Summary of the invention
The present invention proposes a kind of watershed weir series and construction method thereof of administering the water erosion soil erosion, belongs to the Engineering measure of controlling soil erosion.Technical problem to be solved is: river course cheuch, domatic and these the three kinds typical soil erosion landforms in plateau beam edge and the loss characteristics thereof of the most complete basin of corresponding formation soil erosion system, utilize the can of runoff muddy water to construct the mould bag as the mould bag of packaging material with geotextiles, hydraulic reclamation, the alluvial soil body are accumulated the water source; Construct many single weirs, terraced weir in the river course cheuch, with vertical shaft and horizontal well regulation and control retaining, deposit multi-level valley plain and terrace, riverbank constitute cheuch weir, river course system; In domatic cheuch, construct many ditch weir shoal materials, recover domatic complete, construct weir, the multiple tracks slope domatic terraced fields that deposit and constitute domatic weir system; Construct Gou Yan, sloping weir and trap weir conserves water and soil and constitutes plateau Liang Bianyuanyan system in the edge zone of plateau and beam; Cheuch weir, river course system, domatic weir system and plateau Liang Bianyuanyan system constitute watershed weir series.Overcome the shortcoming that prior art exists, realize administering the purpose of basin soil erosion comprehensively with engineering measure.
Here alleged basin is meant the natural watershed that can constitute an independent water erosion soil erosion system.Watershed weir series had both comprised constructed all kinds of weirs body as the Engineering System of administering the basin soil erosion, also comprised by all kinds of soil bodys of weir body alluvial and the water resource of implication thereof.The various weirs body of watershed weir series adopts multiple close method to construct, but all is to utilize the natural energy can of river course cheuch and slope runoff and construct various mould bags generally, the hydraulic reclamation and the alluvial soil body.The mould bag comprises absorption basin, river bottom protection weir, mould weir, riverbank bank protection, overflow weir, the shore protection weir of adopting cheuch weir, the constructed river course of geotechnological cloth bag can silt system, and domatic weir is and Gou Yan, the Po Yan of plateau Liang Bianyuanyan system, trap weir etc.The soil body comprises earth bank, level ground soil layer and valley plain and terrace, riverbank etc.Water resource then lies among all kinds of soil bodys.
1, river course cheuch bringing soil erosion under control
The present invention is according to soil erosion characteristics, the silt alluvial rule of river course cheuch and the problem that exists at prior art, take to build rainy season the weir, gather materials on the spot, make full use of the natural energy and the sediment resource of runoff behind the rain, few retaining, hang down and build the weir, science rectification, the technology path that abundant energy dissipating and weir body and wash plain continue alternately to increase.
It is high more that the ladder weir is constructed, and just can make the high more of valley plain alluvial, makes erosion basis lifting high more of river course cheuch, and the alluvial area is just big more, and silt siltation volume and underground water accumulation amount are just many more.The weir body is constructed with wash plain and is alternately increased constantly, and except that being subjected to the upstream along the river the condition influence such as road, bridge and village, the height that can form is unrestricted in riverbank and two sides massif scope thereof, finally can surpass the dam body height that build the same place.
Build the weir in the river course cheuch, should construct high as far as possible terraced weir, though under some river course cheuch ambient conditions, construct single weir and also can reach the improvement purpose, its Technological Economy is still mutually more far short of what is expected than tall and big terraced weir.For example, be 10 ‰ river course cheuch for gradient, construct the high single weir of 5m can upstream deposit the valley plain of length 500m.12500m can deposit on single weir of every 10m length
3Silt is accumulated nearly 5000m under the water saturation state
3Water resource, alluvial area 5000m
2If but under similarity condition, construct the high terraced weir of 10m, the valley plain of the length 1000m that then can upstream deposit.50000m can deposit on the terraced weir of every 10m length
3Silt is accumulated nearly 20000m under the water saturation state
3Water resource.And silt siltation volume, water source accumulation and alluvial area are non-linear quick growth with the growth of terraced height of weir degree.High more its Technological Economy that the weir body is constructed is just outstanding more.
Soil losses mainly are to be caused by the surface flow erosion that natural rainfall forms, so the water erosion soil erosion is directly related with precipitation.When no natural rainfall, there is not the water erosion soil erosion in domatic and plateau beam edge, the contained quantity of sand and mud of river course cheuch runoff also seldom, particularly the entrained quantity of sand and mud of flood is then very big for river course cheuch runoff behind the precipitation, the weight of the contained silt of unit volume flood under the individual cases can near in addition surpass the weight of water.The entrained silt of a few hours flood that precipitation produces, total volume of silt that may be more entrained than a few days runoff between twice flood is also many.The present invention the river course ditch after grain rains runoff and flood energy and entrained silt thereof all as building the weir, the resource on alluvial valley plain and terrace, riverbank, solution is built the weir, dredges current and is retained correlation technique problems such as silt under runoff and flood condition, stifled thin double executing, hold row's combination, dredge the organized casual weir of runoff and flood, the equilibrium of artificial regulatory silt and fully alluvial, realize weir body and wash plain continue alternately increase the stability and safety of assurance weir body.
In several typical soil erosion system, the usefulness that the river course cheuch is administered is the most outstanding, but its complexity and difficulty are also maximum.Organize runoff to overflow the weir, it is that key problem in technology and the greateset risk that is faced constructed on terraced weir that special flood overflows the weir.Landforms and hydrology characteristics at river course cheuch complexity, single weir and terraced weir are constructed with flood and are overflow the weir as Basic Controlling Conditions, take complete rectification and energy dissipating measure, according to consolidate (body), protect (weir) end, the technical scheme of protecting (river) bank constructs, and overflows the harsh conditions on weir to satisfy flood.
Single weir is the elementary cell that constitutes terraced weir.The ladder weir is to be the unit with single weir, is boundary with the level ground, weir, the stepped weir body of upwards constructing step by step in the river course cheuch; The valley plain of ladder weir and its alluvial remains longitudinal section integral body roughly triangular in shape alternately increasing in the process; Single weir is made of mould weir, earth bank, riverbank bank protection, level ground, weir or river bottom protection level ground; The mould weir is as the mould and the barricade of hydraulic reclamation, alluvial earth bank; The level ground, weir is made of level ground bottom, level ground soil layer, mould weir, aproll, earthwork grid vegetable layer, overflow weir and shore protection weir; The river bottom protection level ground is made of level ground bottom, river bottom protection weir, aproll, level ground soil layer and absorption basin; Mould weir, overflow weir, riverbank bank protection, shore protection weir, river bottom protection weir, absorption basin are constructed with the mould bag, and at its surface coverage cement overcoat.
Because there is gradient in the riverbed, to rise surface in the process then be level relatively for the riverbed to valley plain becoming silted up.What therefore, weir body and wash plain constituted is that vertical section integral body roughly triangular in shape also keeps all the time.The weir body promptly becomes the steep bank of wash plain downstream edge, and the mould weir promptly becomes bank protection for steep bank together with other mould bag.Weir body on the essential meaning is just replacing that a part of mould weir and the earth bank that exceeds the wash plain and the retaining water surface in the process of lifting constantly with wash plain.The process of constructing on terraced weir is constructed the weir body constantly at the wash plain edge exactly conversely speaking,, alternately raises with wash plain.Therefore, no matter be or construct process that mould weir, earth bank and wash plain all are complementary all the time with regard to its structure.Alternately increase in the process continuing, the mould weir is always constructed prior to earth bank and as the mould and the barricade of hydraulic reclamation and alluvial earth bank, under current overflow the weir condition as bank protection.Simultaneously, the mould weir is a support to strengthen fixed and lasting fixed earth bank in the process of increasing again, bears less lateral pressure.The continuing of mould weir and earth bank increased and provides condition for the lasting silt liter of valley plain.Process that above-mentioned three forms and mechanism make it constitute the stable whole structure, make terraced weir can construct arbitrary height in the river valley constantly.And, since the weir body construct according to the edge of wash plain take advantage of a situation and on, single face is put the slope, thereby engineering quantity is little, and is cheap.
The river valley of some section is smooth broad, perennial flow amount inequality.Because flood season, flood was stretched, its broad river shoal is difficult to obtain development and use.Other has a side on some riverbanks distributing villages and small towns and road or the like along the river, makes these sections can not adopt terraced weir that whole river valley is deposited into valley plain.And be more suitable for by the side alluvial race water stair ground of the collaborative method of constructing in three weirs in the river valley.In addition, the valley plain of some section alluvial and riverbed thereof, riverbank infiltration also are not enough to absorb whole the runoff water yield, especially flood waters, still can have current, need construct sloot in the valley plain middle part or a side of alluvial, for it provides passage.A large amount of these class valley plain surfaces that exist finally still will be built into the form on terrace, riverbank, use as farming Plain or construction land.Sloot can provide the gravity irrigation water for the valley plain or the terrace, riverbank in downstream, improves the enforcement ambient conditions of plant in treating measure and farming control measures.So race water stair ground has better Technological Economy and purposes widely.
2, domatic bringing soil erosion under control
With regard to typical, the most serious loess plateau of water erosion soil erosion, the river course cheuch area of many regions is less than four one-tenth of the gross area, but its silt loss accounts for more than sixty percent of loss total amount.This mainly is to have compiled intimate whole muddy water and erosion energy thereof in the basin because of the river course cheuch area less than four one-tenth.Most of precipitation area in basin is occupied on all kinds of surfaces domatic and plateau and beam, upstream, is important soil erosion source, is again the main energy source that causes the strong soil erosion of river course cheuch.The soil erosion at domatic and plateau beam edge, control cheuch upstream, river course, retardance and stop upstream muddy water to be let out under directly can obtain the pool regulation effect in full basin.Therefore the present invention proposes domatic and resolutions these two kinds of typical soil erosion landforms of plateau beam edge, to constitute complete valley harnessing Engineering System when proposing river course cheuch resolution.Because plateau and beam only are distributed in the part region, therefore most watershed weir series cheuch weir, an effluent road system and domatic weir system constitute.
Domatic is modal soil erosion landforms.Do not exist only in areas such as mountain region, hills, be present in the bigger plains region of surface undulation yet, and the part edge area of plateau and beam.Being washed away domatic hair cheuch (being called for short domatic cheuch) on the water-met line of concave slope face, is a kind of common phenomenon.In case appearance will be passed through the bottom of trench incision, the ditch bank is expanded and form retrogressive erosion to the extension of going up a slope, and expands fast, and complete domatic and plateau beam surface segmentation is become bulk.Thereby change its loss form, strengthen runoff gradient and flow velocity, rapid shortening flow process, accelerate runoff gathering, inspire the quick formation of downstream flood peak.And domatic and domatic cheuch runoff muddy water is utilizable natural resources equally.So the present invention proposes to utilize slope runoff muddy water can mould bag, constructs Gou Yan in domatic cheuch, constructs Po Yan on domatic.In order to silt flat slope face cheuch, recover domatic complete, utilize sloping weir shoal materials to become terraced fields.Improve the domatic rate of catchmenting, be added to milliosmolarity, when controlling soil erosion on the spot, stop and retardance slope runoff muddy water is let out under directly.
3, plateau, the bringing soil erosion under control of beam edge
The edge zone soil erosion of plateau and beam is the distinctive a kind of loss landform shape in loess plateau, constitute higher level soil erosion source, makes the loess plateau form the most complicated big or small basin soil erosion system of complete sum the most.Beam is the secondary landforms that plateau is formed by the cheuch cutting.Beam continues to be subjected to cheuch cutting and the erosion caused by sloping surfaces then to develop into loess hills or hills.The plateau beam has an even surface, and the edge extends endlessly, even local a small amount of edge erosion retreats, also can form large-scale soil erosion on total amount, and inspires the downstream more massive soil erosion in area.Plateau beam edge is the boundary of its periphery and cheuch, and its edge feature is fairly obvious, is precipitous cheuch bulkhead wall outside the line edge.The direct following mass erosions such as mass avalanche that erosion also can inspire bulkhead wall of letting out of edge runoff.Some location, edge presents the domatic form that tilts to rise and fall because of being subjected to the erosion of unbalanced face of land runoff to the edge, makes the soil erosion aggravation.Cheuch cutting makes plateau beam edge present bitty form, prolongs the total length at plateau beam edge, increases erosion surface, and worsens wind erosion and mass erosion environment, makes the variation of soil erosion while generating capacity and matter, quickens the edge and retreats.
The plateau beam has an even surface, and precipitation mostly only at inner the mobile of smaller scope that produce of plateau beam, all concentrate and occur in its edge zone by soil erosion.According to plateau beam landforms characteristics, as long as become silted up sloping by filling out ditch, recover and keep the flat surfaces at edge, constructing the weir, edge is trap plateau beam edge, just can retain natural rainfall in the edge line of plateau beam, improve the water content of edge zone soil, collaborative plant in treating measure forms the benign cycle of water and soil conservation.Cheuch cutting is no longer taken place and develop, the edge is retreated be effectively controlled.Plateau beam edge presents flat condition generally, and constructing rammer pedosphere that weir, edge system particularly constructs the flat site, to close the weir simple, more much bigger than the influence basin and the comprehensive regulation usefulness of the domatic weir of identical engineering quantity body.Domatic weir system and plateau Liang Bianyuanyan are common and concord is fastened down on cheuch weir, river course, treat both principal and secondary aspect of disease, and realize comprehensive engineering control purpose in basin.
Cheuch weir, river course system, domatic weir system and plateau Liang Bianyuanyan are the stepped from bottom to up expansion in longshore current territory, so watershed weir series also can be referred to as terraced weir.Weir, section at different levels system, domatic weir system and plateau Liang Bianyuanyan system are constantly perfect in the basin, given play to corresponding governance role with plant measures, tillage control measure that engineering measure is supporting, when presenting full basin and disastrous soil erosion feature no longer occurring, show that promptly the basin soil erosion has obtained effective improvement.But no matter which kind of weir body is full as long as silt becomes silted up, and soil erosion will continue to take place, so just local various weirs body must be kept above the surperficial state of alluvial constantly.
Compared with prior art the present invention has following advantage:
1, can adopt same type of material and method to construct the weir body of various loss landforms and loss system, constitute the complete Engineering System of basin bringing soil erosion under control, reach the whole structure of valley harnessing.
2, all kinds of weir body makes full use of behind rainy season and the rain natural energy and the sediment resource of runoff and constructs, and engineering quantity is little, and is cheap.
3, because the weir body of cheuch weir, river course system and wash plain are done as a wholely alternately to increase, it is few to remain stable structural configuration and retaining, and the such major disaster of dam break can not take place.
4, terraced weir possesses shoal materials and accumulates the ability at water source, but does not block the water source, downstream, avoids causing new environmental problems such as wash plain salinization of soil and bogginess.
5, at the regional river course cheuch of many rough sand losses that is unsuitable for building silt arrester, because the rapidly solidified characteristic of rough sand, exactly for the invention provides implementation condition preferably.
6, it is simple to construct watershed weir series, does not need as the specialized requirement of the necessary strictness of Warping Dam Construction, and the local numerous common people are easy to grasp and use, thereby can accelerate industrialization and regional improvement process.
The specific embodiment
Construct watershed weir series and be the muddy water can mould bag that utilizes river course cheuch runoff to carry, construct the mould bag, hydraulic reclamation, alluvial earth bank, construct many single weirs and terraced weir, the silt that utilizes runoff and flood to carry deposit multi-level valley plain and terrace, riverbank constitute cheuch weir, river course system; Construct first weir accumulation slope runoff muddy water on domatic, by overflow of first weir and pipeline self can mould bag, construct multiple tracks Gou Yan and Po Yan, hydraulic reclamation, alluvial domatic cheuch and domatic terraced fields constitute domatic weir system; Construct Gou Yan and Po Yan in the edge zone of plateau and beam, recover and keep the complete smooth form at plateau beam edge, construct trap weir trap plateau beam edge, retain plateau beam surface muddy water, constitute plateau Liang Bianyuanyan system; Constitute the watershed weir series of controlling soil erosion by in the basin, planning as a whole to construct cheuch weir, river course system, domatic weir system and plateau Liang Bianyuanyan system.
1, constructs cheuch weir, river course system
When the bigger river course cheuch of basin perimeter is constructed the weir and is, also should be divided into some sections to the trunk river course as governance unit.Key terraced weir is constructed in downstream in the section, and constructs multistage terraced weir and Dan Yan in river course cheuch in the section and the tributary, and alluvial valley plain and terrace, riverbank constitute weir, section system.By each weir, section is cheuch weir, integrant river course system.
1,1 constructs single weir and terraced weir
Constructing terraced weir is to begin to construct chopped-off head list weir earlier from the riverbed; Lay building stones and culvert pipe as the infiltration bed course, extract the can of runoff muddy water nearby or, construct mould weir, riverbank bank protection, level ground, weir or river bottom protection level ground with the collaborative muddy water of carrying on the weir mould bag that fills by gravity of building with pump; With the mould weir is mould and barricade hydraulic reclamation and alluvial earth bank; Construct discharging of vertical shaft and horizontal well and regulation and control retaining; Employing is shaken and is dashed or the vacuum drainage method is quickened and to strengthen the weir body fixed; The plantation plant constitutes ecological reinforced earth on the level ground, weir; By the weir body reorganize and outfit with the weir in reorganize and outfit and organize flood to overflow the weir; Utilize the casual weir of casual weir of runoff and flood alluvial earth bank, valley plain or terrace, riverbank; With the valley plain process that alternately alluvial is increased in, serving as that boundary is stepped with the level ground, weir upwards constructs multistage single weir step by step and constitutes terraced weir.
The starting stage (some weir body is constructed all the time) of constructing chopped-off head list weir all is to extract muddy water can mould bag and hydraulic reclamation earth bank with pump.These class methods are similar to mould bag method and the hydraulic reclamation method in water conservancy project, maritime works and the dyke building." Chinese dyke building construction book series " (Chinese Water Conservancy electric power publishing house front page in 2006) done detailed introduction to these class methods.The material of different is dyke building can mould bag mostly is to use concrete, and maritime works's hydraulic reclamation engineering then is to extract from the seabed and the muddy water of the conveying from bottom to top can mould bag of big distance, and all adopts the hydraulic reclamation method to blow sand and make ground, and consumption of power is a lot.
A muddy water part that is used for constructing on terraced weir is used for can mould bag, constructs the mould bag.Remainder then is used for the hydraulic reclamation earth bank, builds the required muddy water in weir with the earth bank accumulation, alluvial valley plain or terrace, riverbank.Chopped-off head list weir is that the muddy water that adopts pump extraction runoff to send to comes can mould bag and hydraulic reclamation earth bank in a period of time that begins to construct mostly.But along with the continuous rising of wash plain, its surperficial gradient can dwindle gradually, and runoff muddy water also may disappear because infiltration capacity is increasing.Thereby can't continue to utilize natural energy and sediment resource to construct the weir body, also just can't continue to utilize flood casual weir alluvial and promote valley plain.In addition, it is long and continuous intermittently process of a duration that terraced weir is constructed, and adopts pump can and hydraulic reclamation not only to want consumption of power, and can cause too much idle of equipment and manpower.If constructing as a system engineering of weir, section system considered, just can utilize the weir, upstream to promote upper pond level by collaborative the constructing of two adjacent weirs of upstream and downstream body, form new artificial drop.And construct side weir on domatic on the riverbank between two weir bodies, become the diversion open channel or tubing on domatic.Weir, the upstream muddy water that promotes is arrived weir, downstream body by side weir open channel or line transportation, and mould bag and hydraulic reclamation earth bank fill by gravity.Continue to utilize flood casual weir alluvial then.These class methods are called that three weirs are collaborative to be constructed or two weirs are collaborative constructs (being called for short the collaborative weir of building).
When single weir and terraced weir were constructed in the riverbed of earth type and riverbank, its mould weir, earth bank, river bottom protection level ground and riverbank bank protection were all indispensable.Then only need to construct mould weir, earth bank and Yan Ping in the riverbed of rock type, when terraced weir is constructed on the riverbank.Single weir of the following stated and terraced weir construction method unless otherwise indicated all refer to the riverbed and the riverbank of earth type.
1,1,1 constructs the mould weir
Mould weir (11,20) and earth bank (12,21) constitute the weir body skeleton on single weir and terraced weir.The mould weir is position and a shape of determining the weir body in Dan Yan the effect in the process of constructing, and as the mould and the barricade of hydraulic reclamation and alluvial earth bank, and the weir body is played reverse filter effect.
When the mould weir is used for the riverbed of earth type and riverbank, gos deep into riverbed (26) and riverbank and form stable coupling configuration.When being applied to the riverbank of rock type and riverbed, also must make necessary processing to riverbed and crag.The mould weir begins to construct facing under the situation that there are current in the river course sometimes.Need cleaning river course earlier in the case, construct the infiltration bed course.Bed course adopts the building stones place mat, filters silt at the additional non-woven geotextile of upstream face again.Under the bigger situation of the water yield, also need in bed course, to bury some the draining culvert pipe that bore is less underground, to satisfy the draining needs.Adopting the less draining culvert pipe of bore is for the ease of shutoff afterwards.Treat that the drainage bed course increases to the accumulation water surface when above, promptly as basis and the working platform of constructing the mould weir.After this can change over to and normally build the weir program keeping under the retaining EQUILIBRIUM CONDITION shutoff culvert pipe successively.
Geotechnique's cloth bag adopts the woven geotextiles of macromolecular material to make and forms, and has permeable and the characteristic of saturating silt not.Can ooze out can in wherein moisture and keep silt as the packaging material of mould bag.Geotechnique's cloth bag can be sewn into the tubular of random length.Mainly use when being used to construct the mould weir to reach several meters long cloth bag, the part also can use the short cloth bag that is similar to bag of cement manually to load earth.Long cloth bag can inserts pipeline can muddy water from the top opening of its two ends and middle suitable position, dashes the cloth bag that expands.The packaging process of first floor mould bag, the outward appearance of formation and casual water form thereof are similar to the water-filling rubber dam.The mould bag of filling silt has higher density than the rubber dam of pouring water and inflate, and has enough stability, thereby does not need to take in addition the anchoring measure.The mould bag can be pushed whole moulding at its fixed plastic stage, becomes needed arbitrary cross-section form.Geotextiles has covered surface, whole weir again both as the packaging material of mould bag, constitutes the entire package and the protective material of weir body.
The bottom mould bag on mould weir is whole piece geotechnique cloth bag to be laid on the basic unit of reorganizing and outfit or the drainage bed course locate, and then muddy water is poured into wherein, oozes out moisture and is full of in-place molding behind the silt.Above each layer mould bag then successively upstream moves back the raft can.For the degraded that makes mould bag geotextiles avoid current erosion and solar ultraviolet irradiation destroys, need treat its stable after, cover cement overcoats such as cement mortar or concrete at the exposed surface that is subjected to erosion and irradiation.
The horizontal thrust of earth bank and casual sluice stream is born on the mould weir, needs enough thickness, and piles up the facade gradient that keeps suitable by moving back raft.Move back raft and put the stress condition that the mould weir can be improved in the slope, constitute the form of continuous multi-stage drop again on its surface, flowed the energy dissipating effect sluicing down.Mould weir and earth bank are alternately increased, the height of once constructing, and the thickness and the gradient will satisfy bears earth bank, the horizontal thrust of casual sluice stream and the homeostasis requirement on mould weir.In addition, when constructing higher level's list weir, also to take the lasting fixed of subordinate's earth bank and higher level weir body load into account and produce the fixed sedimentation displacement influence that causes of loading.
1,1,2 constructs earth bank
Earth bank (12,21) is that mould and barricade shoal materials form with the mould weir, is the main body on single weir and terraced weir, again as the basis on the single weir of level ground, Hu Ding weir and higher level.Earth bank is accumulated upstream runoff muddy water, extracts or utilize collaborative muddy water gravity flow hydraulic reclamation part self silt of carrying on the weir of building nearby for pump.Rectification and energy dissipating are carried out to casual weir runoff and flood jointly in earth bank and mould weir, and alluvial runoff and flood sediment are realized rising with the alternately silt of valley plain.
Earth bank and mould weir alternately raise, and bear casual weir runoff and flood pressure jointly.Its thickness will satisfy the needs that runoff and flood overflow the weir condition and continue to construct higher level weir body.
The ladder weir belongs to flexible structure, allows to produce moderate finite deformation.But being out of shape excessively may influence still then that it is stable.Construct in the process on terraced weir, the consolidation rate of mould bag and earth bank and consolidation effect directly influence the intensity and the amplitude of deformation of weir body, directly influence the progress of constructing of weir body simultaneously again.Bed course infiltration, the infiltration of mould weir all have the discharging consolidation effect to earth bank.The vertical load on the single weir of higher level also has the loading consolidation to subordinate's earth bank.But particle is slow than the fixed naturally effect of fine deposit, can sluggishness build the weir progress.So also need adopt the construction work ground to handle commonly used shaking when needed, quicken and strengthen fixed towards methods such as fixed or vacuum drainage are fixed.
1,1,3 constructs Yan Ping
It is to wander in the difference set for fear of casual sluice that the level ground, weir is set, and further eliminates the erosion energy of casual sluice stream.And make the weir body become ecological reinforced earth by plantation level ground, weir vegetation, and improve the bulk strength and the stability on terraced weir, further satisfy " consolidating " requirement of technical scheme.In addition, terraced weir construct exceed the river course and enter the two sides massif after, can will overflowing weir muddy water by the level ground, weir, directly to guide massif into domatic, the domatic terraced fields that deposit, the collaborative domatic weir of the massif system of constructing further consolidates the massif riverbank when keeping domatic water and soil.
The level ground, weir by mould weir (11) increase part, overflow weir (14), earthwork grid vegetable layer (15), level ground soil layer (16), level ground bottom (17), aproll (18) and shore protection weir (19) constitute.The level ground bottom is the geotextiles that completely is laid on the earth bank end face, and is fixing below the mould bag around being pressed in all around.Before formation of level ground soil layer and earthwork grid laying, a pond is crowded around into the shore protection weir in secondary mould weir up and down, with the casual sluice stream energy of the common absorption of retaining in the pond, plays interim absorption basin effect and shoal materials, and the level ground bottom is as the temporary protection layer of Chi Dituyan.The level ground soil layer become silted up full, ecological earthwork grid material-paving and form the composite plant cover layer after, the level ground bottom is then as the structure enhancement Layer of weir body.
The a part of mould of that increase on the bottom of level ground weir is as the barricade of alluvial and hydraulic reclamation level ground soil layer.This part height of increasing is the level ground the thickness of the layer.The level ground soil layer is as the plantation soil layer, and its thickness will satisfy the needs of plantation plant growing.The level ground soil layer utilizes runoff casual weir alluvial to cooperate pipeline hydraulic reclamation silt to form.After flattening, lay the earthwork grid material on its surface.Be pressed in below aproll and the peripheral mould bag fixing around the earthwork grid material.Aproll adopts concreting, and its effect is to consume down the sluicing stream energy more fully, changes down to splash or cross flow on the surface of earthwork grid vegetable layer behind the sluicing flow path direction.
The earthwork grid material is the geotechnological proprietary material of a class environmental macromolecule netted or trellis, and water-fast stream washes away, and the protection soil layer helps vegetation to generate on the soil layer of level ground.The level ground soil layer can be planted from the various good solid native plant of arbor up to careless class.Wherein grass crop should preferentially be selected vetiver and reed for use.The well developed root system of these two kinds of plants can penetrate geotextiles and be deep in following earth bank and the mould weir.Particularly vetiver grows soon, and compliance is strong, and root can reach five meters deeply.Tensile strength can reach the sixth of steel strength.Vegetation root system and the applied a kind of environmental reinforced earth of weir body soil complexing becoming earthwork engineering can improve the bulk strength and the stability of weir body greatly.
The shore protection weir is constructed on the attached riverbank of can mould pocket facing between two ends on the mould weir of increasing and higher level's mould weir.The height on shore protection weir should not be lower than overflow weir.
Let out down in a organized way in order to regulate and control to overflow sluice stream, protection subordinate riverbank, will continue to increase near respectively one section mould weir of both sides, riverbank becomes overflow weir.The centre of both sides overflow weir is an overfall, keeps somewhere directly over underwater bed the in an organized way discharging of the casual sluice stream of regulation and control.The height on overflow weir, shore protection weir and the width of overfall are determined according to the casual sluice amount of expection, current are controlled in the protective range on height of weir plate and subordinate shore protection weir.
1,1,4 constructs the river bottom protection level ground
The river bottom protection level ground is one section artificial platform constructing in chopped-off head Dan Yan downstream, forms with the downstream natural river course to be connected and one section excessive sloot.Be built into the form of single-stage or continuous multi-stage drop according to the size of gradient of river bed, and absorption basin be set in downstream.Effect is that casual sluice stream and horizontal well current are carried out rectification and energy dissipating, makes it gently flow into downstream river course.Satisfy " guaranteeing the minimum " requirement of technical scheme.
Repair one section riverbed in downstream from the bottom, mould weir on chopped-off head list weir on the river bottom protection level ground, completely spreads one section geotextiles then as level ground bottom (9).Be pressed in below mould bag and the aproll fixing around the bottom of level ground respectively.The river bottom protection level ground of multistage drop form, is pressed on the bottom of level ground as river bottom protection weir (7) perpendicular to an individual layer mould of river course can bag every a segment distance.The effect of drop wall is played on the river bottom protection weir again, and becomes level ground soil layer (5,8) at level ground bottom upper section shoal materials, constitutes multistage drop jointly.The end face on each river bottom protection weir should not be lower than the end face of its higher level's aproll (6,10), so that the level ground soil layer silt of alluvial can fully cover whole level ground bottom surface, and forms the thickness that needs, and the level ground bottom is constituted protection.The downstream face that aproll is pressed close to per pass river bottom protection weir with concrete is directly built on the bottom of level ground.
Absorption basin adopts the dark formula of digging.Go deep into riverbed (1,26) and construct downstream, jeopardize the river bottom protection level ground when avoiding the downstream in a single day coombe to occur on the river bottom protection level ground.Pool wall (3) can mould bag is constructed.(4), pool wall are strengthened at the bottom of the pond overcoat and outlet aproll (2) directly are integral with concreting.The current that horizontal well discharges downstream have very big impact energy, and vertical shaft construct high more, the outlet impact energy is just big more.Therefore the pool wall that needs horizontal well to be exported the opposite is built into wedge shape with concrete, make two limits of horizontal well outlet current branch to absorption basin, forming submerge discharging flow and hydraulic jump in the energy dissipating, wash away and removes silt in the pond, avoid sediment deposition reduction energy dissipating ability.
Absorption basin is as the important component part on river bottom protection level ground, and the aproll end face of its lower exit should be smooth as far as possible, and maintains an equal level with underwater bed.Be connected with the current of downstream river course with making that the water flows gently, avoid producing hydraulic jump and wash away underwater bed.
1,1,5 constructs the riverbank bank protection
Be subjected to washing away of casual sluice stream for fear of the riverbank, must construct riverbank bank protection (13).The riverbank bank protection is being worked in coordination with to purchase and is being built domatic back can mould bag and the river bottom protection level ground of repairing.Width between the bank protection of two sides is greater than the width of level ground, weir overfall above it, constructs the downstream on river bottom protection level ground always.Shore protection weir with level ground, weir at different levels joins above, constitutes the Global Macros to the riverbank.The gradient of riverbank bank protection also will satisfy homeostatic requirement, satisfies " shore protection " requirement of technical scheme jointly with the overflow weir on level ground, weir.
1, retaining and underground water in 1, the 6 discharging weirs
In order to reduce the head pressure of retaining in the weir (22) to the weir body, keep the runoff gradient on wash plain surface, reduce the alluvial of nearly source, make the through weir of runoff muddy water body nearby be used to build the weir, satisfy the needs on " few retaining " and " the low weir of building ".The present invention adopts retaining and underground water in vertical shaft and horizontal well and the syphon road direction downstream drain weir.
Vertical shaft (24) is similar with the structure of traditional agricultural large open well and motor-pumped well pit shaft.Different is, is that (26) beginning is alternately increased with wash plain (23) from bottom to top and constructed from the riverbed at the vertical shaft of this proposition, retaining during building the weir be from the top down by the horizontal well (25) that is communicated with it toward the downstream discharging.Vertical shaft adopts non-fine concrete drainage well casing, and the coated outside non-woven geotextile is as additional filtration beds.The bore of vertical shaft and quantity determines according to displacement, and the position of well head should be preset at expects the earth bank upstream on the single weir of final stage.Vertical shaft in the process of increasing, its end face as required can a little less than or be higher than the retaining water surface.In order to retaining in the weir is directly poured into pit shaft from well head, quicken to discharge when being lower than retaining face by horizontal well.The superficial water that contains fine mud particles is discharged the sediment grain size formation that can improve earth bank from the vertical shaft well head, helps fixed.Well head is brought up to the mould weir when above, is used to improve reserve-water-level, cooperates runoff to overflow weir and flood and overflows the weir alluvial.
Horizontal well bed is along the river laid, and its upstream extremity is communicated with the bottom of vertical shaft.The weir body is identical with vertical shaft with interior pit shaft material, and the pit shaft material in weir body and downstream thereof is used the normal discharge pipe instead, is embedded in below the river bottom protection level ground.Lower exit enters the absorption basin on river bottom protection level ground, mounted valve or sluice is set, retaining and underground water in discharging and the regulation and control weir.
After the final formation of valley plain, the state that vertical shaft is connected with horizontal well can continue to keep, and is used for discharging surface water and regulation and control underground water.Also the filling of the vertical shaft below the horizontal well end face just can be become separately independently vertical shaft and horizontal well.Vertical shaft can transfer to common water supply well and use, horizontal well then continues to regulate and control by terminal valve or sluice the groundwater table of valley plain, the water resource that can keep valley plain can be avoided the generation of bogginess and salinization of soil again, can also provide the gravity irrigation water for subordinate's valley plain.
In constructing vertical shaft and horizontal well discharging weir, the retaining, can also adopt the method for siphon to discharge retaining in the weir.As long as formed certain discrepancy in elevation between retaining and the downstream river course in the weir, possess the siphon condition siphon pipeline can be installed, stride across the weir body downstream retaining row in the weir.The siphon drainage method can cooperate vertical shaft and horizontal well to use, and also can use separately when the water yield is little.Because the siphon drainage pipeline can be repeatedly used, and does not need consumption of power, has excellent economy.
1,2,1 runoff casual weir alluvial
It is a kind ofly can utilize natural energy more fully, the method for deposit simultaneously earth bank and valley plain that runoff overflows the weir alluvial.Adopt the method only need construct the mould weir of suitable height by day, before stopping work night the vertical shaft well head is increased to more than the mould weir, avoid that retaining pours into from well head in the weir, make in the weir reserve-water-level rising until casual weir.The upstream runoff becomes unhurried current after entering the water reserve, is earth bank and wash plain shoal materials simultaneously, thereby sits idle and enjoys the fruits of others' work.And the casual sluice stream in top layer is taken away finer mud particles, can improve the grain structure of shoal materials, and it is fixed to be of value to earth bank, and effect is better than hydraulic reclamation.
Organize the casual weir of runoff also to need two ends, mould weir are increased, protect the riverbank not by erosion as interim overflow weir.
1,2,2 floods casual weir alluvial
Flood casual weir alluvial is the expanded application of the casual weir of runoff alluvial method, and method and reason are basic identical.Just need before the expection flood arrives, carry out more perfect weir body reorganize and outfit with the weir in reorganize and outfit.
In determining the process that weir body scheme and weir body are constructed, constantly carry out on the reality of work that the weir body is reorganized and outfit.Downstream one side surface and the formed sluicing form on ladder weir are the energy dissipating principles of utilizing the canal drop engineering.The mould weir is solid like that not as good as the drop of concrete structure, so must carry out the more rectification and the energy dissipating more fully of science.The cross section of mould bag is roughly ellipse, and the top, mould weir one deck mould bag is that the shaped form practical weir is crossed the water form weir crest formation, and the sluice stream that overflows freely falls under action of gravity.The ladder weir is divided into multistage single weir by the level ground, weir, eliminates casual sluice by segmentation and wanders in the difference set.Every grade of single weir promptly is equivalent to a single-stage drop.And the mould weir constitutes the continuous multi-stage drop of many small drops again because the raft that moves back of mould bag is put the slope on surface, single weir at different levels.Whole terraced weir promptly becomes multistage single-stage drop and be subdivided into the compound drop of the tiny drop of continuous multi-stage in each single-stage drop.Wadding together with coarse surface, mould weir flows frictional resistance and aeration or the like, reaches fully to subdue the purpose of sluicing stream energy down.Level ground, river bottom protection weir and absorption basin thereof can finally digest down sluicing stream energy, and the water flows gently is connected with downstream river course to make it.
It mainly is with the weir body that weir body before flood arrives is reorganized and outfit, particularly the mould weir construct higher, thicker, to adapt to the pressure of higher water storage level, more silt deposits; More smooth with the weir crest surface construction concentrated to avoid current; With overflow weir, shore protection weir construct higher so that the riverbank obtains reliable protection.
Reorganize and outfit in the weir is by increasing and the closed shaft well head, the weir body that dependence is increased improves reserve-water-level, before flood arrives ponding in the weir is held as far as possible full, strengthen the depth of water and water retention capacity, so that the hydraulic jump section that is connected with flood is pushed the upstream away from the weir body as best one can to, make flood become unhurried current by torrent as soon as possible, avoid the weir body is produced impact, promote the sediment deposition deposition.In addition, also to avoid and reduce whirlpool occurring by riverbed in the leveling weir and finishing bank slope.Both can alleviate the pressure of current, reduce stirring again, promote sedimentation the bottom water body to the weir body.
1,2,3 three weirs are collaborative constructs that He Eryan is collaborative to be constructed
The collaborative collaborative method of constructing of He Eryan of constructing in three weirs, be to continue as weir, downstream body conveying muddy water in order between two weir bodies of upstream and downstream, to constitute bigger artificial drop, continue to utilize natural energy to construct weir, downstream body, and cooperate the continuation silt of the casual weir of flood to rise valley plain.If system arranges as system engineering the weir, section, construct weir, the upstream body of suitable height in advance, weir, downstream body just can from start to finish adopt natural energy to construct.
So-called three weirs are collaborative to be constructed, and is by collaborative weir, the upstream body of constructing in the upstream of a certain weir body, promotes upper pond level, sets up artificial drop.Along the river the bank slope face is constructed side weir and is become the diversion open channel then, upstream muddy water is guided to terraced weir at the corresponding levels continue to build the weir.The side weir open channel adopts the mould bag along the riverbank with suitable gradient or rams soil and construct.Can also directly excavate domatic channel in suitable slope section.The diversion open channel is laid the antiseepage geotextiles, to reduce the muddy water seepage and to avoid causing the tearing away of bank.End at the diversion open channel is introduced pipeline with muddy water, the mould bag and the hydraulic reclamation earth bank of weir, can downstream body.
If constructing, the weir, upstream may receive better effect nearby in the tributary, upstream.So, when dividing and arrange that the weir, section is, its main body ladder weir should be arranged in nearby through near the preferred flow export.
The expanded application that the collaborative construction method in two weirs is the collaborative construction method in three weirs.Silt class riverbank and rock type riverbank that some is steeper are unsuitable for constructing the diversion open channel, and it is uneconomical perhaps to construct the diversion open channel, then can replace the side weir open channel to carry muddy water by tubing.The import of conveyance conduit is located in the weir, upstream, is connected to the top of weir, downstream body, the mould bag and the hydraulic reclamation earth bank of weir, the downstream body that directly fills by gravity along the suitable gradient.Because can repeatedly repeating dismounting, uses conveyance conduit, may be more economical under many situations.
1,3,0 constructs the terrace, riverbank
Aggrading river water stair ground is the expanded application of the collaborative construction method in three weirs.The ground segmentation of can suiting measures to local conditions of its weir, upstream, side weir, weir, downstream selects for use mould weir, single weir or terraced weir to construct.
Convex bank one side in the river valley is generally constructed on the terrace, riverbank, and its side weir is as the convex bank and the river levee thereof of sloot, and forms sloot between the concave bank, dredges current and passes through from sloot.The weir body of constructing side weir bed is along the river constructed, except that the upstream extremity that adopts the muddy water that can also utilize the lifting of weir, upstream of pump can from the mould bag fills by gravity.Sometimes side weir also need be constructed as riverbank and river levee in the opposite bank on artificial riverbank, forms complete sloot.The riverbed of sloot adopts multistage drop form with reference to the construction method on river bottom protection level ground, terraced weir, constructs below the weir, downstream from the weir, upstream always, satisfies " shore protection " and " guaranteeing the minimum " requirement jointly with side weir.
The weir, downstream is approximately perpendicular to sloot and constructs between the downstream and convex bank of side weir, and the river shoal between sealing side weir and the convex bank constitutes υ shape circle jointly with the weir, upstream, introduces the muddy water aggrading river water stair ground that the weir, upstream promotes.Generally, terrace, a lot of natural riverbank is that a side owing to the river course convex bank exists the tributary alluvial to form.The tributary has abundant muddy water resource and can utilize, and constructing artificial terrace with this understanding mainly is that the tributary depositing process is applied artificial affecting, and the surface, gentle raising terrace of becoming silted up becomes a kind of consolidation method.
The weir, upstream is approximately perpendicular to sloot and constructs between the upstream extremity and concave bank of side weir.Its effect is that interception promotes and dredges upstream muddy water, flows in the υ shape circle shoal materials and direct can side weir mould bag, and by the fill by gravity earth bank on weir, downstream mould bag and weir, hydraulic reclamation downstream of line transportation muddy water.
Terrace, riverbank at the corresponding levels construct finish after, if the upstream need be constructed valley plain or terrace, riverbank continuously, then only need to increase weir, upstream at the corresponding levels and to extend to convex bank, continue to construct the terraced weir that becomes the upstream.Otherwise, can simply transform the weir, upstream, become the part of river course continuous multi-stage drop, for the downstream valley plain provides the gravity irrigation water.
2,0 construct domatic weir system
The Po Yan, the Gou Yan that constitute domatic weir system are single weir, the expanded application of mould weir construction method in domatic improvement that is used for valley plain.Construct domatic weir system with the concave slope between the adjacent two convex slope watershed lines as governance unit, be divided into domatic improvement and domatic cheuch is administered two parts.Natural energy and the sediment resource of utilizing slope runoff constructed by domatic weir system, and silt flat slope face cheuch recovers domatic complete, and hydraulic reclamation, domatic terraced fields deposit.
2,1 construct Po Yan
All kinds of domatic forms vary, and gradient, length of grade difference are very big.When domatic long and soil erosion modulus is big, the domatic slope is made up of some sloping weirs of being divided in vertical direction section is organized, construct piecemeal from bottom to up.
Domaticly go up to divide elevation section that slope section group will be determined each slope section earlier, the boundary of organizing as each slope section with the first weir of slope section group.The upward slope that domatic isohypse is constructed Yu Gepo section group is pressed close on first weir, compiles the above domatic runoff muddy water in first weir, and runoff muddy water is organized and utilized.The effect on first weir only is to compile muddy water temporarily and in time carry to descending through pipeline and overflow, and does not accumulate muddy water.Therefore as long as suitably be higher than conduit entrance, satisfy the needs that compile and organize muddy water to carry and get final product.First weir is difficult to utilize slope runoff can mould bag, can utilize domatic stone riprap and ram soil to cooperate domatic excavation to construct.The above domatic needs in first weir possess enough catchment areas, to guarantee forming slope runoff in the rainy day, compile enough muddy water.
Substrate is reorganized and outfit in advance along domatic isohypse separately in other sloping weirs of same slope section group, lays and fixing geotechnological cloth bag pipe laying before the forecast rainfall is arrived.With reference to the packaging process on cheuch mould weir, river course, utilize pipeline to carry muddy water can mould bag from first weir, construct domatic mould weir.And as mould and barricade hydraulic reclamation, domatic terraced fields deposit.Except that the overflow segment of first weir, energy dissipating needn't be considered in sloping weir, does not therefore need to move back raft and constructs.By the mould bag is pushed whole moulding at the plastic stage of discharging consolidation, become required section form, constitute the less lateral cross section and the required terraced fields facade gradient.A common precipitation process can only can one deck weir, slope mould bag, so domatic mould weir construct and need utilize repeatedly that the precipitation process continues to increase,
Water droplet on domatic and current are all along perpendicular to the domatic isocontour trickling that is directed downwards, and near the natural water inflow that compiles the concave slope water-met line is maximum.Therefore, first weir should strictly not constructed along domatic isohypse, to concave slope suitable gradient is set and should press close to isohypse, is convenient to organize muddy water to compile near the domatic water-met line on first weir and organizes conveying.Pipeline also mainly is installed near the concave slope water-met line along domatic.Simultaneously, can also utilize near the water-met line a Duan Po weir to organize muddy water to overflow the weir, descending cheuch and terraced fields directly deposit.But the measure that consolidates and guarantee the minimum need be taked in the first weir of this section.In addition, weir, the part of descending slope also can be pressed close to its domatic isohypse and puts the slope to convex slope in reverse direction, utilizes gradient to guide muddy water into convex slope, and mould bag and the domatic terraced fields of alluvial fill by gravity.
2,2 construct Gou Yan
The ditch weir is equivalent to traditional check dam.The ditch weir is constructed according to the different in width of the domatic cheuch of each section, the degree of depth and is adopted single weir or only construct mould weir alluvial cheuch silt.Mould bag than the major groove weir utilizes pipeline to fill by gravity from the muddy water that first weir attracts.Most domatic cheuch presents the very big and all little withered form of the width and the degree of depth of gradient, and slope runoff almost occurs simultaneously with rainfall and finishes simultaneously, and can mould bag is difficult for holding and utilizing.And the ditch weir engineering quantity of constructing in this type of hair cheuch is all smaller, and pipe laying can mould bag may be also uneconomical.Can before rainfall, ram the weir to this with ramming native layering with suiting measures to local conditions, and coated with the geotextiles layering, successively to increase, the sluice of avoiding overflowing flows erosion.
The gradient of domatic cheuch is generally all bigger, so the spacing that the ditch weir is arranged is also just smaller.The particular location on each Dao Gou weir also will be considered can be communicated with the sloping weir on cheuch both sides at last, and finally alluvial becomes the complete domatic terraced fields of multiple tracks on domatic.Domatic cheuch always appears near on the water-met line in concave slope downstream, and the ditch weir can be constructed with the sloping weir on first weir and cheuch both sides is collaborative, and flat cheuch preferentially becomes silted up.
In addition, the massif that distributing widely in cheuch two sides, river course is domatic.The terraced weir that the river course cheuch is constructed raise enter the two sides massif domatic after, can press close to the domatic isohypse at place, terraced Yan Yan level ground and construct Po Yan, the collaborative domatic weir of the two sides massif system of constructing.Suitable gradient is preset to the direction of leaving the level ground, weir in the weir, slope, and the weir muddy water that will overflow is guided massif into through the level ground, weir domatic, the domatic terraced fields of gravity flow alluvial.The muddy water that the mould bag on weir, slope can utilize the level ground, weir to dredge fills by gravity from an end, also can utilize terraced sluice head by the pipeline self can, and hydraulic reclamation leveling terraced fields.
The geotextiles degraded that the suffered infringement of Gou Yan and sloping weir mould bag mainly causes from solar ultraviolet irradiation.Adopt the modified lime slurry as the more simple province of overcoat, and can satisfy the protection needs.The modified lime slurry with the adhesive effect of increase with geotextiles, is realized the coordination close friend with environmental color by add bonding adhesive and inorganic pigment in lime mortar.Modified lime slurry and carbon dioxide in air reaction generate the calcium carbonate duricrust, constitute the protection to mould bag and rammer earth bank surface.
3,0 construct plateau Liang Bianyuanyan system
Be not subjected to ravinated smooth complete location at plateau beam edge, can segmentation directly construct the trap weir at final trap plateau beam edge.The trap weir is difficult to utilize natural energy can mould bag to be constructed, again because the depth of accumulated water of flat site is all smaller.It is shorter that the trap weir is constructed, and adopts rammer soil both to construct and can satisfy the demand.Increase in more low-lying location, up to making even with peripheral weir body by stages.Ram the earth bank body and be subject to the rainwater erosion, can repair back spraying modified lime slurry to its surface as overcoat.
The appearance of plateau beam marginal branch hair cheuch and development harm are maximum.But as long as silt Ping Zhimao cheuch recovers and maintenance smooth and complete surface, edge, the later stage is administered will become simple.In the part edge location that has domatic and domatic hair cheuch, administer with reference to the method that domatic weir is.In numerous plateau beam edge zones that there is no obvious domatic fluctuating, its hair cheuch also exists in a large number.Just owing to the no domatic concentrated current erosion that accumulates, cheuch is grown all comparatively slow.But the total length of its edge line and the erosion gross area that is exposed are very huge.Because present withered and precipitous form, wind-force and mass erosion occupy bigger ratio.For this type of hair cheuch, can adopt at its exit or entrance of a clitch and ram soil and construct the ditch weir and continue to increase, leave then cheuch alluvial and the bulkhead wall liter that becomes silted up lentamente that collapses.The ditch weir is communicated with the trap weir of both sides behind the emersion ground.
After the smooth and complete edge surface in each location, plateau beam edge recovers, connect and connect with being about to ram earth bank around each section at its edge, the final whole plateau beam of trap edge, with water and soil conservation on plateau beam surface.
In addition, other regions also extensively exist surface ratio more smooth, present Plain, tableland and valley floor of being similar to plateau beam edge landforms and soil erosion characteristics or the like, also can adopt said method to administer.