same, aperture 5cm, and wherein 2 holes are used to walk the high-pressure hose that links to each other with reactor, and the signal wire that links to each other with sensor is walked in the 3rd hole.
4. device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that data acquisition control system is comprised of the acquisition software of signal transmitting device, multifunctional data acquisition card, video frequency collection card, No. 8 relays and computer and upper operation thereof, wherein: link to each other by signal wire between signal transmitting device and the temperature and pressure sensor, the signal transmitting device links to each other with multifunctional data acquisition card by data line; No. 8 relay input ends link to each other with multifunctional data acquisition card by data line, and output terminal links to each other with solenoid valve on the high voltage control platform by wire; Multifunctional data acquisition card and video frequency collection card are installed on the computer main board, and data acquisition software is housed on the host computer.
5. device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that micro-photographing apparatus is comprised of the ZOOM 70XL optical focal distance setting system of OPTEM company and the Digital CCD Imaging system of Pixera company 1,200,000 pixels, both link to each other by fixed interface, the optical focal distance setting system enlargement factor is got 10 times, and micro-photographing apparatus links to each other with video frequency collection card by data line.
6. one kind is utilized the described device of arbitrary claim in the claim 1 to 5 to realize that test and appraisal drilling liquid suppress the method for hydrate formation and capacity of decomposition, is characterized in that adopting following methods:
A. hydrate forms the method that suppresses experiment:
Drilling fluid and desired gas are sent in the autoclave (2), regulate this reacting kettle inner pressure and temperature to setting value with simulation stratum condition, and keep a period of time; Drilling fluid to be measured (4) is in this reactor bottom during test, directly contact with gas,
Real-time Collection reactor internal temperature and pressure data, by microexamination image in temperature, pressure and the reactor over time situation judge that drilling fluid to be measured (4) suppresses the ability that hydrate forms;
B. decomposition of hydrate suppresses the method for experiment:
Place drilling fluid to be measured (4) in autoclave (2) inside with container in advance, and placing mold is intended the sand on stratum bottom this reactor, then water and gas are sent in the reactor, conditioned reaction still internal pressure and temperature to setting value with simulation stratum condition, and keep a period of time; When generating hydrate, tilt to make drilling fluid in the container contains hydrate bottom reactor sand to mix reactor, subsequently temperature of reaction kettle is elevated to design temperature, the hydrate of previous formation is progressively decomposed, Real-time Collection reactor internal temperature and pressure data judge that by the size of observing a certain heating-up time internal reaction still pressure increase this kind drilling fluid suppresses the ability of decomposition of hydrate.
7. method according to claim 6 is characterized in that adopting following methods to realize that hydrate generates and suppresses experiment:
A. the preparation of testing liquid: the drilling fluid to be measured (4) of 0.4~1.5 liter of scope is injected the interior container of autoclave (2), open data acquisition system (DAS) (12), by temperature sensor (3) and the interior temperature and pressure of pressure transducer (5) monitoring record autoclave (2); Open vacuum pump (11), vacuumize by vacuum orifice (9), vacuumize and close needle-valve (10) and vacuum pump (11) after complete;
B. the preparation of hydrate generation structure: the stop valve (17) of opening source of the gas (18), in described reactor, pass into gas by supercharge pump (15) and high voltage control platform (13), to set pressure, kept 2~3 hours, after this reacting kettle inner pressure is stable, close the high pressure needle valve on source of the gas (18) and the high voltage control platform (13), allow this reaction gas reactor and drilling fluid fully mix, left standstill 10~13 hours;
C. hydrate generates the observation that suppresses: start and set the cooling temperature of high low temperature experimental box (1), begin cooling; By data acquisition system (DAS) (12) environment temperature of the temperature and pressure of the inside of reactor described in the building-up process and this reactor periphery is measured and preserved in real time, the temperature of reactor inside refers to temperature in the drilling fluid to be measured and the temperature in the gas; In conjunction with transparent observing window (6) and micro-photographing apparatus (20), have or not hydrate to form in the observing response still.
8. method according to claim 7 is characterized in that adopting following methods to realize that decomposition of hydrate suppresses experiment:
A. the preparation of testing liquid and hydrate generation structure: 0.4~1 liter drilling fluid to be measured (4) is put into measuring cup (23), and measuring cup is placed on the base (22); In autoclave (2), put into pure water and sand (24) by the amount of setting; Open data acquisition system (DAS) (12), by the variation of temperature sensor (3) and pressure transducer (5) monitoring and the interior temperature and pressure of record autoclave (2); Open vacuum pump (11) and vacuumize, wait vacuumize complete after, close needle-valve (10) and vacuum pump (11);
B. test the generation of required hydrate: open the stop valve (17) on the source of the gas (18), in autoclave (2), pass into gas by supercharge pump (15) and high voltage control platform, to set pressure, close source of the gas; After setting the purpose temperature of high low temperature experimental box (1), start high low temperature experimental box (1) and begin cooling, make the water of described reactor bottom progressively generate hydrate, because the drilling fluid in the measuring cup (23) is added with the hydrate formation inhibitor, can not generate hydrate under this temperature, pressure condition;
C. the preparation that suppresses of decomposition of hydrate: autoclave (2) internal pressure be reduced to a certain degree and keep stable after, illustrate that the hydrate synthetic reaction finishes; Then angle of autoclave (2) inclination, drilling fluid to be measured (4) is poured out in measuring cup (23), covered on the hydrate of generation;
D. the observation of decomposition of hydrate inhibition: the interior temperature of high low temperature experimental box (1) is raise, thereby make decomposition of hydrate; Along with the decomposition of hydrate, reacting kettle inner pressure raises gradually; The size that increases by monitoring certain heating-up time internal reaction still pressure, appraisal drilling liquid suppresses the performance of decomposition of hydrate.
9. the purposes of the described device of arbitrary claim in the claim 1 to 5 is characterized in that the application of this device in comprising gas hydrate, frozen soil and ocean deepwater oil/gas drilling.
10. the purposes of the described method of arbitrary claim in the claim 6 to 8 is characterized in that the application of the method in comprising gas hydrate, frozen soil and ocean deepwater oil/gas drilling.
CN 200910061604 2009-04-14 2009-04-14 Method and device for evaluating inhibiting ability of drilling fluid on formation and decomposition of hydrate CN101532936B (en)

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