CN101403668A - Measuring apparatus and test method for volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material - Google Patents

Measuring apparatus and test method for volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101403668A
CN101403668A CNA2008101587544A CN200810158754A CN101403668A CN 101403668 A CN101403668 A CN 101403668A CN A2008101587544 A CNA2008101587544 A CN A2008101587544A CN 200810158754 A CN200810158754 A CN 200810158754A CN 101403668 A CN101403668 A CN 101403668A
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pressure
hydraulic cylinder
plunger
measurement
programmable controller
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CNA2008101587544A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101403668B (en
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陈先
吴则华
周媛
梁忠旭
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海洋化工研究院
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Abstract

The invention provides a measuring device used for measuring the volume elastic modulus of a solid buoyant material. The measuring device comprises a bearing device, a pressure-regulating deice and a measurement control device. The bearing device comprises a hydraulic cylinder and a hydraulic cylinder cover; a pressure meter and a pressure-regulating valve are arranged on the upper part of the hydraulic cylinder cover; the pressure-regulating device comprises a hydraulic pump and a corresponding plunger; the lower end of the hydraulic pump is communicated with a water supply; the upper end of the plunger is connected with a motor; the measurement control device comprises a programmable controller, a pressure sensor and a linear scale; the pressure sensor and the pressure meter are arranged on a pipeline communicating the hydraulic cylinder and the hydraulic pump; the finger of the linear scale and the plunger moves synchronously; and the pressure sensor, linear scale and motor all can be controlled by the programmable controller. The invention also discloses a test method used for solving the problem in the prior art that the volume elastic modulus cannot be measured. The invention is provided with the guidance for the study of solid buoyant material.

Description

Volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material measurement mechanism and method of testing
Technical field
The present invention relates to detect the hydrostatic pressing analogue means of volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material, relate in particular to and measure deep ocean work volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material measurement mechanism and method of testing.
Background technology
Solid buoyancy material is the modern deep diving technology important component part of development, and this material can bear the huge hydrostatic force of thousands of rice under water, and the density of self has only about half of water.The buoyancy that holds up robot and material own wt can be provided.When machine power stops or meeting accident when rupturing as umbilical cables, the device that can guarantee to dive floats automatically, and the device that is unlikely to dive is lost, to guarantee life and property safety.Solid buoyancy material provides enough net buoyancy to solving the resistance to pressure and the structural stability of manned deep-sea vehicle, improves the useful load of the device of diving, and reduces its overall dimensions, especially in building the manned latent device of the big degree of depth, important effect is arranged.
China is located in Asia continent, faces the Pacific Ocean, has to reach 1.8 ten thousand kilometers shore lines, and 7.5 ten thousand square kilometres of marine sites are arranged in the Pacific Ocean in addition, is wherein containing a large amount of treasures, below the 5000m depth of water, can supply the research and development resource very abundant especially.Under water operation all need to rely on underwater robot, and the come-up of underwater robot be unable to do without the deep-sea solid buoyancy material.
In the research process of solid buoyancy material, the bulk modulus of solid buoyancy material is to weigh this material key index of high pressure effect lower volume variation under water, and smaller volume directly causes the buoyancy loss.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material measurement mechanism and method of testing, can solve the problem that the solid buoyancy material detection efficiency is not high, its bulk modulus can't be measured that prior art exists.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
A kind of volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material measurement mechanism, described measurement mechanism comprises bogey, regulator and measuring and controlling,
Described bogey comprises a hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic cylinder, is provided with tensimeter and pressure regulating valve on hydraulic cylinder top;
Described regulator comprises a hydraulic pump and plunger thereof, and the hydraulic pump lower end is communicated with the water source, and the upper end of described plunger connects motor;
Described measuring and controlling comprises programmable controller, pressure transducer and grating chi, described pressure transducer and tensimeter all are arranged on the pipeline that is communicated with described hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic pump, the pointer of described grating chi and described plunger are synchronized with the movement, and described pressure transducer, grating chi and motor are by described programmable controller controls.
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: described pressure regulating valve is pressurization valve and pressure relief valve, and is arranged on the described pipeline and is positioned at described tensimeter both sides.
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: described hydraulic cylinder internal diameter is 60-350mm, and external diameter is 120-550mm.
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: described plunger upper end is provided with the plunger pull bar, and described plunger is connected with described motor by this plunger pull bar, and the pointer of described grating chi is arranged on the described plunger pull bar.
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: a default demarcation bloom in the cabin in the described hydraulic cylinder, the volume of described demarcation bloom equates with the volume of solid buoyancy material to be measured.
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: described motor is a servomotor.
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: described measurement mechanism also comprises bracing or strutting arrangement, described bracing or strutting arrangement comprises hydraulic cylinder bracing or strutting arrangement and hydraulic pump bracing or strutting arrangement, wherein the hydraulic cylinder bracing or strutting arrangement comprises first support, be provided with the rotary lifting device that is used to promote described hydraulic cylinder in the upper end of first support, be provided with hydraulic cylinder pole in the both sides of described hydraulic cylinder, be provided with swivel bearing on first support, hydraulic cylinder is connected on the described swivel bearing by hydraulic cylinder pole and then is supported on described first support; The hydraulic pump bracing or strutting arrangement comprises second support that is used to support described hydraulic pump, and described motor is installed in the top of second support.
Measure the method and the test process of volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material, the method for use is a volume water discharge method.
Measure the method for testing of volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material, comprise the steps:
(a) at first in hydraulic cylinder, put into one in the cabin and demarcate bloom;
(b) open pressurization valve and pressure relief valve, the water source is connected in the hydraulic pump lower end then, treat that internal system is full of water after, pressure relief valve can there are flowing out, and closes pressure relief valve this moment;
(c) configure precompression by programmable controller after, start servomotor, be moved by plunger pull bar pulling plunger, water in the hydraulic pump inner chamber is subjected to the extruding of plunger and produces pressure, and transfer the pressure to cabin in the hydraulic cylinder unchangeably by the connecting line size, this pressure affacts on the sample to be detected simultaneously, internal system pressure size is measured by pressure transducer, measurement data is sent to programmable controller, programmable controller compares this measurement data and the force value that configures, control servomotor if pressure does not reach and rotate, continue to exert pressure, reach setting value up to pressure;
(d) displacement of plunger is measured by the grating chi, and measurement data is write down on computers automatically by programmable controller, and computer calculates simultaneously because the volume change of the water that plunger displacement causes;
(e) can obtain the volume change of system under the pressure by above (c), (d) two steps, be a reference value with this data scaling;
(f) measure in the volume change under a series of pressure and demarcate respectively and be the reference value under the relevant pressure;
(g) behind the taking-up bloom, solid buoyancy material sample to be measured is put into hydraulic cylinder, add entry;
(h) water is forced into the static pressure of setting together with solid buoyancy material to be measured, plunger descends, and the static pressure of setting is decided according to the depth of water that buoyant material can be served in the device working range, then described in the repeating step (d).
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: described plunger movement speed is 0.1-10mm/min.
In technical scheme of the present invention, also have following technical characterictic: the precompression that described programmable controller is set is 0.1~70MPa.
The account form of bulk modulus of calculating the solid buoyancy material sample according to above-mentioned measuring method and measurement mechanism is as follows:
(a) volume change of solid buoyancy material sample is: water and sample decrement together deducts the decrement of water, and the decrement of water is the volume change of putting into when demarcating bloom, and these data are decided to be reference value in the acceptance of the bid of above-mentioned (e) process.
(b) following correction is carried out in the suction of sample, the weight before and after the weighing sample pressurized.The weight that increases is transformed into volume and deducts from the Δ Vc of following reality.
(c) relation between the volume change of water and volume of sample change is shown below:
Ratio of compression:
K = - ΔVs Vs = - ( ΔVc - ΔVw Vs )
Wherein: the K=ratio of compression
Δ P=pressure changes
The volume change (suction is revised) of Δ Vs=sample
Δ Vc=sample changes with the cumulative volume that sucks water
Δ Vw=sucks the volume change of water
Vs=sample initial volume
Bulk modulus: E B = - ΔP ΔVs × Vs = ΔP K .
Bulk modulus proving installation control system:
Entire test is all controlled automatically by computer, can set arbitrary pressure curve on request and adjust hydraulic cylinder cabin internal pressure, all tests are set and operation all can be finished at automatic control console, computing machine generates pressure, time curve and volume-variation, time curve automatically, and, printablely at any time go out test report with various data storage.Concrete control system is seen Fig. 2.
The signal transmission of this system and conversion work are finished by a programmable controller.After configuring stress level with computer, programmable controller is passed on work order to servomotor, and servomotor is subjected to displacement by plunger pull bar pulling plunger.Plunger displacement causes pressure to change, and pressure condition is passed programmable controller back by pressure transducer, and then feedback to the computer, and rendering computer goes out pressure curve over time.
Change in displacement is measured by the grating chi, and the grating chi is passed to programmable controller with displacement data, passes to computer by programmable controller again, and computer computed volume situation of change generates volume change curve in time then.
In addition, also can finish to pressing and the ftercompction operation by programmable controller separately.Operation is very easy for this, do not need computer control.
Compared with prior art, advantage of the present invention and good effect are:
The present invention studies the bulk modulus and the method for testing of solid buoyancy material.Developed the bulk modulus measurement mechanism; The method of testing that bulk compressibility modulus has been worked out in design; Introduced the volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material computing formula; And the bulk modulus pick-up unit has been installed automatic control device, made testing process convenient, it is more accurate to detect data, and the property related of testing result is stronger.
The present invention has directive significance to the research of solid buoyancy material, for the latent device process of manufacturing and designing of buoyant material application units the important references effect is arranged.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the principle schematic of volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material measurement mechanism;
Fig. 2 is the control system figure of bulk modulus measurement mechanism;
Fig. 3 is the concrete test macro assembling synoptic diagram of bulk modulus measurement mechanism;
Wherein: 10, bogey; 11, hydraulic cylinder; 12, hydraulic cylinder; 13, tensimeter; 14, pressurization valve; 15, pressure relief valve; 16, cabin in the hydraulic cylinder; 17, demarcate bloom; 18, pipeline;
20, regulator; 21, hydraulic pump; 22, plunger; 23, hydraulic pump inner chamber; 24, plunger pull bar; 25, running water switch; 26, servomotor;
30, measuring and controlling; 31, pressure transducer; 32, grating chi; 33, pointer;
40, bracing or strutting arrangement; 41, rotary lifting device; 42, first support; 43, hydraulic cylinder pole; 44, swivel bearing; 45, second support; 46, tank; 47, discharge pipe line.
Embodiment
The present invention is further detailed explanation below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.
As shown in Figure 1, volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material proving installation of the present invention mainly is made of three parts: bogey 10, regulator 20 and measuring and controlling 30,
Bogey 10 comprises a hydraulic cylinder 11 and hydraulic cylinder 12 thereof, is provided with tensimeter 13 on hydraulic cylinder 12 tops, and tensimeter about 13 is provided with pressurization valve 14 and pressure relief valve 15 respectively; A default demarcation bloom 17 in the cabin 16 in the described hydraulic cylinder, the volume of described demarcation bloom 17 equates with the volume of solid buoyancy material to be measured.
Regulator 20 comprises a hydraulic pump 21 and plunger 22 thereof, and hydraulic pump 21 lower ends connect running water switch 25, and the upper end of described plunger 22 is provided with plunger pull bar 24, and plunger pull bar 24 connects servomotor 26;
Measuring and controlling 30 comprises programmable controller (not shown on the figure), pressure transducer 31 and grating chi 32, pressure transducer 31 and tensimeter 13 all are arranged on the pressure line 18, pressure line 18 is communicated with hydraulic cylinder 11 and hydraulic pump 21, the pointer of described grating chi 32 is arranged on the described plunger pull bar 24, promptly make the pointer 33 of grating chi 32 be synchronized with the movement with described plunger 22, described pressure transducer 31, grating chi 32 and servomotor 26 are by described programmable controller controls.
As shown in Figure 3, the concrete test macro assembling synoptic diagram of bulk modulus measurement mechanism,
Because the actual maximum working pressure (MWP) 87.5MP of the bulk modulus test macro among the present invention, the hydraulic cylinder in the test macro must design thicker metal outer wall.Consider the more often dismounting of its weight, described measurement mechanism also comprises bracing or strutting arrangement 40, will design rotary lifting device 41 on the hydraulic cylinder 12 among the present invention, makes that unlatching hydraulic cylinder 12 is convenient.Rotary lifting device 41 is installed in directly over the hydraulic cylinder 12, and first support of being made by metal 42 supports.Consider that equally weight is bigger, among the present invention swivel bearing 44 has been installed on the both sides of hydraulic cylinder 11, the both sides of hydraulic cylinder are provided with hydraulic cylinder pole 43, be provided with swivel bearing 44 on first support, hydraulic cylinder 11 is connected on the described swivel bearing 44 by hydraulic cylinder pole 43 and then is supported on described first support 42;
When equipment does not use, can at an easy rate water wherein be poured out in the screw clamp 46, and water be drained, corrode impaired useful for anti-locking system by discharge pipe line 47.
Hydraulic pump 21 is supported on second support 45, and described servomotor 26 is installed in the top of second support 45.Plunger pull bar 24 moves up and down under the driving of servomotor 26, and plunger 22 links to each other with plunger pull bar 24, moves up and down jointly.It is not removable that the outer wall of hydraulic pump 21 is fixed on the bottom of second support 45, thus plunger 22 in can squeezed fluid press pump inner chambers 23 water and produce pressure, this pressure can be delivered to each position of internal system unchangeably by connecting line 18 sizes.The size of exerting pressure can be regulated by the displacement of control servomotor 26 and then control plunger 22.
Concrete method of testing step is as follows:
1, running parameter:
Working pressure: be 70MPa to the maximum, safety coefficient is 1.25, actual maximum working pressure (MWP) 87.5MPa;
Actuating medium: water;
Plunger movement speed is 1.5mm/min;
Hydraulic cylinder internal diameter=60-350mm;
Hydraulic cylinder external diameter=120-550mm;
Plunger seal: nitrile rubber " O " type circle (the teflon support is arranged);
2, test sample:
Test sample is of a size of 100 * 40 * 40mm (160ml).
3, test process:
(a) cabin 16 is put into one and is demarcated bloom 17 in the hydraulic cylinder, is of a size of 100 * 40 * 40mm (160ml);
(b) open pressurization valve 14, and pressure relief valve 15, this moment pressure relief valve 15 as exhausr port, open running water switch 25 then, treat that internal system is full of water after, pressure relief valve 15 can there are flowing out.Close pressure relief valve 15 this moment;
(c) configure pressure 70MPa by programmable controller after, start servomotor 26, be moved by plunger pull bar 24 pulling plungers 22.Water in the hydraulic pump inner chamber 23 is subjected to the extruding of plunger 22 and produces pressure, and transfers the pressure to cabin 16 in the hydraulic cylinder unchangeably by connecting line 18 sizes.This pressure affacts on the sample to be detected simultaneously.Internal system pressure size is measured by pressure transducer 31, and measurement data is sent to programmable controller.Programmable controller compares this measurement data and the force value that configures, and controls servomotor 26 if pressure does not reach and rotates, and continues to exert pressure, and reaches setting value up to pressure;
(d) translational speed of plunger 22 is 1.5mm/min, and the displacement of plunger 22 is measured by grating chi 32, and measurement data is write down on computers automatically by programmable controller.Computer calculates simultaneously because the volume change of the water that plunger displacement causes;
(e) can obtain the volume change of system under the pressure by above (c), (d) two steps, be a reference value with this data scaling;
(f) measure in the volume change under a series of pressure and demarcate respectively and be the reference value under the relevant pressure;
(g) behind the taking-up bloom, solid buoyancy material sample to be measured is put into hydraulic cylinder, add entry;
(h) water is forced into the static pressure of setting together with solid buoyancy material to be measured, plunger descends, and the static pressure of setting is decided according to the depth of water that buoyant material can be served in the device working range, then described in the repeating step (d).
Among the present invention, designed the proving installation of bulk modulus; Formulated the method for testing of bulk modulus, test procedure; Derive the volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material computing formula; Introduced automation control system, made test process more directly perceived, test result is more accurate; In addition, the present invention considers the practicality of device, innovates at the mechanical hook-up fit on.The present invention can improve detection efficiency in the research and development process of solid buoyancy material, reduce experiment number.Research to solid buoyancy material has important directive significance.For the latent device process of manufacturing and designing of solid buoyancy material application units the important references effect is arranged.
The above only is preferred embodiment of the present invention, is not to be the restriction of the present invention being made other form, and any those skilled in the art may utilize the technology contents of above-mentioned announcement to be changed or be modified as the equivalent embodiment of equivalent variations.But every technical solution of the present invention content that do not break away to any simple modification, equivalent variations and remodeling that above embodiment did, still belongs to the protection domain of technical solution of the present invention according to technical spirit of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1, a kind of volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that: described measurement mechanism comprises bogey, regulator and measuring and controlling,
Described bogey comprises a hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic cylinder, is provided with tensimeter and pressure regulating valve on hydraulic cylinder top;
Described regulator comprises a hydraulic pump and plunger thereof, and the hydraulic pump lower end is communicated with the water source, and the upper end of described plunger connects motor;
Described measuring and controlling comprises programmable controller, pressure transducer and grating chi, described pressure transducer and tensimeter all are arranged on the pipeline that is communicated with described hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic pump, the pointer of described grating chi and described plunger are synchronized with the movement, and described pressure transducer, grating chi and motor are by described programmable controller controls.
2, bulk modulus measurement mechanism according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described pressure regulating valve is pressurization valve and pressure relief valve, and is arranged on the described pipeline and is positioned at described tensimeter both sides.
3, bulk modulus measurement mechanism according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described hydraulic cylinder internal diameter is 60-350mm, and external diameter is 120-550mm.
4, bulk modulus measurement mechanism according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described plunger upper end is provided with the plunger pull bar, and described plunger is connected with described motor by this plunger pull bar, and the pointer of described grating chi is arranged on the described plunger pull bar.
5, according to claim 1 or 4 described bulk modulus measurement mechanisms, it is characterized in that: a default demarcation bloom in the cabin in the described hydraulic cylinder, the volume of described demarcation bloom equates with the volume of solid buoyancy material to be measured.
6, bulk modulus measurement mechanism according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described motor is a servomotor.
7, bulk modulus measurement mechanism according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described measurement mechanism also comprises bracing or strutting arrangement, described bracing or strutting arrangement comprises hydraulic cylinder bracing or strutting arrangement and hydraulic pump bracing or strutting arrangement, wherein the hydraulic cylinder bracing or strutting arrangement comprises first support, be provided with the rotary lifting device that is used to promote described hydraulic cylinder in the upper end of first support, be provided with hydraulic cylinder pole in the both sides of described hydraulic cylinder, be provided with swivel bearing on first support, hydraulic cylinder is connected on the described swivel bearing by hydraulic cylinder pole and then is supported on described first support; The hydraulic pump bracing or strutting arrangement comprises second support that is used to support described hydraulic pump, and described motor is installed in the top of second support.
8, a kind of method of testing of utilizing the described measurement mechanism of claim 1 to measure volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(a) at first in hydraulic cylinder, put into one in the cabin and demarcate bloom;
(b) open pressurization valve and pressure relief valve, the water source is connected in the hydraulic pump lower end then, treat that internal system is full of water after, pressure relief valve can there are flowing out, and closes pressure relief valve this moment;
(c) configure precompression by programmable controller after, start servomotor, be moved by plunger pull bar pulling plunger, water in the hydraulic pump inner chamber is subjected to the extruding of plunger and produces pressure, and transfer the pressure to cabin in the hydraulic cylinder unchangeably by the connecting line size, this pressure affacts on the sample to be detected simultaneously, internal system pressure size is measured by pressure transducer, measurement data is sent to programmable controller, programmable controller compares this measurement data and the force value that configures, control servomotor if pressure does not reach and rotate, continue to exert pressure, reach setting value up to pressure;
(d) displacement of plunger is measured by the grating chi, and measurement data is write down on computers automatically by programmable controller, and computer calculates simultaneously because the volume change of the water that plunger displacement causes;
(e) can obtain the volume change of system under the pressure by above (c), (d) two steps, be a reference value with this data scaling;
(f) measure in the volume change under a series of pressure and demarcate respectively and be the reference value under the relevant pressure;
(g) behind the taking-up bloom, solid buoyancy material sample to be measured is put into hydraulic cylinder, add entry;
(h) water is forced into the static pressure of setting together with solid buoyancy material to be measured, plunger descends, and the static pressure of setting is decided according to the depth of water that buoyant material can be served in the device working range, then described in the repeating step (d).
9, measuring method according to claim 8 is characterized in that: described plunger movement speed is 0.1-10mm/min.
10, measuring method according to claim 8 is characterized in that: the precompression that described programmable controller is set is 0.1~70MPa.
CN2008101587544A 2008-11-03 2008-11-03 Measuring apparatus and test method for volume elastic modulus of solid buoyancy material CN101403668B (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103267681A (en) * 2013-04-25 2013-08-28 同济大学 Method and device for measuring oil volume elastic modulus
CN105928795A (en) * 2016-06-15 2016-09-07 黑龙江科技大学 Method and device for measuring pressure resistance and compression modulus of discrete materials
CN106644771A (en) * 2017-01-17 2017-05-10 吉林大学 Measurement device of rubber volume modulus based on liquid pressure and measurement method
CN109855971A (en) * 2018-12-21 2019-06-07 中国船舶重工集团公司第七一0研究所 The measurement method that buoyant material buoyancy loses under a kind of simulated deep-sea environment
US10611100B2 (en) 2015-06-12 2020-04-07 3M Innovative Properties Company Buoyancy module

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1033933A1 (en) * 1981-12-10 1983-08-07 Московский автомобильный завод им.И.А.Лихачева Device for determination of volume modulus of elasticity in the liquid under investigation
SU1241096A1 (en) * 1984-12-14 1986-06-30 Московский авиационный технологический институт им.К.Э.Циолковского Method of determining bulk modulus of polymer during its solidification
CN2758750Y (en) * 2003-12-12 2006-02-15 上海爱建纳米科技发展有限公司 Atomic force granular microscope

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103267681A (en) * 2013-04-25 2013-08-28 同济大学 Method and device for measuring oil volume elastic modulus
US10611100B2 (en) 2015-06-12 2020-04-07 3M Innovative Properties Company Buoyancy module
CN105928795A (en) * 2016-06-15 2016-09-07 黑龙江科技大学 Method and device for measuring pressure resistance and compression modulus of discrete materials
CN105928795B (en) * 2016-06-15 2018-11-20 黑龙江科技大学 Measure the crushing resistance and compression modulus device and method of granular media
CN106644771A (en) * 2017-01-17 2017-05-10 吉林大学 Measurement device of rubber volume modulus based on liquid pressure and measurement method
CN106644771B (en) * 2017-01-17 2019-06-11 吉林大学 A kind of measuring device and measuring method of the rubber volume modulus based on fluid pressure
CN109855971A (en) * 2018-12-21 2019-06-07 中国船舶重工集团公司第七一0研究所 The measurement method that buoyant material buoyancy loses under a kind of simulated deep-sea environment

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Address after: 266071 Shandong Province, Qingdao city Jinhu Road No. 4

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