CN105974056B - Tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system and test method - Google Patents

Tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system and test method Download PDF

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CN105974056B
CN105974056B CN201610285152.XA CN201610285152A CN105974056B CN 105974056 B CN105974056 B CN 105974056B CN 201610285152 A CN201610285152 A CN 201610285152A CN 105974056 B CN105974056 B CN 105974056B
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water
test
tunnel
water content
data
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CN105974056A (en
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张乾青
成帅
袁永才
柳尚
刘洪亮
刘善伟
谭英华
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Shandong University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system and test methods, including water content construction system, three axis compression systems and excavate driving system, the three axis compression system is that water content constructs system application triaxial pressure, described to excavate driving system set on water content construction system to carry out quantifying excavation to water content construction system at excavated surface;The test data of the water content construction system is acquired by data collection system and is analyzed by data analysis system.A variety of disaster source water body types are designed in the present invention, different hydraulic pressure flows, flow inside water-bearing structure enrich the form in water bursting disaster source, enrich a variety of gushing water types and rich water form.It studies under the different shape of water bursting disaster source, water inrush precursor information.

Description

Tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system and test method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system and test methods.
Background technique
With the rapid development of energy project and traffic engineering, underground engineering quantity becomes more and more, and scale is also more next It is bigger.The unfavorable geologies such as tomography, solution cavity, underground river are often met with during tunnel and underground engineering construction, since water body is to rock Physics, chemical action so that rapid drawdown occurs for tunnel surrounding grade, when the region locating for the constructing tunnel to water content, former supporting Design is difficult to maintain surrounding rock stability, and landslide and the prominent mud disaster of gushing water easily occur in tunnel.The prominent discharge disaster in tunnel will cause Construction delay, mechanical damage, investment cost increase, while constituting grave danger to the life security of site operation personnel. Therefore, gushing water dash forward mud disaster precursor information in tunnel sentences knowledges, most important for rich water tunnel gushing water mud disaster alarm of dashing forward, for tunnel Road and the construction of the Security Construction of underground engineering are of great importance.Current experts and scholars both domestic and external are for rich water tunnel power catastrophe Mechanical mechanism is unclear, and lacks the analysis method of effectively description gushing water power catastrophe evolutionary process, can not yet be proposed for dashing forward The effective technological means of discharge disaster source feed channel position monitor.
Knowledge problem is sentenced for the prominent polynary precursor information of discharge disaster of the prominent mud of the above tunnel gushing water, and needing one kind can completely newly close The acquisition and analysis method of the prominent mud precursor information of the gushing water of reason.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to overcome above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, monitor for tunnel polymorphic type water inrush precursor information Problem provides a kind of tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system and test method, thus abundant rich water tunnel Prediction technique, the technology of the polynary precursor information of gushing water reduce the loss of tunnel water bursting disaster bring.
To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
Tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system, including water content construct system, three axis compression systems With excavation driving system, the three axis compression system is that water content constructs system application triaxial pressure, the excavation driving system Set on water content construction system to carry out quantitative excavation to water content construction system at excavated surface;The water content construction The test data of system is acquired by data collection system and is analyzed by data analysis system.
The water content construction system includes test block, and test block is in contact with three axis compression systems;Simulate rich water The bad water content of multiple types in tunnel, including: the types such as fault belt, water-bearing cave, karst are simulated a variety of The catastrophe evolutionary process of gushing water type obtains the precursor information of different gushing water types, discloses different gushing water matter energy states and moves Shifting and its critical characteristic.
The test block includes model test body, and several water contents are laid in the model test body;Water content simulation The production of rich water tunnel, model test body can build for cast-type and prefabricated block.
The middle part of the model test body is equipped with tunnel portal, and data collection system is arranged at the tunnel portal, described Data collection system is connect with data analysis system.
It is coated outside the model test body by frame plate, the edge of frame plate is equipped with force-guided stem;Force-guided stem is to try Test the special designing for preventing pressurized equipment from colliding in block pressure process.
The three axis compression system includes test-bed, and outside support, the outside support are supported on the test-bed Upper fixed hydraulic device, test block are laid between outside support and test-bed;Three axis hydraulic jacks are to test rock Block applies triaxial pressure, preferably restores rock block actual forced status.
The outside support includes the first inverted U-shaped structure and the second inverted U-shaped structure of perpendicular setting, and described first falls U Equal fixed hydraulic device on the two sidewalls of type structure and top plate, fixed hydraulic device on the two sidewalls of second inverted U-shaped structure, Each hydraulic device is in contact with the outer surface of test block;
First inverted U-shaped structure is an integral structure with the second inverted U-shaped structure;More convenient assembling, three axis compression trains Entity is that test block applies triaxial pressure.
Preferably, first inverted U-shaped structure is in arc-shaped;More material-saving.
The data collection system include be embedded in the intracorporal mini optical fibre sensor of model test, optic-fiber monitoring system, Micro pressure box, the Microseismic monitoring system for straining brick and being set to the external side of model test, data collection system is by the number of acquisition According to being transferred to data analysis system.
The data analysis system includes that data set is grown up to be a useful person and microseism wave detector, and data set is grown up to be a useful person to be connected with data collection system It connects, data set, which is grown up to be a useful person, also to be connect with host computer, and microseism wave detector is connected with host computer;The wave detector of model tunnel internal, which captures, to be come Water inrush precursor information, after being transferred to computer, computer program selects signal, analysis processing.Summary obtains gushing water Relevant effective precursor information obtains each gushing water metrics-thresholds.
The pilot system further includes water-bursting predicting early warning system, and the water-bursting predicting early warning system is analyzed according to data is The analysis data of system carry out prediction and warning to water bursting disaster.
The water content is connect with hydraulic pressure flow control system, and the hydraulic pressure flow control system includes power device, institute It states power device to connect by water pump with water content, is additionally provided with pressure gauge and flow instrument on the hydraulic pressure flow control system Table;Visualization instrument can show flow, the hydraulic pressure of water body in test in pressurised water tank, need to quantify water body according to test Regulation.Study the different water inrush precursor informations under disaster source water-bearing structure difference hydraulic pressure, flow.
Tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model test method, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: setting pressure being applied to test block by three axis compression systems, by hydraulic pressure flow control system to containing Water body applies pressure, records the water pressure and water flow data of water content;
Step 2: driving system is excavated in operation, carries out quantitative excavation to test block, and record and excavate opening for driving system It digs speed, remove the quantity of slag and digging time;When excavating to water content, reducing speed is tunneled, and constantly observes experimental phenomena;
Step 3: capturing tunnel water inrush precursor multiple information, data analysis system is transferred to by monitoring element;Polynary letter Breath includes displacement, stress, energy, pressure;
Step 4: multiple groups test is carried out, gushing water influence index threshold value is obtained by the gushing water phenomenon comparative analysis of multiple groups tunnel, To the gushing water phenomenon quantitative description of rich water tunnel, in conjunction with the threshold value of polynary mine water inrush information setting gushing water multiple information, using artificial Intelligent method analyzes to obtain gushing water probability in rich water tunnel work progress.The artificial intelligence approach used can be BP nerve net Road, gray theory, support vector machines etc..
The operation principle of the present invention is that:
The present invention carries out analog study to rich water tunnel by the method for indoor model test, simulate rock mass three dimension stress and Rich water state restores the actual conditions of rich water tunnel rock, and water recharging system involved in the present invention can be with mock disaster source Water-bearing structure under diversified forms and each index quantification can be regulated and controled, and development machine involved in invention can be to model tunnel Carry out accurate quantification excavation.The monitoring element being arranged in model tunnel is used to capture water proof rock masses fracturing information, rich water tunnel Mine water inrush information is finally screened by computer, analysis is handled, to gushing water probability early warning.The polymorphic type gushing water catastrophe of present invention research tunnel Evolutionary process discloses the state transition of gushing water matter energy and its critical characteristic.Model test constructs diverse characteristics information monitoring system System obtains water bursting disaster omen multiple information, studies more information data coupling process of different pregnant calamity mode gushing waters and its faces Calamity mutation rule.The logic symbiosis for excavating more information establishes polynary criterion Early-warning Model, realizes the dynamic disasters such as gushing water State identification, diverse characteristics information collection and the integrated forecasting early warning of evolution.Tunnel gushing water involved in the present invention is dashed forward, and mud is prominent to be gushed The acquisition of the polynary precursor information of water disaster is sentenced and knows pilot system and method, and the wind in tunnel construction construction can greatly be reduced Danger, strong foundation and guarantee are provided for safe construction, effectively avoid that prominent discharge disaster occurs during constructing tunnel.
The invention has the benefit that
1. designing a variety of disaster source water body types in the present invention, different hydraulic pressure flows, flow, are enriched inside water-bearing structure The form in water bursting disaster source enriches a variety of gushing water types and rich water form.It studies under the different shape of water bursting disaster source, before gushing water Million information.
2. controllably excavating development machine to tunnel model tunnel excavation, energetic disturbance induced water inrush catastrophe evolutionary process is explored, Obtain the multidate information of water proof rock masses fracturing.Meanwhile simulation of excavation process preferably reduces constructing tunnel, simulates rich water tunnel Tunneling process is offered reference for site operation.
3. constructing diverse characteristics information monitoring system, water bursting disaster omen multiple information, the different pregnant calamity modes of research are obtained More information data coupling process of gushing water and its face calamity mutation rule, for water inrush precursor provide theory and technical support.
4. excavating the logic symbiosis of more information, polynary criterion Early-warning Model is established, realizes the dynamic disasters such as gushing water State identification, diverse characteristics information collection and the integrated forecasting early warning of evolution establish a set of perfect water-bursting predicting early warning body System.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the model assay systems schematic diagram of tunnel gushing water and its omen multiple-index monitoring;
Fig. 2 is test compression system schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is test block schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is model tunnel excavation heading equipment schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 a is monitoring section laying element schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 b is monitoring location range schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 c is that monitoring section lays range schematic diagram.
Wherein: 1 test block, 2 excavate development machine, 3 hydraulic pressure flow control systems, and 4 data sets are grown up to be a useful person, 5 computers, 6 electricity Motivation, 7 hydraulic pressure instrument, 8 water level instrument, 9 force-guided stems, 10 tunnel portals, 11 steel plates, 12 3 axis compression systems, 13 cutterheads, 14 electricity Machine, 15 jack, 16 bottom plates, 17 inverted U outside supports, 18 circular-arc-shaped exterior brackets, 19 jack, 20 pressurised water tanks.
Specific embodiment
Present invention will be further explained below with reference to the attached drawings and examples.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of model assay systems of tunnel water inrush precursor information monitoring, pilot system includes that three axis add Pressure system 12, hydraulic pressure flow control system 3, excavates driving system, data set and grows up to be a useful person 4, data analysis system water content construction system System, computer 5, water-bursting predicting early warning system.
Three axis compression systems, 12: three axis hydraulic jack applies triaxial pressure to test rock block, preferably goes back protolith Stone actual forced status.Test-bed modularization, can be assembled;Interior cloth oil cylinder increase accordingly or reduces with rack Pin number;Examination The circular design for testing rack saves steel.Three axis compression systems are that test body applies three-dimensional axle power by hydraulic jack, to watch Take control device.Three axis compression systems 12 include 17 He of the outside support of inverted U in the front-back direction being arranged outside test block 1 The circular-arc-shaped exterior bracket 18 being arranged in left and right directions, inverted U outside support 17 are connect with circular-arc-shaped exterior bracket 18 at top, The top and left and right sides portion of circular-arc-shaped exterior bracket 18 are all connected with jack 19, and the front and back of inverted U outside support 17 is all connected with Jack, the jack at the top of circular-arc-shaped exterior bracket 18 correspond to test 1 top surface steel plate 10 of block force, realize σ1Plus It carries;The jack in 18 left and right sides portion of circular-arc-shaped exterior bracket corresponds to test 1 left and right directions of block force, realizes σ2Plus It carries;Jack corresponds to test 1 front-rear direction of block to inverted U outside support 17 in the front-back direction, realizes σ3Load.
As shown in Fig. 2, hydraulic pressure flow control system 3 includes motor 6, motor 6 is connect with water content by water pump, is added Water tank 20 is pressed to be equipped with hydraulic pressure instrument 7 and water level instrument 8.
Hydraulic pressure flow control system 3: visualization instrument can show flow, the hydraulic pressure of water body in test in pressurised water tank 20, It is needed to carry out quantitatively regulating and controlling to water body according to test.Study the different gushing waters under disaster source water-bearing structure difference hydraulic pressure, flow Precursor information.Hydraulic pressure flow control system, including pressure gauge, flow instrument.By regulation pressurization motor to needed for test Water source carries out quantitative adjusting.
As shown in figure 3, water content constructs system: the bad water content of multiple types in simulation rich water tunnel, including: it is disconnected The types such as layer crushed zone, water-bearing cave, karst, simulate the catastrophe evolutionary process of a variety of gushing water types, obtain different gushing waters The precursor information of type discloses different gushing water matter energy state transitions and its critical characteristic.
It is to test block 1 that water content, which constructs system, and test block 1 is a length of 2.5m of specification, width 2m, the rock of a height of 2m Stone body, maximum excavate hole diameter 200mm.The production of model test body can build for cast-type and prefabricated block.Test Block 1 is made of tunnel portal 10, water content, force-guided stem 9, steel plate 11.Wherein monitoring element is arranged at tunnel portal, aqueous Body simulates rich water tunnel, force-guided stem be then in test block pressure process prevent that pressurized equipment from colliding special set Meter.
As shown in figure 4, excavating driving system: the excavation development machine of accurate quantification carries out excavation pick to model test apparatus Into preferably tunnel piercing dynamic process in reduction reality, offers reference for site operation.It simulates tunnel excavation and tunnels situation pair The quantitative accurate excavation of model test body.
Excavating driving system is to excavate development machine 2, excavates the minimole that development machine 2 is adequacy test system, opens Digging development machine 2 includes bottom plate 16, and jack 15 is arranged on bottom plate 16, and jack 15 jacks seat board, motor 14, electricity are arranged on seat board Machine 14 is connect with driving portion, and cutterhead 13 is arranged in driving portion end, and cutterhead 13 is tunneled in test block 1.
Data collection system, using a variety of mini optical fibre sensors and the optic-fiber monitoring system of multiple information parallel acquisition, And with the use of the dedicated Microseismic monitoring system of gushing water, micro pressure box and strain brick, it can be achieved that model stress, displacement, osmotic pressure with And the acquisition of the more information such as microseism information, information real-time automatic collecting is realized by computer program.Mini optical fibre sensor, light Fine monitoring system, micro pressure box and strain brick are monitoring element, and monitoring element is in the laying such as Fig. 5 a at different section Shown, the position 1 in Fig. 5 a, where 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 points is the installation position of monitoring element.Monitoring element lays gamut Cover gushing water region.
The areal map of monitoring element installation position in test block 1 is provided in Fig. 5 b;Provided in Fig. 5 c monitoring section 1, 2,3,4 artwork on tunnel piercing direction.
Data analysis system: the wave detector of model tunnel internal captures the water inrush precursor information of coming, after being transferred to computer, Computer program selects signal, analysis is handled.Summary obtains the relevant effective precursor information of gushing water, show that each gushing water refers to Mark threshold value.Data analysis system, including wave detector, integrator, computer.Computerized algorithm carries out water inrush precursor multiple information Selection, analysis processing, establish gushing water index of correlation threshold value by multiple groups test result.
Water-bursting predicting early warning system: mould is identified based on the water inrush precursor multiple information of Gaussian process and Bayesian discrimination theory Type, by omen multiple information evolution Feature with identification model is counter pushes away water bursting disaster probability of happening, finally water bursting disaster is carried out Prediction and warning.Water-bursting predicting early warning system evaluates gushing water influence index, provides gushing water event Probability, pre- to predict Police commissioner's survey technology provides support.
1-5 with reference to the accompanying drawing, be described in detail tunnel gushing water and its omen multiple-index monitoring model assay systems and Its method and step.
Preparation stage:
According to the tunnel Fig. 1 gushing water and its model assay systems schematic diagram of omen multiple-index monitoring, test model is poured, The a length of 2.5m of its specification, width 2m, the rock block of a height of 2m, built-in various complicated water contents: fault belt, containing water-soluble The types such as hole, karst.Assembled test-bed module, interior cloth jack.According to Fig. 5 a, the embedded monitoring member of 5b, 5c design drawing Part.Assembled hydraulic devices, connection monitoring element is grown up to be a useful person with data set and computer.
Experimental stage:
1. pressure needed for being applied by three axis hydraulic devices to test block, and by external hydraulic devices to test block The water content in internal portion applies pressure.Water pressure, water flow value are recorded according to meter reading, is prepared for later data analysis.
2. operating tunnel excavation development machine, quantitative excavation is carried out to model tunnel.Record development machine a rate of advance, slagging-off Amount, digging time.It is slowly tunneled when excavating to water content, constantly observes experimental phenomena, such as the aqueous situation of face.
3. capturing tunnel water inrush precursor multiple information, data set is transferred to by monitoring element and is grown up to be a useful person, finally reached and calculate Machine.Computer screens effective information by programmed algorithm.
4. summarizing gushing water influence index threshold value by multiple groups tunnel gushing water phenomenon, the gushing water phenomenon of rich water tunnel is quantitatively retouched It states, in conjunction with the threshold value of polynary mine water inrush information setting gushing water multiple information, provides gushing water probability in rich water tunnel work progress.
Above-mentioned, although the foregoing specific embodiments of the present invention is described with reference to the accompanying drawings, not protects model to the present invention The limitation enclosed, those skilled in the art should understand that, based on the technical solutions of the present invention, those skilled in the art are not Need to make the creative labor the various modifications or changes that can be made still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot system, characterized in that add including water content construction system, three axis Pressure system and excavation driving system, the three axis compression system are that water content constructs system application triaxial pressure, the excavation pick Into system set on water content construction system to carry out quantitative excavation to water content construction system at excavated surface;It is described aqueous The test data of body construction system is acquired by data collection system and is analyzed by data analysis system;
The water content construction system includes test block, and test block is in contact with three axis compression systems;The test block Including model test body, several water contents are laid in the model test body;
The three axis compression system includes test-bed, and outside support is supported on the test-bed, is consolidated on the outside support Determine hydraulic device, test block is laid between outside support and test-bed;
The outside support includes the first inverted U-shaped structure and the second inverted U-shaped structure of perpendicular setting, the first inverted U knot Equal fixed hydraulic device on the two sidewalls of structure and top plate, fixed hydraulic device on the two sidewalls of second inverted U-shaped structure, each liquid Pressure device is in contact with the outer surface of test block;First inverted U-shaped structure is an integral structure with the second inverted U-shaped structure; First inverted U-shaped structure is in arc-shaped;
The middle part of the model test body is equipped with tunnel portal, and data collection system, the data are arranged at the tunnel portal Acquisition system is connect with data analysis system;It is coated outside the model test body by frame plate, the edge of frame plate is equipped with Force-guided stem;
The pilot system further includes water-bursting predicting early warning system, and the water-bursting predicting early warning system is according to data analysis system It analyzes data and prediction and warning is carried out to water bursting disaster;
The water content is connect with hydraulic pressure flow control system, and the hydraulic pressure flow control system includes power device, described dynamic Power device is connect by water pump with water content, is additionally provided with pressure gauge and flow instrument on the hydraulic pressure flow control system.
2. monitoring model pilot system as described in claim 1, characterized in that the data collection system includes being embedded in mould Type tests intracorporal mini optical fibre sensor, optic-fiber monitoring system, micro pressure box, strains brick and to be set to model test external The data of acquisition are transferred to data analysis system by the Microseismic monitoring system of side, data collection system.
3. monitoring model pilot system as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the data analysis system includes data integration Device and microseism wave detector, data set is grown up to be a useful person to be connect with data collection system, and data set, which is grown up to be a useful person, also to be connect with host computer, microseism detection Device is connected with host computer.
4. using the test side of the described in any item tunnel water bursting disaster precursor information monitoring model pilot systems of claim 1-3 Method, characterized in that the following steps are included:
Step 1: setting pressure being applied to test block by three axis compression systems, by hydraulic pressure flow control system to water content Apply pressure, records the water pressure and water flow data of water content;
Step 2: driving system is excavated in operation, carries out quantitative excavation to test block, and records the excavation speed for excavating driving system Degree removes the quantity of slag and digging time;When excavating to water content, reducing speed is tunneled, and constantly observes experimental phenomena;
Step 3: capturing tunnel water inrush precursor multiple information, data analysis system is transferred to by monitoring element;
Step 4: carrying out multiple groups test, gushing water influence index threshold value is obtained by the gushing water phenomenon comparative analysis of multiple groups tunnel, to richness The gushing water phenomenon quantitative description of water tunnel, in conjunction with the threshold value of polynary mine water inrush information setting gushing water multiple information, using artificial intelligence Method analyzes to obtain gushing water probability in rich water tunnel work progress.
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