CN100366710C - Multi-nozzle coal water mixture or fine coal gasifying furnace and its industrial application - Google Patents

Multi-nozzle coal water mixture or fine coal gasifying furnace and its industrial application Download PDF

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CN100366710C
CN100366710C CNB2005101114848A CN200510111484A CN100366710C CN 100366710 C CN100366710 C CN 100366710C CN B2005101114848 A CNB2005101114848 A CN B2005101114848A CN 200510111484 A CN200510111484 A CN 200510111484A CN 100366710 C CN100366710 C CN 100366710C
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nozzle
coal
water slurry
gasification
technology
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CN1775920A (en
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于遵宏
代正华
龚欣
于广锁
王辅臣
刘海峰
王亦飞
陈雪莉
周志杰
梁钦锋
李伟锋
郭晓镭
王兴军
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East China University of Science and Technology
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East China University of Science and Technology
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]
    • Y02E20/18Integrated gasification combined cycle [IGCC], e.g. combined with carbon capture and storage [CCS]

Abstract

The present invention discloses a multi-nozzle water coal slurry or powder coal gasification furnace for gasifying water coal slurry or powder coal, which comprises a gasification chamber and a washing and cooling chamber, wherein the gasification chamber is composed of a casing, a technology nozzle chamber, technology nozzles, a preheating burning nozzle chamber and preheating burning nozzles; fire-resistance bricks are lined in the casing; the washing and cooling chamber is composed of a chill ring, a descending pipe, bubble breaking strips and a slag discharge opening. The carbon conversion rate of the gasification furnace is more than 98 %, and the investment is less. The present invention is particularly suitable for large-scale coal gasification production technology for processing 3000 tons to 5000 tons per day and is used for the fields of methanol, synthetic ammonia, IGCC power generation, etc.

Description

Multi-nozzle coal water slurry or powder coal gasification furnace and industrial application thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of vapourizing furnace that is used for coal water slurry or coal gasification, relate to a kind of multi-nozzle vapourizing furnace.
Background technology
The cleaning of coal and efficient utilization are the great technical tasks in the energy and environment protection field, the world today, also are one of gordian techniquies of Chinese national economy sustainable development.Gasification is the main path that primary energy source is changed into clean secondary energy, and its product is fuel gas (coal gas), synthetic gas, reducing gas, hydrogen, carbon monoxide.The coal gasification technology has obtained using widely in the production of combined cycle (IGCC) power generation assembly, synthetic ammonia and synthesizing methanol industry, producing acetic acid by carbonylation method and aceticanhydride industry, sponge iron, the preparation of pure carbon monoxide, the fields such as preparation of pure hydrogen, and vapourizing furnace then is the key equipment of gasification.For this reason, numerous scientific and technical personnel study, have developed various types of vapourizing furnaces.At present, in the technology that adopts air flow bed (fluid injected bed, carry bed) to gasify, representationally mainly contain two kinds: adopting coal water slurry is that the vapourizing furnace of raw material has Texaco's (Texaco now is a GE company); Employing fine coal is that the vapourizing furnace of raw material has Xie Er (Shell).Document U.S.Pat.Nos.4,637,823,4,527,997,5,281,243 disclose Texaco gasifier respectively, and the geometric properties of this vapourizing furnace is nozzle axis and coal gas and melt cinder outlet dead in line, and the both is on the vapourizing furnace main body axis.In view of this vapourizing furnace is an air flow bed, thereby cause partial material (stream thigh) short circuit.Applicant's experiment test shows, if material mean residence time in such vapourizing furnace is 5 seconds, in fact, wherein the partial material residence time is less than outside 1 second stove of promptly overflowing, another part material in stove the residence time considerably beyond 5 seconds.That is to say that the residence time of material in this vapourizing furnace is a very wide distribution, have 50%~60% material just to overflow outside the stove less than mean residence time.The efficiency of carbon conversion of Texaco gasifier is generally less than 95%, and steam resolution ratio is also less than 20%; Document U.S.92-960345 discloses the Xie Er vapourizing furnace.Coal gas and melt cinder are reversed flow, and promptly coal gas makes progress, and melt cinder is downward.Its shortcoming has two, one, and melt cinder is followed because of no heating gas, very easily solidifies and stops up slag notch; Its two, the tiny cinder that is suspended in the coal gas stream will pass through the longer pipe road, and the change flow direction, just can enter upstream device and carry out waste heat recovery or gas solid separation, pipeline and upstream device stop up easily, the both can shorten the operational cycle.Defective in view of above two kinds of type of furnaces, Chinese patent 98110601.3 discloses a kind of multi-nozzle opposed type coal water slurry or pulverized coal gasification furnace, this coal slurry gasifier has carried out pilot plant (22 tons/day) and demonstration unit (1150 tons/day) operation, this vapourizing furnace efficiency of carbon conversion is more than 98%, and is higher 3 percentage points than Texaco stove; This powder coal gasification furnace carries out pilot scale (15~45 tons of coal/skies) operation, and efficiency of carbon conversion consumes, shown extraordinary gasification performance than every technic indexs such as coal consumptions than oxygen more than 98%.Facts have proved, this vapourizing furnace also leaves some room for improvement, present vapourizing furnace can't satisfy modern production enterprise to handling the demand of 3000 tons of above scale Coal Gasification Technology of coal day, and the homogeneity of the temperature distribution in the stove and the processing power of vapourizing furnace also can further improve.
Summary of the invention
The technical issues that need to address of the present invention are to disclose a kind of multi-nozzle coal water slurry or powder coal gasification furnace and industrial application thereof, to satisfy modern production enterprise handles 3000 tons of above scale Coal Gasification Technology of coal to day demand.
Design of the present invention is such: because the quality of coal water slurry and coal dust gasification effect, remove outside the Pass physics, chemical property with coal have, under certain process conditions, it is relevant that main and structure of nozzle and size, nozzle arrangement, gasification furnace structure and size and three are mated the fluid flow behavior and the flow field structure of formation when realizing gasification.That is to say that in coal and processing condition one timing, concentration distribution, temperature distribution and the residence time that the gasification result quality depends primarily in the stove distribute.Under the high temperature of vapourizing furnace, chemical reaction rate is quite fast, and gasification is controlled by heat and mass transfer process, and the transmittance process and the residence time distribute and depend primarily on stove interior fluid behavior and flow field structure.Feed coal (coal water slurry or dry coal powder) or other hydrocarbon fuel and vaporized chemical, enter burner hearth by nozzle with mode of jet, jet stream thigh from different spray nozzles clashes in burner hearth mutually, because inertia, fuel pellet produces repeatedly damped vibration in burner hearth, the residence time of fuel pellet in burner hearth increased, improve residence time distribution; Turbulence intensity significantly increases simultaneously, heat and mass speed is increased substantially, thereby improved the rate of decomposition of the efficiency of carbon conversion and the water vapor of fuel.Simultaneously, allow of the restriction of maximum caliber, a plurality of cinder notch down are set in the scrubbing-cooling chamber bottom the vapourizing furnace processing power for overcoming dregs breaker.
The present invention is used for the multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace of coal water slurry or coal gasification, comprises vaporizer and scrubbing-cooling chamber;
Said vaporizer comprises cylindrical shell, technology nozzle box, technology nozzle, preheating burner chamber and the preheating burner of inner lining refractory block, preheating burner chamber is arranged on the vaporizer top, the preheating burner is vertically set in the preheating burner chamber, the axis of its axis and vaporizer coincides, the technology nozzle box is uniform along the housing periphery, the technology nozzle mechanically is installed in the technology nozzle box, and the gasification cinder notch is arranged on the vaporizer bottom, is used for the gasification slag is discharged vaporizer;
Said scrubbing-cooling chamber is arranged on the vaporizer bottom, scrubbing-cooling chamber comprises chilling ring, downtake, foam-breaking strip and following cinder notch, said chilling ring is arranged on the gasification cinder notch below of vaporizer, downtake is arranged on the chilling ring below, is used for the gasification slag is entered scrubbing-cooling chamber, and said foam-breaking strip is arranged on the downtake periphery, be used for broken coal gas bubble, increase the gas-to-liquid contact area, gas exit is arranged on the top of scrubbing-cooling chamber, and following cinder notch is arranged on the bottom of scrubbing-cooling chamber;
Said technology nozzle can adopt conventional nozzle, when being raw material with the coal water slurry, can preferentially adopt Chinese patent 95111750.5 disclosed a kind of " three-way channel combined water coal slurry gasification nozzle that has swirler "; When being raw material, can preferentially adopt Chinese patent 200510025050.6 disclosed a kind of " fabricating muzzle for synthesis gas through partial oxidizing solid substance containing carbon " with fine coal.The vapourizing furnace housing also is provided with several thermocouple holes and land surface pyrometer.A kind of " cooling and washing equipment for composite bed high-temperature gas " that scrubbing-cooling chamber can preferentially adopt Chinese patent 01112880.1 to be invented.
It is characterized in that the technology nozzle is downward-sloping, following cinder notch has two at least.
Multi-nozzle coal water slurry of the present invention or powder coal gasification furnace can be used for the gasification of coal water slurry or fine coal, and concrete application method is as follows:
Coal water slurry or fine coal, vaporized chemical are sent into vapourizing furnace by the technology nozzle, vapor pressure 4~10MPa, 1300~1500 ℃ of gasification temperatures.When adopting coal water slurry to be raw material, vaporized chemical can be an oxygen etc., and the part by weight of coal water slurry and oxygen is 1.3~2.7; When adopting fine coal to be raw material, vaporized chemical can be oxygen, water vapor or carbonic acid gas etc., and the part by weight of fine coal and oxygen is 0.9~1.6.
Multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace that is used for coal water slurry or coal gasification of the present invention, advantage is fairly obvious, uniformity of temperature profile in the stove, this vapourizing furnace efficiency of carbon conversion is more than 98%, reduced investment, be particularly suitable for the extensive coal gasification production technique of 3000 tons~5000 tons of day processing, can be used for fields such as methyl alcohol, synthetic ammonia, IGCC generating.
Description of drawings
The structure diagram of Fig. 1 vapourizing furnace.
Fig. 2 is the technology nozzle arrangements synoptic diagram when being raw material with fine coal.
Embodiment
Referring to Fig. 1, multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace that is used for coal water slurry or coal gasification of the present invention comprises vaporizer 1 and scrubbing-cooling chamber 2;
Said vaporizer 1 comprises cylindrical shell 3, technology nozzle box 4, technology nozzle 5, preheating burner chamber 6 and the preheating burner 7 of inner lining refractory block, preheating burner chamber 6 is arranged on vaporizer 1 top, preheating burner 7 is vertically set in the preheating burner chamber 6, the axis of its axis and vaporizer 1 coincides, technology nozzle box 4 is uniform along housing 3 peripheries, technology nozzle 5 mechanically is installed in the technology nozzle box 4, gasification cinder notch 10 is arranged on vaporizer 1 bottom, establishes the brick-supporting rack 17 of several layers spacing 1m in the refractory brick 8;
Said scrubbing-cooling chamber 2 is arranged on vaporizer 1 bottom, scrubbing-cooling chamber 2 comprises chilling ring 11, downtake 12, foam-breaking strip 13 and following cinder notch 14, said chilling ring 11 is arranged on gasification cinder notch 10 belows of vaporizer, downtake 12 is arranged on chilling ring 11 belows, said foam-breaking strip 13 is arranged on downtake 12 peripheries, gas exit 16 is arranged on the top of scrubbing-cooling chamber 2, and following cinder notch 14 is arranged on the bottom of scrubbing-cooling chamber 2; It is characterized in that:
(1) the technology nozzle is downward-sloping, and preferred technology nozzle 5 axis and horizontal plane angle α are 1~45 °;
(2) cinder notch 14 has two at least, preferred 2~4 down.
Fig. 2 is a technology structure of nozzle synoptic diagram when being raw material with fine coal, open in Chinese patent 200510025050.6, as seen from the figure, said fine coal technology nozzle comprises co-axial outer shroud shower nozzle 18, interior shower nozzle 19, nozzle center's conduit 20 and nozzle outer shroud conduit 21;
Said nozzle outer shroud conduit 21 is connected with outer shroud shower nozzle 18, said nozzle center conduit 20 is connected with interior shower nozzle 19, interior shower nozzle 19 is arranged in the outer shroud shower nozzle 18, the interior contraction half-angle γ of interior shower nozzle 19 is 3~60 °, the outside angle of inclination beta of interior shower nozzle 19 is 30~80 °, the interior contraction half-angle ε of outer shower nozzle 18 is 30~80 °, the ratio of the nozzle diameter d of interior shower nozzle 19 and spout straight section height h is h: d=1: 0.5~10, and interior shower nozzle 19 is 0~20mm with the vents face of outer shower nozzle 18 apart from S.
Embodiment 1
One day was handled the multi-nozzle coal slurry gasifier of 3000 tons of coals, vapor pressure is 6.5MPa, and vaporizer housing interior diameter is Φ 4400mm, is provided with 3 following cinder notch 14, the structure that the coal water slurry process nozzle adopts patent 95111750.5 to be proposed, axis and horizontal plane angle α are 10 °;
Vaporized chemical is an oxygen, and the oxygen total burn-off is 82192Nm 3/ h, 1350 ℃ of gasification temperatures, the part by weight of coal water slurry and vaporized chemical is 1.77, goes out vaporizer total gas flow rate 301476Nm 3/ h.
Ature of coal is formed
Calorific value (kJ/kg) 27765
Ultimate analysis (wt%) C H N S O Cl Ash 67.59 4.37 1.22 2.30 7.55 0.022 16.748
Go out vaporizer gaseous constituent (vol%)
H 2 CO CO 2 H 2S COS CH 4 N 2 Ar NH 3 HCN HCOOH HCl(ppm) O 2 H 2O 25.95 37.90 13.70 0.63 0.03 0.02 0.31 0.10 0.21 0 0 50.0 0 21.15
Embodiment 2
One day was handled the multi-nozzle powder coal gasification furnace of 3000 tons of coals, and vapor pressure is 4.0MPa, and vaporizer housing interior diameter is Φ 4200mm, is provided with 3 following cinder notch 14, and nozzle adopts the structure of Fig. 2, and axis and horizontal plane angle α are 10 °;
Vaporized chemical is oxygen and water vapor, and the oxygen total burn-off is 70000Nm 3/ h, steam total burn-off are 22500kg/h, 1350 ℃ of gasification temperatures, and the part by weight of fine coal and oxygen is 1.25, goes out vaporizer total gas flow rate 264175Nm 3/ h.
Ature of coal is formed
Water (wt%) 2
Ultimate analysis (dry base wt%) C H N S O Ash 69.27 4.56 1.28 3.6 8.08 13.21
Go out vaporizer gaseous constituent (vol%)
H 2(v)% 29.54
CO(v)% 58.39
CO 2(v)% 2.36
H 2S(v)% 1.10
COS(v)% 0.09
CH 4(v)% 0.06
N 2(v)% 4.46
NH 3(v)% 0.00
NH 3(v)% 0.01
HCN(v)% 0.00
HCOOH(v)% 0.00
HCl(v)%
O 2(v)%
H 2O(v)% 3.99

Claims (8)

1. multi-nozzle coal water slurry or powder coal gasification furnace comprise vaporizer (1) and scrubbing-cooling chamber (2);
Said vaporizer (1) comprises cylindrical shell (3), technology nozzle box (4) and the technology nozzle (5) of inner lining refractory block (8), technology nozzle box (4) is uniform along housing (3) periphery, technology nozzle (5) mechanically is installed in the technology nozzle box (4), and gasification cinder notch (10) is arranged on vaporizer (1) bottom;
Said scrubbing-cooling chamber (2) is arranged on vaporizer (1) bottom, and scrubbing-cooling chamber (2) comprises cinder notch (14) down, and gas exit (16) is arranged on the top of scrubbing-cooling chamber (2), it is characterized in that:
(1) technology nozzle (5) is downward-sloping;
(2) cinder notch (14) has two at least down;
(3) establish brick-supporting rack (17) in the fire brick layer (8);
Technology nozzle (5) axis and horizontal plane angle α are 10 °.
2. the multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace of coal water slurry according to claim 1 or coal gasification is characterized in that, following cinder notch (14) has 2~4.
3. the multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace of coal water slurry according to claim 2 or coal gasification, it is characterized in that, said fine coal technology nozzle comprises co-axial outer shroud shower nozzle (18), interior shower nozzle (19), nozzle center's conduit (20) and nozzle outer shroud conduit (21), said nozzle outer shroud conduit (21) is connected with outer shroud shower nozzle (18), said nozzle center conduit (20) is connected with interior shower nozzle (19), and interior shower nozzle (19) is arranged in the outer shroud shower nozzle (18).
4. the multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace of coal water slurry according to claim 3 or coal gasification, it is characterized in that, said scrubbing-cooling chamber (2) also comprises chilling ring (11), and said chilling ring (11) is arranged on gasification cinder notch (10) below of vaporizer (1).
5. the multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace of coal water slurry according to claim 4 or coal gasification is characterized in that, said scrubbing-cooling chamber (2) also comprises downtake (12), and downtake (12) is arranged on chilling ring (11) below.
6. the multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace of coal water slurry according to claim 4 or coal gasification is characterized in that, said scrubbing-cooling chamber (2) also comprises foam-breaking strip (13), and said foam-breaking strip (13) is arranged on downtake (12) periphery.
7. the multi-nozzle coal water slurry or the powder coal gasification furnace of coal water slurry according to claim 1 or coal gasification is characterized in that, establish brick-supporting rack (17) in the said fire brick layer (8), brick-supporting rack (17) spacing 1m, and brick-supporting rack (17) is fixed on the housing (3).
8. according to the application of each described multi-nozzle coal water slurry of claim 1~7 or powder coal gasification furnace, it is characterized in that, be used for the gasification of coal water slurry or fine coal.
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