CN104535728B - Two-dimensional physical simulation testing system for deeply-buried tunnel water bursting hazard and testing method thereof - Google Patents

Two-dimensional physical simulation testing system for deeply-buried tunnel water bursting hazard and testing method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104535728B
CN104535728B CN201510018120.9A CN201510018120A CN104535728B CN 104535728 B CN104535728 B CN 104535728B CN 201510018120 A CN201510018120 A CN 201510018120A CN 104535728 B CN104535728 B CN 104535728B
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tunnel
water
cavity
glass plate
implosion test
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CN201510018120.9A
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CN104535728A (en
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靖洪文
苏海健
蔚立元
朱谭谭
朱文心
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中国矿业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a two-dimensional physical simulation testing system for deeply-buried tunnel water bursting hazard. The two-dimensional physical simulation testing system comprises a rigid testing box, a water pressure servo control system, a vertical loading system, pressure stress sensors and seepage pressure sensors. The rigid testing box is of the cubic structure with an opening arranged on the top. The frontal side surface of the rigid testing box is a high intensity glass plate. The high intensity glass plate is provided with a reserved tunnel portal. Rock-like materials are paved inside the rigid testing box, and a karst cave hollow cavity is arranged in a predetermined position. The pressure stress sensors and the seepage pressure sensors are arranged around the karst cave hollow cavity and a tunnel. The karst cave hollow cavity is communicated with the water pressure servo control system through a high pressure water pipe. A setting load value is loaded by the opening on the top of the rigid testing box through the vertical loading system. The two-dimensional physical simulation testing system has the advantages that the structure is simple, the rigidness is strong and water-sealing capability is good. The two-dimensional model testing system and the method of the two-dimensional model testing system enable a more direct observation on surrounding rock rupture evolvement characteristics during the tunnel water bursting process.

Description

Deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system and test method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to Tunnel Engineering technical field, particularly relate to one and enclose for simulating deep tunnel water bursting disaster and tunnel Rock destroys the pilot system of unstability.
Background technology
Deep tunnel water bursting disaster catastrophe evolution mechanism is in state key basic research development plan (973) tackling of key scientific and technical problems Focus and one of difficult point.At present, China's traffic and hydraulic engineering field edpth of tunnel dramatically increase, and km buried depth is continuous Emerging in large numbers, Jinping hydropower station diversion tunnel buried depth is even up to 2525m, and the construction time disaster thus brought is on the rise, Wherein, gushing water is Serious geological disasters common in tunnel excavating process, to engineering construction bring great potential safety hazard and Economic loss.It is to disclose underground engineering gushing water catastrophe develop and lose that deep tunnel gushing water causes calamity mechanism physical simulation experiment system The important research means of steady mechanism, thus contribute to tunnel at great depth construction is taked reasonable effectively preventing measure reducing or Avoid the generation of water bursting disaster.
The patent of invention of " Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering " the 7th phase in 2009 and Application No. 200810031466.2 is situated between Continued a kind of offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow assay device, and this device can embody tectonic stress and top water pressure, cover Under the common effect of cap rock deadweight, offshore mining top board seepage flow sudden inflow.But this device can not simulate actual recovery process completely, Just it can only be generalized as several important stages of mining and carry out;This device can only be simulated the tax of cause calamity water source and be deposited and roof Situation, and in Practical Project, causing calamity water source structure is arbitrary with tunnel (lane) road relative tertiary location, and this embodies The limitation of this device.
The patent of invention of Application No. 201110264763.3 describes a kind of examination adopting coal seam bottom water bursting for simulation Check system, this device can be simulated deep-well height hydraulic pressure and base plate variation of lithological, Water Inrush overall process, thus be obtained base plate The related data of gushing water.But this device can only simulate Water Inrush during simulation gushing water, can not change gushing water equally Position, water source.
Author is luxuriant vertical unit, Shandong University's doctor's thesis " submerged tunnel adjoining rock stability Journal of Sex Research and covering thereof in 2010 Layer thickness determines " describe a kind of self-weight stress field fluid structure interaction mode experimental provision, this device can change overlying water height Degree is simulated subaqueous tunnel under fluid structure interaction and is dashed forward retention of excessive fluid.But the size of this device source pressure depends on open topped Pond and the relative altitude in tunnel, it is difficult to obtain the source pressure of up to MPa rank in Practical Project.
The patent of invention of " Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering " the 5th phase in 2013 and Application No. 201110412569.5 is situated between Continued a kind of submarine tunnel fluid-solid coupling model test system, under this pilot system energy simulated field truth seepage field and Stress field, can intuitively observe in work progress country rock in seabed tunnel country rock seepage flow characteristics and loading procedure and rupture and gushing water mistake Journey.But this pilot system is designed for Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao seabed tunnel, in terms of tunnel gushing water experimental study, there is it Natural defect, as do not changed position, water source, can not change water source moisture storage capacity, can not realize deep high-ground stress and hydraulic pressure Power etc., it is difficult to realize the physical modeling to buried Karst Tunnel water bursting disaster.
Due to people's understanding and the restriction of technical elements, tunnel gushing water Eccentric Loads in Layered Soils and Research the most just gradually spreads out, Correlation model pilot system and research rarely have report, and the tunnel gushing water model assay systems the most researched and developed is primarily present following Several deficiencies: hydraulic pressure accurately controls, position, water source is adjustable, water shutoff performance etc..
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention: in order to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, the present invention provides a kind of deep tunnel water bursting disaster two Dimension physical simulation experiment system and test method thereof, simple structure, intensity are high, rigidity is big, water shutoff is functional, can Simulate tunnel gushing water sign, gushing water process stress field of the surrounding rock under different buried depth tunnel stress field and seepage field, different stress field With the variation characteristic of displacement field, the two dimensional model examination of country rock failure evolvement feature during tunnel gushing water can be observed intuitively Check system and test method thereof.
Technical scheme: for achieving the above object, technical scheme is as follows:
Deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system, including implosion test case, hydraulic pressure servo-control system, Vertical loading system, pressure transducer and osmotic pressure sensor, described implosion test case is the cube knot of upper opening Structure, its leading flank is high strength glass plate, and described high strength glass plate sets reserved tunnel face, at described implosion test case Laid inside has rock analog material, and buries solution cavity cavity underground in precalculated position, sets at described solution cavity cavity and tunnel perimeter Putting compressive stress sensor and osmotic pressure sensor, described solution cavity cavity is by high-pressure water pipe with hydraulic pressure servo-control system even Logical, described implosion test upper box part aperture position is loaded onto setting payload values by vertical loading system.Wherein, described molten The size and location of hole cavity can change.
Further, reserve tunnel face tunneling by described glass plate, installation position displacement sensor on tunnel, and Ultrasound probe is installed in the high strength glass plate relevant position of tunnel surrounding protrusion-dispelling rock mass.
Further, also include that digital camera system and data collecting system, described digital camera system are arranged on rigidity examination Outside tryoff, described compressive stress sensor, osmotic pressure sensor, displacement transducer and the signal output part of ultrasound probe It is connected with the signal input part of data collecting system.
Further, described vertical loading system includes top backing plate, hydraulic jack and hydraulic power unit, described top backing plate Lower section is fixedly installed some hydraulic jacks, and described hydraulic jack is connected with hydraulic power unit.
Further, described implosion test case includes that implosion test frame and steel plate, described steel plate are separately positioned on implosion test The bottom surface of frame, left surface, right flank and below, described high strength glass plate is arranged on before implosion test frame, in institute Stating high strength glass plate the upper side and lower side and be respectively provided with front floor, described front floor is fixed with implosion test frame.
The test method of deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system, including tests below step:
1) assembling implosion test frame becomes implosion test case with steel plate, high strength glass plate and front floor is fixedly installed on just On property test stand;
2) rock analog material is laid in implosion test case, and buries underground molten at rock analog material predetermined interior position Hole cavity, by high-pressure water pipe connection solution cavity cavity and hydraulic pressure servo-control system, is arranged at solution cavity cavity and tunnel perimeter Compressive stress sensor and osmotic pressure sensor;Digital camera system and data collecting system are installed outside proof box, described The data line of compressive stress sensor and osmotic pressure sensor is connected with data collecting system;
3) after rock analog material has been laid, mounted thereon vertical loading system, open hydraulic power unit, pass through liquid Compressing cylinder applies vertical load to setting value to rock analog material;
4) water filling in solution cavity cavity, after solution cavity cavity full water, is added solution cavity cavity by hydraulic pressure servo-control system It is depressed into setting hydraulic pressure value;
5) reserve tunnel face by glass plate on rock analog material, carry out tunnel excavation, after tunnel excavation completes, Installation position displacement sensor on tunnel, and ultrasound wave spy is installed in the high strength glass plate relevant position of tunnel surrounding protrusion-dispelling rock mass Head, the data line of institute's displacement sensors and ultrasound probe is connected with data collecting system;
6) during tunnel excavation process and gushing water, data collecting system and digital camera system continual collection data And image, the sound that monitoring tunnel surrounding stress field, displacement field, the change of osmotic pressure and protrusion-dispelling rock mass Progressive failure cause Transmitting information.
Beneficial effect: the present invention compared with prior art, uses fitting type rubber bar at glass plate with general frame junction Water sealing method, water sealing effect is good;Use solution cavity cavity simulation water-bearing cave, cavity size can be regulated and mould is carried out in position Intend different engineering practice;Apply water pressure by hydraulic pressure servo-control system, water pressure can be regulated more accurately; Vertical loading system can simulate tunnel surrounding primary stress field under the conditions of different buried depth;Schemed in real time by digital camera system As gathering, the displacement field variation monitoring result of tunnel surrounding is more accurate.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of implosion test frame.
Fig. 2 embedded water shutoff rubber strip.
Fig. 3 is high-strength tempering glass structure schematic diagram.
Fig. 4 is the top view of implosion test upper box part backing plate.
Fig. 5 is the front view of floor before implosion test case.
Fig. 6 is vertical loading system structural representation.
Fig. 7 is hydraulic pressure servo-control system structural representation.
Fig. 8 is that deep tunnel gushing water causes calamity mechanism two dimensional model test system architecture schematic diagram.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings the present invention is further described.
As shown in Figure 8, deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system, including implosion test case, hydraulic pressure Servo-control system 8, vertical loading system, pressure transducer 13 and osmotic pressure sensor 131.Described implosion test Case is the cube structure of upper opening, and described implosion test case includes the implosion test frame in accompanying drawing 1 and steel plate, described Steel plate is separately positioned on the bottom surface of implosion test frame, left surface, right flank and below, the high strength glass plate in accompanying drawing 2 It is arranged on the leading flank of implosion test frame and is bolted with implosion test frame, high strength glass plate and implosion test frame Between seam crossing fitting type rubber bar is set, be possible to prevent to leak.Set respectively in described high strength glass plate the upper side and lower side Putting front floor (as shown in Figure 5), described front floor is fixed with implosion test frame, described high-strength safety glass and floor With the use of, increase the rigidity of implosion test case front panel.
Set reserved tunnel face 3 on described high strength glass plate, have rock analog material in described implosion test case laid inside, And bury solution cavity cavity 9 underground at rock analog material predetermined interior position, the size and location of described solution cavity cavity 9 can change Become, position and quiet reserves can be deposited by the tax of the position of adjustment solution cavity cavity 9 and size simulation water bursting disaster source.Described Solution cavity cavity 9 periphery needs the position detecting surrouding rock stress and osmotic pressure to arrange compressive stress sensor 13 and osmotic pressure passes Sensor 131, fills edible salt in described solution cavity cavity 9, and when water filling in solution cavity cavity 9, edible salt dissolves Form solution cavity.Described solution cavity cavity 9 is connected with the hydraulic pressure servo-control system 8 in accompanying drawing 7 by high-pressure water pipe, described Hydraulic pressure servo-control system 8 maximum working pressure (MWP) 6MPa.Described implosion test upper box part aperture position is by accompanying drawing 6 Vertical loading system loads, and described vertical loading system includes the top backing plate in accompanying drawing 4, hydraulic jack 6 and hydraulic pump Standing 7, be fixedly installed some hydraulic jacks 6 below the backing plate of described top, described top backing plate sets by high-strength bolt is fixing Putting at implosion test upper box part, described hydraulic jack 6 is connected with hydraulic power unit 7, opens oil return valve and hydraulic power unit 7, Rock analog material can be loaded by the cooperation of hydraulic jack 6 and top backing plate.Described top backing plate is arranged reserved Breach 5, the associated connections of described compressive stress sensor 13 and osmotic pressure sensor 131 accesses from future insufficiency 5, Top backing plate also sets up backing plate handle 4, convenient operation.
Reserve tunnel face 3 tunneling by described glass plate, after tunnel excavation completes, tunnel is installed displacement sensing Device 14, and in the high strength glass plate relevant position of corresponding tunnel surrounding protrusion-dispelling rock mass, ultrasound probe 15 is installed.Also wrap Including digital camera system 11 and data collecting system 12, described digital camera system 11 is arranged on outside implosion test case.Institute State the signal output of compressive stress sensor 13, osmotic pressure sensor 131, displacement transducer 14 and ultrasound probe 15 End is connected with the signal input part of data collecting system 12.By compressive stress sensor 13, osmotic pressure sensor 131, Displacement transducer 14 and ultrasound probe 15 monitor tunnel surrounding stress field, the change of osmotic pressure, displacement field and protrusion-dispelling The acoustic emission information that rock mass Progressive failure causes.
The test method of deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system, including tests below step:
1) assembling implosion test frame becomes implosion test case with steel plate, and high strength glass plate and front floor are fixed on rigidity examination Test on frame;
2) rock analog material is laid in implosion test case, and buries underground molten at rock analog material predetermined interior position Hole cavity 9, by high-pressure water pipe connection solution cavity cavity 9 and hydraulic pressure servo-control system 8, in solution cavity cavity 9 and tunnel Periphery need to be monitored position and be arranged compressive stress sensor 13 and osmotic pressure sensor 131;Digital photographic is installed outside proof box System 11 and data collecting system 12, described compressive stress sensor 13 and the data line of osmotic pressure sensor 131 It is connected with data collecting system 12;
3) after rock analog material has been laid, mounted thereon vertical loading system, open hydraulic power unit 7, pass through liquid Rock analog material applying vertical load to setting value, after vertical load reaches design load, is closed hydraulic pump by compressing cylinder 6 Stand 7;
4) water filling in solution cavity cavity 9, after solution cavity cavity 9 full water, displaces the air in solution cavity cavity 9, and Make its interior edible salt dissolve, then by hydraulic pressure servo-control system 8, solution cavity cavity is forced into setting hydraulic pressure value;
5) reserve tunnel face 3 by glass plate on rock analog material, carry out tunnel excavation, after tunnelling completes, Installation position displacement sensor 14 on tunnel, and install ultrasonic in the high strength glass plate relevant position of tunnel surrounding protrusion-dispelling rock mass Ripple probe 15, the data line of institute's displacement sensors 14 and ultrasound probe 15 is connected with data collecting system 12;
6) during tunnel excavation process and gushing water, data collecting system 12 and digital camera system 11 is continual adopts Collection data and image, monitoring tunnel surrounding stress field, displacement field, the change of osmotic pressure and protrusion-dispelling rock mass Progressive failure are led The acoustic emission information caused.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it should be pointed out that: for those skilled in the art For, under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention, it is also possible to make some improvements and modifications, these improvements and modifications are also Should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system, it is characterised in that: include implosion test case, water Pressure servo-control system (8), vertical loading system, compressive stress sensor (13) and osmotic pressure sensor (131), Described implosion test case is the cube structure of upper opening, and its leading flank is high strength glass plate, described high strength glass Set reserved tunnel face (3) on plate, have rock analog material in described implosion test case laid inside, and bury in precalculated position If solution cavity cavity (9), compressive stress sensor (13) and osmotic pressure sensing are set at described solution cavity cavity (9) periphery Device (131), described solution cavity cavity (9) is connected with hydraulic pressure servo-control system (8) by high-pressure water pipe, described rigidity Proof box upper opening position is loaded onto setting payload values by vertical loading system;
Tunnel face (3) tunneling is reserved by described glass plate, in installation position, tunnel surrounding surface displacement sensor (14), And ultrasound probe (15) is installed in the high strength glass plate relevant position of tunnel surrounding protrusion-dispelling rock mass;
Also including digital camera system (11) and data collecting system (12), described digital camera system (11) is arranged Outside implosion test case, described compressive stress sensor (13), osmotic pressure sensor (131), displacement transducer (14) It is connected with the signal input part of data collecting system (12) with the signal output part of ultrasound probe (15);
The size and location of described solution cavity cavity (9) can change.
Deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: Described vertical loading system includes top backing plate, hydraulic jack (6) and hydraulic power unit (7), below the backing plate of described top Being fixedly installed some hydraulic jacks (6), described hydraulic jack (6) is connected with hydraulic power unit (7).
Deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: Described implosion test case includes that implosion test frame and steel plate, described steel plate are separately positioned on the bottom surface of implosion test frame, left side Face, right flank and below, described high strength glass plate is arranged on before implosion test frame and passes through spiral shell with implosion test frame Tethering and connect, floor before described high strength glass plate the upper side and lower side is respectively provided with, described front floor is solid with implosion test frame Fixed.
4. the test method of deep tunnel water bursting disaster two-dimensional physical simulation experiment system, it is characterised in that include following Test procedure:
1) assembling implosion test frame becomes implosion test case with steel plate, high strength glass plate and front floor is fixedly installed on just On property test stand, described high strength glass plate is fixedly installed on before implosion test frame, on described high strength glass plate Side and downside are respectively provided with front floor;
2) rock analog material is laid in implosion test case, and buries underground molten at rock analog material predetermined interior position Hole cavity (9), by high-pressure water pipe connection solution cavity cavity (9) and hydraulic pressure servo-control system (8), at solution cavity cavity And tunnel perimeter arranges compressive stress sensor (13) and osmotic pressure sensor (131) (9);Install outside proof box Digital camera system (11) and data collecting system (12), described compressive stress sensor (13) and osmotic pressure sensing The data line of device (131) is connected with data collecting system (12);
3) after rock analog material has been laid, mounted thereon vertical loading system, open hydraulic power unit (7), logical Cross hydraulic jack (6) and rock analog material is applied vertical load to setting value;
4) water filling in solution cavity cavity (9), after solution cavity cavity (9) full water, by hydraulic pressure servo-control system (8) Solution cavity cavity is forced into setting hydraulic pressure value;
5) reserve tunnel face (3) by glass plate on rock analog material, carry out tunnel excavation, after tunnel excavation completes, Installation position displacement sensor (14) on tunnel, and install in the high strength glass plate relevant position of tunnel surrounding protrusion-dispelling rock mass Ultrasound probe (15), institute's displacement sensors (14) and the data line of ultrasound probe (15) and data acquisition Collecting system (12) connects;
6) during tunnel excavation process and gushing water, data collecting system (12) and digital camera system (11) not between Disconnected collection data and image, monitoring tunnel surrounding stress field, displacement field, the change of osmotic pressure and protrusion-dispelling rock mass are progressive Destroy the acoustic emission information caused.
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