CN100543116C - The oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process and the device that prepare no tar products gas - Google Patents

The oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process and the device that prepare no tar products gas Download PDF

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CN100543116C
CN100543116C CNB200510086256XA CN200510086256A CN100543116C CN 100543116 C CN100543116 C CN 100543116C CN B200510086256X A CNB200510086256X A CN B200510086256XA CN 200510086256 A CN200510086256 A CN 200510086256A CN 100543116 C CN100543116 C CN 100543116C
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gasification
fluidized bed
gas
fuel
bed
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CN1916123A (en
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许光文
刘新华
高士秋
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Institute of Process Engineering of CAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/50Improvements relating to the production of bulk chemicals
    • Y02P20/52Improvements relating to the production of bulk chemicals using catalysts, e.g. selective catalysts

Abstract

The preparation that the present invention relates to does not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process and the device of tar products gas, comprising: gasifying stage behind the downdraft fixed bed in preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage and its downstream; Fuel adds the inlet adding from the fuel of fluidized bed combustor, interact in burner with the oxygenant that adds and to carry out the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion, generating semicoke is transported under the condition of high temperature in the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace in downstream with the semi-finished gas that contains tar, carry out the semicoke gasification, utilize the katalysis of high temperature semicoke that the tar of bringing into semi-finished gas is carried out upgrading and thermolysis simultaneously, generate the product gas that does not contain tar.Its device comprises preposition fluidized bed combustor; Be arranged at the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace in burner downstream; And be communicated with the semicoke and the semi-finished gas transfer passage of burner and vapourizing furnace and fuel adds inlet and oxygenant adds inlet etc.; Have simple structure, processing ease, the gasification efficiency height adapts to pluralities of fuel and can prepare advantage such as no tar products gas.

Description

The oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process and the device that prepare no tar products gas
Technical field
The invention belongs to the clear energy sources technical field, be particularly related to a kind of preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process and device for preparing no tar products gas, described fuel comprises coal, biomass, municipal wastes, high aqueous solid waste (as mud), a kind of mixture of or several these solid fuels and other gas-liquid attitude fuel or waste.
Background technology
The history of the existing last 100 years of the research and development of Coal Gasification Technology, and biomass and organic solid waste gasification technology also have been able to development fast since 80 years 20th century.But, the gas efficiency of conversion that existing various gasification technology can reach seldom be higher than 70% (definitions of efficiency by the gas products thermal value account for the per-cent of institute's consumed energy summation in use heat output of fuel and the gasification), and the tar content in the synthetic gas that is generated is still one of key issue of its downstream application process of puzzlement.For this reason, exploitation high effect cleaning gasification technology, conversion coal, biomass, municipal wastes, high aqueous solid waste and mixture a kind of or several these solid fuels and other gas-liquid attitude fuel or waste are still imperative.
Though concrete technical project is various, up to the present employed gasifying reactor is nothing more than being three classes: Winkler stove (Winkler), fixed bed and fluidized-bed.Fluidized-bed gasification has the branch of single bubbling fluidized bed gasification and the gasification of circulation type double fluid bed again.These gasifying reactors can correspondence fuel treatment amount flexibly, and have advantage aspect the gas-solid mass-and heat-transfer.So gasification reaction speed comparatively fast may be its tangible advantage (with respect to fixed bed and Winkler stove reactor).But fluidized-bed gasifier is difficult to specific tar capacity of decomposition, thereby the tar content of generation gas is all higher usually.Use the Ca based additive or infeed oxygenant and cause the localized regions of elevated temperature pyrolytic tar can reduce the tar content that generates in the gas, but still can not safety remove at nearly gas outlet.And the oxygenant in exit imports calorific value and available gas composition CO, the H that (when particularly using air) can obviously reduce the synthetic gas product again 2Deng content (H particularly 2To be preferentially burned).Therefore, utilize pure oxygen to carry gasification process to be suggested in recent years and to test the high temperature gas flow that temperature of reaction is controlled at about 1300 ℃, remove fully with the tar that enables in the fluidized gasification process, will to generate gas as vaporized chemical.But 1300 ℃ high temperature requires exotic materials, thereby makes the equipment cost of this method and operating cost very high, is difficult to be applied to many common actual procedurees and system.
The Winkler stove is a kind of rotary Reaktionsofen, is convenient to control the residence time of fuel in Reaktionsofen, but is inferior to fluidized-bed reactor in the gas-solid contact, and difficulty is applicable to big fuel treatment amount.Simultaneously, the same Winkler stove gasifier itself with fluidized-bed gasifier does not have specific tar decomposition function.So, the rare at present gasification of using the Winkler stove separately.But, this stove extensively is used to pyrolysis fuel, operate in below 600 ℃, to avoid because the difficulty of the revolution control that high temperature causes.Semicoke after the pyrolysis is then further at the reactor of other type, as handling in fluidized bed combustor and the downdraft fixed bed gasifiers.At this moment, pyrolysis generates gas and has high tar content, has therefore drawn the thought of back with the two-part gasification process mentioned.
Fixed bed is the simplest gas solid reactor, and equipment cost is low, and control is simple.The gasifier of very early time exploitation, particularly middle-size and small-size gasifier almost all uses fixed-bed reactor.Fixed bed gasifiers has air-flow updraft type and two kinds of top-down downdrafts from bottom to top.The synthetic gas product of updraft type by the cryogenic fuel bed, so tar content is high, is seldom adopted separately at last in practice.Accordingly, the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace is characteristics by high temperature semicoke and slag grieshoch with product gas at last then, therefore can effectively remove tar wherein.But this downdraft vapourizing furnace itself does not have transmission of heat by convection from bottom to top, and initiate fuel only depends on the thermal radiation from lower floor to come heat temperature raising, and therefore reaction is made slow progress.Because this, fuel can only carry out at low temperatures in the pyrolysis of reactor top area, and the pyrolysis that makes generates the tar content height of gas.Because the influence of descending air-flow, the high-temperature zone that the bottom coal-char combustion of fixed bed itself is produced usually can be too not thick yet.For this reason, contained a large amount of tar also are difficult to be removed fully at vapourizing furnace usually from the pyrolysis gas that the upper strata is come.And above-mentioned repressed transmission of heat by convection from bottom to top makes that also the reaction process of downdraft vapourizing furnace integral body is slow, the fuel treatment amount of unit bed volume low (the reaction compartment utilization ratio of upper strata low-temperature region is especially low).In addition, fixed bed gasification itself also is difficult to adapt to big fuel treatment amount.
Above-mentioned every kind of gasifying reactor has its merits and demerits separately, but from can obtainable theoretical gasification efficiency fixed bed gasifiers the most competitive.Because it had not both required suspension transfer the fuel particle (and fluidized-bed, particularly circulating fluid bed gasifier then needs), not because rotary reactor itself and consumption of power (the Winkler stove is necessary) yet.And the fixed bed gasifiers system is simple, does not need specific gas-solid separator (fluidized-bed is necessary) and reactor motion control mechanism.But the various weakness (described referring to epimere) of fixed bed gasification method (referring to downdraft especially) make it not be subjected to the favor of practical application.For this reason, overcome the weakness of downdraft gasification process or in other gasification process two-part gasification process and the technology in conjunction with fixed bed gasifiers (be mainly and remove tar and improve the C transformation efficiency) since generation nineteen ninety, just received concern.
Chinese patent 94190559.4 has been announced a kind of in conjunction with fluidized bed pyrolysis and the brown carbon of updraft type fixed bed carbon gasification stove or the gasifying process of peat.Fuel at first in a fluidized-bed reactor in 450-600 ℃ of following pyrolysis, the semicoke that is produced then is fed in the downstream updraft type fixed-bed gasification furnace by oxygen or oxygen-steam mixture 600-800 ℃ of gasification down.The generation gas that front and back are two sections is discharged separately, mixes the power generating equipment that is sent to terminal then.Therefore, in fact the downstream fixed bed gasification guarantees the desired heat supply of gasification reaction by burning simultaneously.Upstream fuel thermal decomposition institute heat requirement is supplied with the then following mode of nationality: at first allow the right material of solid and slag ash or other external heat source indirect contacts be warming up to 180-320 ℃ (60-90% of evaporated fuel moisture simultaneously), insufficient section is then guaranteed as fluidized gas by a part of using 600-800 ℃ the product gas that generates in the fixed bed semicoke gasifier of downstream.This invention points out that simultaneously the two-part gasifying process of this pyrolysis+gasification helps changing the chemical S in the dyestuff into simple substance S.That is the H that in the leading portion pyrolysis, generates, 2S can with the SO that in downstream burning, is generated 2Claus reaction takes place and be oxidized to simple substance S (still, the downstream is at O 2Generate SO under the insufficient reducing environment 2Possibility minimum, so this effect is still to be tested).Recently, Technical.University of Denmark (DTU) maturation of Denmark has been developed a kind of two stage gasification technology (P.Brandt etal., Energy ﹠amp that unites pyrolysis of Winkler stove and downdraft semicoke vapourizing furnace; Fuels, 2000, Vol.14, pp.81-819).Its main points are tops that pyrogenous origin high tar semi-finished gas of Winkler stove and semicoke enter the downdraft gasifier together, make pyrolysis gas remove wherein tar by semicoke gasification layer downwards.The wood particle that on the pilot plant of 100kW, gasifies, find this technology can be with the tar content that generates gas the low 50mg/nm that reduces to 3Below, and the temperature of downdraft gasifying reactor is no more than 900 ℃.The tar is here thoroughly removed and is said so owing to catalytic decomposition and the upgrading of the semicoke in the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace to tar causes.Chinese patent CN1583956A discloses another kind of biogas metallization processes, and gasification and back gasification were two sections before it was divided into equally.Leading portion uses the circulating fluidized bed gasified bio-matter, generates gas and then the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace by back segment, gasifies altogether with the biomass fuel that infeeds the there.Though back segment uses is biomass but not semicoke, and inventor's also point out to gasify existence of back segment greatly reduces tar content in the product gas.For coal gasification Chinese patent CN1118544C a kind of two-part gasification process that utilizes downdraft moving-bed gasification stove has been proposed also.His leading portion is an air flow bed coal slurry gasifier, and it generates, and gas is sent to back segment and adding the coal fuel there gasifies altogether.The inventor thinks that this gasification process can make full use of unreacted gasification agent, i.e. water vapor and CO that leading portion generates the sensible heat in the gas and wherein contained by the gasification reaction of back segment 2, with gasification efficiency and the attenuating gasification investment that improves total system.
But, utilize the DTU two stage gasification technology of Winkler stove can be difficult to be applied to large-scale process and system, and the use of Winkler stove itself may cause than higher equipment cost and running cost.It is further refining that the gasifying process that Chinese patent 94190559.4 is announced is gone into low temperature (450-600 ℃) pyrolysis generation pneumatic transmission the back gasification section, and the tar content in its finished product gas must be very high.And, the back gasification section use updraft type fixed-bed gasification furnace itself just illustrate the present invention do not consider with the back gasification section simultaneously as pyrolysis generate gas the refining reaction device (because of updraft type fixed-bed gasification furnace function in this respect undesirable).On the other hand, the semicoke but all preceding gasification section not produced of two kinds of combined vaporizing technologies announcing of other Chinese patent send into the back gasification section further gasify and make it as catalyzer is refining purify before the generation gas (as removing its tar etc.) of gasification section.So its final synthetic gas product will have than higher tar content, and the C transformation efficiency that may reach can be not high especially.In fact, the gasification mode itself of the semicoke of the preceding gasification section of this utilization and sensible heat thereof also is an impediment to the acquisition of high gasification efficiency.Only gasify in the gasification section in the back green fuel at least partial offset the integrated gasification process is divided into two sections advantage.This not only may cause the high tar content (being produced by the fuel thermal decomposition that newly joins back segment) that generates in the gas, also can cause newly adding the incomplete gasification of fuel and the raising that influences integrated gasification efficient.Simultaneously, therefore the gasifying process of described three Chinese patents textural obviously more complicated than DTU gasification technology in system may have high relatively equipment and operating cost.But the technology that these patents are announced is more suitable for big fuel treatment amount (DTU technology relatively).
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of novel two-part gasification process, overcome the drawback of above-mentioned existing various two-part gasification technologies, with high-level efficiency gasification of coal, biomass, municipal wastes, high aqueous solid waste (as mud), or mixture a kind of or several these solid fuels and other gas-liquid attitude fuel or waste, produce the combustible gas or the synthetic gas product that contain tar hardly.
The present invention also aims to provide the gasification installation of implementing above-mentioned fuel gasification method, feasibility and its concrete application examples of showing institute's inventive method, definitely show institute's invention gasification process different fuel treatment amount of correspondence flexibly according to this, and have more low equipment cost and operating cost than the above-mentioned DTU device of identical scale.
Technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
Preparation provided by the invention does not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas, and this gasification process comprises: gasifying stage behind the preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage and the downdraft fixed bed in its downstream; The described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage is: fuel adds the inlet adding from the fuel of fluidized bed combustor, this fluidized bed combustor, interacts and carry out the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion with add oxygenant that inlet adds from fluidized bed combustor bottom oxygenant, generate semicoke and contain the semi-finished gas of tar;
Gasifying stage is behind the downdraft fixed bed in described downstream: the not separated semicoke that is generated in the preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage and containing in the tar semi-finished gas is transported to the downstream under the condition of high temperature the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace, in this vapourizing furnace, carry out the semicoke gasification, utilize the katalysis of high temperature semicoke that the tar of bringing into semi-finished gas is carried out upgrading and thermolysis simultaneously, generate the product gas that does not contain tar.
In the described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage, extraordinarily go into to contain the mineral substance of basic metal, alkaline-earth metal or rare elements metal by the 0-20 of fuel institute sulfur-bearing mole number when adding fuel and burn till the catalysis absorption agent of oxide compound.
Oxygen mole number in the oxygenant that is infeeded in the fluidized bed combustor in described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage is 10% to 40% of the perfect combustion needed oxygen mole number of fuel that infeeds this burner.
Gasifying stage adds fuel behind the downdraft fixed bed downstream.This fuel quantity is no more than the fuel of being supplied with to preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion device.
The downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasifying stage or add vaporized chemical carrying not separated high temperature semicoke to this vapourizing furnace and contain in the process of tar semi-finished gas behind the downdraft fixed bed downstream; The mol ratio of the semicoke that this vaporized chemical comes with carrying from the fluidized bed combustor in preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage is 0.0-3.0.
The downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasifying stage adds oxygenant behind the downdraft fixed bed downstream; In this oxygenant the mol ratio of the oxygenous semicoke that comes with carrying from the fluidized bed combustor in preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage be 0.0-0.4.
Described fuel is solid fuel, comprises coal, biomass, municipal wastes, high aqueous solid waste and mixture a kind of or several these solid fuels and other gas-liquid attitude fuel or waste.
Described oxygenant is oxygenous any gas, comprises pure oxygen, air, coal-seam gas, refuse tip exhaust or their mixture.
Described vaporized chemical is water vapor, CO 2Or the mixture of the two.
The fluidized bed process temperature in described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage is 600-1300 ℃.
The service temperature of the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasifying stage is 700-1500 ℃ behind the downdraft fixed bed in described downstream.
The working pressure of described gasification process is for being pressed onto any pressure between the overcritical air pressure of described vaporized chemical from atmosphere.
Preparation provided by the invention does not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification installation of tar products gas, it is characterized in that this device comprises:
A preposition fluidized bed combustor 3;
At least one or more than one a plurality of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 that is arranged at these preposition fluidized bed combustor 3 downstreams; And
The semicoke and the semi-finished gas transfer passage 5 that are communicated with described fluidized bed combustor 3 and at least one or more than one a plurality of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces 1;
On described fluidized bed combustor 3 walls, be provided with first fuel and add inlet A away from a side of semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage 5 or fluidized bed combustor 3 wall top center places; Be provided with first oxygenant in described fluidized bed combustor 3 bottoms and add inlet B; The bottom is provided with the grey device 6 of slagging-off in described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1; Be positioned on the bottom of slag ash products gas separate chamber 7 of slagging-off grey device 6 belows and the sidewall and be respectively equipped with slag ash outlet C and product gas relief outlet D.
Be provided with second fuel on the top of described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 and add inlet G.Be provided with vaporized chemical on the top of described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 and add inlet F.On the sidewall of described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1, be provided with second oxygenant and add inlet E.
One vertical over-pass 11 is set in the fluidized-bed layer 4 in described fluidized bed combustor 3, forms an overflow ducts 111 between described vertical over-pass 11 and described fluidized bed combustor 3 walls; Described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage 5 are connected with described overflow ducts 111.
Described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage 5 directly are communicated in downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 center of top; And a size distribution device 13 is set in the exit of described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage 5.
Described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage 5 are divided into many branch transfer passages 14 near downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 vertical part, and these many branch transfer passages 14 are connected with described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 top.
Inside at described fluidized bed combustor 3 is provided with a vertical separation baffles 12 near the side that fuel adds inlet.
Center in described fluidized bed combustor 3 is provided with all type baffle plates 15 of ring of a vertical placement.
A downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 in described fluidized bed combustor 3 and the downstream structure that is combined into one one to one maybe can be separated from each other respectively and is provided with.
Preparation of the present invention does not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas and the principle of work of device is shown in accompanying drawing 1.Fuel gasification is divided into two sections to carry out.Preceding gasification section is to carry out combustion with meagre oxygen in oxygenant.The semi-finished gas that burning is produced is admitted to the back gasification section equally with semicoke without separating, remove tar purifying with vaporized chemical interaction carrying out semicoke gasification and semi-finished gas there.For raising combustion with meagre oxygen efficient, to back segment gasifying reactor simple transport semi-finished gas and semicoke, and adapt to fuel treatment amount flexibly, preceding gasification section adopts fluidized-bed reactor.And be to guarantee here thoroughly to be removed by contained tar in thorough gasification and the semi-finished gas in the gasification section of back from the semicoke of preceding gasification section, back gasification section adopts the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.This not only because the semicoke gasification is a very slow reaction process, is particularly using water vapor and CO 2During as vaporized chemical, also, the downdraft fixed bed gasification removes the tar ability in the effective and the most reliable gasifier because having.
Like this, require the fuel of gasification mainly to infeed before the gasification section fluidized-bed reactor, oxygenant institute's fluidisation of being supplied with for this fuel that burns and with this oxygenant in O 2Interact and burned.The indication oxygenant can be air, oxygen or other any gaseous mixture that contains oxygen, as coal-seam gas, and refuse tip exhaust etc.Should before the oxidant content of the required supply of gasification section determine by the semi-finished gas of desired arrival and semicoke temperature out.This temperature out requires to reach more than 600 ℃ at least, and top temperature is then determined by the ability temperature of making fluidized-bed reactor institute materials used, for example usually about 800 to 1000 ℃.But this and be not precluded within the particular application require before gasification section have higher temperature out, as 1300 ℃ (reactors thereby require more high-grade material).For this reason, the air of preceding gasification section (oxygen) is than should be roughly at 0.1-0.4, smaller or equal to utilizing the partial oxidation process desired air ratio of same fuel (common below 0.4) that gasifies.Here, the amount of oxygen that contained in the oxygenant of gasifying reactor of air ratio confession under directions accounts for the ratio (so also can be described as oxygen than) of the total amount of oxygen of the needed theory of perfect combustion institute fueling.
Therefore, the combustion with meagre oxygen of preceding gasification section is actually a part of oxidation gasification, but its purpose is not to implement fuel gasification completely, but reaches described high temperature (but usually should at 800 to 1000 ℃) more than 600 ℃ for the temperature that promotes fuel.Fuel will be finished pyrolysis in preceding gasification section under these temperature, and may comprise simultaneously semicoke and the pyrolysis that therefore participate in combustion reactions generate gas.In addition, fuel moisture also can all be converted to water vapor in preceding gasification section, and the pyrolysis that participates in occurring in this gasification section generates gas upgrading and semicoke water vapor gasification reaction.The chemical reaction of these relevant fuel of gasification section comprised fuel thermal decomposition, coal-char combustion and the gasification of semicoke water vapor etc. before all occurred in, and can hang down significantly undoubtedly to subtract the solid semicoke volume of sending into back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.In fact this make this back segment downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace more can adapt to high fuel treatment capacity (other directly accepts the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of original fuel relatively, and more detailed analysis is seen below).
The same with other partial oxidation process fluidized-bed gasifiers, the semi-finished gas that is generated in the fluidisation combustion with meagre oxygen of preceding gasification section must contain a large amount of tar.But (〉 600 ℃ under the temperature of reaction of preceding gasification section, 800-1000 ℃ usually) this tar causes any problem can for operation and control when together being transported to the back gasification section with semicoke.Therefore, the material that is transported to the back gasification section from preceding gasification section comprises semicoke, tar and semi-finished gas, also has the heat of bringing into this high temperature substance flow simultaneously.The indication semi-finished gas is with respect to final combustible gas or synthetic gas product and define, and it contains tar, higher concentration non-combustible gas CO 2, low concentration inflammable gas CO, H 2With carbon compound C xH yNon-combustible gas also comprises N when using air class oxygenant 2
Semicoke enters to pile up in the gasification section downdraft vapourizing furnace of back and forms semicoke filling bed.The high temperature of himself (usually 800-1000 ℃) makes whole filling bed enter into this vapourizing furnace from semicoke just to begin high-temperature gasification reaction (completely different in common downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace, the initiate fuel in there must experience heat temperature raising at a slow speed).Therefore, desired as required vaporized chemical supply be located at from preceding gasification section backward gasification section to carry in the way of semicoke and semi-finished gas (be on the transfer passage, referring to accompanying drawing 8 and 9 illustrated embodiments), or the top of this downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (accompanying drawing 1 is depicted as this situation), so that semicoke interacts with vaporized chemical and generation semicoke gasification reaction in course of conveying or from once entering this vapourizing furnace by utilizing the heat of self.Press as a same reason, the tar upgrading in the semi-finished gas also will carry out synchronously with the semicoke gasification.Vaporized chemical described here refers to water vapor, CO 2, or press the two mixture of arbitrary proportion.Should decide according to the semicoke of required gasification and the tar content of required upgrading with the amount of vaporized chemical, promptly decide according to the semicoke and the tar content that come from preceding gasification section.Because semicoke is usually far more than tar, therefore as usually the 1.0-3.0 by the semicoke mole number doubly supplies with vaporized chemical.But, if the water vapor that evaporated fuel moisture is produced in the combustion with meagre oxygen of preceding gasification section is enough to be used as the vaporized chemical (promptly with the mol ratio of semicoke more than 1.0) of back gasification section semicoke gasification and tar upgrading, to there is no need gasification section supply vaporized chemical (supply with than 0.0, so accompanying drawing 1 being illustrated as this vaporized chemical supply optional) backward again.Because the upgrading of contained tar occurs under a large amount of environment that exist of semicoke (transfer passage+downdraft vapourizing furnace) with decomposing in the semi-finished gas, can make full use of the high temperature semicoke tar is removed the katalysis of reacting, and realizes thoroughly removing tar ingredients.
Though the temperature of reaction of back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace may be vertically inhomogeneous, but must be more than certain high temperature by the grey temperature of piling up the filling bed that forms of slag that semicoke and the gasification of this semicoke form, as (filling bed in stove top mainly is made of semicoke more than 700 ℃, slag ash amount increases gradually downwards, until almost being made of the slag ash entirely at last).Depend on the temperature height that preceding gasification section can reach, the heat itself of bringing the back gasification section into from preceding gasification section with semicoke and semi-finished gas might be not enough to keep the temperature of reaction of described back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace and guarantee that semicoke therein all gasifies and the thorough upgrading of tar/decomposition.Therefore, optionally may requiring backward, the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasification section further appends oxygenant (therefore being illustrated as optional in the accompanying drawing 1).Here employed oxygenant is similarly oxygenous any gas.According to the needs to the control of filling bed temperature, this oxygenant can infeed (accompanying drawing 1 is depicted as latter's situation) from top or other any proper height of back gasification section downdraft vapourizing furnace.In fact, along with semicoke gasification and semi-finished gas tar upgrading/decompositions carrying out gradually in back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace, semicoke and generation slag ash thereof its temperature in folding process gradually can reduce gradually.Therefore, if semicoke and semi-finished gas are with sufficiently high temperature, as be higher than 900 ℃ and enter this downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace from preceding gasification section, the oxygenant additional services of back gasification section can design below furnace roof portion, as reducing to 700-800 ℃ and locate to implement in that temperature of reaction being low.Certainly, under this downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace material can the situation of anti-higher temperature (as 1500 ℃), oxygenant appends also can be from the top of back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.Can form the excessive temperature zone on the filling bed top (mainly constituting) of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace although it is so by semicoke, but this high temperature can quicken semicoke gasification and tar upgrading/decomposition reaction, help improving reaction efficiency on the whole, dwindle the volume of back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.Therefore, the oxygenant feed rate of gasification section should be determined by the temperature of the desired downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of keeping fully backward.Based on the experience of partial oxidation process gasification char, the maximum that this oxygenant is supplied with should be at below 40% of required gasification char mole number, and promptly oxygenant and mol ratio from preceding gasification section semicoke are no more than 0.4 (when need not additional services should than be 0.0).
The semicoke of successively piling up in the gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of back is interacting with vaporized chemical and is forming the slag ash by gasification with when progressively consuming.The unreacted semicoke confuses the slag ash that is generated and is moving down gradually in this fixed-bed gasification furnace under the action of gravity of himself.Therefore, the benchmark that designs described back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace is exactly to guarantee that semicoke is gasified totally when being displaced downwardly to the slagging-off ash portion of this vapourizing furnace bottom, that is, the filling bed at the grey portion place that removes the gred should be made of the slag ash basically.The semi-finished gas that is generated in preceding gasification section and the tar upgrading/decomposition reaction of bringing this downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace into are generally than semicoke gasification reaction fast (coexisting more than 700 ℃ because of temperature of reaction).Therefore, guarantee being gasified totally also to be equal to and having guaranteed thoroughly removing of tar of semicoke.Like this, in the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of back gasification section, thoroughly removed semi-finished gas tar, that produce by combustion with meagre oxygen in from preceding gasification section fluidized-bed reactor, mix mutually with the semicoke gasification and the tar no tar generation gas phase that upgrading/decomposition produced that occur in here, formed final synthetic gas or combustible gas product will contain tar hardly.As shown in Figure 1, product gas and residue ash are separated and discharge respectively at the outlet at bottom of downdraft vapourizing furnace.
In order to remove the H that fuel is produced in above-mentioned gasification 2Various obnoxious flavour compositions such as S, HCl, CS2, COS also can be supplied with catalysis absorption agent (accompanying drawing 1 is illustrated as optional for this reason) from preceding gasification section to fluidized-bed reactor as required.This catalysis absorption agent is the still absorption agent of aforementioned various obnoxious flavoures even sorbent material not, also is the catalyzer of catalytic fuel pyrolysis, coal-char combustion, semicoke gasification, tar upgrading/chemical reactions such as decomposition simultaneously.Therefore, indication catalysis absorption agent is generally the natural mineral matter of alkali metal containing, alkaline-earth metal or rare elements metal, as carbonate, or they burn till oxide compound.Certainly this does not discharge yet and uses other modifying catalyst that contains transition metal, precious metal etc.The catalysis absorption agent can confuse fuel and add together.Institute's add-on determines according to the amount of elements such as institute's sulfur-bearing, chlorine in the fuel, as extraordinarily going into (do not add fashionable with mol ratio sulphur be 0.0) by the 1-10 with the element sulphur mol ratio usually.Catalysis absorption agent for inexpensive poor efficiency can use in a large number, as presses 20 times of the sulphur mole number or more.In fact, add in a large number the catalysis absorption agent and help thoroughly removing the various obnoxious flavour compositions of indication.At this catalysis absorption agent also is CO simultaneously 2Absorption agent the time (as Ca base catalysis absorption agent), institute's add-on should be by considering the CO in the gas 2Mole number and determining, thereby may be higher than 20 times of the sulphur mole number.But use too much catalysis absorption agent can lower the fuel treatment ability of unit volume reactor and increase running cost and system's thermosteresis, so should get the Schwellenwert that satisfies effect.The integrated gasification process of two gasification section before and after the catalysis absorption agent that is added runs through, discharge from the bottom of back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace with the fuel formed slag ash that is gasified totally the back that plays a role.
Simultaneously, also can append fuel as required at the top of back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace, to improve the fuel treatment capacity of overall process.But add in this fuel of back gasification section and may jeopardize generating coal-tar middle oil thoroughly the removing of gas product, and whether feasible design and the arrangement that also depends on the reaction volume of front and back two gasification section reactors.Because fluidized-bed is more suitable for handling greatly capacity, process optimization should be devoted in preceding gasification section consume fuel farthest, the volume of the last semicoke of sinking to avoid back gasification section downdraft vapourizing furnace too huge, influences the adaptability of institute's invention gasification process to big processing capacity.On this point, the Practical significance of further appending fuel feed in the back gasification section may only be confined to little processing capacity system.So this appends fuel quantity should be no more than the fuel quantity that gasification section fluidized bed combustor is forward supplied with usually.
The adaptability that the present invention handles large vol also can be by coming at same several back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces that be arranged in parallel behind the gasification section fluidized-bed reactor before large-scale in assurance.This be in conjunction with fluidized-bed to height handle the strong adaptive faculty of capacity and fixed bed gasifiers in this respect weakness and the effective technology measure that proposes.
Obviously, the present invention can be fit to any working pressure, such as from atmospheric gasification to the pressurized gasification of use vaporized chemical supercritical pressure.Atmospheric gasification is suitable for little fuel treatment amount situation usually, in full the dispersing property origin system below the MW and the preparation of all types of industrial kiln gas etc.Pressurized gasification is the reduction equipment size significantly, but therefore fixed cost and running cost height generally only are fit to day high throughput situation of the processing above fuel of kiloton (more than 100MW), are applied to synthetic oil (GTL), H2 and various chemical production etc.The latter, the working pressure of gasification can determine according to the desired pressure of dirty process.
In addition, the processed fuel of indication except that comprising coal, biomass, municipal wastes, high aqueous solid waste solid fuels such as (as mud), also can with a kind of or several these solid fuel co-processing other gas-liquid attitude fuel or wastes.Utilizing coal-seam gas, refuse tip exhaust is exactly the application examples of a reality as oxygenant.The highest treatable fuel moisture be prerequisite with gasification section fuel combustion before keeping and its temperature that can reach (common 800-1000 ℃), be no more than integrated gasification system desired water vapor vaporized chemical total amount simultaneously.Like this, the steam that evaporated fuel moisture is produced in preceding gasification section just in time as the back gasification section vaporized chemical.Under the low excessively situation of fuel moisture, can in fuel, sneak into water or other high-moisture fuel, the operation that produces required water vapor vaporized chemical simultaneously in the gasification section before being implemented in to the high-moisture quantitative limitation of fuel according to above-mentioned.
What deserves to be mentioned is that the conveying of the semicoke to back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace and semi-finished gas is suitable gravity direction from preceding gasification section fluidized-bed reactor in the accompanying drawing 1 of principle signal.Position according to forward and backward gasification section is provided with and the system operation condition, and this carries also reversible gravity direction.Specific embodiment will be illustrated in the accompanying drawing 8 and the accompanying drawing 9 of this specification sheets.
In sum, visible technical characterstic of the present invention can be summarized as: the integrated gasification process is made of for two sections preposition fluidisation combustion with meagre oxygen and its dirty downdraft fixed bed gasification.The fluidized-bed reactor (or fluidized bed combustor) of gasification section before fuel infeeds, the oxygenant fluidisation through being infeeded this preceding gasification section fluidized-bed reactor equally and by combustion with meagre oxygen.Thus the semicoke that is generated with contain the tar semi-finished gas without separating, one coexists is transported to the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (or following formula formula fixed-bed reactor) of back gasification section under the condition of high temperature, further interact there and carry out the semicoke gasification, and utilize the katalysis of high temperature semicoke that contained tar in the semi-finished gas is carried out upgrading and decomposition simultaneously with vaporized chemical.As required, can carry in the way at semicoke and semi-finished gas or backward gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace supply with vaporized chemical (when the water vapor that is produced from the fuel moisture evaporation is not enough to as vaporized chemical) and additional services oxygenant in preceding gasification section.Indication fuel is often referred to coal, biomass, municipal wastes, high aqueous solid waste solid fuels such as (as mud), but also can carry out common gasification with a kind of or several these solid fuels and other gas-liquid attitude fuel or waste (as waste oil, useless organic gas).Also can add objectionable constituent even the CO that removes sulfur-bearing, chlorine element etc. in the gasification generation gas with fuel 2The catalysis absorption agent, and the chemical reaction of relevant semicoke gasification of catalysis simultaneously and tar upgrading.The indication oxygenant is oxygen containing any gas, comprises pure oxygen, air, coal-seam gas, refuse tip exhaust etc.Vaporized chemical then specially refers to water vapor, CO 2Or their mixture.
Technique effect of the present invention is:
(1) the equipment structure is simple relatively, operation control is easy.According to the method for being invented, the fluidized bed combustor of preceding gasification section does not need to carry out gas solid separation, thereby need not to be provided with cyclonic separator.And indication fluidized-bed combustion with meagre oxygen is operable in any fluidisation area of no a large amount of particle entrainments, promptly is streamed to the turbulence fluidisation from minimum, and therefore control easily.Problems such as then the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasification section is accepted high temperature semicoke and semi-finished gas, and the top heat temperature raising of therefore having avoided common downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace and being had slowly, the reactor utilization ratio is low and speed of reaction is low.This downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace is handled high temperature semicoke, so no coking and the fuel that causes moves down difficulty in the stove.This not only makes processing ease, and causes the upgrading/decomposition reaction of contained tar in better gas-solid contact, the gasification of acceleration semicoke and the semi-finished gas.
(2) produce no tar synthetic gas.By the tar that fuel thermal decomposition produced in the preceding gasification section fluidized-bed reactor in the gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of back the high temperature semicoke and slag ash filling bed in can be by catalytic reforming and decomposition fully, so last generation gas product will contain tar hardly.
(3) high gasification efficiency.Gasification efficiency depends on the energy expenditure of carrying out degree and operation gasification system of tar upgrading/decomposition and semicoke gasification.The method of the invention can be almost whole upgradings/decomposition tar, then gasification section downdraft fixed bed gasification can be realized the thorough conversion of semicoke again.Move described gasification process and need not special fuel pellet transmitting power, carry the transporting power (carrying when infeeding in the way) of main vaporized chemical by semicoke self gravitation (along gravity direction) or semi-finished gas and required interpolation because of the past gasification section to the semicoke of back gasification section at semicoke and semi-finished gas.But the preceding desired oxidant content of gasification section fluidisation fuel is than the minimum energy that is determined by the reacting weight opinion.For this reason, the original fuel efficient that is converted into the synthetic gas product must be higher than existing other gasification technology.
(4) correspondence fuel treatment capacity flexibly.Gasification process of the present invention obviously can be used to make middle-size and small-size gasification installation.Simultaneously, fluidized-bed combustion by preceding gasification section makes the semicoke volume that enters back segment less than the original fuel volume, and pyritous semicoke and semi-finished gas guaranteed that again back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace all has high reaction efficiency (because of there not being temperature-rise period at a slow speed), and these can overcome the problem that the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace can not corresponding big fuel treatment amount undoubtedly.Be specially: can be littler for handling the needed downdraft fixed bed gasification of same amount fuel furnace volume here (because of accepting semicoke and having high reaction compartment utilization ratio), and the fluidized bed combustor of preceding gasification section can corresponding desired big processing capacity usually (as thousands of tons of every day), and then several downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces that can be arranged in parallel in this burner downstream are accepted the semicoke and the semi-finished gas of its generation, the upgrading and the decomposition of contained tar in parallel enforcement semicoke gasification and the semi-finished gas in each stove simultaneously from the burner different azimuth.
(5) adapt to various fuel.Except that can handling coal, biological system, waste solid fuels such as (as mud, municipal wastess), but the gentle liquid waste of the various gas-liquid fuels of combination treatment also, as waste oil, coal-seam gas, refuse tip exhaust or the like.Particularly, institute's inventive method can be handled a lot of other gasification technologies institute can not corresponding high wet fuel (as mud), even adds the high water fuel after the water adjusting.Since the water vapor vaporized chemical of gasification section after the fuel moisture that the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion hot environment of preceding gasification section is evaporated just in time can be used as, common desired vaporized chemical preparation of the back gasification section that can reduce even omit like this and supply.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing 1 is a fluidisation combustion with meagre oxygen downdraft gasification process basic principle schematic of the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 2 is for implementing a kind of gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 3 is for implementing the another kind of gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 4 is for implementing the third gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 5 is for implementing the 4th kind of gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 6 is for implementing the 5th kind of gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 7 is for implementing the 6th kind of gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 8 is for implementing the 7th kind of gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 9 is for implementing the 8th kind of gasification installation structural representation of gasification process involved in the present invention;
Wherein: downdraft vapourizing furnace 1 filling bed 2 fluidized bed combustors 3
The grey device 6 of fluidized-bed layer 4 transfer passages, 5 slagging-off
Slag ash products gas separate chamber 7 grey strainer 8 gas dispersion plates 9
Gas dispersion storehouse 10 over-passs, 11 separation baffles 12
Size distribution device 13 is carried all type baffle plates 15 of subchannel 14 rings
Flow apron 16 essential logistics Optional logistics
Overflow ducts 111
Embodiment
Accompanying drawing 2 is for implementing the structural representation of a kind of gasification installation of gasification process of the present invention shown in the accompanying drawing 1.This device comprises: downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1, the transfer passage 5 of fluidized bed combustor 3 and connection two reactors.Here, gasifying stage before indication burner 3 constitutes, gasification section after 1 formation of downdraft vapourizing furnace.Transfer passage 5 is located at the outside of fluidized bed combustor 3.Fuel infeeds fluidized-bed reactor (preventing that the fuel that infeeds from arriving transfer passage 5 too soon through possible short circuit) from the opposite side with respect to passage 5.The oxygenant of following inventive principle institute certainty ratio (describing in detail in the summary of the invention) infeeds fluidized bed gas and disperses storehouse 10, and the fuel pellet after gas dispersion plate 9 distributes in the fluidized bed combustion device forms fluidized-bed layer 4.Fuel and oxygenant interact and fuel combustion take place in this fluidized-bed layer.Because the oxidant content of supplying with is lower than the theoretical air ratio, the burning that is taken place in fluidized-bed layer 4 is a combustion with meagre oxygen, generates semicoke and semi-finished gas thus.In fact physics that fuel took place in this process and chemical reaction comprise that fuel drying, dry fuel thermal decomposition, partial thermal decomposition generate gas and coal-char combustion and the gasification of part semicoke and pyrolysis generates the contained tar of gas and carbon compound (is C xH y) upgrading and decomposition etc.Semi-finished gas results from above-mentioned each reaction, therefore contains inflammable gas component H 2, CO and C xH y, be rich in simultaneously tar (because of can not be when generating in preceding gasification section fluidized-bed reactor by upgrading/decomposition fully), burning and water-based CO that transformationreation generates 2, and fuel drying and H 2Water vapor etc. due to the burning.Water vapor and CO 2Be actually the essential vaporized chemical of described gasification reaction.
Basic demand to fluidized bed combustor 3 is the thermolysis of thoroughly finishing the fuel that infeeds, and make the semicoke that generates and semi-finished gas temperature, also be the temperature of the fluidized-bed layer 4 of burner 3, reach more than 600 ℃ (then being 800-1000 ℃ usually) at least.In the position of relative fuel transport passageway 5 and to the fluidized bed combustor fueling is exactly in order to guarantee that fuel pellet has the long as far as possible residence time in the indication fluidized-bed, to reach above-mentioned basic demand to burner.Like this, the solid fuel of gasification section fluidized bed combustor 3 gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 after transfer passage 5 is transported to only is semicoke in the past, and its gasification in this vapourizing furnace can not form tar again.As shown in Figure 2, formed semi-finished gas also must enter downdraft vapourizing furnace 1 through transfer passage 5 together with semicoke under the condition of high temperature in fluidized bed combustor 3.Semicoke is piled up in vapourizing furnace 1 and is formed filling bed 2 (but semicoke gradually becomes demolition, sees below in detail and states) downwards.Can supply with vaporized chemical and oxygenant to this filling bed 2 by inventive principle institute certainty ratio from any correct position as required, even append fuel (ratio is seen the summary of the invention narration in detail).Like this, semicoke wherein is by interacting with vaporized chemical and gasified, and the tar that carries this back gasification section with semi-finished gas is also decomposed by vaporized chemical upgrading or himself under the katalysis of semicoke.Semicoke gasification and tar upgrading/decomposition are strong endothermic reaction.The heat of bringing back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 into high temperature semicoke and semi-finished gas from preceding gasification section fluidized bed combustor 3 may not satisfy these 700 ℃ of temperature of reaction (〉 of reacting desired heat and keeping filling bed 2).At this moment, need replenish insufficient heat to vapourizing furnace 1 additional services oxygenant with further partial combustion semicoke and inflammable gas wherein.To this vapourizing furnace additional services fuel the time (measuring) by described in the summary of the invention, fuel will contact by the high temperature semicoke that comes with preceding gasification section and semi-finished gas and be heated intensification, carry out thermolysis and make the semicoke of its generation and pyrolysis gas in contained tar above-mentioned same gasification, upgrading/decomposition take place and in the combustion reactions of appending under the oxygenant effect.
Carry out gradually in the filling bed 2 of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 with above-mentioned various chemical reactions, semicoke (coming from preceding gasification section) and the solid fuel (under the situation of appending) that appends are consumed gradually, under himself action of gravity, move down gradually simultaneously, until the slag of the formation bottom ash that arrives filling bed 2.The semicoke that reacts away and be converted to the finished product gas also is a synthetic gas.Slag ash and product gas enter slag ash products gas separate chamber 7 by the grey device 6 that removes the gred, and separate slagging ash and product gas here.The slag ash is discharged from the bottom of downdraft vapourizing furnace 1, and product gas then further leaves vapourizing furnace behind grey strainer 8.Its volume of consumption gradually of corresponding semicoke (comprising the pyrogenous origin semicoke of new refuel) constantly diminishes.Therefore, vapourizing furnace 1 has the configuration that shrinks gradually usually downwards.This configuration also be beneficial to suppress since the upper surface of filling bed 2 uneven the reaction ununiformity that may cause.So we have adopted this downdraft gasification furnace structure in all embodiment of specification sheets of the present invention.But method of the present invention and principle are not repelled the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace that uses any other configuration.
According to the function of above-mentioned downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 as can be known, the benchmark of its design is to guarantee that semicoke is gasified in filling bed 2 fully.Tar under the katalysis of semicoke in the upgrading semi-finished gas is more faster than gasification char usually.For this reason, the volume of vapourizing furnace 1 should gasify the needed residence time and determines based on semicoke.Simultaneously, vapourizing furnace 1 should have suitable cross-sectional area, because too big cross section will make the upper surface that is difficult to evenly flatly be distributed in filling bed 2 from the semicoke of preceding gasification section.Also promptly, should consider the uniform distribution possibility of semicoke on this cross section during the cross section of decision downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1.
In sum, the embodiment gasification installation shown in the visible accompanying drawing 2 has just in time been implemented the content of the principle of the invention shown in the accompanying drawing 1 fully.Be specially: fuel infeeds fluidized bed combustor 3, under the effect of the oxygenant that is infeeded this fluidized bed combustor equally and be fluidized and form fluidized-bed layer 4., just contact intensification pyrolysis (comprising evaporated fuel moisture) and then under the effect of oxygenant, burn here in the fuel that is added and the bed at other high-temperature fuel particle of incendiary and the high-temperature gas that generates thus.Because air ratio is much smaller than 1.0 (<0.4), the indication burning is combustion with meagre oxygen, or says and be actually the partial oxidation gasification, generates semicoke and contains the semi-finished gas of tar.And the combustion heat that discharged of burning just is being used on and is heating up and fuel that pyrolysis added, makes the temperature of its semicoke that generates and semi-finished gas reach the present invention to its desired temperature, as is specially more than 600 ℃ or usually at 800-1000 ℃.Fluidized bed combustor 1 is for this high temperature semicoke and semi-finished gas are provided with shared outlet, and this outlet is connected to shared transfer passage 5, and the high temperature semicoke is sent in the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 without separating simultaneously with semi-finished gas.Here semicoke is successively piled up and is formed filling bed 2, with further enforcement semicoke gasification, makes semi-finished gas its tar that is contained of upgrading/decomposition in downwards by the process of this filling bed 2 simultaneously.According to contained water vapor (a kind of vaporized chemical) amount of semi-finished gas that enters in the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1, the enough vaporized chemicals (following inventive principle institute certainty ratio) of filling bed 2 additional services in stove can guarantee thoroughly carrying out of semicoke gasification and tar upgrading/decomposition.When needed by the oxygenant of inventive principle institute certainty ratio additional services then in order to guarantee that the temperature in this filling bed reaches sufficiently high level, as 700 to 1500 ℃, to keep enough fast semicoke gasification and tar upgrading/decomposition reaction velocity.And the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace itself makes semicoke that the sufficiently long residence time can be arranged in stove, it is fully gasified in folding process gradually and discharges from the bottom and to contain the slag ash that does not fire charcoal hardly.Simultaneously, semi-finished gas makes tar upgrading/decompositions wherein during downwards by filling bed 2 gradually in this stove, and the semicoke gas that is generated that gasifies does not contain tar.Like this, final product gas must contain tar hardly.In fact this realized the fully conversion of institute's fueling to product gas, contains high gasification efficiency.
Obviously, described gasification installation has been implemented a kind of two stage gasification process: leading portion fluidized-bed combustion with meagre oxygen and the gasification of back segment downdraft fixed bed semicoke and tar upgrading/decomposition.The fluidized-bed combustion with meagre oxygen is not only finished the pyrolysis of fuel, discharge all tar, it is few that the volume of solid fuel itself is fallen significantly, so as in the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of back gasification section thoroughly gasification char and the tar of gasification section generation before upgrading/decompositions fully simultaneously.In addition, directly carry high temperature semicoke and semi-finished gas to enter heat passage slow, the problem such as utilising efficiency is low in stove top that the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace also avoided general downdraft vapourizing furnace to have.So in fact described gasification installation combines the advantage of fluidized-bed gasifier and downdraft fixed bed gasifiers, not only can overcome the problem of the many tar of fluidized-bed gasification but also can improve the drawback that the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace is difficult to be applicable to big fuel treatment amount.
Described in summary of the invention, the oxygenant of the foregoing description indication is oxygen containing any gas (pure oxygen, air, coal-seam gas, rubbish exhaust, oxygen containing organic property waste gas etc.), and vaporized chemical refers to water vapor, CO 2Or the two gas mixture of any ratio.The fuel of handling is often referred to various solid fuels and Flammable Solid Class 4.1 waste (as coal, biological system, RDF, mud, high moisture organic waste), but also can with these solid fuels gasify altogether other gas-liquid fuel or waste (as waste oil, organic waste gas etc.).Simultaneously, in this gasification installation, removing H 2S, HCl, CS 2, foreign gas component such as COS or the gasification of catalysis semicoke be with reaction such as tar upgrading/decompositions and the catalysis absorption agent of needs can infeed fluidized bed combustor 3 (following ratio described in the summary of the invention) with fuel.Like this, it will discharge gasification installation with the slag ash to give full play to its effect back in forward and backward two gasification section.
Clearly, the gasification installation of accompanying drawing 1 described embodiment can be operated under the desired any pressure of practical application (described in summary of the invention), such as from normal pressure to the supercritical pressure of use vaporized chemical.
Accompanying drawing 3 to 9 is the structural representation of other several gasification installations of enforcement gasification process of the present invention.As accompanying drawing 2, they implement content of the present invention (comprise the method principle, adapt to fuel, operating condition and mode etc.) too, but have following separately with respect to the technology or the technology characteristics of accompanying drawing 2 illustrated embodiments.
In accompanying drawing 3, the semicoke and the semi-finished gas passage 5 that connect forward and backward two gasification section are realized by the overflow of being located at the fluidized-bed layer 4 in the fluidized bed combustor 3.Like this, the supply position with respect to fuel (comprising the catalysis absorption agent of sneaking into) is provided with over-pass 11 in fluidized-bed layer 4.Form a counter-flowing path 111 between one sidewall of this over-pass and fluidized bed combustor 1, be semicoke and semi-finished gas passage 5, extend downward the top of downdraft vapourizing furnace 1.Clearly, have only when the upper surface of fluidized-bed layer 4 surpasses over-pass 11, semicoke just may be crossed the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 that this baffle plate moves to the back gasification section.So, the passage 5 that the height of the over-pass 11 in the fluidized-bed layer 4 should be equivalent to accompanying drawing 2 illustrated embodiment gasification installations exceeds the height of gas dispersion plate 9, so that the fluidized-bed layer 4 of suitable height is arranged in the fluidized bed combustor, guarantee newly to add the suitable residence time of fuel in fluidized bed combustor, finish the thermolysis (to discharge all tar) of fuel in the combustion with meagre oxygen process.For this reason, also require over-pass 11 to isolate setting with respect to the fuel feed position.
Gasification installation shown in the accompanying drawing 4 is integrated one with fluidized bed combustor 3 and downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1, carries the overflow mode shown in accompanying drawing 3 embodiment that adopts from the semicoke and the semi-finished gas of upper fluid-bed burner 3 downward portion downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces 1.This integrated device compact construction is particularly suitable for making small evaporator equipment.At this moment, fluidized bed combustor 1 becomes very little, and the fuel that infeeds burner may be by the very fast arrival over-pass 11 of diffusion, enters downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 through transfer passage 5 not finishing pyrolysis and discharge under the condition of whole tar.For preventing shifting out fast of this fuel, can in fluidized bed combustor 3, add separation baffles 12, make the fuel that infeeds can not directly move to over-pass 11 and be transported to downstream vapourizing furnace 1.In fact, the setting of separation baffles 12 must then be moved institute's fueling earlier from top to bottom on a left side, just can enter the right side then near over-pass 11.So its residence time in fluidized bed combustor 3 will be extended greatly, even can make fuel also can discharge all tar thoroughly by pyrolysis in small-sized fluidized bed combustor, and the semicoke of its generation of partial combustion and semi-finished gas reach desired high temperature.As shown in Figure 4, separation baffles 12 is only separated fluidized-bed layer 4 and is not separated the semi-finished gas free air space of this fluidized-bed layer more than 4.
Simultaneously, separation baffles 12 also can be arranged at all other embodiment of the present invention (be accompanying drawing 1 to 3, accompanying drawing 5,, 8,9) fluidized bed combustor 3 in, though its in each synoptic diagram specifically the expression.The position is set is similarly a side that approaches fuel feed.And then, also can in same fluidized bed combustor 3, more than one separation baffles be set as required.At this moment, even bit the (promptly the second, the 4th ..., accompanying drawing 4 is depicted as first) the method to set up of separation baffles should similar over-pass 11.That is, and 9 no particle path of gas dispersion plate and make it highly be lower than the upper surface of fluidized-bed layer 4.Consequently, the fuel pellet that adds fluidized bed combustor 3 will be transported to over-pass 11 in the baffling mode from supply side between each separation baffles, the residence time of fuel in this fluidized bed combustor extended gradually with the separation baffles number that is provided with, and then guarantee its complete pyrolysis and reach semicoke and the desirable high temperature of semi-finished gas.
The embodiment of gasification installation embodiment shown in the accompanying drawing 5 and accompanying drawing 3 signals is structurally similar.Different only is accompanying drawing 5 is set up size distribution device 13 for corresponding bigger fuel treatment amount at the opening part that the transfer passage 5 of its semicoke and semi-finished gas leads to downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1, so that can be close to uniform distribution in the upper surface of the filling bed 2 in heavy in section downdraft vapourizing furnace 1 from the particles such as semicoke of fluidized bed combustor 3.This makes that undoubtedly fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 can corresponding bigger fuel treatment amount.On the other hand, fluidized bed combustor 3 itself has the ability of very strong corresponding flexible fuel treatment capacity.Therefore, in fact the enhancing of the adaptive faculty of 1 pair of big fuel treatment amount of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace shows that institute's invention gasification process and gasification installation have the ability of strong corresponding big fuel treatment amount.
Accompanying drawing 6 illustrated another kind of design by gasification process of the present invention can corresponding big fuel treatment amount gasification installation.Its essential structure is with the embodiment of accompanying drawing 3 and accompanying drawing 5.Be characterised in that transfer passage 5 further is divided into three and carries subchannel 14.It is evenly distributed in the cross section of this stove that the top plan of the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 shown in the accompanying drawing 6 is pressed in these subchannels.Like this, just can be distributed in the upper surface of the filling bed 2 the vapourizing furnace 1 more equably by these subchannels from the particulate matter such as semicoke of fluidized bed combustor 3.Consequently, this embodiment can have the ability of stronger corresponding big fuel treatment amount.Certainly, accompanying drawing 6 embodiment have adopted three to carry the subchannel.By as a same reason, can adopt the conveying subchannel more than 2 or 3 according to the cross-sectional sizes of vapourizing furnace 1, as long as particulate matter such as energy uniform distribution semicoke are on the cross section of vapourizing furnace 1.
The gasification installation of accompanying drawing 7 illustrated embodiments has adopted the structure of same fluidized bed combustor 3 supporting above downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces 1.Its basic thought is, fluidized bed combustor can corresponding day output up to thousands of tons of fuel, but the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace has the ability of more weak corresponding so big fuel treatment amount by contrast.Though the semicoke that fluidized-bed combustion generated of preceding gasification section has the volume more much smaller than original fuel, single downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace will still be difficult to handle in corresponding day the super large treatment capacity of thousands of tons of fuel.For this reason, can utilize the characteristics of gasification process of the present invention, same large-scale before the downstream of gasification section fluidized bed combustor 3 connect a plurality of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces 1.Like this, whole gasification installation just can corresponding above-mentioned super large fuel treatment amount.At this moment, should be arranged on the central part of fluidized-bed to the fuel feed of fluidized bed combustor 3.And the transfer passage 5 that connects fluidized bed combustor 3 and downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 can adopt any configuration in the fact Example shown in the aforementioned figures 2 to 6.Equally, also can use any in accompanying drawing 5,6 even 3 illustrated embodiments from passage 5 to the method for particulate matter such as vapourizing furnace 1 distribution semicoke.Accompanying drawing 7 has adopted the outside transfer passage 5 (promptly in fluidized bed combustor 3 outer setting) of accompanying drawing 2 embodiment and the size distribution device 13 of accompanying drawing 5 embodiment.Simultaneously, accompanying drawing 7 embodiment allow a fluidized bed combustor 3 two the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces 1 that have been connected in parallel.Each downdraft vapourizing furnace 1 have identical configuration be provided with identical infeed, relief outlet.The homogeneity of fluidized bed combustor 3 at aspects such as ring flowing on week, temperature guaranteed that this burner certainly is conveyed into the semicoke of each downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 arranged side by side and the semi-finished gas isotropism at aspects such as amount, temperature.Therefore, also should be similar even identical to the control (comprise temperature, vaporized chemical and append oxidant content etc.) of each downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.In order to make the fuel that infeeds from fluidized bed combustor 3 centers that the sufficiently long residence time (guaranteeing thorough fuel thermal decomposition and desirable burning) be arranged this burner, the ring center is provided with all type baffle plates 15 of ring.Its function class is similar to the separation baffles 12 in accompanying drawing 4 illustrated embodiments, cause the fuel that infeeds at first in all type baffle plates 15 of ring, to experience top-down moving, enter all type baffle plates 15 of ring annular region in addition then and enter transfer passage 5 near the inlet of transfer passage 5.
The gasification installation of accompanying drawing 8 illustrated embodiments is different from other all the foregoing descriptions.It has adopted contrary gravity direction that semicoke and semi-finished gas are transported to downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 from fluidized bed combustor 3.For this reason, transfer passage 5 can have different designs.This passage starts from the suitable height place (height that is decided by required fluidized-bed layer 4) of fluidized bed combustor 3 in the accompanying drawing 7, directly extends upwardly to the top of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1.Therefore, the semi-finished gas that is generated in the fluidized bed combustor 3 will be as the power of main particulate matter such as conveying semicoke to vapourizing furnace 1.This means that on the one hand fluidized bed combustor 3 must be operated at than under the high slightly pressure of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1, also requires transfer passage 5 to have appropriate size, carries particulate matter such as semicoke so that semi-finished gas has sufficiently high gas speed in transfer passage 5.Simultaneously, the vaporized chemical that may require to supply with supplies in transfer passage 5, as shown in Figure 8, and to increase this passage to the particulate transport capacity.For making the particulate matter such as semicoke can be, near the opening part of vapourizing furnace 1 particle flow apron 16 be set at transfer passage 5 at the upper surface uniform distribution of the filling bed 2 of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1.This flow apron 16 makes the particulate matter such as semicoke that are transferred be piled up in the upper surface of filling bed 2 wherein from the central part position of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace, therefore is beneficial to the uniform distribution of particulate matter on this stove cross section.It can also be seen that from accompanying drawing 8 carry particulate matter such as semicoke in order to make the semi-finished gas that produces in the fluidized bed combustor 3 effectively enter transfer passage 5, the opening of this passage on fluidized bed combustor 3 upwards suitably enlarges.Like this, rheomorphism makes particulate matter enter transfer passage 5, and then the semi-finished gas that is pressed into this passage by the elevated pressures in the fluidized bed combustor 3 carried, up to the top that is sent to downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1.
Similar accompanying drawing 8 embodiment of the gasification installation of accompanying drawing 9 illustrated embodiments adopt against the method for particulate matter such as gravity transfer semicoke.Its different transfer passages 5 that are characterised in that are arranged at the center of fluidized bed combustor 3.Passage starts from the near surface of fluidized-bed layer 4.When bed was higher than the inlet of passage 5, particle entered this passage by the semi-finished gas that is pressed into this passage by the pressure effect conveying that makes progress.And, can be at the feeder connection place open the gas suction port on one section the conduit wall, help the gas admission passage and carry particle.Equally, with needs backward the vaporized chemical supplied with of gasification section in the way of transfer passage 5, introduce, be used to strengthen transport capacity to particulate matter such as semicokes.The passage 5 of accompanying drawing 9 embodiment has also adopted downward-sloping circulation passage on the top, this is beneficial to particulate matter and moves into downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace 1 after being delivered to proper height (being determined by transfer passage 5 height being set).
Though in accompanying drawing 2 to 9, illustrated to implement several concrete gasification installation of gasification process of the present invention shown in the accompanying drawing 1, a lot of other different embodiments also can have been arranged according to principle of the present invention.For example, for the gasification installation (accompanying drawing 2 to 7) along gravity transfer semicoke and semi-finished gas, its transfer passage 5 also can be provided with upflow tube and form by the center at fluidized bed combustor.Simultaneously, situation (accompanying drawing 8) for contrary gravity transfer, can adopt all other technical skills in accompanying drawing 2 to 7 illustrated embodiments, as in its fluidized bed combustor 3, increasing separation baffles, transfer passage 5 is adopted the size distribution device that is illustrated in embodiment accompanying drawing 5 and 6 and carries the subchannel, and can adopt the structure of fluidized bed combustor 3 supporting several downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnaces 1 to come corresponding super large fuel treatment amount by similar accompanying drawing 7 embodiment.Downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace among accompanying drawing 2 to 9 embodiment has all adopted the structure that diminishes gradually from top to bottom, but it also can be other any suitable configuration in actual applications.All these equipment retrofits can make concrete furnace structure varied, but do not exceed claim item of the present invention on the gasification process principle.That is, whole gasification installation comprises the fluidized bed combustor (reactor) of a preceding gasification section burn the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace semicoke that further gasification section generated before the gasification of gasification section behind handled fuel and and the tar in the semi-finished gas that the preceding gasification section of upgrading/decomposition is generated under the oxygen deprivation environment.Here, the semicoke that indication generates in preceding gasification section separates and cooling without any with semi-finished gas, directly is delivered to the back gasification section under the condition of high temperature.
Based on the various embodiment gasification installations of gasification process of the present invention as mentioned above, we can be further with background technology in mention combine the pyrolysis of Winkler stove and downdraft fixed bed semicoke gasification two-part DTU gasification technology compares.Obviously, two-part gasification process of the present invention and technical matters more can corresponding big fuel treatment amounts, because fluidized-bed leading portion combustion with meagre oxygen utensil has the ability of the corresponding big fuel treatment amount more much better than than Winkler stove pyrolyzer.And fluidized bed combustor also can be applicable to the pairing medium and small fuel treatment amount of Winkler stove pyrolyzer.From control, fluidized-bed combustion is simpler and easy than the pyrolysis of Winkler stove, and can be heated to higher temperature to semicoke and semi-finished gas, quickens the chemical reaction of back gasification section and improves utilization ratio to back gasification section downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.The more important thing is that the volume of semicoke that gasification section generates before the present invention can reduce to a greater degree by combustion with meagre oxygen is to compress the volume of inhaling fuel that fixed-bed gasification furnace is handled under the gasification section of back.When the equal fuel treatment capacity, can adopt littler downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.When pressing the corresponding super large fuel treatment of the method shown in the accompanying drawing 7 amount, this can reduce the radix that is provided with of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace.The result is, will have lower equipment cost based on the gasification installation of gasification process of the present invention.If adopt the DTU gasification technology to come corresponding super large fuel treatment amount, several to tens of Winkler stove pyrolyzer must be set, its equipment cost can be higher than situation of the present invention far away naturally.So, the DTU gasification technology generally only is suitable for the gasification of the contour volatile fuel of small-scale biomass, and technological method of the present invention can corresponding multiple different fuel, the mixture of fuel even not of the same race, and operate in flexibly flexible corresponding fuel treatment amount on the scale.Quality (tar content) at the finished product gas goes up the two with suitable.Because the comparable Winkler stove and accessory of the employed fluidized-bed reactor of the inventive method has lower control energy consumption (the two required oxidant content is suitable on principle), the present invention will be more competitive on gasification efficiency.Therefore, relatively disclosed gasification process of DTU technology and gasification installation can be had the ability (particularly can corresponding high throughput, DTU is difficult to and only is suitable for handling high volatile fuel usually) of low equipment cost, low running energy consumption, strong corresponding treatment capacity flexibly and various fuel, high gasification efficiency and a suitable product gas quality.Simultaneously, adopt the DTU technology (general atmospheric operation) of Winkler stove relatively, gasification process of the present invention and technology are operable under any pressure that comprises high pressure.

Claims (21)

1, a kind of oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process for preparing no tar products gas is characterized in that this gasification process comprises: gasifying stage behind the preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage and the downdraft fixed bed in its downstream; The described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage is: fuel adds the inlet adding from the fuel of fluidized bed combustor, this fluidized bed combustor, interacts and carry out the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion with add oxygenant that inlet adds from fluidized bed combustor bottom oxygenant, generate semicoke and contain the semi-finished gas of tar;
Gasifying stage is behind the downdraft fixed bed in described downstream: the not separated semicoke that is generated in the preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage and containing in the tar semi-finished gas is transported to the downstream under the condition of high temperature the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace, in this vapourizing furnace, carry out the semicoke gasification, utilize the katalysis of high temperature semicoke that the tar of bringing into semi-finished gas is carried out upgrading and thermolysis simultaneously, generate the product gas that does not contain tar;
Oxygen mole number in the oxygenant that is infeeded in the fluidized bed combustor in described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage is 10% to 40% of the perfect combustion needed oxygen mole number of fuel that infeeds this burner.
2, the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process that does not have tar products gas by the described preparation of claim 1, it is characterized in that, in the described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage, extraordinarily go into to contain the mineral substance of basic metal, alkaline-earth metal or rare elements metal by the 0-20 of fuel institute sulfur-bearing mole number when adding fuel and burn till the catalysis absorption agent of oxide compound.
3, the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process that does not have tar products gas by the described preparation of claim 1, it is characterized in that, gasifying stage adds fuel behind the downdraft fixed bed downstream, and this fuel quantity is no more than the fuel of being supplied with to preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion device.
4, the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process that does not have tar products gas by the described preparation of claim 1, it is characterized in that the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasifying stage or add vaporized chemical carrying not separated high temperature semicoke to this vapourizing furnace and contain in the process of tar semi-finished gas behind the downdraft fixed bed downstream; The mol ratio of the semicoke that this vaporized chemical comes with carrying from preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage fluidized bed combustor is 0.0-3.0.
5, do not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas by the described preparation of claim 1, it is characterized in that, the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasifying stage adds oxygenant behind the downdraft fixed bed downstream; In this oxygenant the mol ratio of the oxygenous semicoke that comes with carrying from preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage fluidized bed combustor be 0.0-0.4.
6, do not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas by claim 1,2 or 3 described preparations, it is characterized in that described fuel is solid fuel; Described solid fuel comprises coal, biomass, municipal wastes and mixture a kind of or several these solid fuels and other gas-liquid attitude fuel or waste; Described municipal wastes comprises high aqueous solid waste.
7, the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process that does not have tar products gas by claim 1 or 3 described preparations, it is characterized in that, described oxygenant is pure oxygen or oxygenous gas, and described oxygenous gas comprises air, coal-seam gas, refuse tip exhaust or their mixture.
8, do not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas by the described preparation of claim 4, it is characterized in that, described vaporized chemical is water vapor, CO2 or the mixture of the two.
9, do not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas by the described preparation of claim 1, it is characterized in that, the fluidized bed process temperature in described preposition oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion stage is 600-1300 ℃.
10, do not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas by the described preparation of claim 1, it is characterized in that the service temperature of the downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace of gasifying stage is 700-1500 ℃ behind the downdraft fixed bed in described downstream.
11, the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process that does not have tar products gas by claim 1 or 8 described preparations, the working pressure that it is characterized in that described gasification process is for being pressed onto any pressure between the overcritical air pressure of described vaporized chemical from atmosphere.
12, a kind ofly be used for the gasification installation that the described preparation of claim 1 does not have the oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process of tar products gas, it is characterized in that this device comprises:
A preposition fluidized bed combustor (3);
At least one a plurality of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1) that are arranged at this preposition fluidized bed combustor (3) downstream; And
The semicoke and the semi-finished gas transfer passage (5) that are communicated with described fluidized bed combustor (3) and at least one a plurality of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1);
On described fluidized bed combustor (3) wall, be provided with first fuel and add inlet (A) away from a side of semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage (5) or fluidized bed combustor (3) wall top center place; Be provided with first oxygenant in described fluidized bed combustor (3) bottom and add inlet (B);
The interior bottom of described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1) is provided with slagging-off grey device (6), is positioned on the bottom of slag ash products gas separate chamber (7) of the grey device of slagging-off (6) below and the sidewall to be respectively equipped with slag ash outlet (C) and product gas relief outlet (D).
13, by the described gasification installation of claim 12, it is characterized in that, be provided with second fuel on the top of described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1) and add inlet (G).
14, by the described gasification installation of claim 12, it is characterized in that, be provided with vaporized chemical on the top of described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1) and add inlet (F).
15, by the described gasification installation of claim 12, it is characterized in that, on the sidewall of described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1), be provided with second oxygenant and add inlet (E).
16, by claim 12,13,14 or 15 described gasification installations, it is characterized in that, one vertical over-pass (11) is set in the fluidized-bed layer (4) in described fluidized bed combustor (3), forms an overflow ducts (111) between described vertical over-pass (11) and described fluidized bed combustor (3) wall; Described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage (5) are connected with described overflow ducts (111).
17, by claim 12,13,14 or 15 described gasification installations, it is characterized in that described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage (5) directly are communicated in downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1) center of top; And a size distribution device (13) is set in the exit of described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage (5).
18, by claim 12,13,14 or 15 described gasification installations, it is characterized in that, described semicoke and semi-finished gas transfer passage (5) are divided into many branch transfer passages (14) near the vertical part of downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1), and these many branch transfer passages (14) are connected with described downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1) top.
19, by claim 12,13,14 or 15 described gasification installations, it is characterized in that, near the side that fuel adds inlet one vertical separation baffles (12) is set in the inside of described fluidized bed combustor (3).
By claim 12,13,14 or 15 described gasification installations, it is characterized in that 20, the center in described fluidized bed combustor (3) is provided with the ring week type baffle plate (15) of a vertical placement.
By claim 12,13,14 or 15 described gasification installations, it is characterized in that 21, a downdraft fixed-bed gasification furnace (1) in described fluidized bed combustor (3) and the downstream structure that is combined into one one to one maybe can be separated from each other respectively and is provided with.
CNB200510086256XA 2005-08-19 2005-08-19 The oxygen deprivation fluidized bed combustion downdraft gasification process and the device that prepare no tar products gas Expired - Fee Related CN100543116C (en)

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