CN101225315B - Method and device for biomass compound gasification - Google Patents

Method and device for biomass compound gasification Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101225315B
CN101225315B CN2007100326754A CN200710032675A CN101225315B CN 101225315 B CN101225315 B CN 101225315B CN 2007100326754 A CN2007100326754 A CN 2007100326754A CN 200710032675 A CN200710032675 A CN 200710032675A CN 101225315 B CN101225315 B CN 101225315B
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gasification
biomass
coke
gas
district
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CN101225315A (en
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吴创之
阴秀丽
周肇秋
马隆龙
蔡建渝
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Jiangsu Zhongke Dragon Energy System Co Ltd
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Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion of CAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel

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Abstract

The invention discloses a biomass complex gasification method and a device of the gasification. The thermal decomposition, the gasification, part of the oxidation process are combined in one reactor by the integrating the fluidized bed and the airflow bed. Firstly, the biomass is decomposed at 500 to 600 degrees C and generates hard coke; secondly, the hard coke with large grain sizes are partly oxidized and gasified in the hard coke gasifying section, which provides heat and generates combustible gas for the thermal decomposition section; thirdly, the reaction gases with small hard coke grains discharged from the thermal decomposition section and the catalyst fast flows upwards through the macromolecular gasifying section, and the reaction gas are partly oxidized because of the function of the secondary gasifying agent, the heavy tar component is forced simultaneously through thermal cracking reaction and catalytic cracking reaction with the catalyst at the temperature over 1000 degrees C and transformed to lightweight combustible gas; at last, the unreacted hard coke is sent back to the furnace through the gas-solid separation device and the solid recycling device. The biomass complex gasification method has the advantages of high gasification efficiency, low tar content, high control ability of the gas component, stable operation and easy enlargement.

Description

A kind of method of biomass combined gasification and device
Technical field
The present invention relates to the biomass gasification technology field, relate in particular to remove in a kind of stove the method and the device of the integration biomass combined gasification of tar.
Background technology
Because petroleum resources is day by day deficient, environmental pollution and Greenhouse effect problem serious day by day, obtain the higher-grade liquid fuel and chemical becomes a kind of development trend just gradually from abundant biomass agriculture and forestry organic waste material resource (as stalk etc.), at home and abroad cause and show great attention to.Biomass gasification technology can become high-grade geseous fuel with various depleted Wood Adhesives from Biomass, is to produce liquid fuel, chemical by the thermochemistry path for transformation, and be used to generate electricity, the main core technology of air feed and heat supply.The market outlook of biomass-based liquid fuel and chemical will finally depend on the competitiveness of cost, and efficient, economic biogas metallization processes is a development biomass indirect liquefaction technology key link, so must solve the bottleneck problem that present gasification technology exists, reduce tar content, improve gasification efficiency and aerogenesis quality.
At different industrial uses, biomass gasification technology has been carried out a large amount of research and developments both at home and abroad, develop different biogas metallization processes such as fixed bed, fluidized-bed, air flow bed.Fixed bed gasification technological reaction speed is slow, treatment capacity is little, is difficult for amplifying; The fluidized bed gasifying process speed of response is fast, and treatment capacity is big, helps scale operation, so obtained using widely; And the research of air flow bed mainly rests on the verification experimental verification stage.No matter adopt which kind of gasifying process, the generation of tar is the common problem of gasification technology.Tar is gaseous state when high temperature, mix fully with inflammable gas, and be condensed into liquid state when low temperature, and its separation and processing be difficulty very.The existence of tar has not only reduced gasification efficiency, gas heating value, and more seriously tar is condensed into liquid state when low temperature, and gas pipe line is stopped up in easy and combinations such as water, coke, influences the normal operation of equipment for gasification; The tar that is condensed into fine drop is difficult to burn, and is easy to generate particles such as carbon black when burning, and gas-fired equipment is caused great infringement.The existence of tar greatly reduces the utility value of synthetic gas, has stoped the high-end applications of gasification technology, is the bottleneck problem of the efficient large-scale application of gasification technology.
Industrial tar removal method commonly used mainly is that stove is removed outward at present, as dry type filtration, wet scrubbing, catalytic pyrolysis etc.Though filtration and method for washing are simple to operate, cost is lower, efficient is not high, for preventing secondary pollution, need to increase extra treating plant and sewage treatment equipment, not only occupation of land is bigger, has also increased cost of investment, and the tar of disposing can not utilize, and causes the waste of the energy.Catalytic pyrolysis is simple because of system, capacity usage ratio is high, and the biological fuel gas component is had promotor action and becomes the focus of domestic and international research, but needs to consume a large amount of additional energies, also needs extra utility appliance, has increased the complicacy and the investment of system; Simultaneously,, also do not form business-like special-purpose catalyst series, especially also have bigger distance from commercialization aspect the work-ing life of catalyzer because problems such as catalyst deactivation, mechanical wear and application cost are mainly used in experimental study at present.
Tar also can suppress in vapourizing furnace promptly that tar produces and is target product gas with the tar converted in-situ that produces by the method removed in the stove, realizes not containing tar in the crude synthesis gas in the vapourizing furnace.Remove in the stove and can realize, reduce the purpose that vapourizing furnace exports the coal-tar middle oil content of combustion gas thereby reach by optimizing methods such as adding catalyzer in gasification furnace structure design, optimization gasification operating parameters, the vapourizing furnace.This method is the focus and the Future Development direction of research at present.
Both at home and abroad the development trend of gasification technology be that exploitation is efficient, low tar, gasifying process that combustion gas component ability of regulation and control is stronger.At the effective elimination of tar and the high-end utilization of combustion gas, carried out the research of novel gasifying process both at home and abroad.As: Technical University Of Denmark has designed two-stage gasifier, and the coal-tar middle oil content of gained combustion gas reduces greatly; Germany Choren company has proposed the technology of mild pyrolysis and high temperature pyrolysis two-step method making high quality synthetic gas, contains tar in the synthetic gas hardly.These apparatus features be with many reactors in series on a successive flow process, fuel drying and pyrolysis in the indirect heating type cracker earlier, the cracked product and then lane between cracker and coke gasification device carries out partial oxidation, product gas flow is through the coke bed of heat, thereby makes the coke tar cracking in the product gas and reach lower content.
Granted publication number has disclosed a kind of agricultural waste material treatment facility for the patent of invention of CN1116383 " a kind of combined biomass vaporization furnace and gas preparation method thereof " and by the method for solid carbon-contg material production combustion gas, its goal of the invention provides a kind of Rural areas combustion gas preparation facilities and method that be suitable for, small-sized, as described in content in the specification sheets, fixed bed downdraft vapourizing furnace be provided with a biomass carbonization stove nearby, yet the simple superposition that disclosed this composite gasification furnace only is multiple device in the patent specification.
Granted publication number is the patent of invention " a kind of low-tar biomass gasifying method and device " of CN1272404C, it is characterized in that this device comprises a pyrolysis reactor and a pyrolysis gasification device, the pyrolysis product in the pyrolysis reactor enters a placed in-line pyrolysis gasification device.Described gasifier is a fixed bed downdraft vapourizing furnace.This invention realizes with pyrolysis by two placed in-line reactors and gasifies two processes separately that obtain the lower inflammable gas of tar content, but amplify at reactor, aspects such as operation stability all can't satisfy the needs of industrial application.
Publication number is the gasifying furnace device that the patent application " combined biomass vaporization furnace and thermal cracker " of CN1664066 discloses a kind of combined type, but from this patent specification, can know, this composite gasification furnace also only is the simple superposition of multiple arrangement, described in patent specification, its main technical scheme is that this main equipment is made of two vapourizing furnaces, also comprise quadruplet U type catalyst converter, composition such as gas blower and blast regulator.
Publication number is that the patent application " a kind of biomass combined gasification furnace " of CN101021336 is a kind of biomass gasification fired small-sized stove and accessory that makes.As described in this patented invention purpose, its technical superiority that will gasify and partly gasify two kinds of stove and accessorys entirely organically combines, a kind of biomass combined gasification furnace that need not use blower fan is provided, is not difficult to find out from the accompanying drawing of this patent, this combined gasification furnace also is the simple superposition of multiple arrangement.
Therefore, mostly the gasifying process that removes tar at present in the stove is to utilize the series connection of several reactors to realize also not having incorporate biomass combined gasification equipment, even there is so-called combined gasification furnace structure at present, also be the simple superposition and the serial connection of several devices, do not have creativeness.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is removing and the high-end utilization of combustion gas at tar, a kind of integration biomass combined gasification method and apparatus of low tar is provided, promptly utilize " multistage " gasification notion, biomass pyrolytic, coke gasification, heavy constituent gasification are separated relatively, realize the control of parameter subregion and optimize coupling.Promptly, reduce tar content by the control of heavy constituent gasification; The control of biomass coke gasification improves gasification efficiency; By the control of gasification condition subregion, realize the orientation regulation and control of gaseous fraction.And the structure of utilizing fluidized-bed and air flow bed to be coupled, realizing the integrated design of the multistage gasification of biomass, institute is responded can carry out in a cover reaction unit.
For reaching above purpose, the present invention realizes by following technical scheme: a kind of method of biomass combined gasification, this method comprises the following steps: that (1) biomass material adds composite gasification furnace from the opening for feed that is positioned at pyrolysis zone, pyrolytic reaction takes place under 500-600 ℃ of temperature, biomass discharge volatilization gas, and generate solid coke; (2) the coke macrobead flows into the coke gasification district in the composite gasification furnace downwards, and under the effect of a vaporized chemical, small part coke generation oxidizing reaction reaches more than 1000 ℃ coke gasification district temperature, and most of coke then generating gasification reaction generates inflammable gas; (3) the mobile high-temperature gas form biomass pyrolysis district that makes progress from the coke gasification district provides biomass pyrolytic required heat, keeps the pyrolysis zone temperature at 500-600 ℃; (4) the biomass pyrolytic district discharge with the reactant gases of tiny coke granule and the catalyzer heavy constituent gasification zone of upwards flowing through fast, under second gasification agent effect, partial oxidation reaction takes place, heavy constituent gasification zone temperature reaches more than 1000 ℃, make the tar heavy constituent in the volatile matter that thermo-cracking and catalytic cracking reaction take place under high temperature and catalyst action simultaneously, the tar heavy constituent are converted into the lightweight inflammable gas, both reduce the coal-tar middle oil content of crude synthesis gas, improved gas yield and gasification efficiency again.(5) the unreacted coke in heavy constituent gasification zone and be entrained in catalyst fines in the gas and receive cyclonic separator by the escape pipe on top and carry out gas solid separation, simultaneously by cyclonic separator bottom reflux, send solid particulate back to the coke gasification district, improve the efficiency of carbon conversion of system.
A described vaporized chemical and second gasification agent are one or more in air or oxygen or water vapour or the oxygen enrichment.
In above-mentioned steps (1), at the charging opening adding catalyzer of pyrolysis zone, the orientation that the adding of catalyzer helps gaseous fraction generates.
Biomass combined gasification method of the present invention can realize by the device of the following stated, a kind of low-tar biomass combined gasification equipment, described combined gasification equipment comprises composite gasification furnace, comprises fluidized-bed of being made up of pyrolysis zone and coke gasification district and the air flow bed that is made of the heavy constituent gasification zone in the described composite gasification furnace.The sectional area in described heavy constituent gasification zone and coke gasification district is less than the sectional area of described pyrolysis zone.Described pyrolysis zone is provided with biomass feed inlet, and described coke gasification district is provided with the vaporized chemical input aperture one time, and described heavy constituent gasification zone is provided with second gasification agent input aperture.Described biomass combined gasification equipment also includes gas solid separation and the solids backflow device that is connected with described composite gasification furnace.In this device, heavy constituent gasification zone and coke gasification district are the high-temperature zone, temperature reaches more than 1000 ℃, the biomass pyrolytic district is middle warm area, temperature is about 500 ℃-600 ℃, by adding different vaporized chemicals, and the temperature of same district not in the control stove, regulate the component of combustion gas, in a stove, realize the control and the optimization of different operating modes.
Biomass combined gasification method of the present invention is a mode of utilizing fluidized-bed and air flow bed to be coupled, and pyrolysis, gasification, partial oxidation process is compound in same reactor, realizes the control of parameter subregion and optimizes.The characteristics that this technology has the gasification efficiency height, tar content is low, the gaseous fraction ability of regulation and control is strong, load performance strong, the raw material suitability is strong, stable, be easy to amplify.This gasification process can reach following technical indicator: gasification efficiency 〉=80%, efficiency of carbon conversion 〉=98%, tar content≤20mg/Nm 3And stable, continuous, applicable to multiple field, as generating, heat supply, air feed, synthetic liquid fuel etc.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is an embodiment of the invention apparatus structure synoptic diagram;
Description of reference numerals: 1, composite gasification furnace, 2, pyrolysis zone, 3, the heavy constituent gasification zone, 4, the coke gasification district, 5, vaporized chemical input apertures, 6, second gasification agent input aperture, 7, biomass feed inlet, 8, gas solid separation and solids backflow device.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment content of the present invention is described further:
See also shown in Figure 1, a kind of biomass combined gasification method, biomass material adds composite gasification furnaces 1 from the opening for feed 7 that is positioned at pyrolysis zone 2, under 500-600 ℃ of temperature pyrolytic reaction takes place, biomass discharge volatilization gas, and generate solid coke; The coke macrobead flows into the coke gasification district 4 in the composite gasification furnace 1 downwards, one time vaporized chemical is added by a vaporized chemical input aperture 5, under the effect of a vaporized chemical, small part coke generation oxidizing reaction, coke gasification district temperature is reached more than 1000 ℃, and most of coke then generating gasification reaction generates inflammable gas; From the coke gasification district 4 upwards mobile high-temperature gas form biomass pyrolysis district 2 provide biomass pyrolytic required heat, the temperature of keeping pyrolysis zone 2 is at 500-600 ℃; Biomass after pyrolysis zone 2 reaction, discharge with the reactant gases of tiny coke granule and the catalyzer heavy constituent gasification zone 3 of upwards flowing through fast, the second gasification agent is added by second gasification agent input aperture 6, under second gasification agent effect, partial oxidation reaction takes place, heavy constituent gasification zone 3 temperature reach more than 1000 ℃, make the tar heavy constituent in the volatile matter under high temperature and catalyst action condition thermo-cracking and catalytic pyrolysis take place simultaneously, the tar heavy constituent are converted into the lightweight inflammable gas.Unreacted coke returns coke gasification district 4 by gas solid separation and solids backflow device 8 and further participates in reaction, and inflammable gas is from the top output of gas solid separation and solids backflow device 8.

Claims (7)

1. the method for a biomass combined gasification is characterized in that, this method comprises the following steps:
(1) biomass material adds composite gasification furnace from the opening for feed that is positioned at pyrolysis zone, under 500-600 ℃ of temperature pyrolytic reaction takes place, and biomass discharge volatilization gas, and generates solid coke;
(2) the coke macrobead flows into the coke gasification district in the composite gasification furnace downwards, and under the effect of a vaporized chemical, small part coke generation oxidizing reaction reaches more than 1000 ℃ coke gasification district temperature, and most of coke then generating gasification reaction generates inflammable gas;
(3) the mobile high-temperature gas form biomass pyrolysis district that makes progress from the coke gasification district provides biomass pyrolytic required heat, keeps the pyrolysis zone temperature at 500-600 ℃;
(4) the biomass pyrolytic district discharge with the reactant gases of tiny coke granule and the catalyzer tar heavy constituent gasification zone of upwards flowing through fast, under the effect of second gasification agent, partial oxidation reaction takes place, heavy constituent gasification zone temperature reaches more than 1000 ℃, make the tar heavy constituent in the volatile matter that thermo-cracking and catalytic cracking reaction take place under high temperature and catalyst action simultaneously, the tar heavy constituent are converted into the lightweight inflammable gas;
(5) the unreacted coke in heavy constituent gasification zone and be entrained in catalyst fines in the gas and receive cyclonic separator by the escape pipe on top and carry out gas solid separation, combustion gas is discharged by cyclonic separator top, and solid particulate is sent back to the coke gasification district by cyclonic separator bottom reflux.
2. the method for biomass combined gasification according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: a described vaporized chemical and second gasification agent are one or more in air or oxygen or water vapour or the oxygen enrichment.
3. the method for biomass combined gasification according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: in above-mentioned steps (1), at the opening for feed adding catalyzer of pyrolysis zone.
4. combined gasification equipment that is used to realize the described biomass combined gasification method of claim 1, it is characterized in that: described combined gasification equipment comprises composite gasification furnace (1), comprises fluidized-bed of being made up of pyrolysis zone (2) and coke gasification district (4) and the air flow bed that is made of heavy constituent gasification zone (3) in the described composite gasification furnace (1).
5. the combined gasification equipment of biomass combined gasification method according to claim 4 is characterized in that: the sectional area of described heavy constituent gasification zone (3) and coke gasification district (4) is less than the sectional area of described pyrolysis zone (2).
6. the combined gasification equipment of biomass combined gasification method according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: described pyrolysis zone (2) is provided with biomass feed inlet (7), described coke gasification district (4) is provided with a vaporized chemical input aperture (5), and described heavy constituent gasification zone (3) is provided with second gasification agent input aperture (6).
7. according to the combined gasification equipment of arbitrary described biomass combined gasification method in the claim 4 to 6, it is characterized in that: also include the gas solid separation and the solids backflow device (8) that are connected with described composite gasification furnace (1).
CN2007100326754A 2007-12-18 2007-12-18 Method and device for biomass compound gasification Expired - Fee Related CN101225315B (en)

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