CN101483567A - High voltage electricity transmission line monitoring method based on wireless communication and optical communication - Google Patents

High voltage electricity transmission line monitoring method based on wireless communication and optical communication Download PDF

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CN101483567A
CN101483567A CN 200810184976 CN200810184976A CN101483567A CN 101483567 A CN101483567 A CN 101483567A CN 200810184976 CN200810184976 CN 200810184976 CN 200810184976 A CN200810184976 A CN 200810184976A CN 101483567 A CN101483567 A CN 101483567A
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wireless
node
monitoring
tower
communication
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CN101483567B (en
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琳 丛
扬 刘
慧 周
张文柱
炫 王
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西北电网有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/70Systems integrating technologies related to power network operation and communication or information technologies mediating in the improvement of the carbon footprint of electrical power generation, transmission or distribution, i.e. smart grids as enabling technology in the energy generation sector
    • Y02E60/72Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipments
    • Y02E60/723Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipments the elements or equipments being or involving electric power substations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/10Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment
    • Y04S10/16Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment the elements or equipments being or involving electric power substations

Abstract

The invention relates to a high-tension transmission line monitoring method on the basis of wireless communication and photo-communication for overcoming the faults of limited functions, small band width, high running cost and low reliability in the prior art. The method comprises the following steps: 1. setting wireless monitoring nodes on the transmission line towers; selecting a particular tower along the line at an interval of 20-30 kilometers as a convergent point tower and simultaneously installing wireless monitoring nodes and photo-communication nodes on the convergent point tower and transforming plants on the two ends of the line; 2. the wireless monitoring nodes acquiring monitoring data, the wireless monitoring nodes of the towers in the area where the convergent point tower locates transmit the monitoring data to the photo-communication nodes on the convergent point tower by using a multi-hop forwarding method, each photo-communication node transmits the monitoring data to a monitoring center by using a multi-hop forwarding method. According to the invention, information monitored by thousands of sensors installed on towers of each level can be transmitted back to a junction centre for realizing the real-time monitoring of the whole high-tension transmission line.

Description

一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法 A high voltage transmission line monitoring method based on optical communication and wireless communication

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及高压输电线路监测方法,尤其涉及一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法。 The present invention relates to a high voltage transmission line monitoring method, and particularly to a high voltage transmission line monitoring method based on optical communication and wireless communication. 背景技术 Background technique

电力工业是关系国计民生的重要基础产业和公用事业,电力的安全、稳定和充足供应,是国民经济全面、协调、可持续发展的重要保障条件。 Power industry is the livelihood of the important basic industries and public utilities, security, stability and adequate supply of electricity, the national economy is comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of the important guarantee conditions.

输电线路尤其是高电压等级的架空输电线路是电力系统的命脉,其管理的好坏, 既直接影响着电网的安全、稳定运行,又影响电能输送质量,所以,加强对输电线路的运行管理工作至关重要。 Especially the high voltage transmission line level overhead transmission lines is the lifeblood of the power system, the management is good or bad, not only directly affect the safety of the grid, stable operation, but also affect the quality of power delivery, so, strengthen the operation and management of the transmission line essential. 在目前的技术条件下,线路巡检是保障输电线路及其附属设备安全稳定运行的一项基础工作,其具体内容是:通过巡视检查来掌握线路运行状况及周围环境的变化,发现设备缺陷和危及线路安全的隐患,提出具体的检修内容, 以便及时消除缺陷,预防事故发生,或将故障限制在最小范围,保证输电线路的安全和电力系统稳定,达到电力系统"安全、经济、多供、少损"的运行目标。 In the current technical conditions, the line inspection is to protect transmission lines and a basic work safe and stable operation of ancillary equipment, and its specific content is: to master the line operating conditions and changes in the surrounding environment through visits to check, found defects and equipment endangering the line safety risks, to propose specific maintenance content, in order to promptly eliminate defects, to prevent accidents, or the failure to limit to a minimum to ensure safety and power system stability transmission lines, to the power system, "security, economic, and more available, less damage "operational goals.

目前国内超高压电网线路的巡检,通常采用人工巡线方法来排查、检修安全隐患, 保障电力线路安全。 Currently patrol domestic EHV power lines, usually artificial line inspection methods to troubleshoot, repair security risks, protect the safety of electrical wiring. 巡线人员在地面沿线逐塔巡视,有时候需要登上铁塔或者乘坐悬挂于线路上的滑车沿线巡检,这种作业方式有以下缺点:1)管理难度大,不灵活, 计划检修需要停电;2)需要专业的登高人员,对人员素质和责任心要求高;3)巡线周期长、劳动强度大、危险性高;4)效率低,漏检率高,带有很大的碰运气的成分。 Patrol officers on the ground along the line-by-tower inspections, sometimes need to board the tower or ride along the pulley hanging on the line inspection, such practices has the following disadvantages: 1) management difficult, inflexible, planned maintenance outage required; 2) requires specialized personnel climb, responsibility and high quality of personnel requirements; 3) transmission line period long, labor intensive, highly dangerous; low 4) efficiency, high missed, with a lot of luck ingredient. 以某电力公司在北京奥运保电期间所进行的巡线工作为例,为了巡检15条线路(长度38. 176公里,铁塔109基),在整个奥运期间共出动巡线人员9673人/次、车辆1881台/ 次,检测导线接头945个/次,但是真正发现和处置的重大隐患及突发事件只有5次;5) 费用高。 In the working transmission line during a power company Beijing Olympic electrically conducted, for example, 15 lines for inspection (length of 38.176 km, tower 109 group), during the entire line inspection personnel dispatched Olympics 9673 person / time vehicles 1881 units / time, detection wire connector 945 / times, but the real discovery and disposal of major risks and emergencies only five times; 5 high) cost. 据国家电网公司的调査报告,以全长5万公里的500千伏线路为例,用于常规巡线的费用为每年2. 1亿元。 According to the survey report of the State Grid Corporation, 500 kV line length of 50,000 km, for example, the cost of conventional transmission line for 210 million yuan per year. 近年来,超高压和特高压大容量电力线路(500kV、750kV 、 1000kV)开始大量建设,线路走廊需要穿越各种复杂的地理环境,如经过沼泽、丛林、 戈壁和崇山峻岭等无人区,这些都使得电力线路的传统线路巡检工作更加困难。 In recent years, EHV and UHV high-capacity power lines (500kV, 750kV, 1000kV) began a large number of construction, line corridor needs through a variety of complex geographical environment, such as through the swamps, jungles, mountains and desert no man's land, etc., which are so that the traditional power lines line inspection work more difficult. 特别是对于电力线路穿越原始森林边缘地区、高海拔、冰雪覆盖区以及沿线存在频繁滑坡、 泥石流等地质灾害,大部分地区山高坡陡,交通和通讯极不发达时,如何解决电力线路的日常检测成为困扰电力行业的一个重大难题。 Especially for the power line through the primeval forest fringe areas, there are frequent landslides, mudslides and other geological disasters, high altitude, snow-covered area and along the route, when most parts of the high mountains and steep, highly developed transport and communications, how to solve routine testing power line become a major problem plagued the power industry. 尤其是经过2008年的冰雪、地震灾害后,该问题显得尤其突出。 Especially after the 2008 ice after the earthquake disaster, the problem is particularly prominent.

4近年来,有些电力企业尝试了使用直升飞机巡检,虽然使工作效率有所提高,但是费用更加高昂,安全问题突出,例如:2008年3月冰雪灾害期间,北京首都通用航空公司一架直升机在湖南郴州执行高压线巡查任务时坠落,造成很大社会影响。 4 In recent years, some power companies have tried to use a helicopter patrol, although the work efficiency has improved, but more costly, prominent security issues, for example: during the snow disaster in March 2008, a Beijing Capital General Aviation when the helicopter Chenzhou, Hunan perform inspection tasks falling high-voltage lines, caused great social impact.

由于上述的巡检作业方式存在诸多的不足,电力部门和一些利^开机构开发了巡检机器人系统,该系统由巡检机器人和地面移动基站组成。 Because of its flaws and inspection practices described above, the power sector and a number of open interest ^ institutions to develop a robotic inspection system by the inspection robot and land mobile base stations. 机器人能够在超高压输电线路上沿线行走以及跨越障碍,携带摄像机检测输电设备的损伤情况,并将检测到的数据和图像通过无线传输系统发送到地面基站,以便地面人员及时准确地掌握输电线路的运行状态,发现线路设施的损伤、缺陷等故障情况。 Robot can travel along the EHV transmission lines and across obstacles, carrying the camera detects damage of power transmission equipment, and the detected image data and transmitted to the ground base station through a wireless transmission system, so that the ground personnel in a timely and accurate transmission line running, found fault line infrastructure damage, defects. 超高压线巡检机器人的研制成功,减轻了人工巡线的劳动强度,降低高压输电的运行维护成本,有利于提高巡检作业的质量和科学管理技术水平。 The successful development of ultra-high-voltage line inspection robot, reduce labor intensity of artificial transmission line, high voltage transmission reduce operating and maintenance costs, help to improve the quality of inspection and scientific and technological level management jobs. 但是,机器人仍然需要人工在现场进行控制,因此受到地形和交通限制,例如在有障碍物遮挡无法通信的地方不能很好地工作。 However, the robots still need to manually control the scene, so by the terrain and traffic restrictions, for example, does not work well in a place where obstructions can not communicate.

此外,以上所列举的巡检方式存在一个根本的缺陷。 Furthermore, there is a fundamental flaw inspection listed above manner. 即,线路巡检所解决的问题是有局限的,只能有效发现由于自然原因或系统本身缺陷,经过日积月累缓慢过程后形成的故障。 That is, the line inspection of the problem is limited, can only be effectively found that failure due to natural causes or defects in the system itself, after a slow cumulative process of formation. 而对于短期性事件(如:负荷异常时线路和接头的发热,垂度变化)或偶然性发生的事件(如:人力破坏,突然的自然灾害等),难以通过巡检方法掌握现场信息,并及时做出反应。 For short-term events (such as: fever abnormal load line and joints, sag changes) or chance events occur (such as: human damage, sudden natural disasters, etc.), it is difficult to grasp information through the site inspection methods, and timely React.

另一方面,由于社会和经济发展对电力供应质量的要求越来越高,国家提出了建设坚强电网的目标和精细化管理的要求,也促使电力企业对输电线路的管理维护向信息化和智能化发展。 On the other hand, due to social and economic development requirements of the increasingly high quality of electricity supply, the state put forward the need to build strong goals and meticulous management of the power grid, power companies also contributed to the management of the transmission line maintenance information and intelligence to development. 技术人员开始关注输电线路的更多信息,并将这些信息作为电网规划设计、科学调度、运行维护等工作的依据,例如:线路在各种工作模式下工况(如: 发热、垂度变化)、在各种气象条件下工况(如:风激励振动、舞动、覆冰)、以及在各种突发事件(如:地质灾害、事故、人为破坏)时输电线路的现场状况等。 Technicians began tuned for more information transmission lines, and such information as the basis for network planning and design, scientific control, operation and maintenance work, such as: line getting off work conditions in the various operating modes (such as: fever, sag changes) in various weather conditions getting off condition (such as: wind excited vibration, galloping, ice), and the various contingencies: site conditions (such as geological disasters, accidents, vandalism) transmission lines and the like. 需要注意的是,上述多种信息是需要靠长周期或实时观测来获取的,而依靠传统的巡检模式很难满足这些要求,获取的信息量非常有限。 It should be noted that the above information is to rely on a variety of long cycle, or to obtain real-time observation, while relying on traditional inspection mode is difficult to meet these requirements, the amount of information obtained is very limited.

由于存在以上原因,发展新的高压输电线路监测技术非常必要。 Due to these reasons, the development of new high-voltage transmission line monitoring technology is necessary. 近年来信息和电子科技,尤其是通信和传感器技术的进步也使这一努力成为可能, 一些科研机构和电力企业开始了相关技术方面的探索。 In recent years, information and electronic technology, especially advances in communications and sensor technology also makes it possible to this effort, a number of research institutions and power companies began to explore related technologies. 但是,目前对于如何建设经济、适用、高效的高压输电线路监测系统,还没有一个完整、成熟的解决方案。 However, the current monitoring system for high voltage power transmission line how to build economic, applicable and efficient, there is not a complete, proven solution. 现有解决方案总体思路是: 在线路和各级铁塔上装设传感器,将监测到的信息通过某种通信方式传送回监测中心。 Existing solutions general idea is: the installation of sensors on the lines and towers at all levels, will monitor the information back to the monitoring center by some means of communication. 其中的核心难点在采用何种技术构建通信网络,实现监观,息的传送。 What technical difficulties in using them to build the core communication network, monitor concept, the transfer rate.

现有研究中对于这一问题的解决方案大致可分为以下几类: Existing research for solutions to this problem can be divided into the following categories:

一、使用电信运营商的公网进行数据传输。 First, the use of the public network carriers for data transmission. 如使用公用电话网络加Modem的数据通信方式、使用公网有线数据通信方式、使 Such as the use of the public telephone network plus Modem data communication, data communication using a wired public network mode, so that

用公共无线网的数据通信方式。 A public wireless data communication network.

以上方案的基本思路都是使用电信运营商的公网进行数据传输。 The basic idea of ​​the above options are to use the public network carriers for data transmission. 其中使用电话或 Using telephone or

ADSL等有线通信方式时,因为会涉及到在高压区域布放用户线的问题,安全风险和经济代价巨大,在加上网络覆盖范围的限制,基本上不适合用于高压线路监控。 When wired ADSL communication system, because it will involve a problem in the high-pressure area to a subscriber line laying, and economic costs a great security risk, plus the network coverage limit, for high pressure substantially for line monitoring. 因此大部分的技术方案都采用无线方式来解决通信问题,例如使用公网无线系统提供的数据传输服务,如:GSM、 GPRS、 CDMA、 WiMAX,完成信息传送。 Thus most of the technical solutions are adopted to solve the wireless communication problems, such as using public wireless system provides data transmission services, such as: GSM, GPRS, CDMA, WiMAX, transmission completion information.

以上使用公网无线服务的方式存在以下缺点: The following disadvantages over the use of public wireless services by:

1) 公网的覆盖范围有限,主要在人口稠密地区, 一般无法覆盖输电线路全程。 1) the limited coverage of public network, mainly in densely populated areas, generally can not cover the entire transmission line.

2) 目前公网提供的服务种类和数据速率有限,无法满足像线路视频监控信息传输等高速率业务的需求。 2) the limited service type and data rates provided by the public network, like the line can not meet the high-rate transmission of video surveillance information needs of the business. 例如:GSM数据速率9.6Kbps; GPRS理论上的最高传输速率为171.2Kbps,实际最高速率与运营商采的信道分配方案有关,再加上公网中用户公享带宽的本质特性,通常每个用户的平均数据速率在20〜40kbps之间,且不能保证服务质量。 For example: GSM data rate of 9.6Kbps; GPRS theoretical maximum transmission rate to 171.2Kbps, the actual channel allocation scheme with the highest rate of about mining operators, plus the essential characteristics of the public network, the public user to enjoy bandwidth each user is typically the average data rate between 20~40kbps, and can not guarantee the quality of service.

3) 公网本身的可靠性难以满足电力监测系统的可靠性要求。 3) the reliability of the public network itself can not meet the reliability requirements of the power monitoring system. 例如:在2008年的地震灾害中,很多公网已经无法使用,而此时正是需要监测系统发挥作用的时候。 For example: In the earthquake of 2008, many have been unable to use the public network, but this time it is needed to monitor the system comes into play.

4) 公网服务收费较高。 4) higher public service charges. 如果完整监测一条长距离输电线路,成百上千监测点传输大量信息,这些信息传输会费用很高。 If the full monitoring of a long-distance transmission lines, hundreds of monitoring points transferring large amounts of information, the information transmission will be high cost.

5) 网络管理困难。 5) network management difficult. 电力企业无法对公网直接进行管理, 一旦监控系统需要进行改动或者出现故障,必须与公网运营商协调解决,处理问题的时间无法保证,对电力系统安全运行造成威胁。 Power companies can not directly manage the public network, once the monitoring system needs to be modified or failure, must be coordinated with the public network operators to resolve, time to deal with the problem can not be guaranteed, it poses a threat to the safe operation of the power system.

二、建立采用专用的无线通信技术网,实现输电线路监测。 Second, a dedicated network of a wireless communication technology, to achieve transmission line monitoring. 采用这种方法的研究,有以下几种方式: Studies using this method, the following ways:

1、 利用光纤温度传感器将导线接头温度采集下来,再结合新兴的无线光通信技术,将数据传输给2km以外的工作人员。 1, the temperature of wire connectors will be collected using the optical fiber temperature sensor down, combined with emerging wireless optical communication technology, the data transmission to personnel outside 2km. 其缺点在于:1)传输距离有限,无法实现监测点到监控中心的数据传输;2)自由空间光通信系统受至忾象条件限制,例如在浓雾、降雨条件下无法使用;3)没有组网方案,监测过程中还需要人工配合。 The disadvantage is that: 1) the transmission distance is limited, can not achieve data transmission to the monitoring point of the monitoring center; 2) free-space optical communication system according to the receiving conditions like anger, for example, can not be used in fog, rain condition; 3) groups no net programs for monitoring process also need artificial.

2、 信息级联传送方式,即杆塔上的无线传输设备除用于把本地故障信息发送出去,也用于接收上一挡杆塔传送的信息,并将信息转发至其下一挡杆塔的传输设备上,直至膽息送回系统终端。 2, cascade information transmission, i.e. the radio transmission tower in addition to the device for transmitting the local fault information out, also for receiving information on a transmission tower block, and the information is forwarded to its next-gear transmission equipment tower on the back until the biliary system information terminal. 但这种简单的接力传输方式存在以下缺点:1)网络无自组织能力,抗毁能力差,只要有一个节点出现故障,就会导致其它的节点信息无法正常传送;2)无法使用在长距离多节点的线路上,可靠性和传输延迟无法满足要求。 However, the drawback of this simple relay transmission: 1) self-organizing network without the ability, poor survivability, as long as there is a node fails, other nodes will lead not normally transmitted information; 2) can not be used in long-distance on line multi-node, and transmission delay can not meet the reliability requirements. 3、 使用公网CDMA或GPRS提供的服务完成信息从监测点到监控中心的传递。 3, or CDMA service using the public network providing GPRS completion information transmitted from the monitoring point to the monitoring center. 对于没有公网无线覆盖的地方,则使用无线射频多跳接力传输的方法。 For where there is no public wireless coverage, multi-hop Relay RF transmission is used. 其实是前文所述公网传送方式和无线接力传输方式的结合,没有摆脱各自相应的缺陷。 In fact, previously described in conjunction with public network and the wireless transmission system of the relay transmission mode, not out of a respective defect.

4、 采用无线与有线相结合的方式将输电线路监观隨息上传到数据分析总站。 4, by way of a combination of wireless and wired transmission line monitoring concept with the information uploaded to the data analysis station. 在每条输电线路设置基站,数据采集单元与基站之间的数据传递采用无线接力方法传递 Data transfer between the transmission lines is provided for each base station, a data acquisition unit and the base station using a wireless transmission method Relay

信息,基站到总站数据则经过有线方式进行数据传输。 Information, the base station to the data terminal for data transmission via a wired manner. 其缺点在于:1)需要建设基 The disadvantage is that: 1) the need to build the base

站;2)基站与总站之间的有线传输需要借助公网,且布线困难;3)对于长距离的通常有成百上千个节点的超高压、特高压输电线路来说,出于可靠性和信息传输时延等方面考虑,很难实现对整条线路监测。 Station; 2) wired transmission between base station needs the public network, and difficult wiring; 3) For long EHV usually hundreds of nodes, particularly for high voltage transmission lines, for reliability and transmission delay of information and other considerations, it is difficult to realize the whole line monitoring.

5、 建立基于输电走廊的无线传感器网络来解决输电线路在监测信息远程通信问题。 5, the establishment of wireless sensor network based transmission corridor monitoring information to solve the problem of transmission lines in remote communication. 在不具备移动网覆盖的地方,依靠无线传感器网络多跳接力传送来实现数据通信;当输电线路很长时(塔基数超过100),需要在一定距离上需要设置网关或基站,借助于公共移动通信网将信息传送到线路监控中心。 Where mobile network does not have coverage, multi-hop wireless sensor networks relying on the relay transfer to data communications; when long transmission line (tower exceeds 100), the base station needs to set up the gateway, or at a distance, by means of a common mobile communication networks transmit information to the monitoring center line. 其缺点在于:1)没有完全摆脱对公网的依赖;2)需要建设网关节点;3)无线传感器网络在本质上适用于信息单向传送的场合,即信息从监测点向监控中心传送,而对于电网自动化管理而言,有时需要实现信息的双向传送,例如上行的遥测和遥信信息和下行的遥控和遥调信息,这对于无线传感器网络来说比较困难。 The disadvantage is that: 1) not completely free from dependence on the public network; 2) the need to build a gateway node; 3) applied to a wireless sensor network where information is transmitted one-way in nature, i.e. conveying information from the monitoring point to the monitoring center, and for distribution automation management, sometimes necessary to achieve bidirectional transmission of information, such as telemetry and remote signaling uplink information and downlink information on the remote control and remote adjustment, it is difficult for wireless sensor networks.

6、 基于Mobitex无线专网技术的高压输电网智能监测系统。 6, Mobitex based wireless private network technology intelligent monitoring system voltage transmission networks. 按照该方案,需要建立一个类似GSM和CDMA公网无线通信系统的专用的无线蜂窝网络,用来进行线路监测信息的传输。 According to this embodiment, a similar need for a dedicated public network GSM and CDMA wireless communication system is a wireless cellular network, for transmission line monitoring information. 其存在以下不足:1)它是一种窄带分组通信网络,上下行数据速率8kbps左右,无法支持高带宽的业务的需求;2)需要在延输电线路附近部署大量的基站,由于超高压和特高压输电线路距离很长,所经过地区地理条件和环境条件都比较复杂,建设一个覆盖全部输电线路的Mobitex无线基站系统,在建设费用、工程难度、电源供给和后期维护成本等方面缺陷明显;3)基站和监测节点需要具备远距离无线通信能力,如:20〜30公里,使用大功率的无线发射机,设备价格高,在野外环境工作时电源供给的难度大;4)根据输电线路维护的经验来看,在人烟稀少、社会治安差的地方,通信基站本身也容易成为犯罪分子盗窃和破坏的目标,因此存在严重安全隐患。 It has the following disadvantages: 1) It is a narrowband packet communication network, the vertical and horizontal line rate 8kbps data, can not support high bandwidth traffic demand; 2) number of base stations need to be deployed in the vicinity of the extension of transmission line, and since the EHV Laid high-voltage transmission line distance is very long, through which the geographic and environmental conditions are more complicated to build a Mobitex wireless base station system of all transmission lines covered in construction costs, engineering difficulties, power supply and maintenance cost and other aspects of obvious defects; 3 ) monitor node and the base station requires long-distance wireless communication capabilities, such as: 20 ~ 30 km, using high-power radio transmitter, the high price of the device, the power supply is difficult in the wild work environment; 4) the maintenance of the transmission line experience, in sparsely populated places with poor social security, communication base station itself is an easy target for criminals theft and vandalism, and therefore there is a serious security risk.

另外,输电线路沿线的监测节点是线状排列的,实际需要服务的无线覆盖区域只是沿线路走向的一个窄窄的带装区域,而蜂窝组网的方式通常是为处在一个平面区域内的广大用户提供服务,每个基站的无线覆盖范围为一个面积巨大蜂窝区域,可达近百平方公里,因此这种方案对提高无线频谱的空间复用率是非常不利的。 Further, the monitor node along the transmission lines are arranged in a line, a narrow area wireless coverage area loaded with the actual needs and services to just along the line, and the cellular network in a manner as is generally within a plane region general users, wireless coverage area of ​​each base station is a huge cellular regions, up to hundreds of square kilometers, so this program to improve the wireless spectrum spatial multiplexing rate is very unfavorable. 发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的目的在于克服现有技术中实现困难、功能局限、部署不便、带宽小、运行成本高、可靠性低、管理维护不便的缺陷,从而提供一种基于无线通信和光通信的 Object of the present invention to overcome difficulties in the prior art to realize, functional limitations, deployment inconvenience, small bandwidth, high operating costs, low reliability, defect management and maintenance inconvenience, to provide a radio communication based Optic

高压输电线路监测方法,其将无线AclHoc网络技术和光纤通信技术相结合,可以将各级铁塔上安装的数以千百计的传感器所监测到的信息传送回中心站,以实现对整条高压输电线路的实时监测。 High voltage transmission line monitoring method which AclHoc wireless network technology and optical communication technology, may be mounted on the tower levels of hundreds or thousands of monitored by the sensor information back to the central station, in order to achieve the whole high-pressure Real-time monitoring of transmission lines.

本发明的技术解决方案为: Technical solutions of the present invention are:

一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法,其特殊之处是:包含以下步骤. High voltage transmission line monitoring method based on optical communication and wireless communication, which are special features: comprising the following steps.

1]在高压输电线路延线的每个铁塔上设置一个无线监测节点;在沿线间隔20〜30公里的位置处选择有光缆接续盒的特定铁塔作为汇聚点铁塔,在汇聚点铁塔上以及线路两端的变电站内同时安装无线监观U节点和光通信节点;在线路一端的变电站内设置监控中心;各光通信节点利用电力特种光缆中的两根纤芯组成一个多跳的光传输网络进行光传输;各无线监测节点组成一个多跳的无线网络进行无线连接;所述无线监测节点包括数据采集单元、数据处理单元、无线传输单元以及供电单元;所述光通信节点包括数据处理单元、光传输模块以及供电单元; 1] Set a wireless monitor node on each tower transmission line, high voltage line extension; at positions 20 to 30 km intervals along the cable enclosure choose a particular tower tower as the convergence point, the convergence point on the tower and two lines install the inner end of the substation radio monitoring concept U nodes and optical communication node; provided the monitoring center in the substation circuit at one end; each of the optical communication nodes using two core power special optic cable to form a multi-hop optical transport network optical transmission; each wireless node monitors the composition of a multi-hop wireless network wireless connection; monitoring the wireless node comprises a data acquisition unit, a data processing unit, a wireless transmitting unit and a power supply unit; the optical communications node includes a data processing unit, and the light transmission module power supply unit;

2]当需要进行监测时,无线监测节点采集监测数据,汇聚点铁塔所在区域内的各铁塔上的无线监测节点采用多跳转发的方式将监测数据传输到汇聚点铁塔上设置的光通信节点,各光通信节点采用多跳转发的方式将监测数据传输到监控中心;当需要对无线监测节点进行控制时,监控中心生成控制信息,各光通信节点采用多跳转发的方式将控制信息传输至湘应的汇聚点铁塔的光通信节点,汇聚点铁塔所在区域内的各铁塔上的无线监测节点采用多跳转发的方式将控制信息传输到各铁塔上设置的无线监测节点。 2] When the need for monitoring, data acquisition and monitoring a wireless monitor node, each wireless node monitors the tower in the area where the convergence point tower multi-hop manner to transfer monitoring data to the optical communication nodes arranged on the tower convergence point , each of the optical communication nodes using the multi-hop manner to transfer the monitoring data to the monitoring center; when necessary to control the radio monitor node, generates control information control center, each of the optical communication nodes using the multi-hop mode control information Xiang be transmitted to an optical communication tower rendezvous point node, the wireless node monitoring on each tower tower in the area where the point of convergence of multi-hop mode to the wireless transmission of control information is provided on each monitor node tower.

上述监测方法还包含以下步骤:在线路对端的变电站内设置迂回路由,该迂回路由通过SDH设备提供的VC-12虚级联通道与线路一端的变电站内设置的监控中心连接。 Said monitoring method further comprises the steps of: providing detour route in the substation end line, the substation control center provided through the circuitous route provides apparatus SDH virtual concatenation VC-12 channels is connected to one end of the line.

上述数据采集单元包括音/视频采集单元和外部数据接口;所述无线传输单元包括低功率无线网卡、天线切换装置以及至少两个方向性天线。 Said data acquisition unit includes audio / video data acquisition unit and external interfaces; the wireless transmitting unit includes a low power wireless network card, the antenna switching means and at least two directional antennas.

上述无线监测节点包括功率控制模块以及与无线传输单元连接的全向天线;所述各无线监测节点组成一个无线Ad Hoc网络进行无线连接;所述功率控制模块用于控制无线传输模块在Ad Hoc网络环境下的传输功率。 Monitoring the wireless node includes a power control module, and omni-directional antenna connected to the wireless transmission unit; each of the wireless nodes monitoring a wireless Ad Hoc wireless network; said power control module for controlling transmission of the wireless Ad Hoc network module transmission power under the circumstances.

上述光通信节点包括与光通信节点两侧光纤分别连接的两组光分路器和光合路器。 The optical communication node comprises two optical splitter and the optical coupling with the optical fiber on both sides of the communication nodes are connected. 上述光通信节点包括外部数据接口;所述供电单元包括发电单元、电源控制器和蓄电池;所述发电单元包括太太阳能阵列、电磁感应单元和/或低启动风速的小型风力发电机。 The optical communication node comprises an external data interface; the power supply unit includes a power generation unit, power controller and the battery; too the power generation unit comprises a solar array, the electromagnetic induction unit and / or a low wind speed start small wind turbines. ' '

上述步骤2]包括确定待传输数据所在铁塔是否设有光通{言节点的步骤;如有,则通过无线监测节点和光通信节点上的外部数据接口将无线监测节点采集到的数据传递到光通信节点上,再由设在铁塔上的光通信节点进行数据传输;如没有,则通过设在铁塔上的无线监测节点进行数据传输,当数据传输到设有光通信节点的铁塔时,再通过设在铁塔上的光通信节点进行数据传输。 If the data transfer, the data on the external monitor node and a wireless optical communication node interface monitor node to acquire a wireless optical communication; Step 2 above] data to be transmitted comprises determining whether the tower is provided with a step where the optical communication nodes words { node, then the data transmitted by the optical communications node is provided on the tower; if not, the data transmission via the radio tower provided on the monitor node, when the data transmission to the tower is provided with an optical communication node, and then by setting for data transmission in the optical communication nodes on the tower.

上述无线监测节点中的数据处理单元包括存储器;所述步骤2]间包含存储数据的步骤,即将由步骤2]采集到的数据存储在存储器中,等待在预先设定的网络空闲时间段,或是接收到监测中心传来的查询指令后,再将数据传送到监测中心。 Monitoring the wireless node data processing unit includes a memory; said step Step 2] contains between storing data, collected by the upcoming Step 2] the data stored in the memory, the network idle time waiting for a preset period, or after receiving a query command is transmitted from the monitoring center, then the data transmitted to the monitoring center.

本发明的优点: The advantages of the present invention:

1、 易于实现、部署灵活。 1, easy to implement, flexible deployment. 以无线方式组网为主,工程实施和后期维护简便。 Wirelessly network-based, easy to project implementation and ongoing maintenance.

2、 不受公网覆盖范围的影响,易于实现输电线路的全线覆盖。 2, is not affected by the public network coverage, is easy to achieve full coverage of the transmission line.

3、 信道带宽大。 3, a large channel bandwidth. 无线节点可使用现有成熟的WLAN技术,通信速率可达llMbps〜54Mbps,远超过公网提供的无线通信能力,能有效支持视频传输等高带宽需求的业务。 Wireless node may use existing mature WLAN technology, communication speed up llMbps~54Mbps, far more than the public network to provide wireless communication capabilities, and can effectively support the high bandwidth requirements of video transmission services.

4、 运行成本低廉。 4, low operating costs. 无需交纳公网服务费,系统运行费用低廉。 No need to pay public network service charges, low system operating costs.

5、 服务质量高,维护管理简单。 5, high-quality service, maintenance simple management. 完全利用电力企业自身的通信资源,而不依赖任何公网运营商的支持。 Fully utilize the power of their own communication resources, independent of any well-supported network operators. 由于是专网专用,服务质量高,系统出现故障时无需与公网运营商协调解决,有利于快速解决问题和更好的保障对电力一次系统安全运行。 Because it is a dedicated private network, high quality services, without coordination with the public network operators to solve the system fails, it is conducive to rapid problem solving and better safeguard the operation of the first power system security.

6、 可靠性高、抗多点失效。 6, high reliability, multi-node failure. 采用AdHoc自组织、自适应的组网络技术,抗多点失效能力强,有效提高了系统整体的可靠性。 AdHoc using self-organizing, adaptive network technology group, multi-node failure ability, effectively improving the overall reliability of the system.

7、 功能强大。 7 powerful. 网络结构适合于在控制中心与铁塔监控节点之间进行双向通信,可对复杂地形条件下的长距离输电线路进行全程、逐塔的实时监测,能很好支持对线路监控设备的遥测、遥信、遥控、遥调等功能,还可以支持工作人员在输电线路延线的附近利用专用无线终端进行语音、数据、视频通信,在线路检修、抢险救灾等特殊场合充当应急通信手段。 Network structure suitable for two-way communication between the control center and the tower monitoring node, the entire process can be monitored in real time by the long distance transmission line tower complex terrain conditions well telemetry support line monitoring equipment, remote , remote control, remote adjustment and other functions, may also support staff voice, data and video communications using a dedicated line extending in the vicinity of the wireless terminal transmission line, acts as a means of communication line maintenance emergency, disaster relief and other special occasions.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1是逐跳转发方式的无线监控网络示意图。 1 is a hop by hop network diagram of a wireless monitoring FIG.

图2是具有Ad Hoc网络特性的无线监控网络示意图。 FIG 2 is a schematic diagram of a wireless Ad Hoc network monitoring network characteristics.

图3是本发明的塔上无线监测节点的结构图。 FIG 3 is a configuration diagram of a radio tower monitor node according to the present invention.

图4是本发明的塔上光通信节点的结构图。 FIG 4 is a configuration diagram of a communication node coating tower of the present invention. 图5是本发明输电线路监测方法的组网图。 FIG 5 is a network transmission line monitoring method of the present invention.

图6是本发明输电线路监测方法的应急通信应用模式示意图。 FIG 6 is a schematic view of the emergency communication application mode transmission line monitoring method of the present invention. 具体实施方式 Detailed ways

本发明在输电线路的铁塔顶端安装专用的传感器和无线通信设备。 The present invention is mounted a dedicated sensor and a wireless communication device to the top of the tower transmission line. 各级铁塔上的 On all levels of the tower

无线通信设备即无线监测节点之间组成具备自组织、自适应能力的无线Ad Hoc网络。 Composition comprising self-organization, the adaptability between the wireless communication device that is a wireless node monitors the wireless Ad Hoc network. 利用AdHoc网络的多跳转发能力,在一定区域内的各级铁塔上的无线节点可将监控信息进行接力转发,传送到在特定铁塔即汇聚点铁塔上设置的光通信节点。 AdHoc networks use multi-hop capabilities, a wireless node on the tower levels within a certain area of ​​the relay may be forwarded to monitoring information transmitted to the optical communication nodes i.e. the convergence point is provided at a particular tower tower. 这些光通信节点相互之间通过高压输电线路上的电力特种光缆,如OPGW或ADSS中的两根光纤连接,组成一个类i^AdHoc网络的,具有自组织特性的光网络,各个光通信节点同样采用多跳转发的方式进行数据通信。 Special high voltage through the power cable transmission lines, such as the two OPGW or ADSS optical fiber connecting these nodes communicate with each other to form a class i ^ AdHoc networks, having a self-organization of an optical network, each of the optical communication nodes equally multi-hop data communication manner. 通过以上无线Ad Hoc网络和光纤网络相结合的方式,监控中心可以和任何铁塔上的监控节点进行信息交互,实现对线路的实时监测和控制。 , The monitoring center can monitor nodes exchange information on the tower and above any way wireless Ad Hoc network and a fiber optic network combination, real-time monitoring and control circuits.

具体地说,本发明为一种一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法,其包含以下步骤: More specifically, the present invention is a high voltage transmission line monitoring method, and wireless communication based on an optical communication, comprising the steps of:

1]在高压输电线路延线的每个铁塔上设置一个无线监测节点;在沿线间隔20〜30公里的位置处选择有光缆接续盒的特定铁塔作为汇聚点铁塔,在汇聚点铁塔上以及线路两端的变电站内同时安装无线监测节点和光通信节点;在线路一端的变电站内设置监控中心;各光通信节点利用电力特种光缆中的两根纤芯组成一个多跳的光传输网络进行光传输;各无线监测节点组成一个多跳的无线网络进行无线连接;所述无线监测节点包括数据采集单元、数据处理单元、无线传输单元以及供电单元;所述光通信节点包括数据处理单元、光传输模块以及供电单元; 1] Set a wireless monitor node on each tower transmission line, high voltage line extension; at positions 20 to 30 km intervals along the cable enclosure choose a particular tower tower as the convergence point, the convergence point on the tower and two lines install the inner end of the substation radio monitor node and the optical communication nodes; provided the monitoring center in the substation circuit at one end; each of the optical communication nodes using two core power special optic cable to form a multi-hop optical transport network optical transmission; each radio monitor node to form a multi-hop wireless network is a wireless connection; monitoring the wireless node comprises a data acquisition unit, a data processing unit, a wireless transmitting unit and a power supply unit; the optical communications node includes a data processing unit, the light transmission module and the power supply unit ;

2]当需要进行监测时,无线监测节点采集监测数据,汇聚点铁塔所在区域内的各铁塔上的无线监测节点采用多跳转发的方式将监测数据传输到汇聚点铁塔上设置的光通信节点,各光通信节点采用多跳转发的方式将监测数据传输到监控中心;当需要对无线监测节点进行控制时,监控中心生成控制信息,各光通信节点采用多跳转发的方式将控帝赔息传输到相应的汇聚点铁塔的光通信节点,汇聚点铁塔所在区域内的各铁塔上的无线监测节点采用多跳转发的方式将控制信息传输到各铁塔上设置的无线监测节点。 2] When the need for monitoring, data acquisition and monitoring a wireless monitor node, each wireless node monitors the tower in the area where the convergence point tower multi-hop manner to transfer monitoring data to the optical communication nodes arranged on the tower convergence point , each of the optical communication nodes using the multi-hop manner to transfer the monitoring data to the monitoring center; when necessary to control the radio monitor node, generates control information control center, each of the optical communication nodes using the multi-hop manner controlled Emperor lose information transmitted to the corresponding optical communications tower rendezvous point node, the wireless node monitoring on each tower tower in the area where the point of convergence of multi-hop mode to the wireless transmission of control information is provided on each monitor node tower.

在上述线路对端的变电站内还可以设置迂回路由,该迂回路由通过SDH设备提供的VC-12虚级联通道与线路一端的变电站内设置的监控中心连接。 Said line in the substation may also be provided on the end of the detour route, the detour setting of the substation control center routing provided by the SDH virtual concatenation VC-12 apparatus and the channel is connected to one end of the line.

在无线传输单元中包括有低功率无线网卡、天线切换装置以及至少两个方向性天线;所述数据采集单元包括音/视频采集单元和外部数据接口。 In the radio transmission unit comprises a low-power wireless network card, the antenna switching means and at least two directional antennas; said data collection unit including audio / video capture unit and the external data interface.

10在无线监测节点包括功率控制模块以及与无线传输单元连接的全向天线;所述各无线监测节点组成一个无线Ad Hoc网络进行无线连接;所述功率控制模块用于控制无线传输模块在Ad Hoc网络环境下的传输功率。 In the wireless node 10 includes a power monitoring control module and the omni-directional antenna connected to the wireless transmission unit; each of the wireless nodes monitoring a wireless Ad Hoc wireless network; said power control module for controlling wireless transmission module in Ad Hoc transmission power under the network environment.

在光通信节点中包括与光通信节点两侧光纤分别连接的两组光分路器和光合路器。 The optical splitter comprises two sides of the optical fiber are connected to communication nodes and an optical coupling device in an optical communication nodes.

在光通信节点中还包括外部数据接口;所述供电单元包括发电单元、电源控制器和蓄电池;所述发电单元包括太太阳能阵列、电磁感应单元和/或低启动风速的小型风力发电机。 In the optical communication nodes further comprises an external data interface; the power supply unit includes a power generation unit, power controller and the battery; too the power generation unit comprises a solar array, the electromagnetic induction unit and / or a low wind speed start small wind turbines.

所述步骤2]包括确定待传输数据所在铁塔是否设有光通信节点的步骤;如有,则通过无线监测节点和光通信节点上的外部数据接口将无线监测节点采集到的数据传递到光通信节点上,再由设在铁塔上的光通信节点进行数据传输;如没有,则通过设在铁塔上的无线监测节点进行数据传输,当数据传输到设有光通信节点的铁塔时,再通过设在铁塔上的光通信节点进行数据传输。 If the data transfer, the data on the external monitor node and a wireless optical communication node to acquire a wireless interface to a monitor node of the optical communication node; step 2] data to be transmitted comprises determining whether the tower is provided with a step where the optical communications node on the re-transmission of data by the optical communication node is provided on the tower; if not, the data transmission via the radio tower provided on the monitor node, when the data transmission to the tower is provided with an optical communication node, and then provided by optical communication node for data transmission on the tower.

在无线监测节点中的数据处理单元还可以包括存储器;故还可以包含存储数据的步骤,即将由步骤2]采集到的数据存储在存储器中,等待在预先设定的网络空闲时间段,或是接收到监测中心传来的査询指令后,再将数据传送到监测中心。 Monitoring a data processing unit in a wireless node may further comprise a memory; it may further comprise the step of storing data, i.e. the Step 2] the collected data stored in the memory, the network idle time waiting for a preset period, or after receiving a query command transmitted monitoring center, then the data transmitted to the monitoring center.

本发明实现步骤中的塔上无线监观lj节点、光通信节点,分别描述如下: The present invention is implemented in step lj column wireless monitoring concept nodes, optical communication node, are described as follows:

一.塔上无线监测节点 A tower on a wireless monitoring node

塔上无线监测节点是本发明的重要组成部分,它的主要功能是通过各种类型的传感器收集输电线路铁塔上的信息,进行初步分析和处理后,通过无线传输手段将信息发送给周围其他铁塔上的无线监测节点;同时每个无线监测节点也肩负着转发来自其他无线监测节点的信息的任务。 Wireless tower monitor node is an important part of the present invention, its main function is the information on the transmission tower was collected by various types of sensors, the preliminary analysis and treatment, sending the information to other surrounding radio transmission tower by means wireless monitoring node on; at the same time each wireless node is also entrusted with monitoring the forwarding information from other wireless nodes monitoring tasks.

无线监测节点是网络的基本单元,它的基本结构主要包括:数据采集单元、音/视频采集单元、数据处理单元、无线传输单元、方向性天线及天线切换装置、外部数据接口、以及供电单元等主要部分。 Monitoring the wireless network node is a base unit, its basic structure includes: a data acquisition unit, audio / video capture unit, a data processing unit, a wireless transmission unit, a directional antenna and an antenna switching means, external data interface and a power supply unit, etc. main part. 节点的组成如图3所示。 Composition node shown in Figure 3.

数据采集单元由各类型的传感器以及相应的A/D变换器组成。 The data acquisition unit by each type of sensor and corresponding A / D converter components. 根据监测目标的不同,传感器的配置可以有所差别。 Depending on the target of monitoring, the sensor may be arranged differently.

音/视频采集单元主要包括麦克风MIC、摄像头、云台等设备。 Audio / video capture the MIC unit mainly includes a microphone, a camera, head and other equipment. 用于采集应急现场的声音和图像信息,供监控中心更全面的了解事发现场的情况。 For acquiring emergency scene of sound and image information, the monitoring center for a more comprehensive understanding of the situation of the scene. 在某些特殊场合,获取现场的音、视频信息是非常重要的,可以了解到输电线路周围的环境,如植被覆盖情况、鸟害情况等,以防范事故于未然;可以了解到特殊气象条件下线路的工作状态,如大风情况下的线路舞动,冰雪天气下的线路覆冰状态等;也可以了解到线路遭受人为破坏的情况,如车辆或机械挂断电缆、盗割电缆、盗窃塔材等事件,进行现场取证,以便于事后的故障修复和责任追究工作等。 In some special occasions, get live audio and video information is very important, we can understand the environment around the transmission lines, such as vegetation coverage, bird damage situation, so as to prevent accidents in the first place; you can learn under special weather conditions the working state of the line, such as line dancing in windy conditions, icing weather snow state; the case may be learned lines from vandalism, such vehicles or machinery hang cables, cable Daoge, theft, and other materials tower event, on-site evidence, in order to repair the fault and responsibility of work and so on afterwards. 为了提高信道的利用率,可以选择配置音、视频编解码单元,压縮数据速率。 To improve channel utilization, you can choose to configure audio, video codec unit, the data compression rate.

外部数据接口单元主要提供USB、高速串口、以太网口,也可选配蓝牙接口,这些接口提供与摄像头、MIC的夕卜部连接功能;与专用的光节点通信设备连接以实现数据转发功能;还可用于与便携式计算机连接,进行数据处理或设备调试。 External data interface unit is mainly to provide USB, high-speed serial port, Ethernet port, a Bluetooth interface may be optional, these interfaces provide a camera, the MIC portion of the connecting function Bu Xi; communication device to a dedicated optical node connection for data forwarding function; further It can be used in connection with a portable computer, data processing apparatus or debugging.

数据处理单元由嵌入式系统构成,包括微处理器、存储器、信号处理电路等。 The data processing unit is constituted by an embedded system, including a microprocessor, a memory, a signal processing circuit and the like. it

是无线监测节点的主要部分。 It is the main part of the wireless monitoring node. 根据AdHoc网络的特征,参照0SI的经典7层协议栈模型和TCP/IP结构,本发明中数据处理单元完成的功能涉及以下几个层面的(软件)功能模块。 According to a feature AdHoc networks, with reference to the classic 0SI 7-layer protocol stack model and the TCP / IP architecture, according to the present invention, the data processing unit performs functions related to the following level (software) modules.

1) 应用层功能 1) Application Layer Functionality

用于提供面向用户的各种应用服务,包括具有严格时延和丢失率限制的实时应用(紧急控制信息)、基于RTP/RTCP的自适应应用(音频和视频)和没有任何服务质量保证的数据业务等。 To provide a variety of user-oriented applications, including data (emergency control information), based on adaptive use RTP / RTCP (audio and video) and there is no guaranteed quality of service in real time applications have strict latency and loss rate limits business. 该层的软件首先负责将传感器采集的数据记录到存储器中,并进行简单的分析判断,如果发现某项指标超出预先设置的门限值,或者接收到来自线路监测中心的查询命令,则应立即将相关数据整理成相应格式的消息,准备将其发送往监控中心。 The first layer of software responsible for recording data collected by sensors into a memory, and a simple analysis to determine if an index exceeded find a preset threshold value, or receiving the query command from the monitoring center line, should be immediately the data organized into a corresponding message format, ready to be sent to the monitoring center.

2) 传输层功能 2) transport layer function

用于向应用层提供可靠的端到端服务,使上层与通信子网(下三层的细节)相隔离,并利用网络层的特性来高效地利用网络资源。 End for providing reliable service to the application layer, the upper layer and the subnetworks (the details of the three) is isolated, and using the characteristics of the network layer to efficiently use network resources. 处于技术成熟度方面考虑,本发明采用目前基于传统的有线网络中的传输层协议,包括TCP和UDP以及适用于无线环境的其他特定的传输层协议(如WAP协议)。 In the maturity of the technology viewpoint, the present invention is based on the use of current conventional wired network transport protocols, including TCP and UDP transport protocol and certain other suitable wireless environment (such as a WAP protocol).

3) 网络层功能 3) Network Layer Function

该部分软件完成的主要功能包括邻居发现、路由选择和分组转发、拥塞控制和网络互联等功能。 The part of the software to complete the main features include neighbor discovery, packet forwarding and routing, congestion control and networking functions. 邻居发现主要用于收集网络拓扑信息。 NDP mainly used to collect network topology information. 路由选择的作用是发现和维护去往目的节点的路由,即无线监控节点选择什么路径,将信息逐段转发,送回线路监测中心或其他特定的节点。 The role of routing discovery and maintenance of routes destined for the destination node, namely wireless monitoring node to choose what path, paragraph by paragraph, the information forwarded, returned to the line monitoring center or other specific node. 由于多跳性是AdHoc网络的主要特征,要实现报文的多跳 Due to the multi-hop is the main feature of AdHoc network, to achieve multi-hop message

转发,必须有路由协议的支持。 Forward, there must be support routing protocols. 本发明中,由于监测节点随着输电线路部署,主要成线形排列,拓扑结构比较简单且节点不会频繁移动,因iibX寸路由协议的要求不像其他场合那样严格。 In the present invention, since the transmission line as the monitor node deployment, as major linear arrangement, a relatively simple topology and the node does not move frequently, because of the routing protocol requires iibX inch unlike other occasions as stringent. 对现有Ad Hoc中种类繁多的各种路由协议(如:DSR、 AODV、 TORA)等稍加改动即可满足本发明需要,因而易于实现且技术风险低。 Ad Hoc existing in a wide variety of routing protocols (eg: DSR, AODV, TORA) and other minor modifications to meet the needs of the present invention, and thus easy to implement and low technical risk.

4) 逻辑链路控制子层功能逻辑链路控制子层负责向网络提供统一的服务,屏蔽低层不同的MAC方法。 4) logical link control sublayer function LLC sublayer is responsible for providing services to a unified network, different low MAC shielding method. 具体包括数据流的复用、数据帧的检测、分组的转发确认、优先级排队、差错控制和流量控制等。 Specifically includes multiplexed data stream, detecting a data frame, the acknowledgment packet forwarding, priority queuing, error control and flow control.

5)媒体访问控制层(MAC)功能 5) a media access control (MAC) layer functions

该部分软件控制监测节点对无线信道进行访问。 The part of the software control of the wireless channel monitoring node access. 由于本发明是基于Ad Hoc的网络结构,监测节点对无线信道的共享方式比较特殊。 Since the present invention is based on the Ad Hoc network structure, special monitor node of a wireless channel shared manner. 它不同于普通网络的共享广播信道、点对点无线信道和蜂窝移动通信系统中由基站控制的无线信道,而是多跳共享的无线广播信道。 It is different from ordinary broadcast channel shared network, point to point wireless channel and radio channel in the cellular mobile communication system is controlled by a base station, but multi-hop wireless broadcast shared channel. 这种多跳共享无线广播信道方式会带来隐终端和暴露终端问题,近而造成报文冲突,浪费无线信道宝贵的带宽资源。 This shared multi-hop wireless broadcast channels will give rise to hidden and exposed terminal problems, nearly causing message collisions, wasting valuable bandwidth wireless channel resources. 因此需要由MAC层协议来控制节点X寸信道的访问,尽量避免由于相邻节点之间同时发送无线信号而导致的冲突问题。 It is necessary to control access to the channel node X inch by the MAC layer protocol, to avoid conflict due to simultaneous radio signals transmitted between neighboring nodes caused. 目前,无线局域网和Ad Hoc网络中的主流MAC协议,如802. 11 DCF等已经发展地非常成熟,可 Currently, wireless LAN and Ad Hoc Networks mainstream MAC protocol, such as 802. 11 DCF and other places have developed very mature, can

以应用于本发明中,技术风险小。 It applied to the present invention, low risk technology. 无线传输单元 Wireless transmission unit

无线传输单元主要由低功耗短距离的射频收发器组成。 Wireless transmission unit mainly consists of a short-range RF transceiver low power components. 完成无线信号的监测和调希U/解调、信道加密/解密、信号发送和接收等功能(相当于OSI 7层协议栈模型中物理层的功能)。 Complete monitoring and adjustment of wireless signals Xi U / demodulation, channel encryption / decryption, the signal transmitting and receiving functions (the function corresponding to the OSI 7 layers in the protocol stack model physical layer).

高压输电线的铁塔间距离在几百米至千米之间,对于500V以上的超高压和特高压线路,塔间距离平均为400〜700米。 Distance between the high voltage transmission line tower between a few hundred meters to kilometers above 500V for EHV and UHV, the average distance between the towers of 400~700 m. 随着近年来无线技术的发展,尤其是802.1X系列标准的提出和成熟应用,使得实现这一目标可以有多种选择,技术上不存在阻碍。 With the development of wireless technology in recent years, especially 802.1X series of standards proposed and mature applications, so as to achieve this goal there are multiple options, technically there is no obstruction. 例如目前非常成熟和廉价的802.11系列无线网卡,体积小,功耗低(最大发射功率几十毫瓦至200毫瓦),在无障碍的空旷环境中最大通信距离可达到300〜1000米左右,稍加改进便可满足塔间通信需求,且带宽可达到10M〜54Mbps,完全满足宽带通信(如:视频监控等)需求。 Currently, for example, inexpensive and very mature 802.11 series wireless LAN, small size, low power consumption (maximum transmission power tens of milliwatts to 200 milliwatts), accessible in the open environment of the maximum communication distance of up to about 300~1000 m, little improvement can meet the communication needs between the column and the bandwidth can be achieved 10M~54Mbps, satisfy broadband communication (such as: video surveillance, etc.) requirements. 此外,这些设备都工作在2.4GHz或5. 8 GHz的非许可证频段,不存在频率申请的问题。 Furthermore, these devices permit work in the 2.4GHz band or 5. 8 GHz, the frequency of application is not present problems. 由于输电线路监测节点工作在野外环境,电源供给困难,为了在满足通信距离要求的条件下尽量减小发送功率,因此无线传输模块应该具备功率控制功能。 Since transmission line monitor node working in the field environment, the power supply problem, in order to satisfy the condition that the communication distance required to minimize transmission power, the wireless transmission module should have the power control function. 无线模块与主处理器控制总线线连接,在应用软件中增加相应的功率控制功能,控制无线传输模块的发送功率。 Wireless module and a host processor control bus line, a corresponding increase in the power control function in the application software, to control the transmission power of the radio transmission module.

方向性天线和天线切换装置 Directional antenna and the antenna switching means

本发明为了提高整个系统抗节点失效的能力,需要每个塔上无线监测节点都具备和多跳之外其他铁塔上的无线监测节点直接通信的能力。 In order to improve the ability of the present invention is an anti-node failure of the entire system, it is necessary to monitor each node includes a radio tower and outside the multi-hop wireless communication capability directly monitor node on the other tower. 如果我们将节点的最大跳数设计为3跳,对于超高压和特高压线路来说,意味着节点最大的无线传输距离要达到2〜3公里,目前主流的低功率无线网卡很难实现这一目标。 If the maximum number of hops of the node we designed three hops, for EHV and UHV line, it means that the node's largest wireless transmission distance to reach 2 to 3 kilometers, the current mainstream low-power wireless network card is difficult to achieve this aims. 而如果随意增加网卡的无线发射功率,又会受到无线电频谱管理方面的限制。 And if arbitrarily increase the wireless transmission power card, it will be limited radio spectrum management. 本发明中使用高增益的方向性天线来解决这一问题。 The present invention is the use of high-gain, directional antenna to solve this problem.

根据天线理论,天线的波束范围越窄,提供的天线增益越高。 The antenna theory, the narrower the range of the antenna beam, the higher the antenna gain provided. 因此,如果使用波束较窄的方向性天线取代全向天线,在不改变发射机的发送功率的前提下,可有效的增加通信距离。 Thus, if a directional antenna beam narrower substituted omnidirectional antenna, without changing the transmission power of the transmitter, which can effectively increase the communication distance. 本发明为每个节点配给两个方向性天线。 The present invention is assigned to two directional antennas for each node. 在架设监测节点的施工过程中,将一个天线的主波束方向对准铁塔上游的邻节点(简称正方向),另一个天线的主波束则对准铁塔下游的邻节点,即可保证各铁塔之间的无线覆盖畅通,同时可以利用方向性天线的高增益,大大扩展无线信号的传输距离。 During construction erection monitoring node, the direction of a main beam of the antenna tower aligned upstream neighbor (the positive direction), the other antenna main beam is aligned downstream neighbor tower, the tower to ensure that all flow between the wireless coverage, while high-gain directional antennas may be utilized to greatly extend the transmission distance of a radio signal. 对于架设在铁塔顶端的无线电收发信机器来说,天线距离地面,无障碍物遮挡,无线传播条件良好,传播损耗指 For erecting the tower at the top of the machine for a radio transceiver, an antenna above the ground, without obstructions, good radio propagation conditions, the propagation loss means

数n的经验值一般在3左右,意味着每增加一倍的传输距离,发射功率应增加2'3倍,即9dB。 Experience number n is generally about 3, means that every increase of twice the transmission distance, the transmission power should be increased 2'3 times, i.e. 9dB. 如果收发节点所配备的方向性天线的增益为18dB,则无线传输链路上总的天线增益为36dB,在不增加无线发送功率的情况下,可以使传输距离增加16倍,从而轻松满足跨多级铁i荅的信息传递目标。 If the gain is equipped with a transceiver node is 18dB directional antenna, the wireless transmission link overall antenna gain 36dB, without increasing the power of the radio transmission, the transmission distance can be made 16-fold increase, making it easy to meet across multiple i Ta grade ferric information transmission destination. 使用方向性天线的另外一个好处是,无线电波覆盖被限制在一定的角度范围内,减小了与其他无线通信系统之间产生相互千扰的可能性,即使输电线路周围存在其他的干扰源,只要它不在接收节点的波束范围内,就不会造成干扰。 Another advantage of using a directional antenna, the radio wave coverage is limited within a certain angular range, reducing the possibility of mutual interference between one thousand other wireless communication system, even if there are other sources of interference around the transmission line, insofar as it is not within the beam of the receiving node will not cause interference.

本发明中的监测节点是架设在输电线路铁塔上的,由于相邻的级别铁塔基本成直线排列,中间没有障碍物遮挡问题,而且无线发射装置的天线架设位置距离地面非常高,这为无线传输提供相当优良的环境,也为方向性天线的使用创造了有利的条件,在安装方向性天线时,波束的定位问题很容易解决。 Monitor node in the present invention is set up in the transmission line tower, because the level of the adjacent tower substantially straight line, with no problem of obstructions, and the antenna setting position of the radio transmitter is very high from the ground, which is a wireless transmission provide quite excellent environment, but also created favorable conditions for the use of directional antennas, the installation of directional antennas, beam positioning problem is easily solved.

由于每个节点装设了两个方向性天线,每个天线只能覆盖一个方向,因此需要使用天线切换装置在多个天线之间进行切换,以满足监测节点与上、下游邻节点通信的需要。 Since each node in the installation of a two directional antennas, each covering only one direction, it is necessary to use the antenna switching means switching between a plurality of antennas, in order to meet with the monitor node, the neighbor communication needed downstream . 节点中主处理器的控制总线与天线切换装置相连,在发送消息时,根据目的节点的位置确定所要使用的发送天线;在接受消息时,可根据最大接收电平原则来切换接收天线,也可按照最大比合并原则,对两个天线接收的信号进行分集合并处理,利用角度分集的原理进一步改善接收质量。 Node control bus and the antenna main processor switches connected device sending the message, determines transmission antennas to be used in accordance with the position of the destination node; upon receiving the message, can be switched receiving antenna according to the maximum level the principle of reception level, may be according to the principle of maximum ratio combining, signals received by two antennas and diversity-combining process using the principle of angle diversity to further improve reception quality. 此外,为增强监测系统功能,除了方向性天线之外,还可以给无线监测节点配备一个全向天线,用于与输电线路附近区域内的其他无线设备(例如巡线工作人员携带的同类型无线通信设备)进行通信。 Furthermore, to enhance the function of the monitoring system, in addition to the antenna directivity, may also be equipped with an omni-directional antenna to the radio monitor node, and for other wireless devices in the area close to the transmission line (e.g., line patrol staff carrying the same type of wireless communication device) to communicate.

供电单元 Power supply unit

该模块由太阳能阵列、电磁感应发电单元、电源控制器、蓄电池组成。 The module consists of a solar array, the electromagnetic induction generator unit, the power controller, the battery composition. 对于某些重要节点,还可以选择配置低启动风速的小型风力发电机,以增加供电可靠性。 For some important nodes, you can also choose to configure the low wind speed start small wind turbines, in order to increase reliability.

太阳能阵歹嗵过光电效应将太阳能转换为电能,并存储在蓄电池中,供给整个节点的耗电。 Tom bad solar arrays through the photoelectric effect to convert solar energy, and stored in the battery, the entire power supply node. 该技术已经发展非常成熟,产品种类多样。 The technology has been developed very mature and diverse product range. 然而,由于必须借助阳光才能工作,如果阵列受到灰尘覆盖,或碰到连续的雨、雪、大雾等天气,电池得不到充电会导致系统能量耗尽而失效。 However, due to the need to help the sun to work, if the array is covered by dust, or encountered continuous rain, snow, fog and other weather, battery charging will not cause the system to run out of energy and failure. 为此,需要多种方式配合来提高供电可靠性,而高压输电线路为解决此问题提供了有利的条件。 To do this, it fits a variety of ways to improve power supply reliability, and high-voltage transmission lines to provide favorable conditions for solving this problem. 即在输电铁塔上安装电磁感应发电单元,该装置通过将导线周围的电磁场能量转换为电能,承担起为蓄电池充电和为设备供电的任务。 That is mounted on the transmission tower electromagnetic induction generator unit, the apparatus by converting the electromagnetic field energy into electrical energy around the wire, and take charge of the battery powering the device task. 本发明中采用了该技术,由于它不受灰尘污染、气象等因素的影响,因而可以大大提高供电的可靠性。 In the present invention, using the technology, since it is not affected by dust contamination factors, weather, etc., it is possible to greatly improve the reliability of power supply.

电源控制器控制着太阳阵列、电磁感应发电单元向蓄电池的充电,以及蓄电池向其他设备节点的供电。 The power controller controls the solar array, the electromagnetic induction generator unit to charge the battery, and a battery-powered device node to another. 为了防止蓄电池过放电而导致损坏,电源控制器还具备低电压保护功能。 In order to prevent damage caused by battery discharge, the power controller further includes a low voltage protection. 此外,为了进一步减少设备的电源消耗,可以考虑增加状态控制功能,通过尽量让节点处于休眠状态以节省电量,这方面的开创性工作来源于 In addition, to further reduce the power consumption of the device, consider increasing state control function, as far as possible through a node in a dormant state to save power, pioneering work in this area comes from

PAMAS(Power-Aware Multi-Access with Signaling)MAC协议,这个协议将状态控制与MAC协议结合,在能够休眠的时候都休眠。 PAMAS (Power-Aware Multi-Access with Signaling) MAC protocol, this protocol in conjunction with the MAC protocol state control, when to sleep at all dormant. 事实上状态控制的思想不仅可以和MAC层协议结合,也可以独立存在(例如:GAF算法),还可以和路由协议结合。 In fact the idea of ​​not only the state of the control and MAC protocol layers combined, may also be present independently (e.g.: GAF algorithm), and routing protocols can also be combined. 二.塔上光通信节点 II. Glazing communication node column

铁塔上光通信节点与本铁塔的无线监测节点通过外部数据接口互连,实现的主要功能是:汇聚自身周围较大范围,例如20〜30公里内其他铁i荅上无线监测节点经过多跳转发传输过来的消息,对它们进行分析处理和光电变换后,通过光纤进行长距离转发,禾拥光纤这种优良的通信介质,大幅度提高信息传输的速度和可靠性。 The main function of coating tower with a wireless communication node of the present tower monitor node via the external data interface interconnection is implemented: the convergence itself around a large range, such as other iron monitor node i Ta wireless multi-hop through the 20 to 30 km after transmission over the message sent, analyzing them and the photoelectric conversion treatment, long distance forwards, Wo hold such an excellent optical fiber communication medium, greatly improve the speed and reliability of information transmission through optical fibers.

本发明的输电线路监测方法中,在间隔一定距离(20〜30公里)的铁塔设置上光通信节点,使用电力特种光缆中的两根纤芯将这些光通信节点串联起来,组成一个多跳的光传输网络。 Transmission line monitoring method according to the present invention, the coating is provided in the communication node at a distance from the tower (20 to 30 km), the special fiber optic cable using power of these two core optical communication nodes in series together to form a multi-hop optical transport network. 在该网络中,光节点间之间通过类似接力转发的方式进行信息的传递。 In this network, between the optical nodes for communicating information between a similar manner as the relay forwarding. 同时,为了防止部分节点故障导致整个系统失效,这个多跳的光传输网络需要具备类t(AdHoc网络的自组织能力。即当某个光节点故障时,其相邻的光节点可以获知该节点的故障状态,在发送信息时可越过故障节点,将信息直接发送到两跳或更多跳之外的其他光节点。 Meanwhile, in order to prevent part failure causes a node failure of the entire system, the multi-hop optical network requires transmission T type (self-organization AdHoc networks. That is, when one optical node failure, the optical node adjacent to the node may be learned a fault state, when sending information over the failed node will send a message directly to the two-hop or more than hop other optical nodes.

塔上光通信节点的组成如图4所示,包括数据处理单元、光传输模块、光分路器与合路器、外部数据接口、以及供电单元等主要部分。 Coating composition tower communication node 4, a data processing unit comprising a main portion, the light transmission module, an optical splitter and combiner, external data interface, and a power supply unit and the like. 其中数据处理单元、外部数据接口,以及供电单元部分的结构与功能与无线监测节点的同类单元基本相同,因此不再详述。 Wherein the data processing unit, an external data interface, and a similar structure and function of the radio unit monitor node of the power supply unit is substantially the same portions, and therefore not described in detail.

光传输模块是光通信节点主要部分之一,它类似于与无线节点中的无线传输模块,主要完成物理层的功能,即把上层准备发送的数据包转换为合适的光信号序列,说明书第13/17页 The optical transmission module is the main part of the optical communication nodes, which is similar to the wireless node in the wireless transmission module, the main functions of the physical layer is completed, i.e., the upper layer is ready to send data packets to convert an optical signal sequence suitable, Specification No. 13 / 17

并在光纤介质上进行发送。 And on the optical fiber transmission medium. 目前,光传输模块的技术发展成熟,己经在信息网络设备中大量使用。 Currently, technical development of the optical transmission module mature, already widely used in the information network device. 普通的100Mbps的单模光模i央,可以轻松实现最大为120公里左右的传输, 而发送光功率极低(不足毫瓦)。 Ordinary single-mode optical mode i 100Mbps center, can easily achieve a maximum transmission of about 120 km, and optical power transmission is very low (less than milliwatts). 因此该技术应用于本发明中不存在困难。 Thus this technique is applied in the present invention, there is no difficulty.

在普通的应用中,光纤通信通常是用作点对点传输用途,而本发明中,为了保证部分节点失效下光信号的通路不至于中断,我们希望一个光节点发出的信号能够被相邻几跳内的多个光节点接收。 In conventional applications, the fiber optic communication is typically used as the point to point transmission purposes, and the present invention, in order to ensure the passage part of the node failure will not interrupt the light signal, we want a signal adjacent optical node can be issued within a few hops receiving a plurality of optical nodes. 由于光纤通道本身不具备无线信道那样的广播特性,本发明在光通信节点设备中引入光分路器与合路器单元来解决多个节点共享光纤信道的问题。 Because the fiber itself does not have a radio channel broadcast channel characteristics such as, the present invention is introduced into the optical splitter and the optical combiner means to a communication node device solves the problem of shared nodes Fiber Channel. 如图4所示,在节点设备接收端光纤的与光模块之间增加一个l: 2的光分路器,在节点设备输出端的光纤与光模块之间增加一个2: l的合路器。 As shown, between a node device receives the end of the fiber to increase the optical module 4 a l: 2 optical splitter, adding a node 2 between the output of the device to the optical module: l the combiner. 在接收信号时, 线路光纤上传来的光信号首先进入输入端的光分路器,经过分路器后变为两路信号, 分路器输出的一路光信号被连接到光模块的输入端(称为I支路),供本节点分析处理; Upon receiving the signal, the optical signal is first uploaded to the line fiber input into the optical splitter, the splitter goes through two signals, one optical signal output from the splitter is connected to the input end of an optical module (called I-branch), the node for this analysis;

分路器输出的另一路光信号则经一段辅助光纤后直接连接到另外一侧的光合路器的 Another channel optical signal splitter output is connected via the auxiliary section of the fiber directly to the other side of the optical coupling of

两个输入端之一(称为Q支路),经过合路器后与该侧线路光纤连接,以便继续传输到 One of two input terminals (referred to as branch Q), after the combiner is connected to the line side optical fiber, in order to continue to transmit

多跳以外的其他光通信节点。 Other than optical multi-hop communication nodes. 可以看出,采用了这种设计后,光信号不仅可被本节点接收处理,也可以直接"穿透"本节点而被其他光节点接收并处理。 As can be seen, the use of this design, the optical signal can be received only processed node may be directly "through" this node is received and processed to other optical nodes. 在本节点的数据处理器单元、光传输模块、以及供电单元等部分出现故障时,不会影响光信号继续传输。 When part of the data processor unit, the light transmission module, and a power supply unit of the local node failure and the like, does not affect the optical signal to continue transmission. 而光分路器、合路器单元是无源部件,可靠性高,发生故障的概率可忽略不计。 The optical splitter, combiner unit is a passive component, high reliability, the probability of failure is negligible. 由于光分路器的引入,必定会縮短光信号的传输距离。 Since the introduction of optical splitter, it will certainly shorten the transmission distance of the optical signal. 但是这样带来的好处是光信号可以被更多的邻节点接收和处理,从而避免单个节点故障引起整个系统无法工作的问题。 Such benefits, however optical signal may be received and processed more neighboring nodes, so as to avoid problems caused by a single node failure of the whole system does not work. 在实际应用中,光分路器两路输出信号的具体衰耗与的分光比有关,可以按照工程需要选择合适的分光比。 In practical applications, particularly attenuation of the two output signals with optical splitter splitting ratio related, can select an appropriate splitting ratio according to the project. 原则上为了尽量增加光信号最大传输距离(穿越尽量 In principle, in order to maximize the optical signal of the maximum transmission distance (as far as possible through the

多的光节点),应给Q支路分配更大的比例,使大部分的光信号能量直接穿透本节点继续向其他节点传播。 Multiple optical node), should be allocated to the Q branch larger scale, so that most of the energy of the optical signal continues to propagate directly through the node to other nodes. 例如,假设0支路和1支路的分光比例为分别为80%和20%,贝U与输入信号相比,两个支路输出信号的衰减分别为一ldB和一7dB。 For example, assume that the spectral ratio of 0 and 1 tributary branches of 80% and 20%, respectively, compared to the input signal shellfish U, the two branches of the output signal attenuation are a ldB and a 7dB. 按照目前常用的电力特种光缆G.. 652在1550nm波长的衰耗0. 2dB/km计算,每经过一个光节点,由于分光而弓l起的I支路信号损耗将导致传输距离縮短大约为5公里。 652 .. 1550nm wavelength attenuation 0. 2dB / km is calculated in accordance with commonly used power cable special G, each through a optical node, since the spectral bow l I-branch signal loss will result in shorter transmission distance of about 5 km. 相对于普通光模块60〜120 公里的传输距离来说,对整个系统造成的影响不大。 60~120 km transmission distance with respect to normal light module, the system has little effect on the overall result.

本发明的监测系统组网方法和工作模式为: Monitoring system networking method and mode of operation of the present invention are:

1.本发明的高压输电线监测系统组网方法 1. The high-voltage transmission line monitoring system according to the present invention networking method

在高压输电线路延线的每个铁塔顶端安装无线监测节点;在沿线间隔20〜30公里的位置处选择有光缆接续盒的特定铁塔作为汇聚点,在汇聚点铁塔上以及线路两端的变电站内同时安装无线监测节点和光通信节点。 Mounting the top of each wireless node monitors the high pressure line extending tower transmission line; at positions 20 to 30 km intervals along the optical fiber cable splice closure select a particular tower as the convergence point, the convergence point on the tower and the inner ends of the line while the substation installing a wireless optical communication node and the monitor node.

16各级铁塔上的无线监测节点之间组成具备自组织、自适应能力的无线Ad Hoc网络。 Composition comprising self-organization, adaptability wireless Ad Hoc network between the radio tower 16 on the monitor node levels. 禾U用AdHoc网络的多跳转发能力,在一定区域内的各级铁塔上的无线监测节点可 Wo U AdHoc networks with multi-hop capabilities, a wireless node monitoring on all levels within a certain area of ​​the tower may be

将监控信息进行接力转发,传送到在汇聚点铁塔上设置的光通信节点,所有汇聚点铁 Monitoring the relay forwards the information transmitted to the optical communication nodes arranged at the convergence point of the tower, all of the convergence point of iron

塔上的光通信节点相互之间通过高压输电线路上的电力特种光缆(OPGW或ADSS)中的两根光纤连接,组成一个类tUdHoc网络的具有自组织特性的光网络,各个光通信节点同样采用多跳转发的方式进行数据通信。 Optical communications between nodes on the tower are interconnected by high-voltage electric power transmission lines of special optical cable (OPGW or of ADSS) in the two optical fibers, the composition having a class tUdHoc optical network self-organization of networks, each of the optical communication nodes using the same multi-hop data communication manner.

通常线路的监控中心设置在线路一端的变电站内,为了进一步增强系统的可靠性,可在线路对端的变电站内设置迂回路由。 Typically the monitoring center line disposed in the substation circuit at one end, in order to further enhance the reliability of the system, alternate routes may be provided in the substation end line. 如图5所示,在对端变电站内的光通信节点输出的信号经过专用的协议转换器后,通过SDH设备提供的VC-12虚级联通道传回监控中心所在的变电站。 5, the optical signal within the communication node of the output end of the substation after the dedicated protocol converter, the device provided by the SDH VC-12 virtual concatenation channel return substation monitoring center is located.

通过以上无线Ad Hoc网络和光纤网络相结合的方式,监控中心可以和任何铁塔上的监控节点进行信息交互,实现对线路的实时监测和控制。 , The monitoring center can monitor nodes exchange information on the tower and above any way wireless Ad Hoc network and a fiber optic network combination, real-time monitoring and control circuits.

2.监测系统的工作模式和实现的功能 2. The mode of operation of the monitoring system and implementation functions

1) 线路监测模式 1) Line monitoring mode

在该模式下,线路铁塔上的无线监测节点通过各种传感器收集输电线路的信息。 In this mode, a wireless information transmission line on the monitor node line tower collected by various sensors. 数据处理单元对这些监测信息进行判断处理,对于实时性较强的信息,例如:某些性能指标越限告警或实时音视频信息传送,立即开始转发过程,通过无线AdHoc网络和光纤网络相结合的方式,将信息传送到线路监测中心。 The data processing unit of the monitoring information judgment processing, real-time information for a strong, for example: certain performance limit alarm or transmitting real-time audio and video information, the process begins immediately forwarded, through a combination of wireless networks and optical networks AdHoc mode, transferring information to the monitoring center line. 对于实时性无要求的信息,例 No requirement for real-time information, for example,

如:周期性采集的线路状态信息或静止图片信息等,先将其存储在存储器中,等待在 Such as: line status information or still picture information periodically collected, stored in the first memory, waiting

预先设定的网络空闲时间段,或是接收至lj监测中心传来的査询指令后,再将信息传送到线路监测中心。 Preset network idle time, or after receiving the query instruction to the monitoring center lj transmitted, and then information is transmitted to the monitoring center line.

2) 远程控制模式 2) remote control

在该模式下,工作人员可以在线路监测中心对线路全程任意铁塔上的特定设备进 In this mode, a particular device can work on any tower full lines into the line monitoring center

行远程控制,例如:控制传感器的开启、修改参数设置,查询某些历史记录信息,控 Line remote control, for example: controlling the opening of the sensor, modify the parameter settings, some query history information, control

帝礙像头的焦距变化以及云台的角度对特定目标进行拍照,或控制某些携带专用无线通信设备的智能机械,如巡线机器人的运动状态和监测项目等。 Di hinder change in focal length as the first angle and the head of the photographed specific target or control specific wireless communication device carrying some intelligent machine, such as a motion state monitoring program and inspection robot and the like.

3) 应急通信模式 3) Emergency communication mode

由于高压输电线路所经过的一些地区偏僻,没有公网通信方式可以利用,应急通 Since some parts of high voltage transmission line through which remote, no network communication may utilize public emergency pass

信成为难题。 Letter a problem. 本发明中,沿着输电线路建设光纤及无线AdHoc的基础通信网络,可灵活实现设备的无线接入,并能够对网络拓扑的变化进行自适应,网络的数据带宽很大, 可达几十Mbps〜上百Mbps,可以支持网络的业务种类多样,这些特点非常适合应急通信使用。 In the present invention, the construction of the optical fiber and wireless AdHoc along the transmission line based communication network provides flexible radio access equipment, and is capable of adaptation to changes in the network topology, the network of a large data bandwidth, up to tens of Mbps ~ hundreds of Mbps, can support various types of business networks, which make it ideal for emergency communications use. 例如:给线路巡查人员或抢修人员配备与无线监测节点类似的无线Ad Hoc网络通信设备,在输电线路附近,他们可以通过铁塔上无线监观U节点的连接而加入无 For example: to the line inspection or repair personnel staffing monitor node and the wireless Ad Hoc network similar wireless communication device, in the vicinity of transmission lines, they can be monitored by connecting the tower wireless nodes to join U View No

线Ad Hoc网络,并通过光纤及无线Ad Hoc的基础通信网络与监控中心或其他处于输电 Line Ad Hoc network and a communication network through the base with the monitoring center or an optical fiber and wireless transmission in the Ad Hoc other

线路附近的工作人员进行通信。 Staff nearby lines for communication. 抢修人员可以将应急现场的声音、图像、视频等信息 Emergency repair personnel can live voice information, images, video, etc.

通过监测网络发送回线路监测中心,供指挥人员进行决策;后方人员也可以将图纸、 文件、处理方案等资料传送到应急现场,并可通过网络音频、视频的方式指挥现场工作。 By monitoring the network to send back to the line Monitoring Center for commanders to make decisions; the rear can also transfer drawings, documents, and other data processing program to the emergency site, and through a network of audio, video of the way the command of field work. 以上工作模式如图6所示。 Mode of operation shown in FIG. 6 above. 可以看出,本发明所设计的输电线路监测网络可以很好地支持应急通信用途。 As can be seen, the present invention is designed to monitor network transmission lines may better support emergency communications purposes. 本发明的原理是: The principles of the present invention are:

由于输电线路电压等级很高,输电走廊所经过区域自然环境通常很恶劣。 Due to the high level voltage transmission lines, transmission corridor area through which the natural environment is usually very poor. 如果使用在铁塔上布设线缆的方式建立监控网络存在很多困难:施工难度大、安全风险高、 可靠性差、检修维护不便等。 If you use a cable laid in the tower on the way to establish monitoring networks exist many difficulties: the difficulty of construction, high security risk, poor reliability, repair and maintenance inconvenience. 因此,在这种情况下使用无线传输方式成为很好的选择。 Thus, in this case the use of wireless transmission make a good choice.

根据无线信道的传输特性,当发送节点的发送功率不变时,接收节点接收到的功 The transmission characteristics of the radio channel, when the transmission power constant node, the receiving node receives power

率与两者之间的距离的n次方成反比。 n is inversely proportional to the distance between both the rate. 其中n的取值一般在3〜6之间,与具体使用的环境有关。 Wherein the value of n is generally between 3 ~ 6, and the environment related to the specific use. 如果接收机与发射机都处在距离地面很高的位置,且所处区域为平坦的开阔地,则无线电波的传播基本符合双线传播模型,在收发节点距离较远的情况下,电波传播损耗与传播距离的4次方成反比。 If the receiver and transmitter are in a high position from the ground, and in which the open area is flat, the propagation of the radio wave propagation model in line wire, in a case where the distant transceiver node, a radio wave propagation loss 4 is inversely proportional to distance traveled. 按照这种理论,为了增力[U倍的传输距离,发送节点的发送功率需要增加约16倍,可见节点付出的能量消耗代价是巨大的,这对于在野外工作,电源供给困难的监测节点来说是非常不利的。 According to this theory, in order to increase the force [U times the transmission power of the transmission distance, the sending node needs to be increased approximately 16-fold energy consumption of visible nodes pay the cost is enormous, and for this work in the field, difficulties of monitoring the power supply node He said to be very unfavorable. 此外,随着传输距离的增加, 周围环境会更加复杂,收发节点之间出现障碍物遮挡或其他干扰源的可能性增加,这将导致通信质量急剧恶化,甚至无法通信。 In addition, with increasing transmission distance, the surrounding environment will be more complex, increasing the likelihood of obstructions or other sources of interference occurs between the transceiver node, which will lead to a sharp deterioration in the communication quality, even unable to communicate. 基于以上原因,本发明认为监测节点使用无线手段直接将信息发往远距离外的接收点的方案是不可行的。 For these reasons, the present invention is that the monitoring means using the wireless node directly send information to the external program reception point remote is not feasible.

另一方面,作为电力系统命脉的架空输电线路,基本结构是依靠各种类型的铁塔逐级地承担导线,将输电线路延伸到远方。 On the other hand, as the electric power system lifeline overhead transmission lines, it is to rely on the basic structure of various types of stepwise bear tower wire transmission line to extend the distance. 铁塔之间的分布极有规律,对于超高压输电线路来说,平均塔距在400〜700米之间。 Distribution between Tower very regular, for EHV transmission lines, the average distance between 400~700 meter tower. 这为短距离无线接力传输提供了天然的条件。 This provides a natural condition Relay a short distance wireless transmission. 因此可以在各级铁塔上的安装无线通信设备,每个塔上的无线设备通过高增益的定向天线,使用极低的发送功率,将信息传送到邻近的下一级铁塔,再由该铁塔上的无线设备将信息继续传往下级铁塔,如此重复直到信息被发送至U线路监测中心站。 The wireless communication device can be mounted on the tower levels, each of the wireless devices on high-gain directional antenna tower by using a low transmission power, to transmit information to the next adjacent one tower, the tower and then from the upper the wireless device will continue to transmit information down stage tower, thus repeated until the information is sent to the monitoring center line U station. 如图1所示。 As shown in Figure 1.

然而这种简单的逐点转发的模式存在一个问题,如果有一个节点的设备出现故障,就会导致整条传输链中断。 However, there is a problem with this simple point by point forwarding mode, if there is a device node fails, it will lead to the whole transport chain disruptions. 例如,在图1中,如果第M号铁塔上的设备出现故障, 则处于其下游的所有节点将无法把信息传输回监控中心。 For example, in FIG. 1, if the device on the tower No. M fails, all nodes in downstream information will not be transmitted back to the monitoring center. 假设每个节点出现故障的概率相同,都为P,则对于有N个铁塔组成的输电线路来说,整条无线接力传输链线路上 Assume that the probability of failure for each node, are P, then there are N to the transmission lines is composed of the tower, the entire transmission chain line Radio Relay

18出现故障点的概率为(1- (lp) N),在N化〈〈1的情况下,上式近似表示为,p,即随着铁塔数量的增加,出现故障节点的概率直线上升。 18 failure probability points is (1- (lp) N), in the case of N << 1, the equation is approximated, p, i.e. with the increase in the number of towers, the probability of occurrence of the failure node straight up. 事实上由于在野外工作环境恶劣,如雷电、低温、雨雪天气及各种干扰,使得无线节点有可能出现故障或受损毁的情况。 In fact due to the harsh working environment in the wild, such as lightning, cold, rain and snow and all kinds of interference, making it possible wireless node failure or circumstances that appear damaged. 因此本发明引AAdHoc组网技术来解决上述问题,以尽量縮小故障的影响范围, 而不要导致输电线路上其他正常工作的监测节点无法传送信息。 The invention thus lead AAdHoc networking technology to solve the above problems, in order to minimize the scope of failure, rather than monitoring node transmission lines leading to other work can not transfer information.

Ad Hoc网络是一种特殊的无线移动通信网络,它是由一组带有无线收发装置的移动终端组成的一个多跳的自治系统。 Ad Hoc network is a special mobile radio network, it is a multi-hop autonomous system consists of a group of mobile radio terminals with the composition. AdHoc网络中所有节点的地位平等,无需设置任何中心控制节点,具有很强的抗毁性。 AdHoc network equal status of all nodes, without setting any central control node, has a strong survivability. 这种网络可以独立工作,也可以接入Internet 或蜂窝无线网络。 Such a network may operate independently, may also access the Internet or cellular wireless network. AdHoc网络中的每个移动终端兼备路由器和主机两种功能:作为主机,终端需要运行面向用户的应用程序,例如:检测和判断输电线路铁塔上的各种传感器信息等;作为路由器,终端需要运行相应的路由协议,根据路由策略和路由表参与分组转发和路由维护工作。 Each mobile terminal both routers and hosts in the network AdHoc two functions: as the host, the user needs to run a terminal-oriented applications such as: a detection information of various sensors and the like on the determined transmission tower; as a router, a terminal needs to run the corresponding routing protocol, routing table based on routing policy and participate in packet forwarding and routing maintenance. 在Ad Hoc网络中,节点间的路由通常由多跳(Hop)组成。 In Ad Hoc network, the route between nodes is usually composed of a multi-hop (Hop). 由于组网快速、灵活,使用方便,目前AdHoc网络已经得到了国际学术界和工业界的广泛关注,并正在得到越来越广泛应用,已经成为移动通信技术向前发展的一个重要方向,并将在未来通信技术中占据重要地位。 As the network fast, flexible, easy to use, currently AdHoc network has been widespread concern in the international academia and industry, and are being more and more widely used, mobile communication has become an important technology forward direction, and It occupies an important position in the future communication technologies.

本发明应用AdHoc网络的自组织、自适应功能来提高整个输电线路监测系统抗节点失效的能力。 Application of the ad-hoc network of the present invention AdHoc adaptive feature to increase line capacity monitoring system of the entire anti-node transmission failure. 具体做法为:输电线路每个铁塔上无线节点不只与自己最近的邻节点通信,而且具备与自身周围M跳内的其它铁塔直接通信的能力,并且能够检测它们的工作状态,根据特定的路由方案,自适应的选择其中的某个节点作为信息接收者。 Specifically as follows: on each transmission line tower own wireless node only communicates with the nearest neighbor, but also have the ability to communicate directly with the other tower itself M jump around, and can detect the operation state thereof, depending on the particular routing scheme , wherein adaptively selecting a node as an information recipient. 以图2为例,假设在正常情况下第i号铁塔上的无线监测节点(以下简称节点i,或第i 号节点)将信息传送给距离自己最近的邻近第il节点, 一旦该节点出现故障,第i 号节点能自动调整路由,增加发射功率,将信息直接发往第i-2号节点,从而越过故障点将监控信息传回监控制中心;同理如果节点il和节点i-2同时故障,则节点i (如果最大传输功率允许)可继续增功率,直接与第i-3、 i-4…iM号铁i荅通信。 2 as an example, assume wireless node monitoring on the number i tower (hereinafter referred to as node i, or i-th node) to transmit information from their nearest neighbor of node il, once the faulty node in the normal case, the first , i-th node can automatically adjust the route, increasing the transmit power, the information directly to the node number of the i-2 to point across the fault information monitoring system monitoring center return; il Similarly, if the node and the node at the same time i-2 fault, the node i (the maximum transmission power if allowed) can continue to increase the power, i-4 ... iM direct iron number i Da communication with the first i-3,.

显然在这种情况下,对于节点i来说,只有当其上游的m个节点同时出现故障的情况下,监控信息传输链路才会彻底中断。 Obviously in this case, for node i, only in the case where m upstream node fails while monitoring information transmission link will be completely interrupted. 假如单节点故障的概率为P,则&n个节点同时出现故障的概率为P"。因为个别节点故障而导致整条无线接力传输链路中断的概率随m的指数下降,假设?=0.01, m=3,则这一概率降低10000倍,可见监控网络整体的可靠性大大增强。 Probability If the probability of a single node failure is P, then & n nodes fail simultaneously is P ". Probability because the individual node failure caused whole Radio Relay transmission link interruption with m index fell, assuming? = 0.01, m = 3, then reduce the probability of 10,000 times, the overall reliability of the monitoring network visibility greatly enhanced.

不过,尽管在理论上可以在将输电线路所有铁塔的信息使用无线接力的方式进行传输,但这样做仍会产生很多不利影响。 However, although the information transmitted in the transmission line all the way to use wireless relay towers in theory, but doing so will generate a lot of adverse effects. 首先是传输延时问题,现有的超高压输电线路距离可达到200公里以上,特高压线路甚至可达500公里上。 The first is the transmission delay problem, existing EHV transmission lines from up to 200 km, or even up to UHV 500 kilometers. 在如此长度的线路上铁塔数量可达到数百甚至上千,如果完全使用无线接力转发的方式会造成信息传输延时过大;其次是可靠性问题,随着信息转发次数的增加,出现错误而导致丢包的概率与转发次数成指数关系增加;此外由于处在上游的节点要转发下游所有节点传来的业 On the line so the length of the tower up to number several hundred or even thousands, if full use of Radio Relay way forward will result in information transmission delay is too large; followed by reliability problems, with the increase in the number of information forwarded to an error forwarding and packet loss probability and the number of times exponentially to increase; in addition, because the upstream node to forward all downstream nodes coming industry

务,因此能量消耗很大,同时容易形成带宽瓶颈。 Service, the energy consumption of large, easily formed simultaneously bandwidth bottlenecks. 为解决以上问题,本发明采用了光 To solve the above problems, the present invention adopts a light

纤通信与无线Ad Hoc网络相结合的方法。 Method fiber communication with the wireless Ad Hoc network combination.

目前,几乎所有110kV以上的高压输电线路都架设了电力特种光缆,主要为0PGW 和ADSS。 Currently, almost all of the above 110kV high voltage power transmission lines have set up a special fiber optic cable, mainly 0PGW and ADSS. 且从使用现状来看,其中都有大量的空闲纤芯。 From the current situation and the use of point of view, which has a large number of idle cores. 本发明就是利用了输电线路这一独有的通信资源,来建设线路监控系统。 The present invention takes advantage of this unique communication resources of transmission lines to build the line monitoring system. 具体做法为:对铁塔上的无线节点进行分群,相邻的几十或上百节点为一个群,其长度为20〜30公里左右,在每个群中选择其中一个有光缆接续盒的铁塔作为信息汇聚节点,在该铁塔上除了安装无线通信设备外,再安装一套使用分组方式进行通信的光通信设备。 Specific practices: wireless node for clustering tower, tens or hundreds of nodes adjacent to a cluster having a length of about 20 to 30 kilometers, wherein each cluster selected in a cable splice cassette as Tower convergence node information, in addition to the tower mounting a wireless communication equipment, used to install a grouping of optical communication devices. 通过输电线路上的电力特种光缆,将各个汇聚节点上的光通信设备以及线路监控中心的监控终端连接起来。 Special fiber optic cable through the power transmission lines, the monitoring terminal device on each of the optical communication nodes and the convergence monitoring center channel connection. 在这种网络中,铁塔的监控信息通过无线方式经过多跳转发至距离其最近的汇聚节点,各个汇聚节点之间再以光通信方式,经过多跳转发将信息传输回线路监控中心。 In such a network, monitoring information by wireless tower through multi-hop to its nearest distance from the sink node, and then to an optical communication system, after the multi-hop information is transmitted back to the monitoring center lines between the respective convergence node. 由于光纤线路衰耗小、抗干扰能力强,通信带宽极高,因此能够保证线路监观幅息快速、安全的回传。 Due to the small fiber optic line attenuation, anti-interference ability, high communication bandwidth, it is possible to ensure that the line supervisor concept pieces of information quick and safe return. 同样,为了防止光通信节点故障导致的整条链路无法工作,本发明中的光通信系统具有类似无线AdHoc网络的自组织功能,即各个光节点之间并非简单的将信息发送给自己的邻节点,而是能够获取其他光节点的工作状态,自动计算路由,避开故障节点将信息发送回监控中心,因此整个系统的可靠性大大提高。 Similarly, in order to prevent the entire optical communications link failure causes a node does not work, the optical communication system of the present invention having a self-organizing network functions similar wireless AdHoc, i.e., not simply to transmit information to their respective optical nodes between o node, but can get the work status of other optical node, automatically calculates the route to avoid the failed node to send information back to the control center, so the overall system reliability is greatly improved. 为了实现这种自组织功能,本发明中光通信设备的结构和工作方式与传统的TDMA方式的光传输设备(SDH/PDH)或者带光接口的路由器等设备有明显区别。 In order to achieve this self-organizing function, optical transmission equipment (SDH / PDH) in the structure and operation of the present invention, an optical communication device with a conventional TDMA system or a router with optical interface devices such as a significant difference.

综上所述,本发明通过以上无线AdHoc网络和光纤网络相结合的组网方法,实现监控中心与任何铁塔上的监控节点之间的双向信息交互,对线路进行实时监测和控制。 In summary, the present invention more wireless networks and optical networks AdHoc combination networking method, two-way information exchange between the monitoring center and the monitoring node on any tower, for real-time monitoring and control lines.

本发明提出的监测方法摆脱了传统巡线方式的弊端,在远离现场的监测中心就可以有效掌握线路运行状况及周围环境的变化,发现设备缺陷和危机线路安全的隐患, 以便及时消除缺陷,预防事故发生,或将故障限制在最小范围,保证输电线路的安全和电力系统稳定,实现电力系统安全、经济、优质运行的目标。 Monitoring method proposed by the present invention is to get rid of the disadvantages of the traditional transmission line mode, the off-site monitoring center can effectively grasp the changes in operating conditions and the surrounding environment of the line, the equipment is found defective and line security crisis risks, in order to promptly eliminate defects, prevention accident, or the failure to limit to a minimum to ensure the safety and stability of power system transmission lines, to achieve the target system security, economic, high-quality operation of power. 同时系统还可以支持工作人员在输电线路延线的附近利用专用无线终端接入监测网络,进行语音、数据、 视频通信,在线路检修、抢险救灾等特殊场合有效地实现应急通信功能。 At the same time the system can also support staff terminal using a dedicated radio access network in the vicinity of the line extension monitoring the transmission line, voice, data, video communications, emergency communications functions effectively implement in line maintenance, disaster relief and other special occasions.

Claims (10)

1、一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法,其特征在于:包含以下步骤:1]在高压输电线路延线的每个铁塔上设置一个无线监测节点;在沿线间隔20~30公里的位置处选择有光缆接续盒的特定铁塔作为汇聚点铁塔,在汇聚点铁塔上以及线路两端的变电站内同时安装无线监测节点和光通信节点;在线路一端的变电站内设置监控中心;各光通信节点利用电力特种光缆中的两根纤芯组成一个多跳的光传输网络进行光传输;各无线监测节点组成一个多跳的无线网络进行无线连接;所述无线监测节点包括数据采集单元、数据处理单元、无线传输单元以及供电单元;所述光通信节点包括数据处理单元、光传输模块以及供电单元;2]当需要进行监测时,无线监测节点采集监测数据,汇聚点铁塔所在区域内的各铁塔上的无线监测节点采用多跳转发的方式 1, based on high-voltage transmission line monitoring method of wireless communication and optical communication, characterized by: comprising the steps of: a] setting a wireless node monitors the high voltage line at each tower extension transmission line; ~ 20 spaced along 30 km at a position selected optical fiber cable splice closure particular tower as the convergence point of the tower, at the point of convergence tower and install a wireless monitor node and an optical communication nodes within the substation at both ends of the line; provided monitoring center in the substation circuit at one end; each of the optical communication nodes using two special optical cable in the power core to form a multi-hop optical transmission optical transmission network; nodes monitor each wireless multi-hop wireless network is a wireless connection; monitoring the wireless node comprises a data acquisition unit, the data processing unit , the wireless transmission unit and a power supply unit; 2] to be monitored when each tower monitor node within the wireless data acquisition and monitoring, tower region where aggregation point; the optical communications node includes a data processing unit, the light transmission module and the power supply unit monitor node using wireless multi-hop manner 监测数据传输到汇聚点铁塔上设置的光通信节点,各光通信节点采用多跳转发的方式将监测数据传输到监控中心;当需要对无线监测节点进行控制时,监控中心生成控制信息,各光通信节点采用多跳转发的方式将控制信息传输到相应的汇聚点铁塔的光通信节点,汇聚点铁塔所在区域内的各铁塔上的无线监测节点采用多跳转发的方式将控制信息传输到各铁塔上设置的无线监测节点。 Monitoring data transmitted to the optical communication nodes arranged rendezvous point on the tower, each of the optical communication nodes using the multi-hop way monitoring data transmitted to the monitoring center; when necessary to control the radio monitor node, generates control information control center, each the optical communication node using the multi-hop manner corresponding to the control information to an optical communication tower rendezvous point node, the wireless node monitoring on each tower tower in the area where the point of convergence of multi-hop transmission mode control information monitoring wireless node to each tower set.
2、 根据权利要求l所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法, 其特征在于:还包含以下步骤:在线路对端的变电站内设置迂回路由,该迂回路由通过SDH设备提供的VC-12虚级联通道与线路一端的变电站内设置的监控中心连接。 2. A l of the line based on the monitoring method of high voltage transmission of wireless communication and optical communication, characterized in that claim: further comprising the step of: in the line of the substation end disposed detour route, the detour route provided by the SDH equipment substation monitoring center disposed virtually concatenated channels and the line connected to one end of the VC-12.
3、 根据权利要求1或2所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法,其特征在于:所述数据采集单元包括音/视频采集单元和外部数据接口;所述无线传输单元包括低功率无线网卡、天线切换装置以及至少两个方向性天线。 3, according to one of claim 1 or claim 2 based on high-voltage transmission line monitoring method of wireless communication and optical communication, wherein: said data acquisition unit includes audio / video data acquisition unit and external interfaces; the wireless transmission unit includes a low power wireless network card, the antenna switching means and at least two directional antennas.
4、 根据权利要求1或2所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法,其特征在于:所述无线监测节点包括功率控制模块以及与无线传输单元连接的全向天线;所述各无线监测节点组成一个无线AdHoc网络进行无线连接;所述功率控制模土央用于控制无线传输模块在Ad Hoc网络环境下的传输功率。 4, according to one of claim 1 or claim 2 based on monitoring of high voltage transmission line and an optical communication method for radio communication, wherein: the wireless node includes a power monitoring control module and the omni-directional antenna connected to the wireless transmission unit; the each of said wireless nodes to monitor a wireless network for wireless connection AdHoc; said power control mode for controlling soil central power wireless transmission module in the Ad Hoc network environment.
5、 根据权利要求3所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法,其特征在于:所述无线监测节点包括功率控制模块以及与无线传输单元连接的全向天线;所述各无线监测节点组成一个无线AdHoc网络进行无线连接;所述功率控制模块用于控制无线传输模块在Ad Hoc网络环境下的传输功率。 5, according to one of the claims 3 based high-voltage transmission line monitoring method of wireless communication and optical communication, wherein: the wireless node includes a power monitoring control module and the omni-directional antenna connected to the wireless transmission unit; each of wireless AdHoc monitoring nodes a wireless network is wirelessly connected; said power transmission module controls the wireless Ad Hoc network under the power means for controlling the environment.
6、 根据权禾腰求l所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监观仿法,其特征在于:所述光通信节点包括与光通信节点两侧光纤分别连接的两组光分路器和光合路器。 6, according to one of the weights Wo l waist seeking based on high voltage transmission line monitoring method of wireless communication and the concept of imitation optical communication, wherein: said communication nodes comprise an optical fiber connected to the optical communication nodes on both sides of each of the two light splitter and an optical coupling device.
7、 根据权利要求5所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法, 其特征在于:所述光通信节点包括与光通信节点两侧光纤分别连接的两组光分路器和光合路器。 7, according to one of claim 5 based on high-voltage transmission line monitoring method of wireless communication and optical communication, wherein: said optical communication node and the optical splitter comprises two sides of the optical fiber and a communication node connected optical coupling.
8、 根据权利要求7所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法, 其特征在于:所述光通信节点包括外部数据接口;所述供电单元包括发电单元、电源控制器和蓄电池;所述发电单元包括太太阳能阵列、电磁感应单元和/或低启动风速的小型风力发电机。 8, according to one of the claim 7, based on high-voltage transmission line monitoring method of wireless communication and optical communication, wherein: said optical communication node comprises an external data interface; the power supply unit comprises a power generating unit, and a battery power supply controller ; so the power generation unit comprises a solar array, the electromagnetic induction unit and / or a low wind speed start small wind turbines.
9、 根据权利要求1所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监观U方法, 其特征在于:所述歩骤2]包括确定待传输数据所在铁塔是否设有光通信节点的步骤; 如有,则通过无线监测节点和光通信节点上的外部数据接口将无线监测节点采集到的数据传递到光通信节点上,再由设在铁塔上的光通信节点进行数据传输;如没有,则通过设在铁塔上的无线监测节点进行数据传输,当数据传输到设有光通信节点的铁塔时,再通过设在铁塔上的光通信节点进行数据传输。 Ho step of step 2] comprises determining whether data to be transmitted is provided with an optical communication tower where nodes: 9, according to one of the claims 1 based on high-voltage transmission method of monitoring U concept of wireless communication and optical communication line, characterized in that transfer if, through the external data on the wireless monitor node and the optical communication node interface wireless monitor node acquired data to the optical communication node, and then data transmitted by the optical communications node is provided on the tower;; if not, then provided by data transmission over a wireless tower monitor node, when the data transmission to the tower is provided with an optical communication node, and then data transmission via the optical communication nodes arranged on the tower.
10、 根据权利要求9所述的一种基于无线通信和光通信的高压输电线路监测方法, 其特征在于:所述无线监测节点中的数据处理单元包括存储器;所述步骤2]间包含存储数据的步骤,即将由步骤2]采集到的数据存储在存储器中,等待在预先设定的网络空闲时间段,或是接收到监测中心传来的查询指令后,再将数据传送到监测中心。 10, according to one of the claim 9, based on high-voltage transmission line monitoring method of wireless communication and optical communication, wherein: said monitor node in the wireless data processing unit includes a memory; step 2] between the stored data comprising after the step, the acquisition step is about 2] to the data stored in the memory, the network idle time waiting for a preset period, or the monitoring center receives an inquiry command transmitted, then the data transmitted to the monitoring center.
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