CN105973710B - Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system and method - Google Patents

Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105973710B
CN105973710B CN201610422068.8A CN201610422068A CN105973710B CN 105973710 B CN105973710 B CN 105973710B CN 201610422068 A CN201610422068 A CN 201610422068A CN 105973710 B CN105973710 B CN 105973710B
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rock
pressure
test piece
stress
test
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CN201610422068.8A
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CN105973710A (en
Inventor
邬爱清
熊诗湖
张宜虎
唐爱松
范雷
钟作武
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长江水利委员会长江科学院
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D21/00Measuring or testing not otherwise provided for
    • G01D21/02Measuring two or more variables by means not covered by a single other subclass
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/28Preparing specimens for investigation including physical details of (bio-)chemical methods covered elsewhere, e.g. G01N33/50, C12Q
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/24Earth materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0016Tensile or compressive
    • G01N2203/0019Compressive
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/003Generation of the force
    • G01N2203/0042Pneumatic or hydraulic means
    • G01N2203/0048Hydraulic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0058Kind of property studied
    • G01N2203/006Crack, flaws, fracture or rupture
    • G01N2203/0062Crack or flaws

Abstract

Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system designed by the present invention, it includes watertight test cabin, triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measuring system, wherein, triaxial stress loading system includes permeable steel plate, power transmission steel plate, jack, fluid pressure line and pressure controller, the Water hydraulic static pressure loading system includes high-pressure hydraulic pump and pressure water line, drainage system includes permeable pedestal and discharge pipe line, and measuring system includes osmometer, flowmeter, strain gauge, acoustic wave transducer, data line and computer.The present invention can be used as effective, the reliable research means of engineering rock mass Seepage-stress coupling Mechanism Study.

Description

Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to rock engineering technical fields, in particular to a kind of complicated live three axis examination of crack rock Seepage-stress coupling Check system and method.
Technical background
The rock engineerings such as power station, water seal storage tank farm build Rock by hydraulic coupling action, rock mass Seepage-stress coupling mechanism It is the key areas of rock mass mechanics research.Rock mass Seepage-stress coupling both domestic and external experiment, mostly indoors, for small-size test piece into Row, test specimen is the test specimen containing stochastic fracture network or test specimen containing Single Fracture, in the Seepage-stress coupling problem of research engineering rock mass, It has the following disadvantages:Test specimen containing stochastic fracture network cannot fully reflect the knot of complicated crack rock because sample dimensions are smaller Structure feature;Test specimen containing Single Fracture cannot then reflect the seepage field of engineering rock mass, stress field state.
Invention content
Present invention aim to provide a kind of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system and method, The system and method can be used as effective, the reliable means of engineering rock mass Seepage-stress coupling Mechanism Study.
In order to achieve this, the complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system designed by the present invention, special Sign is:It includes watertight test cabin, triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measuring system, In, triaxial stress loading system includes permeable steel plate, power transmission steel plate, jack, fluid pressure line and pressure controller, the hydraulic pressure Loading system includes high-pressure hydraulic pump and pressure water line, and drainage system includes permeable pedestal and discharge pipe line, and measuring system includes Osmometer, flowmeter, strain gauge, acoustic wave transducer, data line and computer;
Permeable steel plate is respectively set in the side of rock test piece and top surface, the surface of each permeable steel plate is respectively provided with power transmission steel The surface of plate, each power transmission steel plate is respectively provided with jack, and the control terminal of each jack is controlled by fluid pressure line and pressure Device connects, and pressure controller is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin;
One end of the pressure water line is arranged in watertight test cabin, the other end of pressure water line and high-pressure hydraulic pump Water outlet connects;
Permeable pedestal is set in the bottom of rock test piece, permeable pedestal is located at the bottom surface in watertight test cabin, discharge pipe line One end is connect with permeable base drain mouth, and the other end of discharge pipe line is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin;
Osmometer, strain gauge and acoustic wave transducer are embedded in rock test piece, and flowmeter is set in discharge pipe line, osmotic pressure Meter, flowmeter, strain gauge and the signal output end of acoustic wave transducer connect the data communication ends of computer by data line, meter Calculation machine is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin.
A method of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test being carried out using above system, feature exists In it includes the following steps:
Step 1:Prepare rock test piece;
Step 2:Rock test piece is moved into watertight test cabin, for rock test piece installation triaxial stress loading system, hydraulic pressure The hole wall of loading system, drainage system and measuring system, watertight test cabin is supported as the counter-force of finder charge;
Step 3:Watertight test cabin is filled by water using Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, water penetrates into rock test piece through permeable steel plate and passes through The water of permeable pedestal exudation, permeable pedestal exudation regulates and controls pressure water line and drainpipe through discharge pipe line discharge watertight test cabin Valve in road makes to form preset stable hydraulic pressure in watertight test cabin;
Step 4:Regulate and control pressure controller and apply three-dimensional load to rock test piece, forms principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3, the principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3For the pressure measurement that the load that jack generates is formed on rock test piece surface, principal stress σ1For the axis of rock test piece To principal stress, principal stress σ2、σ3Respectively 2 lateral principal stresses of rock test piece;
During applying three-dimensional load to rock test piece above, the osmotic pressure of rock test piece is measured using osmotic pressure, Using the seepage discharge of flow measurement rock test piece, using the strain of strain measurement rock test piece, rock is surveyed using acoustic wave transducer The Elastic Wave Velocity of body test specimen, using pressure gauge metering hydraulic.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are:It is applicable in Rock mass of large dimension test specimen, can reflect the structure feature of complicated crack rock; Test specimen, can model engineering Seepage of Rock Masses field generally in pressure water environment;Three-dimensional load independent control, can model engineering rock mass answer The field of force.Thus experimental condition is similar to engineering rock mass hydraulic coupling action environment, can be used as engineering rock mass Seepage-stress coupling mechanism and grinds Effective, the reliable means studied carefully.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system in the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structure diagram of measuring system in the present invention.
Wherein, 1-watertight test cabin, 21-permeable steel plates, 22-power transmission steel plates, 23-jack, 24-fluid pressure lines, 25-pressure controllers, 31-high-pressure hydraulic pumps, 32-pressure water lines, 41-permeable pedestals, 42-discharge pipe lines, 51-osmotic pressures Meter, 52-flowmeters, 53-strain gauges, 54-acoustic wave transducers, 55-data lines, 56-computers, 6-rock test pieces.
Specific implementation mode
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described in further detail:
A kind of complexity crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system, as illustrated in figs. 1 and 2, it includes watertight examination Hatch checking 1, triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measuring system, wherein triaxial stress loading system Including permeable steel plate 21, power transmission steel plate 22, jack 23, fluid pressure line 24 and pressure controller 25, the Water hydraulic static pressure loading system Including high-pressure hydraulic pump 31 and pressure water line 32, drainage system includes permeable pedestal 41 and discharge pipe line 42, and measuring system includes Osmometer 51, flowmeter 52, strain gauge 53, acoustic wave transducer 54, data line 55 and computer 56;
Permeable steel plate 21 is respectively set in the side of rock test piece 6 and top surface, the surface of each permeable steel plate 21 is respectively provided with The surface of power transmission steel plate 22, each power transmission steel plate 22 is respectively provided with jack 23, and the control terminal of each jack 23 passes through hydraulic pressure Pipeline 24 is connect with pressure controller 25, and pressure controller 25 is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin 1;
One end of the pressure water line 32 is arranged in watertight test cabin 1, the other end and high pressure of pressure water line 32 The water outlet of water pump 31 connects;
Permeable pedestal 41 is set in the bottom of rock test piece 6, permeable pedestal 41 is located at the bottom surface in watertight test cabin 1, drains One end of pipeline 42 is connect with 41 discharge outlet of permeable pedestal, and the other end of discharge pipe line 42 is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin 1;
Osmometer 51, strain gauge 53 and acoustic wave transducer 54 are embedded in rock test piece 6, and flowmeter 52 is set to drainpipe In road 42, osmometer 51, flowmeter 52, strain gauge 53 and acoustic wave transducer 54 signal output end connected by data line 55 The data communication ends of computer 56, computer 56 are placed in the outside in watertight test cabin 1.Osmometer 51 is used to measure the infiltration of test specimen Pressure, flowmeter 52 are used to measure the seepage discharge of test specimen, and strain gauge 53 is used to measure the strain of test specimen, and acoustic wave transducer 54 is used In the Elastic Wave Velocity for measuring test specimen.
In above-mentioned technical proposal, using field survey adit structure, (experiment is implemented at the scene, subtracts in the watertight test cabin 1 The change of small rockbody test specimen character caused by transport;It is supported using hole wall as the counter-force of finder charge, scene convenient to carry out The high-potting load of large scale test specimen), hole wall smears waterproof, pressure-resistant material, and installation waterproof, pressure gate, inner space is realized High-pressure water seal is easy to implement controllable high pressure water environment necessary to experiment.
A method of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test being carried out using above system, according to the following steps Implement:At the scene for rock test piece installation triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, draining system in watertight test cabin System, measuring system;Experimental cabin is filled into water, and forms hydraulic pressure, makes occur seepage flow inside rock test piece;Apply three-dimensional lotus to test specimen It carries, the osmotic pressure of loading procedure measurement test specimen, seepage discharge, strain, Elastic Wave Velocity.Fracture Networks based on rock test piece Description and measured stress, strain, osmotic pressure, seepage discharge establish rock mass hydrological integrated model in conjunction with numerical simulation, have Include the following steps for body:
Step 1:Rock test piece 6 is prepared, which is III containing crack2Class basalt, and rock test piece 6 is described Fracture Networks geometry and fracture opening, and the geometry of the Fracture Networks of rock test piece 6 and fracture opening are believed Breath is stored in computer 56;
Step 2:Rock test piece 6 is moved into watertight test cabin 1, triaxial stress loading system, water are installed for rock test piece 6 Loading system, drainage system and measuring system, the hole wall in watertight test cabin 1 is pressed to be supported as the counter-force of finder charge;
Step 3:Watertight test cabin 1 is filled by water using Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, water penetrates into rock test piece 6 through permeable steel plate 21 And oozed out through permeable pedestal 41, watertight test cabin 1 is discharged through discharge pipe line 42 in the water that permeable pedestal 41 oozes out, and regulates and controls penstocks Valve in road 32 and discharge pipe line 42 makes to form preset stable hydraulic pressure in watertight test cabin 1;
Step 4:Regulate and control pressure controller 25 and apply three-dimensional load to rock test piece 6, forms principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3, the master Stress σ1、σ2、σ3For the pressure measurement that the load that jack 23 generates is formed on 6 surface of rock test piece, principal stress σ1It is tried for rock mass The axial principal stress of part, principal stress σ2、σ3Respectively 2 lateral principal stresses of rock test piece;
During applying three-dimensional load to rock test piece 6 above, using pressure gauge metering hydraulic, and according to hydraulic ga(u)ge The stress for calculating rock test piece 6 surveys the osmotic pressure of rock test piece 6 using osmometer 51, and rock test piece 6 is surveyed using flowmeter 52 Seepage discharge surveys the strain of rock test piece 6 using strain gauge 53, and the elastic wave wave of rock test piece 6 is surveyed using acoustic wave transducer 54 Speed, and the stress of the rock test piece 6 measured, strain, osmotic pressure, seepage discharge and Elastic Wave Velocity are transferred to calculating Machine 56
Step 5:Fracture Networks description and the stress of rock test piece 6, strain, osmotic pressure based on rock test piece 6, Seepage discharge and Elastic Wave Velocity establish rock mass hydrological integrated model in conjunction with numerical simulation.
In above-mentioned technical proposal, the rock test piece 6 is cuboid rock test piece, the length, width and height of the cuboid rock test piece Respectively 50cm, 50cm, 100cm, experiment rock mass are III containing crack2Class basalt.
In above-mentioned technical proposal, in the step 3, regulates and controls the valve in pressure water line 32 and discharge pipe line 42, make water The stabilization hydraulic pressure of 2MPa is formed in close experimental cabin 1.
In the step 4 of above-mentioned technical proposal, regulation and control pressure controller 25 applies the specific step of three-dimensional load to rock test piece 6 Suddenly it is:Following stress state is loaded onto to rock test piece 6 using triaxial stress loading system first:σ1=6MPa, σ2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, then keeps σ2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, hierarchical loading σ1Until rock test piece 6 is destroyed.
The content that this specification is not described in detail belongs to the prior art well known to professional and technical personnel in the field.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of complexity crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system, it is characterised in that:It includes watertight test cabin (1), triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measuring system, wherein triaxial stress loading system packet Include permeable steel plate (21), power transmission steel plate (22), jack (23), fluid pressure line (24) and pressure controller (25), the hydraulic pressure Loading system includes high-pressure hydraulic pump (31) and pressure water line (32), and drainage system includes permeable pedestal (41) and discharge pipe line (42), measuring system include osmometer (51), flowmeter (52), strain gauge (53), acoustic wave transducer (54), data line (55) and Computer (56);
Permeable steel plate (21) is respectively set in the side of rock test piece (6) and top surface, the surface of each permeable steel plate (21) is all provided with Power transmission steel plate (22) is set, the surface of each power transmission steel plate (22) is respectively provided with jack (23), the control terminal of each jack (23) It is connect with pressure controller (25) by fluid pressure line (24), pressure controller (25) is placed in the outside of watertight test cabin (1);
One end setting of the pressure water line (32) is in watertight test cabin (1), the other end and the height of pressure water line (32) The water outlet of water pump (31) connects;
In the bottom of rock test piece (6), permeable pedestal (41) is set, permeable pedestal (41) is located at the bottom surface in watertight test cabin (1), One end of discharge pipe line (42) is connect with the discharge outlet of permeable pedestal (41), and the other end of discharge pipe line (42) is placed in watertight test The outside in cabin (1);
Osmometer (51), strain gauge (53) and acoustic wave transducer (54) are embedded in rock test piece (6), and flowmeter (52) is set to In discharge pipe line (42), osmometer (51), flowmeter (52), the signal output end of strain gauge (53) and acoustic wave transducer (54) are equal The data communication ends of computer (56) are connected by data line (55), computer (56) is placed in the outside of watertight test cabin (1).
2. complexity crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene according to claim 1 triaxial test system, it is characterised in that:It is described Watertight test cabin (1) is built using field survey adit, and hole wall smears waterproof, pressure-resistant material, and installation waterproof, pressure gate are described Realize water-stop in watertight test cabin (1) inner space.
3. a kind of method carrying out complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test using system described in claim 1, It is characterized in that, it includes the following steps:
Step 1:Prepare rock test piece (6);
Step 2:By rock test piece (6) move into watertight test cabin (1), for rock test piece (6) installation triaxial stress loading system, The hole wall of Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measuring system, watertight test cabin (1) is supported as the counter-force of finder charge;
Step 3:Watertight test cabin (1) is filled by water using Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, water penetrates into rock test piece through permeable steel plate (21) (6) and through permeable pedestal (41) it oozing out, watertight test cabin (1) is discharged through discharge pipe line (42) in the water of permeable pedestal (41) exudation, Regulate and control the valve in pressure water line (32) and discharge pipe line (42), makes to form preset stable hydraulic pressure in watertight test cabin (1);
Step 4:Regulate and control pressure controller (25) and apply three-dimensional load to rock test piece (6), forms principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3, the master Stress σ1、σ2、σ3For the pressure measurement that the load that jack (23) generates is formed on rock test piece (6) surface, principal stress σ1For rock The axial principal stress of body test specimen, principal stress σ2、σ3Respectively 2 lateral principal stresses of rock test piece;
During applying three-dimensional load to rock test piece (6) above, using pressure gauge metering hydraulic, and according to calculation of hydraulic pressure The stress of rock test piece (6) surveys the osmotic pressure of rock test piece (6) using osmometer (51), and rock mass is surveyed using flowmeter (52) The seepage discharge of test specimen (6) surveys the strain of rock test piece (6) using strain gauge (53), and rock mass is surveyed using acoustic wave transducer (54) The Elastic Wave Velocity of test specimen (6).
4. according to the method described in claim 3, it is characterized in that:Further include describing splitting for rock test piece (6) in the step 1 The geometry and fracture opening of gap network, and by the geometry and fracture opening information of the Fracture Networks of rock test piece (6) It is stored in computer (56).
5. according to the method described in claim 4, it is characterized in that:Further include step 5 after the step 4:Based on rock test piece (6) stress, strain, osmotic pressure, seepage discharge and the elastic wave wave of Fracture Networks description and rock test piece (6) Speed establishes rock mass hydrological integrated model in conjunction with numerical simulation.
6. according to the method described in claim 3, it is characterized in that:The rock test piece (6) is cuboid rock test piece or circle Cylinder rock test piece.
7. according to the method described in claim 3, it is characterized in that:In the step 4, regulation and control pressure controller (25) gives rock mass Test specimen (6) apply three-dimensional load the specific steps are:Use first triaxial stress loading system to rock test piece (6) be loaded onto with Lower stress state:σ1=6MPa, σ2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, then keeps σ2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, hierarchical loading σ1Until Rock test piece (6) is destroyed.
8. according to the method described in claim 3, it is characterized in that:The rock test piece (6) is III containing crack2Class basalt.
9. according to the method described in claim 3, it is characterized in that:In the step 3,2Mpa is formed in watertight test cabin (1) Stabilization hydraulic pressure.
CN201610422068.8A 2016-06-14 2016-06-14 Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system and method CN105973710B (en)

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