CN103821131A - Method for restoring water and soil conservation ecology in development and construction project - Google Patents

Method for restoring water and soil conservation ecology in development and construction project Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103821131A
CN103821131A CN201410064680.3A CN201410064680A CN103821131A CN 103821131 A CN103821131 A CN 103821131A CN 201410064680 A CN201410064680 A CN 201410064680A CN 103821131 A CN103821131 A CN 103821131A
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water
soil
development
construction project
spoir
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CN103821131B (en
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李占斌
李鹏
穆军
王添
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Xian University of Technology
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Abstract

A method for restoring water and soil conservation ecology in a development and construction project comprises the step of treatment of spoil and waste slag. Specifically, the spoil and the waste slag are piled, the surface layer of a spoil and waste slag pile body is covered with soil, plants are planted, and water-retaining agents and water-retaining slow release fertilizer are applied. The method for piling the spoil and the waste slag comprises the steps that the grain sizes of the spoil and the waste slag are gradually reduced from bottom to top; the upper surface layer is covered with the soil, wherein the thickness of the soil is determined according to the planted plants, and the soil thickness is 50 cm for arbor and 30 cm for shrubs. According to the method, with respect to ecological restoration in the development and construction project, biological measures are mainly taken, necessary engineering measures are taken as assistance, as a result, ecological restoration in the development and construction project is realized, the construction cost is low, the water-retaining ability of the soil is enhanced, and the ability to adapt to and live through arid seasons of vegetation is improved.

Description

The restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological
Technical field
The invention belongs to ecological reestablishment field, be specifically related to a kind of restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological.
Background technology
Development of resources construction is the important component part in the national economic development.The area that china natural resources is abundant is also often ecologically fragile area, is to be particularly accompanied by serious soil erosion.Soil and water conservation ecological reparation how to strengthen development & construction project is one of main contents of ecologically fragile area eco-environment restoration and development.
In traditional conservation technology, biological control measure is main water-and-soil conservation measures, is the main contents of biological control measure and strengthen planting trees, closing etc.But due to the strong disturbance of development & construction activity, change pre-existing topography landforms and soil profile structure, traditional ecological reestablishment is difficult to realize effectively fast quick-recovery; In ecologically fragile area, due to drought and water shortage, severe water and soil erosion, therefore causes soil profile to destroy, and leaks Lou fertile, is difficult to spend the situation of arid season simultaneously.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological, solve the soil profile existing in existing development & construction project and destroy, leak Lou fertile, be difficult to spend the problem of arid season.
Technical scheme of the present invention is that the restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological, comprises the processing to spoir waste, be specially: spoir waste is piled up, at spoir waste accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
Feature of the present invention is also:
For smooth ground, first spoir waste is stacked into ground, and builds gutter, barricade, bank protection, then, at spoir waste accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
For roadbed side slope, first spoir waste is stacked in side slope, and builds gutter, barricade, bank protection, then, at spoir waste accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
Above-mentioned spoir waste stacking method is: dregs, slag stone particle diameter reduce from bottom to top successively, upper epidermis mulching soil.
The thickness of mulching soil is determined according to planting plants, and to arbor, thickness of soil is 50cm, and to shrub, thickness of soil is 30cm.
The mass ratio of above-mentioned water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is 8~9:10~12.
Above-mentioned the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is made up of water-loss reducer and urea, and wherein water-loss reducer is the insoluble type water-loss reducer of water, and water-loss reducer addition is urea quality 2%.
The insoluble type water-loss reducer of water is cross-linked polyacrylamide and polyacrylic acid potassium salt copolymer.
Also comprise for the processing of high gradient slope and excavation face, be specially, in the side slope of stone matter, bore implantation hole, in implantation hole, insert the stalk of soil, pulverizing or crop residue, the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, planting plants.
Around planting plants, cover local common Agro-ecology discarded object, cultivate the soil organism, cover with the gravel that diameter is 1-3cm simultaneously.
Feature of the present invention is also: establish and excavation face is put drainage, reinforces facility or supported facility at spoir waste heap, high gradient slope.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, the present invention is directed to the restoration of the ecosystem problem in development & construction project, mainly take biological control measure, auxiliary with necessary engineering measure, by the soil planting plants covering, the effect that reaches root system fixing slag stone and consume rainfall energy, thereby can prevent and treat landslide and soil erosion, and then realize the ecological recovery of development & construction projects.
2, technical solution of the present invention is to gather materials on the spot as main, and auxiliary take water-loss reducer as main the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, cost is lower.
3, the present invention is directed to the main disturbance type that development & construction project forms, rebuild the soil profile after degree of depth disturbance, increased the soil organism, reduced invalid evaporation, strengthened retention capacity of soil.
4, the present invention proposes the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, has improved vegetation adaptation and has spent the ability of arid season.
The specific embodiment
Further illustrate the present invention below in conjunction with specific embodiment,
Embodiment 1, Jinsha jiang River dry-hot valley Dumping Sites soil and water conservation ecological restorative procedure.
(1) experimental plot overview
Flatly Dumping Sites experimental plot height above sea level 950m, area is 511m2, slag thickness 50cm, slag stone particle diameter reduces from top to bottom successively, slag stone surface earthing, wherein thickness of earth covering is respectively 50cm and 30cm, 15 ° of left and right of the gradient.According to Design of Dumping Sites standard and hydrology achievement designing and arranging water system, Dumping Sites upstream charge for remittance is got rid of in the laying main drain, position of confluxing in Dumping Sites upstream simultaneously, lays a gutter in packways at different levels.Dumping Sites gutter is 15 ° of the gradients, to guarantee that within the scope of the small watershed of slag field, design flood is discharged safely.Dumping Sites main drain adopts brick structure, and Dumping Sites main drain internal orifice size bottom width 23cm, height 10.6cm, each Dumping Sites props up gutter size all by 11.5cm × 5.3cm(bottom width × height) trapezoidal cross-section design, side slope is than being 1:1.1.For preventing piling slag charge slump or be scattered, at slag muck toe, stone masonry slag blocking wall is set, top width 0.5, slag muck side slope is than being 1:1.1, free face is vertical, buried depth 50cm, after slope toe excavation 1:1.5 side slope, backfill piece stone, apart from top 50cm.Establish respectively drain hole spacing 1m, and clay core wall and anti-filter cloth are set in corresponding position.Earthing is local dry red soil, from conceding the land ground.
(2) experimental material
1. for examination vegetation
New white popinac (Leucaena leucocephala), belongs to Mimosaceae Leucaen defoliation small arbor or shrub, is drought-resistant, barren pantropical plant.Rapidly, drought-resistance ability is strong in growth, is the important species that dry-hot valley is implemented vegetation recovery.Browse is rich in protein, can make high-quality feed.
2. for examination material: water-loss reducer is cross-linked polyacrylamide and the polyacrylic acid potassium salt copolymer of the insoluble type of water, and Beijing Sang Song Agro-ecology science and technology limited Company provides.The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: self-control, formulated by water-loss reducer and urea, (first urea is made into mass concentration and is 30% urea liquid, add again the water-loss reducer of 2% (urea quality), at 80 ℃, dry and make), wherein water-loss reducer is cross-linked polyacrylamide and polyacrylic acid potassium salt copolymer.
(3) experimental design
Dumping Sites Water conservation in community fertilizer conservation vegetation recovery test designs respectively blank test, water-loss reducer, the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, 4 kinds of preserve moisture and fertility methods of water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly and processes.
(4) test method
Before plantation, by smooth spoir waste heap earthing, then adopt hole-method to sow new white popinac.Slag stone mulching soil is from the ground of conceding the land, and is respectively 9.16,1.07 and 1.05g/kg for the examination soil organism, full nitrogen and content of tatal phosphorus.Test designs 4 processing, water-loss reducer (A group), the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly (B group), water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly (C group), blank test (D group) altogether.
Water-loss reducer: on earthing, dig cave, adopt hole-method to sow new flavonoids in Leucaena seeds, 12g water-loss reducer is applied in cave, after mixing with soil in cave, be sown into seed, banket, then in the thick crop residues of earthing layer overlay 15-20cm.After having planted, water water 1 time.
The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: on earthing, dig cave, adopt hole-method to sow new flavonoids in Leucaena seeds, 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is applied in cave, after mixing with soil in cave, be sown into seed, banket, then in the thick crop residues of earthing layer overlay 15-20cm.After having planted, water water 1 time.
Water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: dig cave on earthing, adopt hole-method to sow new flavonoids in Leucaena seeds, 12g water-loss reducer and 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly are applied in cave, after mixing with soil, be sown into seed, banket, then in the thick crop residues of earthing layer overlay 15-20cm.After having planted, water water 1 time.
Blank test: dig cave on earthing, adopt hole-method to sow new flavonoids in Leucaena seeds, do not add any fertilizer.After having planted, water water 1 time.
The daily management of each group is consistent.
(5) result
The impact of table 1 different disposal on new white popinac survival rate
Referring to table 1, the new white popinac of different disposal, spend a rainy season and dry season after survival rate show different results.In processed group, A group, B group, C organize these 3 groups and are processed into motility rate higher than D group, and survival rate growth rate is respectively 6.56%, 7.87% and 13.36%.Wherein, the processing of C group is the most remarkable on new white popinac survival rate impact, and its survival rate increase can reach 13.16%(with blank test ratio).This shows, C group is that the processing of water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly obtains good effect.
As can be seen from the results, these several treatment combination effects, all higher than independent processing, show that various processing have cooperative effect.Particularly, in 2010, the spoir waste heap vegetation of this experimental plot has been stood the test of Yunnan Province Serious Drought Event, and ramp after arriving rainy season, has shown good growing way and effect.
Particularly, in 2010, the vegetation of spoir waste heap has been stood the test of Yunnan Province Serious Drought Event, and ramp after arriving rainy season, has shown good growing way and effect.
Embodiment 2, the amending method of dry-hot valley roadbed side slope soil and water conservation ecological.
(1) experimental plot overview
Roadbed side slope waste experimental plot height above sea level 955m, area is 360m2, slag thickness 50~200cm, slag stone particle diameter reduces from top to bottom successively, slag stone surface earthing, wherein thickness of earth covering is respectively 50cm, 25 ° of the gradients.According to Design of Dumping Sites standard and hydrology achievement designing and arranging water system, Dumping Sites upstream charge for remittance is got rid of in the laying gutter, position of confluxing in roadbed side slope Dumping Sites upstream simultaneously.The roadbed side slope Dumping Sites gutter gradient is 25 °, to guarantee that within the scope of the small watershed of roadbed side slope slag field, design flood is discharged safely.Roadbed side slope Dumping Sites main drain adopts brick structure, and Dumping Sites main drain size is all by 11.5cm × 5.3cm(bottom width × height) trapezoidal cross-section design, side slope is than being 1:1.1.For preventing piling slag charge slump or be scattered, at slag muck toe, stone masonry slag blocking wall is set, top width 0.5, slag muck side slope 1:1.1, free face is vertical, buried depth 50cm, after slope toe excavation 1:1.5 side slope, backfill piece stone, apart from top 50cm.Establish respectively drain hole spacing 1m, and clay core wall and anti-filter cloth are set in corresponding position.Soil is local dry red soil, from conceding the land ground.
(2) experimental material
1. for examination vegetation
Cream paulownia (Jatropha curcas L.), cries again the little seeds of a tung oil tree, Jatropha curcas etc.Belong to Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae) Jatropha machaka.In China, be mainly distributed in the provinces and regions such as Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan with wild state.Happiness light, the warm hot weather of happiness, do not select soil, drought-resistant barren.Cream paulownia is important Tree Species as Bio-energy, and seed oil content is 20%~40%, is the first-class raw material of production biodiesel.
2. for examination material
Water-loss reducer: the insoluble type of water, Beijing Sang Song Agro-ecology science and technology limited Company provides.The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: self-control.
(3) experimental design
Test in the 2007-04 roadbed Dumping Sites experimental plot self-built in study area and carry out.Community slag stone mulching soil is from conceding the land ground.4 kinds of processing, i.e. blank test (CK), water-loss reducer processing (I), the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly processing (II) and water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly processing (III) are established in test altogether.
(4) test method
Before plantation, by smooth roadbed side slope waste, then adopt hole-method sowing cream paulownia.Add 12g water-loss reducer in processing every cave, I trial zone.Process every cave, II trial zone and add 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.Process every cave, III trial zone and add 12g water-loss reducer and 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly simultaneously, first water-loss reducer or the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly are applied in cave, after mixing with soil, be sown into again seed.2-4 grain cream paulownia seed is put in every cave.Directly cream paulownia seed is sowed in cave in blank test district, after having planted, watered water 1 time.The daily management of each district is consistent.
(5) result
Referring to table 2, the cream paulownia of different disposal, spend a rainy season and dry season after survival rate show different results.In processed group, the survival rate of I, II and III trial zone is all higher than CK group.Survival rate growth rate is respectively 6.14%, 7.12% and 12.94%.Wherein, the cream paulownia survival rate in test III district is the highest, can find out, III district is that the processing of water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly obtains good effect.
The impact of table 2 different disposal on cream paulownia survival rate
Embodiment 3, the restorative procedure of the soil and water conservation ecological of the high gradient slope that in development & construction project, earth excavation causes.
In the present embodiment, before high gradient slope is processed, first adopt the method for embodiment 2 to utilize spoir to abandon quarrel roadbed side slope is processed, then adopt the method for embodiment 1 to abandon quarrel to all the other spoirs to process.
Processing method to high gradient slope is as follows:
(1) experimental plot design
Planting alimentation stone matter side slope experimental plot, hole height above sea level is 760m, the slope aspect southeast, area 60m2.Domatic hard and steady, native stone ratio is about 1:3.75 ° of the gradients.According to Design of Dumping Sites standard and hydrology achievement designing and arranging water system, Dumping Sites upstream charge for remittance is got rid of in the laying gutter, position of confluxing in the steep excavation slope of height upstream simultaneously.The high steep excavation slope gutter gradient is 75 °, discharges safely with design flood within the scope of the steep excavation slope small watershed of height.High steep excavation slope main drain adopts brick structure, and main drain size is all by 11.5cm × 5.3cm(bottom width × height) trapezoidal cross-section design, side slope is than being 1:1.1.Domatic exposed, substantially cover without vegetation.
(2) materials and methods
1. be cream paulownia and new white popinac for examination vegetation for examination vegetation
2. for examination material water-loss reducer: the insoluble type of water, Beijing Sang Song Agro-ecology science and technology limited Company provides.The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: self-control.
(3) experimental design
Test is carried out self-built high gradient slope community in study area.Community implantation hole soil is from conceding the land ground.2 kinds of method processing are established in test altogether, adopt respectively blank test and apply the processing of water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.Totally 6 communities, 3 communities are established in every kind of processing, each community area 5m2.
(4) test method
First in the good stone matter side slope of pretreatment, hole, aperture 10cm, hole depth 40cm, pitch of holes 50cm, blossom type is laid.Then in the implantation hole of accomplishing fluently, insert soil, bagasse, then apply water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, finally plant into cream paulownia and new white popinac.
Process every hole, trial zone at water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly and add water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly simultaneously, after water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly are mixed with soil, then plant into cream paulownia and new white popinac.After having planted, water water 1 time.The daily management of each district is consistent.
The grow plant height to each processing community cream paulownia, the number of sheets, leaf area, strain footpath after 3 months measured.Second Year is observed each processing community cream paulownia survival rate April.
(5) result
The recovery effects of plantation cream paulownia is significantly better than the new white popinac of plantation.With regard to vegetation survival rate in dry season, cream paulownia is 90.58%, and new white popinac is only 54.72%.Cream paulownia water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is processed and is obtained good recovery effects.Compared with blank test, its cream paulownia plant height growth rate, number of sheets growth rate, maximum leaf area increase reach respectively 11.43%, 12.94% and 13.42% × 11.32%(long × wide), average strain footpath increases by 10.43%, and chlorophyll content increases by 2.57%, and cream paulownia survival rate in dry season reaches 90.58%.The cream paulownia of selection water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly processing carries out vegetation recovery in stone matter side slope and can obtain good recovery effects.

Claims (10)

1. the restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological, is characterized in that, comprises the processing to spoir waste, is specially: spoir waste is piled up, and at spoir waste accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
2. the restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, for smooth ground, first spoir waste is stacked into ground, and build gutter, barricade, bank protection, then at spoir waste accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
3. the restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, for roadbed side slope, first spoir waste is stacked in side slope, and build gutter, barricade, bank protection, then at spoir waste accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
4. the restorative procedure of the development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as described in claim 1-3 any one, is characterized in that, the method that described spoir waste is piled up is: dregs, slag stone particle diameter reduce from bottom to top successively, upper epidermis mulching soil.
5. the restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that, the thickness of mulching soil is determined according to planting plants, and to arbor, thickness of soil is 50cm, and to shrub, thickness of soil is 30cm.
6. the restorative procedure of the development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as described in claim 1-3 any one, is characterized in that, the mass ratio of described water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is 8~9:10~12.
7. the restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 6, is characterized in that, described the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is made up of water-loss reducer and urea, and wherein water-loss reducer is the insoluble type water-loss reducer of water, and water-loss reducer addition is urea quality 2%.
8. the restorative procedure of the development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as described in claim 1-3 any one, it is characterized in that: also comprise the processing for high gradient slope and excavation face, be specially, in the side slope of stone matter, bore implantation hole, in implantation hole, insert the stalk of soil, pulverizing or crop residue, the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, planting plants.
9. the restorative procedure of the development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as described in claim 1-3 any one, it is characterized in that: around planting plants, cover local common Agro-ecology discarded object, cultivate the soil organism, cover with the gravel that diameter is 1-3cm simultaneously.
10. the restorative procedure of development & construction project soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 8, is characterized in that: drainage is set, reinforces facility or supports facility in spoir waste heap, roadbed side slope, high gradient slope and excavation face.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104429529A (en) * 2014-12-03 2015-03-25 华侨大学 Method for building ecological littoral zone in buffer area
CN108901659A (en) * 2018-07-04 2018-11-30 东南大学 The structure and its implementation method for preventing contaminated site engineering earthing from cracking using vegetation

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CN101663941A (en) * 2009-09-27 2010-03-10 四川大学 Method for recovering vegetation in rock-soil residue field
CN102652480A (en) * 2012-04-26 2012-09-05 北京北林绿源生态技术研究院有限责任公司 Vegetation recovery method for acid metal mine solid waste stock dump

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CN108901659A (en) * 2018-07-04 2018-11-30 东南大学 The structure and its implementation method for preventing contaminated site engineering earthing from cracking using vegetation

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