CN101308126B - Offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method and device - Google Patents

Offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101308126B
CN101308126B CN2008100314662A CN200810031466A CN101308126B CN 101308126 B CN101308126 B CN 101308126B CN 2008100314662 A CN2008100314662 A CN 2008100314662A CN 200810031466 A CN200810031466 A CN 200810031466A CN 101308126 B CN101308126 B CN 101308126B
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water
casing
pressure
test
water pressure
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CN2008100314662A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101308126A (en
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李夕兵
彭述权
刘爱华
赵国彦
陈红江
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中南大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses an experimental method for top plate seepage and water inrush when in underwater exploitation as well as an apparatus thereof, comprising the steps of: (1) putting a configured experimental material in a model box according to the practical relative position; (2) exerting lateral pressure on the model material in the model box; (3) sealing the top part of the model box and exerting the stated water pressure on the top part of the model; (4) acquiring water pressure data, tectonic stress data, displacement digital photos and crack digital photos magnified by certain times at regular intervals in the exploitation process until the water inrush destruction takes place; (5) repeating the steps of (1), (2) and (3) to change lateral pressure and water pressure parameters, and repeating the step (4); and (6) obtaining the relation between the water pressure at the top part, the tectonic stress and the model surface displacement, model surface crack. The method and apparatus can embody the combined action of tectonic stress and water pressure at the top part and deadweight function of cover layer more factually, thereby improving the testing precision.

Description

A kind of offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method and device
Technical field
The present invention is mainly concerned with the test model field of obtaining from underwater installation, refers in particular to a kind of offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method and device.
Background technology
Along with rapid development of economy, in great demand to various mineral resources promoted the develop rapidly of mining industry industry.Huge and lasting demand and the nervous situation of the resource that begun cause people that eye is begun to bet in orebody mining under water.Obtaining from underwater installation is a kind of bigger ore body of difficulty of exploiting, and the especially offshore mining of obtaining from underwater installation technology remains to be furtherd investigate.One of them key issue is exactly the research of obtaining from underwater installation top board gushing water mechanism and control technology.Obtaining from underwater installation top board gushing water consequence is hardly imaginable, and its research highly has very important significance for safety and high-efficiency mining, the critical exploitation of obtaining from underwater installation.Under current mineral deposit more and more becomes rare situation, rationally confirm critical working thickness, significant for the coefficient of mining that improves the mineral deposit.
The seepage flow of water is very complicated in the rock cranny; The stress of rock mass; The distribution at joint forms has material impact to rock mass anisotropy lamp to rock mass seepage flow, and rock mass seepage flow will affect the safety of obtaining from underwater installation conversely, may cause the top board seepage gushing water to destroy.Universal model test can only be studied tectonic stress and the influence of top pressure to stability of the roadway, and can not study generation, the forming process of top board gushing water, and then studies the influence of top board gushing water to mining site safety.Liu Xinhe (the analog simulation development test of deposit mining under water) experimental study has thought that a property crack is the main thoroughfare of gushing water.This method defective is not consider to flow solid coupling effect influence, and is very big with gushing water destruction actual conditions difference.At first, the existence of water destroys because having quickened the seepage flow of upper caldding layer; Do not consider quiet, the kinetic property of water; And the detrimental effect of the seepage flow of water destruction; The mine safety evaluation of not considering the influence of water is relatively unsafe, the 2nd, do not introduce the influence of water, and can not vivid, intuitively and really reflect top board gushing water destructive process.Universal model test has above two bigger defectives, and is desirable not to the utmost to this key issue modeling effort of top board gushing water in the obtaining from underwater installation, is left to be desired and improves.
Adopt the test of layer during similar model test research top board gushing water; Should consider that water is coupled admittedly and study; Become rule from generation, development and the gushing water tunnel-shaped in grand thin sight angle research crack; The displacement and the stress distribution characteristic of exploitation country rock and superstratum, thus top board gushing water mechanism and top board gushing water criterion disclosed; The water pressure at research tectonic stress and ore body top influences rule to what the seepage flow gushing water destroyed, for the top board gushing water prevents and control technology provides experimental basis.Conventional measurement is not easy to the distribution of measurement model crack and displacement, should adopt advanced measuring technique to guarantee that test unit and test method can realize.Many-sided warranty test satisfies waterproof requirement simultaneously, prevents artificial gushing water and leaks.The relation of top board gushing water and water pressure tectonic stress is described.
Summary of the invention
The problem that the present invention will solve just is: to the technical matters of prior art existence; The present invention provides a kind of more real embodiment tectonic stress and upper water pressure, overlayer deadweight effect acting in conjunction, thereby improves the offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method and the device of test degree of accuracy.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the solution that the present invention proposes is: a kind of offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method the steps include:
(1) sets up model casing: utilize ratio of similitude to require configuration test model material; The test material that configures is positioned in the model casing according to actual relative position; In preferred embodiment, can fill the purpose that reaches waterproof with silica gel in the middle and upper part and the model casing both sides of cast material, water can not flow out along the model casing both sides in the warranty test process;
(2) apply lateral pressure: the cast material in the model casing applies lateral pressure, and lateral pressure keeps constant in process of the test;
(3) apply water pressure: with the top seal of model casing, apply the water pressure of setting at the model top, be used for simulating the water pressure influence at marine mining top;
(4) model excavation: according to the test design requirement, carry out the model excavation, ore body excavation under the Simulated Water; In digging process; Utilize the model surface displacement deformation measurement mechanism and the model surface gap observation device that are placed in positive front of model casing and positive back respectively; Gather water pressure data, tectonic stress data, displacement digital photograph at regular intervals, amplify the crack digital photograph of certain multiple, gushing water destruction is taken place until excavating;
(5) repeating step (1), (2), (3) change lateral pressure, water pressure parameter, repeating step (4);
(6) the corresponding analysis software of utilization carries out Displacement Analysis and FRAC, obtains upper water pressure, the relation between tectonic stress and model surface displacement, the model surface crack.
A kind of offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test unit; It is characterized in that: it comprises model casing (1), lateral pressure applying mechanism, upper water pressure applying mechanism, control gear, model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism, model surface gap observation mechanism and the computing machine that is fixed on the pedestal; Said upper water pressure applying mechanism is positioned at the top of model casing; The lateral pressure applying mechanism is installed in two sides of model casing; Model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism that links to each other with computing machine and model surface gap observation mechanism are installed in the dead ahead and the dead astern of model casing respectively, and said control gear links to each other with the lateral pressure applying mechanism and side direction pressure applying mechanism is controlled.
Said lateral pressure applying mechanism comprises the plural retractable driving device that is positioned at the model casing both sides; Retractable driving device one end links to each other with the movable side plate that is positioned at model casing; The other end is through on the reaction frame fixed base, and retractable driving device is through control gear control.
Said model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism comprises first image collecting device; Model surface gap observation mechanism comprises second image collecting device and microscope; Said first image collecting device and second image collecting device lay respectively at the dead ahead and the dead astern of model casing, and first image collecting device links to each other with computing machine with second image collecting device.
Said water pressure applying mechanism comprises the hydraulic pressure piezometric tube of being with scale and is used for regulating two blocks of water body range regulation plates of model casing top water body scope that the hydraulic pressure piezometric tube is inserted in the waters that forms between two blocks of water body range regulation plates.
Compared with prior art; Advantage of the present invention just is: the present invention proposes to take all factors into consideration tectonic stress; Upper water pressure, displacement and crack situation of change obtain the gushing water criterion, and be more reasonable than only considering that tectonic stress, displacement obtain the gushing water criterion, meets the engineering actual conditions more.On the basis of this test method; The present invention proposes corresponding test unit; This device is compared with other devices, can realize the acting in conjunction of tectonic stress and bottom water pressure, through analyzing digital photograph; Obtain model displacement and crack situation of change, thereby improved the precision and the degree of depth measured.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the schematic flow sheet of the inventive method;
Fig. 2 is the main TV structure synoptic diagram of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the side-looking structural representation of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the plan structure synoptic diagram of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is model test 1/4 a width water body synoptic diagram in the specific embodiment;
Fig. 6 is a model test full duration water body synoptic diagram in the specific embodiment;
Fig. 7 is the distribution schematic diagram that model test applies even wall pressure in the specific embodiment;
Fig. 8 is the distribution schematic diagram that model test applies linear side pressure in the specific embodiment;
Fig. 9 is along the geologic section synoptic diagram of orebody trend in the specific embodiment;
Figure 10 is along the geologic section synoptic diagram of vertical orebody trend in the specific embodiment.
Marginal data
1, model casing 2, pedestal
3, model casing skeleton 4, reaction frame
5, movable side plate 6, retractable driving device
7, water body range regulation plate 8, hydraulic pressure piezometric tube
9, hydraulic pressure piezometric tube scale 10, piezometric tube support
11, control gear 12, high pressure oil pressure pipeline
13, anchor bolt 14, set bolt
15, lower shoe 16, upper plate
17, first image collecting device 18, digital camera tripod
19, microscope 20, second image collecting device
21, microscope stand 22, computing machine
23, water collector
Embodiment
Below will combine accompanying drawing and specific embodiment that the present invention is explained further details.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method of the present invention the steps include:
(1) sets up model casing: utilize ratio of similitude to require configuration test model material; The test material that configures is positioned in the model casing according to actual relative position; In preferred embodiment, can fill the purpose that reaches waterproof with silica gel in the middle and upper part and the model casing both sides of cast material, water can not flow out along the model casing both sides in the warranty test process;
(2) apply lateral pressure: the cast material in the model casing applies lateral pressure, and lateral pressure keeps constant in process of the test;
(3) apply water pressure: with the top seal of model casing, apply the water pressure of setting at the model top, be used for simulating the water pressure influence at marine mining top;
(4) model excavation: according to the test design requirement, carry out the model excavation, ore body excavation under the Simulated Water; In digging process; Utilize the model surface displacement deformation measurement mechanism and the model surface gap observation device that are placed in positive front of model casing and positive back respectively; Gather water pressure data, tectonic stress data, displacement digital photograph at regular intervals, amplify the crack digital photograph of certain multiple, gushing water destruction is taken place until excavating;
(5) repeating step (1), (2), (3) change lateral pressure, water pressure parameter, repeating step (4);
(6) the corresponding analysis software of utilization carries out Displacement Analysis and FRAC, obtains upper water pressure, the relation between tectonic stress and model surface displacement, the model surface crack.
Like Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and shown in Figure 4; A kind of offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test unit of the present invention; It comprises model casing 1, lateral pressure applying mechanism, upper water pressure applying mechanism, control gear 11, model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism, model surface gap observation mechanism and the computing machine 22 that is fixed on the pedestal 2; Wherein be equiped with the cast material that utilizes ratio of similitude to configure in the model casing 1; Can fill with silica gel in the middle and upper part and model casing 1 both sides of cast material, reach the purpose of waterproof, water can not flow out along the both sides of model casing 1 in the warranty test process; Model casing 1 bottom has water collector 23 simultaneously, is used for collecting the top board seepage gushing water and destroys the current that produce.Upper water pressure applying mechanism is positioned at the top of model casing 1; The lateral pressure applying mechanism is installed in two sides of model casing 1, and model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism that links to each other with computing machine 22 and model surface gap observation mechanism are installed in the dead ahead and the dead astern of model casing 1 respectively.
The lateral pressure applying mechanism comprises the plural retractable driving device 6 that is positioned at model casing 1 both sides; Retractable driving device 6 one ends link to each other with the movable side plate 5 that is positioned at model casing 1; The other end is through on reaction frame 4 fixed bases 2, and retractable driving device 6 is through control gear 11 controls.Retractable driving device 6 can adopt electronic or hydraulic way as required; In the present embodiment; Retractable driving device 6 adopts four hydraulic jacks; The both sides of model casing 1 are arranged with two hydraulic jacks respectively, and hydraulic jack links to each other with servocontrol platform as control gear 11 through high pressure oil pressure pipeline 12, and controlled by it.Reaction frame 4 is fixed on the upper plate 16 and lower shoe 15 on the pedestal 2 through anchor bolt 13, and hydraulic jack is fixed on the reaction frame 4 through set bolt 14.In preferred embodiment, silica gel sealing is used in the both sides of model casing 1, water can not flow out along the slot at movable side plate 5 places in the warranty test process.
Model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism comprises first image collecting device 17; Model surface gap observation mechanism comprises second image collecting device 20 and microscope 19; First image collecting device 17 and second image collecting device 20 lay respectively at the dead ahead and the dead astern of model casing 1, and first image collecting device 17 links to each other with computing machine 22 with second image collecting device 20.In the present embodiment; First image collecting device 17 adopts high-resolution digital camera; Be fixed in the dead ahead of model casing 1 through digital camera tripod 18; Take the model surface digital photograph in the process of the test at regular intervals, obtain the relation between model surface displacement and upper water pressure, the tectonic stress through the analysis software in the computing machine 22.Second image collecting device 20 adopts CCD; Microscope 19 adopts stereomicroscope; Stereomicroscope is fixed in the dead astern of model casing 1 through microscope stand 21; Take the model surface digital photograph in the process of the test at regular intervals, obtain the relation between model surface distribution of cracks, width and length variations and upper water pressure, the tectonic stress through the analysis software in the computing machine 22.
The water pressure applying mechanism comprises the hydraulic pressure piezometric tube 8 of being with scale and is used for regulating two blocks of water body range regulation plates 7 of model casing 1 top water body scope that hydraulic pressure piezometric tube 8 is inserted in the waters that forms between two blocks of water body range regulation plates 7.Also can further be provided with and be used for collecting the water collector that gushing water destroys the back current that produce in the bottom of model casing 1.In the present embodiment; Water body range regulation plate 7 is two, is the water body distributed areas between two blocks of water body range regulation plates 7, and the silica gel waterproof is used at scope inner model material top, water body distributed areas; Water body range regulation plate 7 tops are connected with the top seal of model casing 1; Insert in the cast material bottom, and the top seal of model casing 1 is when having guaranteed that like this water body range regulation plate 7 direct water bodys only at the cast material top crack take place; Water can go deep in the cast material along the crack, quickens the top gushing water and destroys.Outside two blocks of water body range regulation plates 7 is cast material, and hydraulic pressure side buret 8 is tightly connected with model casing 1 top board, and with the fixing water-pressure survey pipe 8 of piezometric tube support 10, water-pressure survey pipe 8 has hydraulic pressure piezometric tube scale 9.
In specific embodiment,, consider the feasibility situation of model test operation, the main mechanics parameter of different rocks that the mechanics parameter of process generalization employing such as following table 1 designs for model test according to the newly upright mine geology survey report of Shandong gold group San-Shan-Dao Gold Mine.
The newly upright main mechanics parameter of mining area rock of table 1 San-Shan-Dao Gold Mine
Confirm geometric similarity than being c l=100, model casing is of a size of 3000mm * 1200mm * 200mm, and the excavation position is at the model casing center position.Be of a size of about 20m * 30m * 50m according to actual mineral building, adopt the dual mode excavation, the one, be of a size of long 20cm * high 30cm by the geometric similarity of confirming than the excavation along the ore body direction in the model; The 2nd, the exploitation of vertical ore body direction highly is 20cm * long 50cm in the model; Like Fig. 9 and Figure 10.Confirm gravity similarity than being c g=1, the unit weight ratio of similitude is c ρ=1.5, then stress similitude is than being c σ=c gc ρc l=150.The ratio of similitude of fixing time is c t=365 * 24/ (1/3)=26280, the infiltration coefficient ratio of similitude is c s=c l/ c t=1/262.8.
Obtain model mechanics parameter such as table 2 according to the protolith mechanics parameter, rule of thumb, adopt sand, paraffin as the raw materials for making model, the proportioning of different groups is seen table 2.
The main mechanics parameter and the proportioning of table 2 modelling
Water pressure adopts like Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 and arranges that the water pressure size is from 0pa-10Kpa, increases top hydraulic pressure gradually, destroys up to the top board seepage gushing water takes place.Adopt the water pressure applying mechanism to realize, it comprises that water body range regulation plate 7, hydraulic pressure piezometric tube 8, piezometric tube support 10 realize jointly;
Wall pressure distributes and adopts Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 arranged in form, and maximum wall pressure size is 800Kpa.Adopt the wall pressure control device to realize, it comprises that reaction frame 4, retractable driving device 6, control gear 11, high pressure oil pressure pipeline 12 realize jointly;
Before on-test; The positive anterior locations that will be placed in model casing 1 as the digital camera and the digital camera tripod 18 of first image collecting device 17; To be placed in the positive back location of model casing 1 as CCD, stereomicroscope 19, the stereomicroscope support 21 of second image collecting device 20; Digital camera and CCD and computing machine 22 are connected, debugged instrument, keep instrument not change in the process of the test.
Adopt different wall pressure and top different water pressure limit and size in the process of the test, research wall pressure and upper water pressure are to the influence of excavation.Adopt displacement measuring device and gap observation measurement device to analyze displacement and crack in the process of the test, thereby the test criterion of necessity is provided for the obtaining from underwater installation critical altitude.
The test simulation obtaining from underwater installation is adopted like Fig. 9 and Figure 10 dual mode excavation;
1) test findings and analysis thereof
Can obtain following several basic result through the newly upright mining area of Shandong gold group San-Shan-Dao Gold Mine offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow model test:
One, after the model excavation was accomplished, the middle and upper part in tunnel appearred in the vertical maximum displacement in tunnel, and stress analysis shows that stress concentrates on the bight.Adopt even wall pressure and triangle wall pressure to distribute, and the influence of superstratum displacement is different to displacement, the stress of excavation country rock;
Two, adopt inclination and horizontal dual mode excavation, the distribution of corresponding surrounding rock displacement is different, and the superstratum Displacements Distribution of tilt mining mode is different with the horizontal mode excavation.
Three, increase model top head to before top board is for destruction, model and model casing both sides sealing are good, artificial gushing water do not occur and destroy, and along with the increase of water pressure, vertical displacement continues to increase, and begins to occur the crack, forms the gushing water passage at last.
2) conclusion (of pressure testing)
Through test conception, the design of model test apparatus and test method, the preparation of analog material; The making of model; Different top water pressures and lateral side pressure have obtained overall process and rule that obtaining from underwater installation seepage flow gushing water destroys to the influence of obtaining from underwater installation excavation, and main conclusions are following:
One, obtaining from underwater installation gushing water criterion should be taken all factors into consideration tectonic stress, upper water pressure, and the situation of change that shows displacement and crack.
Two, use this test unit and method experimental basis highly to be provided, for engineering practice provides the criterion foundation to exploiting critical exploitation under water.
Three, the model of the present invention's making can be simulated and accomplished different wall pressure and distribution of different water bodys and the influence of size to obtaining from underwater installation seepage flow gushing water destruction.
Four, adopt the crack that stereomicroscope and high-resolution digital camera and corresponding software can the Measurement and analysis enough accuracy and the distribution and the size of displacement,, improved the precision and the degree of depth measured for layer during similar model test research provides advanced measuring technique.

Claims (6)

1. an offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method the steps include:
(1) sets up model casing: utilize ratio of similitude to require configuration test model material, the test material that configures is positioned in the model casing according to actual relative position;
(2) apply lateral pressure: the cast material in the model casing applies lateral pressure, and lateral pressure keeps constant in process of the test;
(3) apply water pressure: with the top seal of model casing, apply the water pressure of setting at the model top, be used for simulating the water pressure influence at marine mining top;
(4) model excavation: according to the test design requirement, carry out the model excavation, ore body excavation under the Simulated Water; In digging process; Utilize the model surface displacement deformation measurement mechanism and the model surface gap observation device that are placed in positive front of model casing and positive back respectively; Gather water pressure data, tectonic stress data, displacement digital photograph at regular intervals, amplify the crack digital photograph of certain multiple, gushing water destruction is taken place until excavating;
(5) repeating step (1), (2), (3) change lateral pressure, water pressure parameter, repeating step (4);
(6) the corresponding analysis software of utilization carries out Displacement Analysis and FRAC, obtains upper water pressure, the relation between tectonic stress and model surface displacement, the model surface crack.
2. offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test unit; It is characterized in that: it comprises model casing (1), lateral pressure applying mechanism, upper water pressure applying mechanism, control gear (11), model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism, model surface gap observation mechanism and the computing machine (22) that is fixed on the pedestal (2); Said upper water pressure applying mechanism is positioned at the top of model casing (1); The lateral pressure applying mechanism is installed in two sides of model casing (1), and model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism that links to each other with computing machine (22) and model surface gap observation mechanism are installed in the dead ahead and the dead astern of model casing (1) respectively; Said control gear (11) links to each other with the lateral pressure applying mechanism and side direction pressure applying mechanism is controlled.
3. offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test unit according to claim 2; It is characterized in that: said lateral pressure applying mechanism comprises the plural retractable driving device (6) that is positioned at model casing (1) both sides; Retractable driving device (6) one ends link to each other with the movable side plate (5) that is positioned at model casing (1); The other end is through on reaction frame (4) fixed base (2), and retractable driving device (6) is through control gear (11) control.
4. according to claim 2 or 3 described offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test units; It is characterized in that: said model surface displacement deformation measuring mechanism comprises first image collecting device (17); Model surface gap observation mechanism comprises second image collecting device (20) and microscope (19); Said first image collecting device (17) and second image collecting device (20) lay respectively at the dead ahead and the dead astern of model casing (1), and first image collecting device (17) links to each other with computing machine (22) with second image collecting device (20).
5. according to claim 2 or 3 described offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test units; It is characterized in that: said water pressure applying mechanism comprises the hydraulic pressure piezometric tube (8) of being with scale and is used for regulating two blocks of water body range regulation plates (7) of model casing (1) top water body scope that hydraulic pressure piezometric tube (8) is inserted in the waters that forms between two blocks of water body range regulation plates (7).
6. offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test unit according to claim 4; It is characterized in that: said water pressure applying mechanism comprises the hydraulic pressure piezometric tube (8) of being with scale and is used for regulating two blocks of water body range regulation plates (7) of model casing (1) top water body scope that hydraulic pressure piezometric tube (8) is inserted in the waters that forms between two blocks of water body range regulation plates (7).
CN2008100314662A 2008-06-11 2008-06-11 Offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow test method and device CN101308126B (en)

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