CN100366354C - Method and device for manufacturing tube with high dimensional accuracy - Google Patents

Method and device for manufacturing tube with high dimensional accuracy Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100366354C
CN100366354C CNB2004800030567A CN200480003056A CN100366354C CN 100366354 C CN100366354 C CN 100366354C CN B2004800030567 A CNB2004800030567 A CN B2004800030567A CN 200480003056 A CN200480003056 A CN 200480003056A CN 100366354 C CN100366354 C CN 100366354C
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
pipe
tube
mould
dimensional accuracy
plug
Prior art date
Application number
CNB2004800030567A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
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CN1744956A (en
Inventor
剑持一仁
长滨拓也
坂田敬
菅野康二
大西寿雄
依藤章
丰冈高明
Original Assignee
杰富意钢铁株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to JP107364/2003 priority Critical
Priority to JP2003107364A priority patent/JP4285053B2/en
Priority to JP123064/2003 priority
Priority to JP139264/2003 priority
Priority to JP171819/2003 priority
Priority to JP179022/2003 priority
Priority to JP279072/2003 priority
Priority to JP364184/2003 priority
Priority to JP384620/2003 priority
Priority to JP286083/2003 priority
Priority to JP386083/2003 priority
Priority to JP395626/2003 priority
Application filed by 杰富意钢铁株式会社 filed Critical 杰富意钢铁株式会社
Publication of CN1744956A publication Critical patent/CN1744956A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN100366354C publication Critical patent/CN100366354C/en

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Abstract

There are provided a high dimensional accuracy pipe and a manufacturing method thereof, the pipe being in response to wide requirements of sizes, being manufactured at inexpensive cost, and having a sufficient fatigue strength. The detailed structure thereof is as follows. A push-to-pass process is performed in which, while a plug 1 is being charged in a metal pipe 5 , the metal pipe is pushed in a hole provided in a die 2 and is then allowed to pass therethrough. As a result, a high dimensional accuracy pipe can be obtained in which at least one of the deviation of the outer diameter, the deviation of the inner diameter, and the deviation of the thickness in the circumferential direction is 3.0% or less as processed.

Description

The manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy and manufacturing installation
Technical field
The present invention relates to tube with high dimensional accuracy and manufacture method thereof and manufacturing installation.Relate to and be applicable to that for example automobile-use driver part etc. requires the tube with high dimensional accuracy of high dimensional accuracy parts, manufacture method, manufacturing installation and the manufacturing equipment group of tube with high dimensional accuracy.
Background technology
Metal tube for example steel pipe is divided into common welded pipe and seamless pipe.Circular by the width of banded sheet material is done, and welded still pipe, for example electric welded steel pipe are made in the welding of involutory conglobate width two ends.On the other hand, by solid billet high temperature perforation is back with rolling manufacturing seamless steel pipes such as mandrel mills.When welded still pipe, though the protruding weld seam by the grinding welding portion improves the dimensional accuracy of pipe after welding, its wall thickness deviation surpasses 3.0%.And, in the situation of seamless steel pipe, at perforation process off-centre appears easily, and this off-centre is easy to generate big wall thickness deviation.Though make great efforts to make this wall thickness deviation to reduce in the postorder operation, however can not fully reduce, still residual more than 8.0% in the finished product stage.
Recently, as the solution of environmental problem, wish the motor vehicle lightweight strongly.Driving base parts such as driving shaft change hollow metal pipe into by solid metal.In metal tubes such as these automobile-uses driving base parts, the deviation that requires wall thickness, internal diameter, external diameter is below 3.0%, and is stricter with the high dimensional accuracy below 1.0%.
Drive base part and must tolerate the fatigue that motor-driven vehicle commander's distance travel is caused.If the precision of the wall thickness of metal tube, internal diameter, external diameter is not high, be present in concavo-convex on the surfaces externally and internally of pipe as causing inevitable destructions that accelerate fatigue easily of point, fatigue strength is reduction significantly.In order to guarantee enough fatigue strength, must make wall thickness, internal diameter, the external diameter precision of metal tube good.
Following tube with high dimensional accuracy of the present invention be meant in outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation at least one or more than two at the pipe below 3.0%, each deviation is derived by following formula.
Deviation=amplitude of fluctuation/(desired value or mean value) * 100%
Amplitude of fluctuation=maximum-minimum of a value
As the means of the precision that improves metal tube wall thickness, internal diameter, external diameter, common known following two kinds of methods.Describe with regard to welded still pipe and seamless steel pipe (hereinafter referred to as steel pipe or pipe) below.A kind of method is with the method for mould and plug cold drawing steel tube (being called cold drawn method) (with reference to patent documentation 5).Another kind method is to use the rotary swager that is assembled with the circumferencial direction assembling die that steel pipe is pressed into to carry out method for processing (being called the swaging plunging) (with reference to patent documentation 1,2,3) in the die hole.
Patent documentation 1: the spy opens flat 9-262637 communique
Patent documentation 2: the spy opens flat 9-262619 communique
Patent documentation 3: the spy opens flat 10-15612 communique
Patent documentation 4: specially permit communique No. 2858446
Patent documentation 5: specially permit communique No. 2812151
But, utilize cold drawn method, when the capacity of equipment deficiency, perhaps wall thickness, the diameter when pipe is bigger, can not fully obtain drawing stress and when having to reduce diameter reducing rate, in machining gap (gap between plug and the die hole inner surface), mould becomes insufficient with pipe and contacting of drawing plug and pipe.This is because the stress of pipe is tractive force in cold drawn method.At this moment, the smoothing deficiency of the inner surface of pipe, outer surface, residual concavo-convex easily.To this, the measure of taking is to make the diameter reducing rate of pipe become big, increase surfaces externally and internally of pipe and contacting of plug, mould in machining gap in cold drawn.But when using the mold cold trombone slide, the diameter reducing rate of pipe bassoon more is big more by the concavo-convex roughness that causes of inner surface.Consequently, utilize cold drawn method to be difficult to obtain tube with high dimensional accuracy.Therefore the fatigue strength of pipe is insufficient, the pipe that the strong request dimensional accuracy is better.Owing in cold drawn method, will clamp the front end of pipe, therefore require the front end of pipe carefully narrow in order to apply pulling force.Consequently have to carry out drawing, have significantly low problem of working (machining) efficiency by root ground.
And even the sufficient diameter reducing rate of capacity of equipment is can be big the time, the machining deformation that is caused by undergauge becomes big, manages easy work hardening.Behind pipe drawing, implement processing such as bending or swaged forging again.Because the work hardening that causes of above-mentioned drawing, in thereafter bending operation etc., there is the problem that is easy to generate crackle.In order to prevent this problem, after drawing, must at high temperature carry out long heat treatment, therefore manufacturing cost enlarges markedly, and thirsts for making cheapness expeditiously and the method for the tube with high dimensional accuracy that is easy to process.
In addition, the metal tube pressing device of patent documentation 4 records is the auxiliary equipment that are used to reduce necessary pulling force, reducing pulling force is that this pressing device does not make the smoothing of pipe surfaces externally and internally because prevent to have formed groove by the pipe fracture that utilizes other device stretching metal tube to be caused at pipe internal surface.
In the swaging plunging of patent documentation 1~3 record, separate the mould of rotary swager and make this mould swing, consequently, be easy to generate the step discrepancy in elevation at this built-up section, the smoothing deficiency of outer surface is perhaps owing to having produced inhomogeneous deformation in the different mould rigidity of circumferencial direction.Consequently, because wall thickness accuracy is also not enough, can not fully obtain the final size precision as target, the fatigue strength of this steel pipe is also not enough, needs to improve.
In the swaging plunging, the wall thickness before being pressed into wall ratio behind the steel pipe and being pressed into is thick.Owing to have complicated structure, thereby use and be difficult to increase the rotary swager of load, and be restricted.For wall thickness is increased, in machining gap, the gap is increased the closer to outlet side, pipe is easy deformation more, thereby when existing the gap to make to manage easy deformation, can take place concavo-convex at the inner surface of pipe.When wall thickness was increased, it is big that the gap becomes, and pipe and die surface or mandrel surface become insufficient and contact.Consequently have following defective: the smoothing of tube-surface is progress not, and is difficult to obtain tube with high dimensional accuracy.
And, when making tube with high dimensional accuracy, when less than the frictional force between reduction mandrel outer surface and pipe internal surface, mould inner surface and the tube outer surface in possible limit, in process, can produce defectives such as sintering at tube-surface, the surface quality of processing back pipe is low, and not only this pipe can not become finished product, and adds man-hour load and significantly increase, processing itself is just impossible, its as a result production efficiency significantly reduce.
Therefore, after being pressed into, obtain desirable wall thickness, can only design the wall thickness before being pressed into thinner.Thereby, in order to prepare the pipe of multiple finished size, and improve the performances such as fatigue strength of these pipes, must prepare multiple tube blank size.But, owing to be subjected to the restriction of pipe manufacturing equipment, can not prepare the pipe of multiple size, thereby be difficult to spread all over pipe and all require size and obtain excellent dimensions.And, in automotive component, change the degree of finish of pipe and use.For example, research reduces degree of finish and heat treatment after omitting processing in certain parts, in other parts, enlarge markedly degree of finish, with increased strength.
But, in existing cold drawn method or swaging plunging, owing to only carry out the processing of undergauge, processing back external diameter of pipe is by the unique decision of mould external diameter, wall thickness is also by mould and the unique decision of plug, only unique degree of finish can be obtained by same pipe, the pipe of the different same size of degree of finish may be made hardly by same pipe.Therefore, for the different pipe of the identical degree of finish of manufacturing dimension, it is unavoidable preparing the pipe of multiple size and changing diameter reducing rate, wants expensive time on pipe is made.
As mentioned above, in prior art, be difficult to obtain tube with high dimensional accuracy, and, when the different pipe of the identical degree of finish of manufacturing dimension, there is the problem that must prepare the different pipe of many sizes.
Present inventors are in order to address the above problem, and have studied than the hubbing processing method of high dimensional accuracy ground tubulation more, have obtained the conclusion of punching press as the preferable alternative method.When punching press, as shown in figure 10, plug 1 is packed in the pipe 4 make plug 1 limit of floating will manage 4 and be pressed in the mould 2 owing to utilize pipe to be pressed into machine 3 limits, thus in machining gap all be compression stress in action.Consequently, no matter at the entrance side and the outlet side of machining gap, pipe can both fully contact plug and mould.And even slight diameter reducing rate owing to become compressing stress state in the machining gap, is compared with drawing, pipe fully contacts easily with plug, pipe and mould, and pipe is easy to smoothing, therefore can obtain tube with high dimensional accuracy.
And when carrying out punch process, plug is jammed in pipe, and load increases, its result, and bulged-in pipe produces and buckles, and the situation that can not process has taken place.The surface texture that its reason can list lubricant applying quantity not sufficient, pipe changes, the frictional heat during by punch process or the distortion of processing caused plug of heat radiation or mould etc., to carry out punching press in order continuing to stablize, at first in process, must to judge whether and to process in the scene.
In the past, the operator is pressed into the rattle of machine according to pipe or the deflection of oil pressure gauge is judged with sensation, and processing is ended in perhaps processing reluctantly during mold breakdown, reset the punch process condition, processes once more.That is, carry out condition change comparing the also quite loose state that can process of punch process boundary, perhaps becoming the condition that just changes when extremely serious machining state mould begins to break, therefore, waste process time, perhaps take time and energy on die change, productivity is very low in the same old way.
In existing drawing, in order to improve the dimensional accuracy of pipe, behind the adhesion process pipe, necessary coating metal soap forms sufficient lubricating film before drawing.Therefore, must spend time enough and form lubricating film, also must carry out the pre-treatment of pipes such as pickling, in the drawing equipment group, a plurality of grooves that must have a plurality of grooves that pre-treatments such as pickling use or lubricated to use.And, in order to carry out drawing processing, must carry out interface processing at the pipe leading section with rotary swager etc.And, when with these equipment groups in linearize and when being configured in the entrance side of drawing processing unit (plant) because productivity lowly becomes big problem, thereby will utilize other operation to be lubricated processing, should manage the online equipment group of input drawing then and process.
That is, in the manufacturing equipment group of existing tube with high dimensional accuracy,, be difficult to improve manufacturing efficient owing to process as prerequisite with the drawing that long pretreatment procedure must be arranged.
In above-mentioned existing cold drawn method or swaging plunging, an open question is arranged in the same old way, promptly be difficult to obtain tube with high dimensional accuracy, and the surface quality of pipe is low.In view of the problem in the above-mentioned prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide the wide region that spreads all over pipe to require size, can low-costly make, have the tube with high dimensional accuracy and the manufacture method thereof of enough fatigue strength and be used for the manufacturing equipment group of high efficiency production.
Summary of the invention
The present invention who realizes above-mentioned purpose is as described below.
1. the tube with high dimensional accuracy of a punching press state, it is characterized in that, under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into metal tube is pressed into die hole and its punching press of passing through is made by carrying out, and in the outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation any or more than two below 3.0%.
2. as the tube with high dimensional accuracy of 1 described punching press state, it is characterized in that, make by carrying out punching press and the metal tube wall thickness of described mould outlet side being set at the wall thickness that is less than or equal to entrance side, described being stamped into is pressed into metal tube die hole and it passed through under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into; And in outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation any or more than two below 3.0%.
3. as 1 or 2 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, make metal tube in this manages same cross section with plug wholecircle week external and with mould wholecircle week in connect and carry out described punching press.
As 1~3 in each described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that described mould is one-piece type and/or the fixed mould.
5. the manufacture method of a tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, carries out the punching press that makes metal tube be pressed into die hole and it is passed through under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into.
6. as the manufacture method of 5 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, the thickness of pipe wall of described mould outlet side is set at the same thickness of pipe wall that is less than or equal to entrance side.
7. as the manufacture method of 5 or 6 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, make metal tube in this manages same cross section with plug wholecircle week external and with mould wholecircle week in connect and carry out described punching press.
8. the manufacture method of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy as in 5~7 is characterized in that described mould is one-piece type and/or the fixed mould.
9. the manufacture method of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy as in 5~8 is characterized in that described plug is a floating mandrel.
10. as the high efficiency manufacture method of 5 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, improve more than any one or two kinds of in the outside diameter tolerance that makes pipe by punch process, internal diameter deviation, the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation when forming tube with high dimensional accuracy, plug packed into makes in the pipe it float, and utilizes the pipe feeder of die entrance side to manage continuously simultaneously and sends in the mould.
11. the high efficiency manufacture method as 10 described preceding tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the crawler belt that clamps the preceding pipe of processing.
12. the high efficiency manufacture method as 10 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the endless belt that compresses the preceding pipe of processing.
13. the high efficiency manufacture method as 10 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the intermittent delivery machine that clamps preceding pipe of processing and mutual intermittent delivery.
14. the high efficiency manufacture method as 10 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the forcing press of the pipe before the order pushing processing.
15. the high efficiency manufacture method as 10 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the hole type roll that clamps the preceding pipe of processing.
16. the high efficiency manufacture method as 15 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that described hole type roll is two hole type rolls with top roll.
17. the high efficiency manufacture method as 15 or 16 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that described hole type roll is provided with two with upper spider.
18. as the manufacture method of the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of 5 described surface quality, it is characterized in that, after forming lubricated tunicle on the inner surface of pipe and/or the outer surface, plug is packed in the pipe, utilize mould to carry out the punching press of pipe.
19. the manufacture method as the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of 18 described surface quality is characterized in that, the pipe of the lubricated tunicle of described formation is the steel pipe that adheres to the oxide skin state.
20. the manufacture method as the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of 18 or 19 described surface quality is characterized in that, forms described lubricated tunicle with fluid lubricant.
21. the manufacture method as the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of 18 or 19 described surface quality is characterized in that, forms described lubricated tunicle with the lubricating grease series lubricant agent.
22. the manufacture method as the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of 18 or 19 described surface quality is characterized in that, forms described lubricated tunicle with the drying property resin.
23. manufacture method as the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of 22 described surface quality, it is characterized in that, behind described drying property resin of coating on the pipe or latex with the liquid of this drying property resin of solvent dilution or this drying property resin, dry or air-dry in warm wind, form described lubricated tunicle.
24. as the manufacture method of 5 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, the pipe by the different certain size of the pipe high dimensional accuracy ground manufacturing degree of finish of same size is characterized in that, can expander and the plug of undergauge pack in the pipe, utilize mould to carry out the punching press of pipe.
25. the manufacture method as 24 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, described plug is floated in pipe, will manage continuously to supply in the mould.
26. the manufacture method as 24 or 25 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that described plug is the plug of the angle of taper of enlarged tube portion less than the angle of taper of diameter shrinkage part.
27. as the manufacture method of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 24~26, it is characterized in that the target external diameter of the pipe of described mould outlet side is less than the external diameter with the pipe of entrance side.
28. as the stable manufacture method of 5 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, when being pressed in the die hole by the pipe that will wherein be incorporated with plug and make its punch process of passing through make tube with high dimensional accuracy, as described plug, to use the surface of diameter shrinkage part and angle that the machining center axle forms be 5~40 ° and be the plug of 5~100mm with the length of diameter shrinkage part, as described mould, the angle that the internal surface of hole of use entrance side and machining center axle form is 5~40 ° a mould.
29. the stable manufacture method as 28 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that the length of the supporting part of described plug is 5~200mm.
30. the stable manufacture method as 28 or 29 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that the thickness of pipe wall of described mould outlet side is set at the thickness of pipe wall that is less than or equal to entrance side.
31. as the stable manufacture method of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 28~30, it is characterized in that, use one-piece type fixed mould as described mould.
32. as the stable manufacture method of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 28~31, it is characterized in that, make described plug unsteady in pipe.
33. as the stable manufacture method of 5 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, in the pipe that carries out plug packed into, plug is floated and this pipe is pressed in the manufacture method of the tube with high dimensional accuracy that makes its punching press of passing through in the mould, it is characterized in that, in this punch process process, measure the load of punch process direction, any calculates assumed (specified) load in following formula 4~formula 6 by utilizing as the material behavior of the pipe of processing preceding pipe, relatively this measuring load and this assumed (specified) load could continue punch process according to this result's judgement;
Formula 4 σ k* pipe sectional area
Wherein, σ k=YS * (1-a * λ), λ = ( L / n ) / k , A=0.00185~0.0155, L: pipe length, k: cross section secondary radius, k 2=(d 1 2+ d 2 2)/16, n: pipe end state (n=0.25~4), d 1: pipe external diameter, d 2: pipe internal diameter, YS: pipe yield strength
Formula 5 pipe yield strength YS * pipe sectional areas
The hot strength TS of formula 6 pipes * pipe sectional area.
34. as the stable manufacture method of 33 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, when described measuring load is less than or equal to described assumed (specified) load, be judged as and can continue, then continue processing, on the other hand, when described measuring load surpasses described assumed (specified) load, be judged as and can not continue, then interrupt processing, after mould and/or plug be replaced by mould and/or plug with corresponding other shape of identical production tube size, begin processing again.
35. as the stable manufacture method of 34 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, before the described angle of changing the mould that uses the back and/or plug is less than and changes mould and/or the angle of plug.
36. as the stable manufacture method of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 33~35, it is characterized in that, before punch process, lubricant applying on pipe, only when described measuring load surpasses described assumed (specified) load, is changed the kind of described lubricant.
37. the manufacturing installation of a tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, has: the plug that can contact with metal pipe internal surface wholecircle week, having can be with the mould in the hole that contacts with tube outer surface wholecircle week, push the tube extruding press with pipe; And practicable punching press, described being stamped under the state in this pipe that described plug is packed into, utilized described tube extruding press to be pressed into metal tube in the described die hole and it passed through.
38. the manufacturing installation as 37 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that described mould is one-piece type and/or the fixed mould.
39. the manufacturing installation as 37 or 38 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that described plug is a floating mandrel.
40. as the manufacturing installation of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 37~39, it is characterized in that the continuously extruded described pipe of described tube extruding press.
41. as the manufacturing installation of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 37~39, it is characterized in that described tube extruding press intermittently pushes described pipe.
42. as the high efficiency manufacture method of 37 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, in the pipe that carries out plug packed into, plug is floated and be pressed into this pipe in the mould continuously or intermittently and make in the manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy of its punching press of passing through, it is characterized in that, a plurality of arrangement of molds that pass is different are on same circumference, according to finished size any is moved at circumferencial direction of arranging, be used for punching press in the roll line to be configured in.
43. as the high efficiency manufacture method of 37 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, in the pipe that carries out plug packed into, plug is floated and be pressed into this pipe in the mould continuously or intermittently and make in the manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy of its punching press of passing through, it is characterized in that, a plurality of arrangement of molds that pass is different are on same straight line, according to finished size any is moved in the rectilinear direction of arranging, be used for punching press in the roll line to be configured in.
44. as the high efficiency manufacture method of 42 or 43 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, when between preceding pipe and back pipe, changing finished size, after preceding pipe punching press is finished, make the back pipe stop at the die entrance side, in the mobile front and back of the mould corresponding or in moving with back pipe finished size, will with the back pipe of packing into the corresponding plug of finished size in.
45. as the high efficiency manufacturing installation of 37 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, have: make mould that pipe passes through, pipe is pressed into extruder and mould turntable in the mould in the roll line, this mould turntable is so that a plurality of moulds of the state support of a plurality of arrangement of molds on same circumference, and carry described a plurality of mould at this circumferencial direction, wherein any mold arrangement is in roll line.
46. as the high efficiency manufacturing installation of 37 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that having: the extruder and the mould that make mould that pipe passes through, pipe are pressed in the mould in the roll line directly advance platform; Described mould directly advances platform so that a plurality of moulds of the state support of a plurality of arrangement of molds on same straight line, and carries described mould in this rectilinear direction, and wherein any mold arrangement is in roll line.
47. as the manufacture method of 5 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, in the pipe that carries out plug packed into, plug is floated and this pipe is pressed in the manufacture method of the tube with high dimensional accuracy that makes its punching press of passing through in the mould, it is characterized in that, pass pass by the pipe that makes described mould outlet side and prevent canal curvature, described pass is configured near described mould outlet side place, and adjusts its position in the plane vertical with the siphunculus direction in advance.
48. the manufacture method as 47 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, makes the pipe of described die entrance side and/or described pass outlet side pass through guide cylinder.
49. the manufacture method as 47 or 48 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, continuously pipe is pressed in the mould.
50. as the manufacturing installation of 37 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, have and make mould that pipe passes through and pipe is pressed into extruder in this mould, it is characterized in that, be provided with the canal curvature micro-adjusting device near described mould outlet side place, this canal curvature micro-adjusting device has pass that pipe is passed through, can support the supporting substrates of this pass movably in the plane vertical with the siphunculus direction and be bearing in the pass travel mechanism that described pass is moved.
51. as the manufacturing installation of 50 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that described pass travel mechanism utilizes a position or two the above positions that push the pass peripheral part at the conical surface of the wedge metal mould that the siphunculus direction moves on the direction vertical with the siphunculus direction.
52. the manufacturing installation as 51 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, utilizes screw rod to give the mobile application of force of described wedge metal mould.
53. as the manufacturing installation of 50 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that described pass travel mechanism pushed or drew the pass peripheral part on the direction vertical with the siphunculus direction a position or two above positions.
54. the manufacturing installation as 53 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, utilizes fluid pressure cylinder to give the pushing or the traction application of force of described pushing or mode of traction.
55. as the manufacturing installation of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 50~54, it is characterized in that the aperture of described pass is more than or equal to the outlet aperture of described mould.
56. as the manufacturing installation of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 50~55, it is characterized in that the hole of described pass is straight hole or the hole that has taper.
57. as the manufacturing installation of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 50~56, it is characterized in that having the guide cylinder that the pipe that makes described die entrance side and/or described canal curvature micro-adjusting device outlet side passes through.
58. as the manufacturing installation of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 50~57, it is characterized in that described extruder is continuously the continuous extruder of ascending pipe.
59. the manufacturing equipment group of a tube with high dimensional accuracy, has the press-working apparatus described in 37, it is characterized in that, can the cross grinding of pipe become the pipe end face grinding attachment vertical with tube axial direction, with lubricant impregnation be coated on lubricant impregnation coating pan on the pipe, drying device and described press-working apparatus that the pipe that is coated with lubricant is carried out drying dispose by said sequence.
60. as the manufacturing equipment group of 59 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, will be configured in the shearing device that pipe cuts into short size the entrance side of described pipe end face grinding attachment.
61. as the manufacturing equipment group of 59 or 60 described tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, replace described lubricant impregnation coating pan and described drying device, in the configuration of the die entrance side of described press-working apparatus lubricant is sprayed on lubricant spray equipment on the pipe, perhaps lubricant configuration is sprayed on and makes its dry lubricant spraying drying device on the pipe then.
62. as the manufacturing equipment group of each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in 59~61, it is characterized in that, when described press-working apparatus was set, the die-changing apparatus of described mould, the plug changing device and prevent in the curved anti locking apparatus of canal curvature of described mould outlet side one or more more of changing described plug were changed in configuration.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a key diagram of representing to use in the present invention the embodiment of punching press.
Fig. 2 is the key diagram of the embodiment of the existing drawing of expression.
Fig. 3 A is that the existing key diagram of the embodiment that is pressed into that assembling die is housed and makes the rotary swager of its swing is used in expression, is the sectional view that comprises the tube hub axle.
Fig. 3 B is that the existing key diagram of the embodiment that is pressed into that assembling die is housed and makes the rotary swager of its swing is used in expression, is that A-A is to view.
Fig. 4 is the performance plot of the relation of expression stress of fatigue test and durability times.
Fig. 5 is that the longitudinal section of crawler belt as the example of the present invention of pipe feeder used in expression.
Fig. 6 is that the longitudinal section of endless belt as the example of the present invention of pipe feeder used in expression.
Fig. 7 is that the longitudinal section of intermittent delivery machine as the example of the present invention of pipe feeder used in expression.
Fig. 8 is that the longitudinal section of hole type roll as the example of the present invention of pipe feeder used in expression.
Fig. 9 is the key diagram of angle of taper of the part of plug.
Figure 10 is the sectional view of the summary of expression punch process.
Figure 11 is the schematic diagram of the embodiment of expression the inventive method of using apparatus of the present invention the 1st example.
Figure 12 is the schematic diagram of the embodiment of expression the inventive method of using apparatus of the present invention the 2nd example.
Figure 13 is the key diagram of comparative example (with the artificial mould of changing).
Figure 14 is the perspective view of expression one embodiment of the invention.
Figure 15 is the plane of the example of expression canal curvature micro-adjusting device of the present invention.
Figure 16 is the sectional view of an example of expression pass of the present invention travel mechanism.
Figure 17 is the perspective view of expression one embodiment of the invention.
Figure 18 is the plane of an example of expression canal curvature micro-adjusting device of the present invention.
Figure 19 is the perspective view of a comparative example of expression.
Figure 20 is the perspective view of a comparative example of expression.
Figure 21 is the perspective view of a comparative example of expression.
Figure 22 is the schematic diagram of expression as the configuration of the equipment group of the embodiment of the invention.
Figure 23 represents the configuration of equipment group as a comparative example and the schematic diagram that necessary pretreatment procedure is processed in drawing.
Preferred implementation
In existing cold drawn method, with mould and plug drawing metal tube the time, be difficult to improve the dimensional accuracy of pipe.Its reason is that because pulling capacity works as tension force, in machining gap, mould becomes insufficient with tube outer surface and contacting of plug and pipe internal surface.As shown in Figure 2, with plug 5 pack into the pipe 4 in, from the hole drawing pipe 4 of mould 6, thus, the pulling capacity 10 that applies at the outlet side of mould 6 is in the inner tension that produces of machining gap, produces concavo-convex and increases towards outlet side from the inlet of machining gap at the surfaces externally and internally of pipe.And, the entrance side in machining gap, because the inner surface of pipe is out of shape along plug 5, tube outer surface does not contact or only slightly contacts mould 6.Outlet side in machining gap, because tube outer surface contact mould 6 and distortion, pipe internal surface does not contact or only slightly contacts plug 5.Therefore, the surfaces externally and internally of pipe all exist can Free Transform part, can not make concavo-convex abundant smoothing, the dimensional accuracy of the pipe that obtains after the drawing reduces.Label 7 among the figure is a bench.
In contrast, in pressing of the present invention, as shown in Figure 1, plug 1 is packed in the pipe 5, and will manage 5 and be pressed in the hole of mould 2 it is passed through.By entrance side applied pressure 8, all be that compression stress is had an effect in machining gap inside at mould 2.Consequently, no matter at the entrance side or the outlet side of machining gap, pipe 5 can fully contact plug 1 and mould 2 in the whole circumference direction in same cross section.And even slight diameter reducing rate because machining gap inside becomes compression stress, is compared with drawing, pipe contacts in the whole circumference direction in same cross section with plug, pipe and mould.Therefore pipe is easy to smoothing, can obtain the pipe of high dimensional accuracy.
Consequently, when comparing the fatigue strength of these pipes, compare with existing pipe, can access the enough fatigue strength of expectation by the drawing manufacturing by the pipe of stamped.And, when punching press,, to compare during with drawing even the pipe surfaces externally and internally also can smoothing because diameter reducing rate diminishes, processing deformation can not become greatly, so the heat treatment work behind the undergauge alleviates the manufacturing cost reduction.
Have in being pressed into of rotary swager 8 in use shown in Figure 3, owing to use one-piece type mould is carried out cutting at circumferencial direction assembling die 9, and mould swing (shown in 12) is processed, therefore produce the step discrepancy in elevation, wall thickness accuracy is very not good, but in the present invention, can not produce this step discrepancy in elevation fully, consequently, all energy smoothings of the surfaces externally and internally of pipe can access enough fatigue strength.In the present invention, for example, making mould is one-piece type mould, also can not have the step discrepancy in elevation, and perhaps, making mould is the fixed mould, also can prevent the step discrepancy in elevation that is caused by the swing rotation.Certainly, to make mould be one-piece type and the fixed mould also can prevent the step discrepancy in elevation.
And, in the present invention, with using existing rotary swager the method for mould swing is compared, can make apparatus structure simpler, can apply sufficient load man-hour adding, the wall thickness of setting outlet side is identical or little than it with the wall thickness of die entrance side, even cause the load increase thus, owing to can fully process, also can obtain the good and also enough pipes of fatigue strength of dimensional accuracy with respect to the size that requires of wide region.
Past, as the outside diameter tolerance that makes metal tube, internal diameter deviation, circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation in the method below 3.0%, be known that machining (processing of following material partly to remove) method, but it is big that processing charges becomes, operating efficiency is also low, and, be difficult to add the metal tube of section chief's size path.Thereby, be difficult to driving shaft that is applicable to automotive component etc.
Method as the metal tube of distinguishing above-mentioned machining and this metal tube (metal tube of punching press state of the present invention), for because for the oxide skin of the heating of the preceding operation of making, the surface attachment at this metal tube such as rolling, because the metal tube that machining obtains is except that descale, therefore the method that can enumerate is the situation on observation tube surface, can distinguish by this method.
And, this metal tube with existing rotary swager steel pipe is pressed into mould and carries out the pipe that method for processing (for example with reference to patent documentation 1,2,3) makes and compare, wall thickness deviation has improved several times.That is, the past can not obtain in outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, the circumferencial direction deviation that one or two are above at the steel pipe below 3.0% under the punching press state.
In the present invention, following outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation and circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation of trying to achieve as the dimensional accuracy index.
Make micrometer contact tube outer surface (perhaps inner surface), make the pipe rotation, by external diameter (perhaps internal diameter) the circumferencial direction distributed data of measuring, calculate external diameter (perhaps internal diameter) deviation of conduct with respect to the maximum deviation of target external diameter (perhaps target internal diameter), perhaps, with laser exposure tube outer surface (perhaps inner surface), distance by the pipe measured and laser vibration source is at the distributed data of circumferencial direction, calculates as external diameter (perhaps internal diameter) deviation with respect to the maximum deviation of target external diameter (perhaps target internal diameter).Perhaps, also can graphical analysis pipe circumferencial direction cross section, calculate and just round deviation at circumferencial direction, thereby calculate the deviation of external diameter (perhaps internal diameter).
Calculate circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation as the difference of the circumferencial direction distributed data of the circumferencial direction distributed data of above-mentioned external diameter and above-mentioned internal diameter, perhaps, the circumferencial direction cross section of graphical analysis pipe, according to the image in wall thickness cross section, directly measure the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation of conduct with respect to the maximum deviation of target wall thickness.
And, in the optional position of end, the front and back 150mm that removes pipe, measure with the spacing below the 10mm, try to achieve deviation by the mensuration point value more than 10 o'clock.
That is, as the outside diameter tolerance of giving a definition, internal diameter deviation and wall thickness deviation (=circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation).
Outside diameter tolerance: (maximum outside diameter-minimum outer diameter)/target external diameter (perhaps mean outside diameter) * 100 (%)
Internal diameter deviation: (maximum inner diameter-minimum diameter)/target internal diameter (perhaps mean inside diameter) * 100 (%)
Wall thickness deviation: (thickest-minimum wall thickness (MINI W.))/target wall thickness (perhaps average wall thickness) * 100 (%)
Because tube with high dimensional accuracy of the present invention is that one or two are above at the metal tube below 3.0% in above-mentioned three dimensional accuracy indexs, can drive metal tube uses such as base part as the motor vehicle that requires 3.0% following high dimensional accuracy.
And, utilize existing swaging plunging shown in Fig. 3 A, the 3B, since mould 4 be combination and make mould swing (shown in 12), can not make the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation very good, its reason is, the step discrepancy in elevation that causes by die assembly, perhaps, the inhomogeneous deformation that the different mould rigidity of the circumferencial direction under heavily stressed causes.
In contrast to this, in punching press of the present invention, mould is an one, does not need it is swung constantly, and therefore inhomogeneous deformation can not take place, and consequently, pipe internal surface, outer surface can both smoothings.
And, in existing swaging plunging, to manage 5 owing to sending into, thereby limited by the shock loading of mould with swing (shown in the 12) interlock of mould 4, swing speed can not surpass more than the certain value, and working (machining) efficiency is low.And, in existing drawing, because front end that must powerful grip tube and apply tension force, thereby the front end of pipe is narrowed down with the drawing pipe, so have to process singlely, working (machining) efficiency significantly reduces.
To this, owing to the present invention is punching press and plug is floated, can the power of being pressed into 15 be acted on the pipe from the die entrance side by using pipe feeder 3, in mould, send into pipe continuously.Compared with the prior art, can realize special high efficiency processing.In addition, " sending into continuously " described herein is meant, as shown in Figure 1, sends into certain root pipe 5 and next root pipe 5 incessantly that the state that body is moved in the siphunculus direction can be continuously mobile or dwell time is to move minimal intermittence.
As suitable pipe feeder 3, can exemplify out: clamp the crawler type conveyer 13 (small pieces of pinch tube are the crawler belt shape connect) of the pipe 5 before the processing, the endless belt 14 (with reference to Fig. 6) of pushing down the pipe 5 before the processing, the intermittent delivery machine 15 (with reference to Fig. 7) that clamps pipe before the processing and mutual intermittent delivery, forcing press (diagram slightly) that order compresses the pipe before the processing, clamp the hole type roll 16 (with reference to Fig. 8) of the pipe before the processing with reference to Fig. 5.Also in above one or more can be made up and constitute pipe feeder 3.
According to the size (diameter, length, wall thickness) of pipe, be used for the power of necessity of impact tube, the desired length of pipe etc. after the punching press is suitably selected the pipe feeder, prevents clamping or the defective when pushing down and guarantee that necessary stamping press also is important.
In addition, with the pipe before the hole type roll clamping processing time, when adopting the mode of using 2 hole type rolls more than the roller and/or the mode of 2 hole type rolls more than the frame is set, owing to do not make pipe produce defective, being easy to guarantee stamping press simultaneously, is preferred therefore.
And, when plug is floated, even the complicated relevant punching press condition such as lubricated of angle, mould and the mandrel surface of change and mould and plug, always owing to there being plug in the position that applies stable compression stress, thereby can stablize and obtain good dimensional accuracy.
And, when making tube with high dimensional accuracy, when between lubricated plug outer surface and pipe inner face, mould inner surface and the tube outer surface, owing to can be in the process in defectives such as tube-surface generation sintering, so can make the good pipe of surface quality.And, owing to reduce, can reduce the load that adds necessity in man-hour, and can save power consumption of polymer processing, and can also boost productivity by lubrication friction power.
Study the result of various lubricating methods as inventors, draw following method, this is an important achievement of the present invention.That is, in the inner surface of pipe, outer surface, be pre-formed lubricated tunicle on either party or two sides, and carry out punching press.As the lubricant that is used to form lubricated tunicle, any in preferably liquid lubricant, lubricating grease series lubricant agent, the drying property resin.As fluid lubricant, for example mineral oil, synthetic ester, animal and plant fat and the above-mentioned lubricant etc. that is mixed with additive.As the lubricating grease series lubricant agent, for example Li class grease lubrication agent, the grease lubrication agent of Na class and contain above-mentioned lubricant of additives such as molybdenum bisuphide etc.As the drying property resin, for example polypropylene-based resin, epoxylite, polythylene resin, polyester resin etc.
Using above-mentioned resin to form the method for lubricated tunicle, is the above-mentioned resin of coating or with the liquid of the above-mentioned resin of solvent dilution, the perhaps latex of above-mentioned resin on pipe.Be preferably in the warm wind dry, perhaps air-dry then.As the solvent of the above-mentioned resin of dilution, for example ethers, ketone, fragrant same clan hydrocarbon, straight chain class side chain class hydrocarbon etc.As the dispersant that is used to obtain above-mentioned resin emulsion, for example water, alcohols, their mixture etc.
And, when efficient is made tube with high dimensional accuracy goodly, can be not do not remove electric welded steel pipe that descale obtains direct electric welding hot rolled steel plate or seamless steel pipe etc. with maintaining the original state and process, and if so can reduce processing cost.
In existing cold-drawing process or swaging plunging, only carry out the processing of undergauge.Pipe by same size can only obtain unique degree of finish, may make the pipe of the different same external diameter of degree of finish hardly.To this, in the present invention, as shown in Figure 1, plug 1 be provided with make pipe 4 carry out expander enlarged tube portion 1A and and mould 2 synergy make the diameter shrinkage part 1B of pipe 4 undergauges of above-mentioned expander.Thus, can make the pipe of the different certain size of degree of finish with the pipe of same size.Even the size of pipe is certain separately after pipe and the punch process, instrument is adjusted the pipe expanding rate of plug enlarged tube portion, and the diameter reducing rate of the diameter shrinkage part of plug also must increase and decrease, consequently, and the degree of finish difference of the pipe that obtains.
Pipe expanding rate=1-D0/D1
Diameter reducing rate=1-D2/D1
Wherein,
D0: the external diameter of pipe
D1: the target external diameter behind the expander
D2: the target external diameter behind the undergauge
And, utilize the present invention, from improving the consideration of making efficient, preferably successively continuously to the mould supply pipe.At this moment, when plug was subjected to the supporting of die entrance side or outlet side, being used for devices such as the bar of this supporting or metal wire became obstacle, continuously the supply pipe difficulty that becomes.Thereby, plug is floated in pipe.
And, for stable enforcement punching press of the present invention, in process, must make plug stable.That is the suitable position that, must not depart from relative mould.Study at this point.By expander and undergauge, plug is subjected to the surface pressing of pipe.When the surface pressure of undergauge side is bigger than the surface pressure of hole enlargement side, can realize the stabilisation of plug as can be known.For the surface pressure that makes the undergauge side is bigger than the surface pressure of hole enlargement side, on the one hand, as shown in Figure 9, the angle of taper θ A of the enlarged tube portion 1A of plug 1 is effective less than the angle of taper θ B of diameter shrinkage part 1B.Here, the angle of taper of described mandrel segment is meant, this part surface and and along the angle that forms between the straight line 17 of the plug central axes of the direct of travel of pipe.In addition, θ A=0.3~35 ° preferably, θ B=3~45 °.On the other hand, also can make diameter reducing rate bigger than pipe expanding rate, for this reason, making the external diameter of pipe of the outlet side of mould is effective less than the external diameter of pipe of entrance side.
In the present invention, owing to can use one-piece type fixed mould, so the step discrepancy in elevation that caused by die assembly and the inhomogeneous deformation of circumferencial direction can not take place fully.Its result, pipe internal surface, outer surface also all can smoothings.And, by using one-piece type fixed mould, add and can apply enough load man-hour.Even owing to the wall thickness of mould outlet side is set be equal to or less than entrance side wall thickness increased load, also can fully process.Consequently can obtain the good pipe of dimensional accuracy.Enlarged the size range of the production tube that can make by a tube blank size.
, in order stably to carry out punch process, must use the plug and the mould that satisfy the main points that inventors propose.These main points are meant, the angle that forms between the surface of the diameter shrinkage part of plug and the machining center axle (plug diameter shrinkage part angle) is 5~40 °, the length of this part (plug diameter shrinkage part length) is 5~100mm, and the angle (die angle) that forms between the internal surface of hole of die entrance side and the machining center axle is 5~40 °.And preferably the length (plug supporting part length) of plug supporting part is 5~200mm.Here, the machining center axle is meant, in the plug vertical with the diametric(al) cross section of plug and by this kernel of section the axle, the vertical axle that also passes through the center in this cross section with the diametric(al) cross section of die hole in the mould, supporting part is meant, the column part that is connected with the smallest diameter portion of diameter shrinkage part.
Regulation plug and mould the reasons are as follows as previously mentioned.
(plug diameter shrinkage part angle: 5~40 °)
When 5 ° of plug diameter shrinkage part angle less thaies, tend to and material (pipe) drawing simultaneously plug, on the other hand, when plug diameter shrinkage part angle surpassed 40 °, often plug and material were jammed in mould and can not carry out punch process.
(plug diameter shrinkage part length: 5~100mm)
When plug diameter shrinkage part curtailment 5mm, tend to and material drawing plug simultaneously, on the other hand, when plug diameter shrinkage part length surpassed 100mm, the frictional force between plug and the material increased, and often both are jammed in mould and can not carry out punch process.
(die angle: 5~40 °)
When 5 ° of die angle less thaies, plug is often to be absorbed in state and the material drawing simultaneously in the material, and on the other hand, when die angle surpassed 40 °, plug and material were often jammed in mould and can not carry out punch process.
(plug supporting part length: 5~200mm)
Because from the reaction force of material on the diameter shrinkage part and mould, the masterpiece that withdraws to the die entrance side is used on the plug, balance and the power to mould outlet side extruding plug of applying are so that plug is stable therewith.Supporting part can be set on plug, act on its lip-deep frictional force thereby utilize.According to inventors' research, help the fully stable of plug in order to make this frictional force, plug supporting part length should be 5~200mm.When plug supporting part curtailment 5mm, the frictional force deficiency of extruding plug, the reaction force of material and mould returns plug to the die entrance side pressure easily.On the other hand, when plug supporting part length surpassed 200mm, frictional force was excessive, became easily to mould outlet side extruding plug.Any position instability that all makes plug.
And, in the present invention, float by making plug, though with the angle of mould and plug, their complicated relevant punching press condition variations such as surface lubrication, also can make plug be positioned at the position that can obtain normally stable compressing stress state.And, when the wall thickness of setting the mould outlet side when the entrance side wall thickness is following because the stability of punch process further improves, thereby be preferred.
When carrying out punch process, increase owing to have the jammed load that in pipe, makes of plug, the bulged-in pipe of its result is buckled and situation about can not process, and therefore will carry out stable punch process and must prevent when not taking place as yet that pipe from buckling.Load when therefore, present inventors pay attention to punching press.That is, because the load of plug punch process direction when jammed enlarges markedly, thereby this load can carry out punching press when certain particular value is following, can not carry out punching press when surpassing this particular value, makes the punching press condition be varied to optimal condition certainly and gets final product.This particular value is called the punching press ultimate load.
In the time can not carrying out punching press, because bulged-in pipe is buckled, if by the formula setting punching press ultimate load of representing that pipe is buckled, then load can be stablized punching press when this ultimate load is following.Though the formula that known expression pipe is buckled is the Euler's formula of being tried to achieve by the spring rate of material, according to present inventors' research, the value and the actual phenomenon of expression depart from, and can not be suitable for fully.Therefore, the result who studies the different therewith various formula of buckling is that the formula 4 below finding can be represented actual phenomenon best.
(formula 4) σ k* pipe sectional area
Wherein
σ k=YS×(1-a×λ),
λ = ( L / n ) / k
a=0.00185-0.0155
L: pipe length,
K: cross section secondary radius,
k 2=(d 1 2+d 2 2)/16,
N: pipe end state (n=0.25~4)
d 1: the pipe external diameter,
d 2: the pipe internal diameter,
YS: pipe yield strength
In order stably to carry out punching press, when the load (measuring load) of the pressing direction of measuring is no more than the value (assumed (specified) load) of formula 4, can continue punching press in hold mode ground, when surpassing, can temporarily interrupt punching press, begin punching press again by the change condition.
, formula 4 is complicated slightly, when thinking to judge more simply, can use the following formula 5 that formula 4 is oversimplified.
(formula 5) pipe yield strength YS * pipe sectional area
Though formula 5 is represented the punching press ultimate load than the degree of formula 4 maximum increases 10%, present inventors think and can fully judge easily.
And, when the pipe of punch process too short (for example below the 0.2m),, also can use following formula 6 even perhaps buckle when also accelerating process velocity and making load increase to degree that mould do not break to process continuously etc. managing some.
Hot strength TS * pipe the sectional area of (formula 6) pipe
In addition, the assay method of said determination load (real load of punch process direction) preferably, the force cell that utilization is arranged on the punching press drift carries out method for measuring, or makes mould carry out method for measuring from the force cell that frame rises utilization and this mould one.
And, in measuring load surpasses with formula 4~6 during any assumed (specified) load that calculates, promptly ought be judged to be and can not add man-hour, its measure is, the temporary transient punch process of interrupting, mould and/or plug are replaced with other corresponding shape of identical production tube size after, begin processing again., can process same pipe here, therefore, can from the mould of setting same diameter reducing rate for and plug, select with the mould and/or the plug of corresponding other shape of identical production tube size.
And, in order to set more stable processing conditions,, think that the mould of replacing back use and the angle (with reference to Figure 10) of plug are suitable less than the angle before changing according to present inventors' research.
But, can change the kind that is coated on the lubricant on the pipe for more stable setting processing conditions.But, when the method application of lubricating the so-called lubricant that from easy angle pipe is immersed in the coating pan of utilization,, carry out kind with being difficult to high-frequency and change owing to spend time on the lubricant in changing coating pan etc.Therefore, as lubricant importantly, test the well behaved lubricant that selection can significantly reduce punch process direction load in advance.
In contrast to this, according to punching press of the present invention the time, as shown in Figure 1, plug 1 is packed in the pipe 4, be pressed into pipe 4 in the hole of mould 2 and it is passed through.Here, above-mentioned plug can wholecircle in machining gap inside week the contact tube inner surface, above-mentioned hole can wholecircle week in machining gap inside the contact tube outer surface.By the effect of the power that is pressed into 11 that applies at mould 2 entrance sides, all be that compression stress works in machining gap inside.Consequently, the arbitrary place of entrance side, outlet side in machining gap no matter, pipe 4 can fully contact with mould 2 with plug 1.And even slight diameter reducing rate because machining gap inside becomes compression stress, is compared with drawing, pipe is easy to fully contact with plug, pipe and mould, and pipe is easy to smoothing, can obtain tube with high dimensional accuracy.And when punching press, even diameter reducing rate is less, the pipe surfaces externally and internally also can smoothing, compares during with drawing, because machining deformation is less, the heat treatment load behind the undergauge also alleviates, and perhaps can omit heat treatment, reduces manufacturing cost.
Therefore, apparatus structure of the present invention, it is characterized in that, have: can wholecircle week contacting metal pipe 4 inner surfaces plug 1, have can the contact of wholecircle week with the mould 2 in the hole of the outer surface of pipe 4, extruding extruder 3 with pipe 4, can carry out following punching press: under the state of metal tube 4 that plug 1 is packed into, utilize extruder 3 that metal tube 4 is pressed into the hole of mould 2 and it is passed through.
And, in the punching press that utilizes existing rotary swager 8 shown in Figure 3, owing to use with the assembling die 9 of one-piece type mould in the circumferencial direction cutting, and make this assembling die 9 swing (shown in 12), the step discrepancy in elevation that generation is caused by cutting, perhaps be created in the heavily stressed inhomogeneous deformation that causes by the different mould rigidity of circumferencial direction down, therefore can not make wall thickness accuracy very good.In contrast, in the device that constitutes in practicable punching press of the present invention, mould has the hole of all contact tube outer surfaces of wholecircle in same cross section, make metal tube pass through the hole of above-mentioned mould, thereby the step discrepancy in elevation that can not utilize assembling die to produce fully, consequently, the surfaces externally and internally of pipe all can smoothing.
And, in the present invention, use one-piece type fixed mould.The method that is contained in the assembling die on the existing rotary swager with use is compared, and apparatus structure is more simple.Add and to apply sufficient load man-hour, be set at by wall thickness and equate with the wall thickness of die entrance side or below it,, also can fully process even load increases with outlet side.Finished product at wide region requires can access the remarkable good metal pipe of dimensional accuracy in the size range.
And, in the present invention, plug is floated.Even the punching press condition such as lubricated of complicated angle, mould and the mandrel surface that changes mould and plug, plug also can be positioned at the position of the stable compression stress that applies.Therefore, can access and stablize good dimensional accuracy.
And, in existing drawing, the front end of pipe must be attenuated and this part that stretches the single ground processing tube of having to.In contrast, in the present invention, because extruded tube, front end that will pipe attenuates, continuously extruded tube.If plug is floated, then punching press has continuously significantly improved productivity.And, more in short-term, use and carry out the intermittently tube extruding press of extruding action in the length of pipe, thus, can keep high productivity, can make tube with high dimensional accuracy.In addition, tube extruding press can support and the mid portion of extruded tube, end that also can extruded tube.
In needing the pipe of punching press, its finished size is diversified.In punching press, in order to change the finished product outside dimension, prepare the different mould of pass, when the outside dimension of each change finished product, mold exchange more.In addition, the pass size of mould is represented with diameter, angle, taper length usually.
But, the outside dimension of finished product is all inequality during in the small lot of ton at each minimum number, during each the change, the used mould in front must be unloaded, the mould that will use is installed then, for make the strictness of mould installation accuracy with ± 0.1mm is a unit, needs considerable time and labor.
In order to reduce lead-time and labour, present inventors propose, and can prepare the mould with the various passes of finished product outside dimension correspondence, and they are arranged, and order is changed.
Plug is packed in the pipe, plug is floated, be pressed in the mould aforementioned tube continuously or intermittently and make it pass through mould, in the manufacture method of the tube with high dimensional accuracy that carries out above-mentioned punching press, the different a plurality of arrangement of molds of pass are on same circumference.The pass mould corresponding with the target finished size moved in the circumferencial direction rotation of arranging, be configured in the roll line, be used for punching press.When after the target finished size of pipe and preceding pipe not simultaneously, the same rotation of mould of pass and external diameter of pipe size correspondence is moved, be configured in the roll line, so that can be used for punching press.
An example as shown in figure 11, utilize with a plurality of moulds 2,20 ..., 20 be arranged in the form supporting on the same circumference and carry at circumferencial direction make pipe 4 moulds that pass through 2, will manage extruder 3 in 4 moulds 2 that are pressed in the roll line and a plurality of mould 2,20 ..., 20.Use has the device of the mould turntable 19 that disposes any mould 2 in roll line and can implement easily.
And in another example, also a plurality of arrangement of molds that can pass is different make in these moulds any corresponding with product size and move in the rectilinear direction of arranging on same straight line, are used for punching press in the roll line to be configured in.
As shown in figure 12, utilize with a plurality of moulds 2,20 ..., 20 be arranged in the form supporting on the same straight line and carry the mould 2 that is connected with pipe 4 in rectilinear direction, will manage extruder 3 in 4 moulds 2 that are pressed in the roll line and a plurality of mould 2,20 ..., 20.Use has the device that the mould that disposes any mould 2 in roll line directly advances platform 19 and can implement easily.
And, also must efficient carry out plug well and pack into.In die change, if also can easily change plug, then efficient further improves.Because the plug 1 that is used for last time processing is stayed in the mould, will remove in die change.The necessary plug 22 of next time processing can be packed into when mould exchanges and be got final product in the pipe.
For this reason, in any of the invention described above the 1st and the 2nd method, when change finished size between preceding pipe and back pipe, after preceding pipe punching press is finished, make the back pipe stop at the die entrance side.With the mobile front and back of the corresponding mould of finished size of back pipe or in moving, plug 22 that will the be corresponding back pipe of packing into this finished size.Thus, can not only efficient mold exchange and can change plug efficiently goodly more.
When carrying out punch process, the pipe of mould outlet side is crooked easily.Because pipe can not become finished product once crooked, therefore need not make the process technology of canal curvature.In existing drawing and since clamp the mould outlet side pipe front end and apply pulling force and process by root, working (machining) efficiency is low, but owing at drawing direction guiding tube, is not easy to bend.But when punching press, the pipe of mould outlet side is automatically motion, because the thickness of pipe wall precision before the machining accuracy of mould, processing or the lubricated inhomogeneous state of surface state, mould and plug etc., pipe is bending easily.Therefore, strong request prevents the technology of the canal curvature of mould outlet side.
Therefore, present inventors, at the bending of pipe after the punching press, the entrance side, the outlet side that have carried out at mould are provided with the experiment that guide cylinder comes guiding tube to pass through thus.When the arbitrary place in die entrance side, outlet side was provided with guide cylinder, pipe became and is difficult to bending, when all being provided with at two places, and the Guan Gengnan bending, and also the position of guide cylinder is difficult to bending more near the mould outlet side more.
Thereby, can guide cylinder be set near die entrance side and mould outlet side place.That is, can be arranged on mould outlet side and very near the position of mould.But, known bending direction difference owing to pipe, this can not fully prevent bending.For how and fully the bending direction regardless of pipe prevents bending, the gap between tube outer surface and the guide cylinder inner surface must almost be made as zero.But when setting like this, know to exist pipe and guide cylinder too to contact the problem that generation defective or stamping press enlarge markedly.
Present inventors learn that canal curvature is beginning near mould outlet side place.Promptly, because the thickness of pipe wall precision before the machining accuracy of mould, the processing or the lubricated inhomogeneous state of surface state, mould and plug etc., on pipe, produce residual stress, because this residual stress being discharged suddenly near mould outlet side place, bends certainly easily.Therefore, if, just can fully prevent canal curvature at the device that the bending direction that can finely tune homogeneous tube is set near mould outlet side place.
The result that present inventors study with keen determination is, near mould outlet side place the canal curvature micro-adjusting device is set above-mentioned, this device has the supporting substrates of the pass that allows pipe pass through, the above-mentioned pass of mobile-bearing in the plane vertical with the siphunculus direction and is bearing in the pass travel mechanism that above-mentioned pass is moved.By utilizing above-mentioned pass travel mechanism to make above-mentioned pass minute movement in above-mentioned supporting substrates, the position of the above-mentioned pass of inching in advance in the plane vertical with the siphunculus direction, pass through above-mentioned pass by the pipe that makes above-mentioned mould outlet side, can fully prevent canal curvature.
For inching pass position, for example, before actual production, repeatedly carry out the punch process experiment that multiple spot changes the pass position with standard pipe, measure canal curvature, obtain the relation between the canal curvature change amount after the change amount of pass position and the punching press.When actual production, when canal curvature will surpass defined threshold, method was preferably, according to above-mentioned relation pass is moved to the orientation that bending diminishes.
As pass travel mechanism, mode is preferably, by means of the conical surface that for example utilizes screw rod at the wedge metal mould of siphunculus direction motion, in a position or two above positions of the direction pushing pass peripheral part vertical with the siphunculus direction.Perhaps, mode is preferably, for example, utilizes fluid pressure cylinder (oil hydraulic cylinder, air cylinder etc.), directly pushes a position or two above positions of pass peripheral part in the direction vertical with the siphunculus direction.
When the aperture of pass is set at more than or equal to the mould outlet aperture, in the punch process process, preferably can there be jammed ground processing tube sleekly in the mould outlet side.Especially and since when the pass aperture be that mould outlet aperture+0mm carries out inching to mould outlet aperture+3mm the time easily, thereby more preferred.In addition, the hole of pass can be a straight hole, also can be the hole that has taper.
In addition, certainly on supporting substrates, in the position that the path with the pipe that comes out from mould intersects, setting has the ample clearance so that the big hollow bulb that pipe can pass through.
And, when guide cylinder that pipe that enters mould and/or the pipe that comes out from the canal curvature micro-adjusting device are passed through, pipe generally perpendicularly enters mould and/or generally perpendicularly comes out from the canal curvature micro-adjusting device, therefore, can easily prevent canal curvature more, thus preferred.
And, in the present invention, preferably send continuously and manage and be pressed in the mould.By sending pipe continuously, and to compare with process singlely, frictional heat that mould or plug are subjected to or processing heat are stably, therefore further prevent bending easily.In addition, in punching press, being used to when not needing as drawing makes the drawbench of mould outlet side clamp the interface processing of pipe front end, and therefore, the form that can utilize follow-up pipe front end to push first line pipe tail end is sent into continuously, can enhance productivity.
Under the situation of existing drawing, in order to obtain high dimensional accuracy, need apply sufficient lubricating film, be lubricated good adhesion process for this reason.In the method, in advance pipe is carried out pickling to remove descale, carry out alkali cleaning again, wash again for this acid that neutralizes.Then, pipe is immersed in the groove that carries out adhesion process, forms lubricating film, continue to be immersed in the metallic soap groove and form film, utilize the heated-air drying pipe then.Therefore, the time more than these operations need a few hours, when these operations being enrolled in the equipment group of carrying out pipe drawing, can significantly hinder productivity, therefore to handle in other operation.
In contrast to this, according to punch process, even because the less high dimensional accuracy that also obtains easily of diameter reducing rate, the lubricated of pipe can be simple.That is, also can not pickling pipe, as long as heated-air drying is just passable behind the dip coated lubricant.Yet in order to carry out punching press continuously, the squareness of the end face of pipe is necessary, and the grinding attachment that is used to form this squareness is necessary.
During before punch process these are handled, according to the squareness of pipe end face form, lubricant impregnation coating, dry order and be full blast.From these viewpoints, in the present invention, the cross grinding of pipe is become to be coated on the lubricant impregnation coating pan on the pipe with the rectangular pipe end face of tube axial direction grinding attachment, with lubricant impregnation and to make the drying device of the pipe drying that is coated with lubricant is configured in press-working apparatus by said sequence entrance side as the equipment group, and tube with high dimensional accuracy is made on the energy efficiency highland.
And, because it is more efficient directly to carry out the formation of pipe end face squareness after pipe is cut to short size, in equipment group of the present invention, preferably will be configured in the shearing device that pipe is cut into short size the entrance side of aforementioned tube face grinding device.
And, as lubricant, if be suitable for easily by the dry lubricant that forms film, then be substituted in the punch process entrance side and carry out dip coated and next dry way, also can carry out drying again spraying near the die entrance side place in the press-working apparatus, perhaps, if lubricity is better, also can omit drying, under wet state, carry out pipe is carried out punch process.Therefore, replace above-mentioned lubricant impregnation coating pan and above-mentioned drying device, in equipment group of the present invention, also can lubricant is sprayed on the lubricant spray equipment on the pipe or lubricant is sprayed on Guan Shanghou and make its dry lubricant spraying drying device in the configuration of the die entrance side of above-mentioned press-working apparatus.
And, in order to improve punch process efficient more, preferably can easily online more mold exchange, plug, and, be preferably in the mould outlet side and make pipe not crooked.From these viewpoints, in equipment group of the present invention, be preferably in when above-mentioned press-working apparatus is set, configuration change above-mentioned mould die-changing apparatus, change above-mentioned plug plug more changing device, prevent in the curved anti locking apparatus of canal curvature of above-mentioned mould outlet side one or more.
Mould (perhaps plug) more changing device preferably constitutes, and arranges and keeps the mould (or plug) of a plurality of different sizes (and/or shape) in proper order by use, and can sequentially mould (or plug) be transferred on the interior position of the stylet that is configured in regulation.The curved anti locking apparatus preferably constitutes, and for example, use has the movable disc of pipe through-hole etc., can act on and the rightabout power of the direction of aforementioned tube bending the pipe near mould outlet side place.
In addition, no matter be to use punching press among the existing drawing of using or the present invention, because the pipe of pickled surface after many times needing to process, dispatch from the factory after can utilizing other operation pickling.When drawing, form the strong film of lubricant during for the adhesion process before processing, need the pickling pipe, continue drawing processing after, in order to remove lubricant pickling again, thereby have to carry out twice pickling.In contrast to this, when punching press, the lubricated before the processing is simple, owing to can be the state that adheres to oxide skin, thereby can become the high equipment group of cheapness and efficient with lubricated in linearize and enroll the equipment group.
Embodiment 1
Below, enumerate embodiment and further specify the present invention.
In embodiment 1.1, the steel pipe of external diameter 40mm * wall thickness 6mm is implemented the punch process of mode shown in Figure 1.Use the face that contacts with pipe internal surface to be the plug of minute surface and the mould that makes the face that contacts with tube outer surface as minute surface, and mould is one-piece type fixed mould here.Plug one end fixed and the pipe of packing in.Processing conditions is outlet side wall thickness=entrance side wall thickness, diameter reducing rate=10%.
In embodiment 1.2, except that diameter reducing rate=5%, similarly process with embodiment 1.1.
In embodiment 1.3,, similarly process with embodiment 1.2 except that making plug floats.
And, as a comparative example 1, except the drawing in mode shown in Figure 2 replaces the punching press of mode shown in Figure 1 and makes the outlet side thickness of slab less than the entrance side thickness of slab, similarly process with embodiment 1.2.
And, as a comparative example 2, remove that assembling die with mode shown in Figure 3 replaces one-piece type fixed mould and its rotary swager of packing into made its swing and use, and, similarly process with embodiment 1.2 with being pressed into outside the replacement punching press.
And, as a comparative example 3, except that processing conditions be outlet side wall thickness=entrance side wall thickness+1mm (=7mm), similarly process with comparative example 2.
Try to achieve the above-mentioned three dimensional accuracy indexs of these steel pipes after undergauge is processed, simultaneously, these steel pipes are supplied in fatigue test.It the results are shown in the table 1.
In addition, try to achieve external diameter shown in the table 1 and internal diameter deviation by the mensuration of using above-mentioned laser, by the circumferencial direction of these determination datas distribute poor, obtain with circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation in the table.
And, as shown in Figure 4, make stress certain and try to achieve in the test of the number of repetition (being durability times) that crackle takes place, make stress level that various variations take place, with the relation of stress and durability times with illustrating, the endurance number of times of fatigue test shown in the table 1 is meant, in the drawings, and along with the increase stress of durability times begins to change to roughly regularly the durability times of yield point by downward trend.This value is big more, and fatigue strength is good more.That is in this embodiment, be the durability times of stress when being about 150MPa.
According to table 1, the dimensional accuracy of the production tube of embodiment 1.1~1.3 is obviously good, and fatigue strength is also best, particularly dimensional accuracy better (embodiment 1.3) when plug is floated.In contrast, in existing drawing, the dimensional accuracy of production tube is low, and consequently fatigue strength also significantly reduces (comparative example 1).Even use being pressed into of rotary swager, the dimensional accuracy of production tube is low (comparative example 2) also, and when increasing wall thickness, dimensional accuracy poorer (comparative example 3) can not obtain sufficient fatigue strength.
Embodiment 2
As example of the present invention, steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6mmt * 5.5mmL is a blank, use the plug and the one-piece type fixed mould of minute surface, plug is floated and the steel pipe of packing in, push steel pipe with 5% diameter reducing rate from the die entrance side, make the thickness of steel pipe of mould outlet side identical, be all 6mmt, implement punching press with the die entrance side.In addition, use the intermittent delivery machine of form shown in Figure 7 as the pipe feeder, so that in mould, send into pipe continuously.
And, as a comparative example 1, carry out the drawing of Fig. 2 form.In this embodiment, make blank with same steel pipe, use same plug and mould, plug is packed in the steel pipe, from mould outlet layback steel pipe, the thickness of steel pipe of mould outlet side is reduced to 5.5mmt with same diameter reducing rate.
And, as a comparative example 2, carry out the swaging plunging of the mode of Fig. 3 A, 3B.In this embodiment, make blank, use rotary swager with same steel pipe, this rotary swager replaces above-mentioned one-piece type fixed mould with assembling die, same plug is packed in the steel pipe, be rotated to forge with same diameter reducing rate and be pressed into, the thickness of steel pipe of this forging machine outlet side is increased to 7mmt.
Measure these dimensional accuracies (outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation) with the steel pipe of each routine method manufacturing, and the research working (machining) efficiency.It the results are shown in the table 2.In addition, the cross section of the circumferencial direction by the graphical analysis pipe calculates and just round deviation at circumferencial direction, tries to achieve outside diameter tolerance and internal diameter deviation thus.And the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation of conduct with respect to the maximum deviation of average wall thickness according to the image in wall thickness cross section, directly measured in the circumferencial direction cross section of graphical analysis pipe.
According to table 2, utilize the steel pipe sizes precision of stamped of example of the present invention significantly good, working (machining) efficiency is also good.In contrast, the steel pipe sizes precision of utilizing the drawing of comparative example 1 to make is low.And it is also low to utilize the swaging of comparative example 2 to be pressed into the steel pipe sizes precision of manufacturing.And drawing, swaging are pressed into working (machining) efficiency and all obviously reduce.
Embodiment 3
(comparative example 3.1) has the electric welded steel pipe of the φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL of hot rolling oxide skin by following conditions A finished surface by punching press shown in Figure 1.
(condition A) plug: the plug of minute surface packed into makes in the steel pipe it float
Mould: one-piece type fixed mould
Diameter reducing rate: 5%
Mould outlet side thickness of steel pipe: 6.0mmt (=entrance side wall thickness)
(example 3.1 of the present invention) steel pipe is the same, at the inside and outside two surface coating liquid body lubricants (mineral oil) of pipe, after forming lubricated tunicle, similarly processes with comparative example 1.
(example 3.2 of the present invention) steel pipe is the same, at the inside and outside two surface coating lubricating grease series lubricant agents (molybdenum bisuphide being added in the agent of Li class grease lubrication) of pipe, after forming lubricated tunicle, similarly processes with comparative example 1.
(example 3.3 of the present invention) steel pipe is the same, and is dry in the hot blast (about 200 ℃) at the inside and outside two surface coating drying property resins (poly-alkyls resin) of pipe, after forming lubricated tunicle, similarly processes with comparative example 1.
(example 3.4 of the present invention) steel pipe is the same, is coated on the liquid of dilution drying property resin (poly-alkyls resin) in the solvent (acetone) on inside and outside two surfaces of pipe, behind the lubricated tunicle of dry formation, similarly processes with comparative example 1 in warm wind (about 50 ℃).
(example 3.5 of the present invention) steel pipe is the same, is coated with on inside and outside two surfaces of pipe to make drying property resin (poly-alkyls resin) be dispersed in the latex in the decentralized medium (water), behind the lubricated tunicle of dry formation, similarly processes with comparative example 1 in warm wind (about 70 ℃).
(comparative example 3.2) steel pipe is the same, at the identical fluid lubricant of the inside and outside two surface coatings of steel pipe and example of the present invention 1, form lubricate tunicle after, process by following conditions B by cold drawn method shown in Figure 2.
(condition B) plug, mould, diameter reducing rate: identical with condition A respectively
Mould outlet side thickness of steel pipe: 5.5mmt (<entrance side wall thickness)
(comparative example 3.3) steel pipe is the same, at the identical fluid lubricant of the inside and outside two surface coatings of steel pipe and example of the present invention 1, form lubricate tunicle after, process by following condition C by swaging plunging shown in Figure 3.
(condition C) plug: A is identical with condition
Mould: assembling die
Diameter reducing rate: A is identical with condition
Mould outlet side thickness of steel pipe: 7.0mm (>entrance side wall thickness)
The steel pipe that utilizes above-mentioned each routine method to make is measured surface defect states and dimensional accuracy (outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, wall thickness deviation), the results are shown in table 3.In addition, the cross section of the circumferencial direction by the graphical analysis pipe calculates and just round maximum deviation (i.e. (maximum gauge-minimum diameter)/just circular diameter * 100%) at circumferencial direction, and tries to achieve outside diameter tolerance and internal diameter deviation.And the wall thickness deviation of conduct with respect to the maximum deviation (i.e. (thickest-minimum wall thickness (MINI W.))/average wall thickness * 100%) of average wall thickness directly measured according to the image in wall thickness cross section in the circumferencial direction cross section of graphical analysis pipe.
According to table 3, under lubricating condition, carry out in the example of the present invention of punching press, all there is not the steel tube surface after processing to produce defective fully, can obtain favorable surface quality, dimensional accuracy is also significantly good.In contrast, carry out under unlubricated condition in the comparative example 1 of punching press, the steel tube surface after processing has produced defective.In the comparative example of being processed by cold drawn method under lubricating condition 2, dimensional accuracy is low.In the comparative example of being processed by the swaging plunging under lubricating condition 3, dimensional accuracy is lower.
In addition, in the present embodiment, though show the so-called two-sided lubricated situation that forms lubricated tunicle on inside and outside two surfaces of pipe, but can be clear and definite, the invention is not restricted to this, be also included within either party in inner surface, the outer surface and go up the lubricated situation of so-called single face that forms lubricated tunicle,, can prevent from effectively on the surface of a side that forms lubricating film, to produce defective even when single face is lubricated.
(embodiment 4)
Steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a blank, according to the present invention who schematically illustrates among Fig. 1 (use can expander and the punching press of the plug of undergauge) this pipe is carried out expander processing and the processing of undergauge subsequently.The target wall thickness of mould outlet side is identical with entrance side, is 6.0mmt.Make the plug after the mirror finish unsteady in pipe.The mould that uses is that the die hole inner surface is carried out one-piece type fixed mould after the mirror finish.The target outer diameter D 2 of the pipe of the angle of taper θ A of pipe expanding rate, diameter reducing rate, enlarged tube portion and the diameter shrinkage part of plug and θ B, mould outlet side (behind the undergauge) is set at the value shown in the table 4 to each example that carries out.Continuously to the mould supply pipe.
(Comparative examples A)
Pipe is the same, with cold drawn method shown in Figure 2 (can only undergauge) undergauge processing pipe.The target wall thickness of mould outlet side is identical with entrance side, is 6.0mmt.Make the plug after the mirror finish unsteady in pipe.The mould that uses is that the die hole inner surface is carried out one-piece type fixed mould after the mirror finish.The target external diameter of the pipe of the diameter reducing rate of plug and mould outlet side is set at the value shown in the table 4 to each example that carries out.Continuously to the mould supply pipe.
(comparative example B)
Pipe is the same, with swaging plunging shown in Figure 3 (can only undergauge) undergauge processing pipe.The target wall thickness of mould outlet side is identical with entrance side, is 6.0mmt.Make the plug after the mirror finish unsteady in pipe.The mould that uses is that the die hole inner surface is carried out assembling die after the minute surface fine finishining.It is the value shown in the table 4 that the target external diameter of the pipe of the diameter reducing rate of plug and mould outlet side is set each example that carries out.Continuously to the mould supply pipe.
To the steel pipe size up precision (outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, wall thickness deviation) of utilizing above-mentioned each routine condition to make.The cross section of the circumferencial direction by the graphical analysis pipe calculates and just round maximum deviation (i.e. (maximum gauge-minimum diameter)/just circular diameter * 100%) at circumferencial direction, tries to achieve outside diameter tolerance and internal diameter deviation.And the wall thickness deviation of conduct with respect to the maximum deviation (i.e. (thickest-minimum wall thickness (MINI W.))/average wall thickness * 100%) of average wall thickness according to the image in wall thickness cross section, directly measured in the circumferencial direction cross section of graphical analysis pipe.And, measure cross section hardness as the degree of finish index.And,, adopt the mean outside diameter and the average wall thickness of the pipe after the processing of when measuring above-mentioned dimensional accuracy, obtaining as being used to judge the index that whether obtains the pipe of certain size after the processing.These the results are shown in the table 4.
According to table 4, in example of the present invention, the dimensional accuracy after the processing is all obviously good, by the combination of change plug and mould, can obtain certain size and the different pipe of degree of finish by the pipe of same size.In contrast, in comparative example, when dimensional accuracy is low, obtain the different pipe of degree of finish, then can not obtain the external diameter or the wall thickness of certain size by the pipe of same size.In addition, satisfying θ A<θ B, in either party or two sides' the example of the present invention, the quick condition of the plug in the pipe is more stable among D2<D0.
In addition, pipe expanding rate a (%)=(D1-D0)/D1 * 100
Diameter reducing rate b (%)=(D1-D2)/D1 * 100
Embodiment 5
(example 5.1~5.4 of the present invention)
As pipe, use the plug and the one-piece type fixed mould of minute surface with the electric welded steel pipe of external diameter 40mm * wall thickness 6mm, punch process shown in Figure 1 is carried out in examination.The plug that uses and the shape condition (plug reducing diameter part angle, plug reducing diameter part length, plug support length, die angle) of mould are shown in Table 5.Plug is floated in pipe.The thickness of pipe wall of mould outlet side is set at 5mm.
(comparative example 5.1~5.4)
With with the present invention example with batch steel pipe as pipe, the shape condition that changes employed plug and mould is as shown in table 5, similarly tries to carry out punch process with example of the present invention in addition.
(conventional example 5.1)
With with the present invention example with batch steel pipe as pipe, use the plug and the one-piece type fixed mould of minute surface, process according to cold drawn method examination shown in Figure 2.The plug that uses and the shape condition of mould are shown in Table 5.Plug is floated in pipe.The wall thickness of mould outlet side is set at 5mm.
(conventional example 5.2)
With with the present invention example with batch steel pipe as pipe, use the plug of minute surface and the rotary swager of assembling die be housed, process according to the examination of the swaging plunging shown in Fig. 3 A, Fig. 3 B.The plug that uses and the shape condition of mould are shown in Table 5.Plug is floated in pipe.The thickness of pipe wall of mould outlet side thickens 7mm.
The dimensional accuracy (outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, wall thickness deviation) of the production tube that could make and measure in the time can making with above-mentioned each routine method is shown in Table 5.Here, the cross section of the circumferencial direction of graphical analysis pipe calculates and just round maximum deviation (i.e. (maximum gauge-minimum diameter)/positive circular diameter * 100%) at circumferencial direction, tries to achieve outside diameter tolerance and internal diameter deviation.And the wall thickness deviation as the maximum deviation (i.e. (thickest-minimum wall thickness (MINI W.))/average wall thickness * 100%) of relative average wall thickness according to the image in wall thickness cross section, is directly measured in the circumferencial direction cross section of graphical analysis pipe.
According to table 5, in example of the present invention, can stably finish punching press, its production tube dimensional accuracy is significantly good.In contrast, in arbitrary comparative example, all punch process can not be finished, production tube can not be obtained.And in the prior embodiment, the dimensional accuracy of production tube that can finish processing is low.
Embodiment 6
(embodiment 6.1)
Steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL, YS400MPa is a blank, in mode shown in Figure 10, carries out the manufacturing of tube with high dimensional accuracy according to the punch process that diameter reducing rate is set at 13%.At the mould of making 21 ° of initial stage use angles and the plug of 21 ° of angles and taper length 11mm.Plug is floated in pipe.By pipe being immersed in the lubricant in the coating pan application of lubricating on each pipe before processing.In lubricant, use polymeric lubricant by the rapid-drying properties solvent dilution.
Work in-process is often measured the load of pressing direction with above-mentioned assay method, and the limit is its measuring load and the assumed (specified) load that calculates with above-mentioned formula 4 relatively, and punching press is carried out on the limit.In addition, in the formula routine 4 about this, as the value of a and n, use be the fit value of testing derivation in advance, a=0.00185, n=1 (is that the situation of free rotation state is corresponding with the pipe end state).
In the processing way of certain root pipe,, be judged as and continue processing because measuring load surpasses assumed (specified) load, processing is interrupted, and changes processing conditions then, promptly, the mould that die change is angled 11 °, and plug is replaced by the plug of 11 ° of angles, taper length 20mm.After this replacing, begin processing again, can finish the processing of remaining many pipes not difficultly.
In addition, when above-mentioned replacing and processing when beginning again, cut off and separate the die entrance side part and the mould outlet side part of the pipe in the processing way that enters in the mould that uses earlier, the plug that uses earlier is housed in the pipe, the mould that uses earlier that will comprise the mould inside part of pipe takes off from the installation site of regulation, then, the mould of back use is installed in the erecting device of same regulation, the plug that the back is used is packed in the pipe of the same size of back processing usefulness, identical YS, begins processing again.And the mould outlet side part of the above-mentioned pipe that has separated can be used as finished product.The die entrance sidepiece of this pipe is divided into waste material.
(comparative example 6.1)
To be pipe, in mode shown in Figure 10, carry out the manufacturing of tube with high dimensional accuracy according to the punch process that diameter reducing rate is set at 13% with embodiment 6.1 identical steel pipes.At the mould of making 21 ° of initial stage use angles and the plug of 21 ° of angles and taper length 20mm.Plug is floated in pipe.By pipe being immersed in the lubricant in the coating pan, to each the pipe application of lubricating before processing.In lubricant, use polymeric lubricant by the rapid-drying properties solvent dilution.
Work in-process does not carry out the mensuration of pressing direction load, and the condition change when unusual relies on operating personnel's judgement.
In the processing on the way of certain root pipe, because mold breakdown is interrupted processing, change and preliminary phase mould and plug together, and, the lubricant in the lubricant applying groove is all replaced to the bigger polymeric lubricant by the rapid-drying properties solvent dilution of molecular weight.Thereafter begin to add man-hour again, calculate when beginning again, in the processing way of certain root pipe, mould breaks once more.Therefore, interrupt processing, following change processing conditions.That is, the mould that die change is angled 11 °, and plug is replaced by the plug of 11 ° of angles, taper length 20mm.After this replacing, begin processing again, can finish the processing of remaining a plurality of pipes not difficultly.
(comparative example 6.2)
To be pipe, carry out the manufacturing of tube with high dimensional accuracy according to the drawing processing that diameter reducing rate is set at 13% with embodiment 6.1 identical steel pipes.At the mould of making 21 ° of initial stage use angles and the plug of 21 ° of angles and taper length 20mm.Plug is floated in pipe.Each pipe before processing is carried out adhesion process and coating metal soap, simultaneously, be implemented in the interface processing (this interface processing does not need) of pipe front end necessary in the drawing in punching press.
Work in-process does not carry out the mensuration of drawing direction load, and the condition change when unusual relies on operating personnel's judgement.
In the processing way of certain root pipe, because mold breakdown is interrupted processing, following change processing conditions.That is, the mould that die change is angled 11 °, and plug is replaced by the plug of 11 ° of angles, taper length 20mm.After this replacing, begin processing again, can finish the processing of remaining many pipes not difficultly.
At embodiment and comparative example, with change condition in the processing way, the investigation result of the dimensional accuracy of the loss in process time and the man-hour of adding and finished product is shown in Table 6 simultaneously relatively.Relatively process time is with the ratio value representation of each example needed time of processing (always process time/always process radical) with comparative example 1.Dimensional accuracy is represented with wall thickness deviation and outside diameter tolerance.According to the data that the circumferencial direction cross section of image analysis pipe obtains, try to achieve these deviations, wall thickness deviation is as trying to achieve with respect to the value of average wall thickness, and outside diameter tolerance is as trying to achieve with respect to just justifying the value of (target external diameter).
As shown in Table 6, can stably make tube with high dimensional accuracy expeditiously by the present invention.
Embodiment 7
Below enumerate embodiment and be described more specifically the present invention.
The device of embodiment 7.1 is the device that plug 1, mould 2, tube extruding press 3 are combined by Fig. 1.The face that described plug contacts with pipe internal surface is made minute surface, its arrival end diameter 28mm, central portion diameter 30mm, port of export diameter 28mm; Described mould is one-piece type fixed mould, and internal surface of hole is made minute surface, hole exits diameter 40mm; Described tube extruding press is made of oil hydraulic cylinder, and according to all movable pattern under the arbitrary pattern of setting in " continuously extruded " and " intermittently extruding " extruding force is acted on the pipe.Plug 1 adopts an end to pack into regularly and manages interior fixed plug, and the pattern of tube extruding press 3 is set at " intermittently extruding ".Use this device to carry out the punching press of the carbon steel pipe of external diameter 40mm * wall thickness 6mm, obtain the production tube of external diameter 38mm * wall thickness 6mm.
In embodiment 7.2,, obtain the production tube of external diameter 38mm * wall thickness 6mm except that plug replaces the fixed plug with floating mandrel and embodiment 7.1 carbon steel pipe of punching press external diameter 40mm * wall thickness 6mm in the same manner.
In embodiment 7.3,, obtain the production tube of external diameter 38mm * wall thickness 6mm except that the setting of the pattern of tube extruding press 3 switches to " continuously extruded " by " intermittently extruding " and embodiment 7.2 carbon steel pipe of punching press external diameter 40mm * wall thickness 6mm in the same manner.
And, as a comparative example 1, its formation is to make plug 5, mould 6, bench 7 device by Fig. 2 combination.The face that described plug contacts with pipe internal surface is made minute surface, its arrival end diameter 28mm, central portion diameter 28mm, port of export diameter 26mm; Described mould is one-piece type fixed mould, and internal surface of hole is made minute surface, hole exits diameter 38mm; Described bench is made of oil hydraulic cylinder, and can pulling capacity be acted on the pipe with the pattern of " intermittently drawing " pattern action according to what set.Plug 5 adopts an end to pack into regularly and manages interior fixed plug.Use this device to carry out the punching press of the carbon steel pipe of external diameter 40mm * wall thickness 7mm, obtain the production tube of external diameter 38mm * wall thickness 6mm.In addition, in comparative example 1, the steel pipe front end is narrowed down to take some time by die hole afterwards.
And, as a comparative example 2, remove with replacing plug 1 with comparative example 1 identical plug 5, replace mould 2 to constitute beyond the device shown in Figure 3 with being assembled in assembling die 9 (the hole exits diameter of its outlet side internal diameter and mould 2 is identical) in the rotary swager 8, with embodiment 7.1 carbon steel pipe of punching press external diameter 40mm * wall thickness 5mm similarly, obtain the production tube of external diameter 38mm * wall thickness 6mm.
Measure the results are shown in the table 7 of dimensional accuracy of these production tubes.In addition, the assay method of each deviation of the circumferencial direction wall thickness shown in the table 7, internal diameter, external diameter is as described below.
Make micrometer contact tube outer surface (perhaps inner surface), make the pipe rotation,, calculate as external diameter (perhaps internal diameter) deviation with respect to just round maximum deviation by external diameter (perhaps internal diameter) the circumferencial direction distributed data of measuring.According to the image in wall thickness cross section, directly measure the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation of conduct with respect to the maximum deviation of target wall thickness.In addition, also can replace making the micrometer contact with laser irradiation, the distance by the pipe measured and laser vibration source calculates outside diameter tolerance and internal diameter deviation at the distributed data of circumferencial direction.And the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation also can be used as the differing from of circumferencial direction distributed data of the circumferencial direction distributed data of above-mentioned external diameter and above-mentioned internal diameter and calculates.
In addition, as the wall thickness deviation of giving a definition (=circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation), internal diameter deviation, outside diameter tolerance.
Wall thickness deviation=(thickest-minimum wall thickness (MINI W.))/target wall thickness (or average wall thickness) * 100 (%)
Internal diameter deviation=(maximum inner diameter-minimum diameter)/target internal diameter (or mean inside diameter) * 100 (%)
Outside diameter tolerance=(maximum outside diameter-minimum outer diameter)/target external diameter (or mean outside diameter) * 100 (%)
According to table 7, significantly good by the production tube dimensional accuracy that the device of embodiment 7.1~7.3 is made, when plug is floated better (embodiment 7.2), even and connect the production tube (embodiment 7.3) that punching press also can obtain high dimensional accuracy.In contrast, in existing drawing, the dimensional accuracy of production tube low (comparative example 7.1).Even with being pressed into of rotary swager, the dimensional accuracy of production tube is low (comparative example 7.2) also.
Embodiment 8
(example 8.1 of the present invention)
Steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a pipe, as shown in figure 11, on mould turntable 19, assemble the corresponding mould 2 of finished size a plurality of and each pipe according to predetermined pipe processing sequence, 20,20, then, the mould 2 corresponding with the finished size of preceding pipe 4 is configured in the roll line, after preceding pipe 4 being pressed into mould 2 and finishing punch process with extruder 3, make 19 rotations of mould turntable with a plurality of moulds of sequentially-fed, more mold exchange 2, the mould 20 corresponding with the finished product outside dimension of back pipe 7 is configured in the roll line, at this moment, before being configured in mould 20 in the roll line, plug 22 packed in the back pipe 5, then, inciting somebody to action afterwards with extruder 3, pipe 7 is pressed in the mould 20 and carries out punch process.Repeat aforesaid operations, produce the tube with high dimensional accuracy of various finished sizes.
(example 8.2 of the present invention)
Steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a pipe, as shown in figure 12, mould directly advance on the platform 23 according to the corresponding mould 2,20 of predetermined pipe processing sequence assembling finished size a plurality of and each pipe ..., 20, then, the mould 2 corresponding with the finished size of preceding pipe 4 is configured in the roll line, after preceding pipe 4 being pressed into mould 2 and finishing punch process with extruder 3, make mould directly advance platform 23 straight ahead with a plurality of moulds of sequentially-fed, more mold exchange 2, and the mould 20 corresponding with the finished product outside dimension of back pipe 7 is configured in the roll line.At this moment, before being configured in mould 20 in the roll line, plug 22 packed in the back pipe 5.Then, inciting somebody to action afterwards with extruder 3, pipe 7 is pressed in the mould 20 and carries out punch process.Repeat aforesaid operations, produce the tube with high dimensional accuracy of various finished sizes.
(comparative example 8.1)
Steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a pipe, prepares the mould of a plurality of different passes, carries out punching press as shown in figure 13.The mould 2 that uses during with beginning is configured in the roll line, at first, with extruder 3 preceding pipe 4 is pressed into mould 2 and finishes punch process.Secondly, manual more mold exchange 2 is configured in the mould 20 corresponding with the finished product outside dimension of back pipe 7 in the roll line.At this moment, before being configured in mould 20 in the roll line, plug 22 packed in the back pipe 7.Then, inciting somebody to action afterwards with extruder 3, pipe 7 is pressed in the mould 20 and carries out punch process.Repeat aforesaid operations, produce the tube with high dimensional accuracy of various finished sizes.
(comparative example 8.2)
Steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a pipe, prepares the mould of a plurality of different passes, carries out punching press as shown in figure 13.The mould 2 that uses during with beginning is configured in the roll line, at first, with extruder 3 preceding pipe 4 is pressed into mould 2 and finishes punch process.Secondly, manual more mold exchange 2 is configured in the mould 20 corresponding with the finished product outside dimension of back pipe 7 in the roll line.At this moment, back pipe 7 temporarily moves to outside the roll line, and plug 22 is packed into, and afterwards, back pipe 7 returns in the roll line.Then, inciting somebody to action afterwards with extruder 3, pipe 7 is pressed in the mould 20 and carries out punch process.Repeat aforesaid operations, produce the tube with high dimensional accuracy of various finished sizes.
The present invention's example and the working (machining) efficiency of comparative example and the dimensional accuracy of finished product are shown in Table 8.Steel pipe punching press radical with the fundamental operation time is estimated working (machining) efficiency, in table 8, is 1 with the working (machining) efficiency of comparative example 2, with and its relative value represent.Represent dimensional accuracy with wall thickness deviation and outside diameter tolerance.According to the data that the circumferencial direction cross section of image analysis pipe obtains, try to achieve these deviations, wall thickness deviation is as the deviate with respect to average wall thickness, and outside diameter tolerance is as trying to achieve with respect to just justifying the deviate of (target external diameter).
As shown in Table 8, utilize the present invention can improve punch process efficient especially.
Embodiment 9
Below enumerate embodiment and describe the present invention in detail.
(embodiment 9.1)
As shown in figure 14, near mould 2 outlet side places canal curvature micro-adjusting device 24 is being set.In addition, though omit diagram, utilize crawler belt to clamp pipe 4 and will manage 4 continuous extruders that are pressed into mould 2 continuously mould 2 entrance side being provided with.
As shown in figure 15, canal curvature micro-adjusting device 24 utilize supporting substrates 28 in the plane vertical with the siphunculus direction movably supporting have the pass 26 that makes the hole 27 that pipe passes through, and use pass travel mechanism 29 any position or 2 above positions in 4 positions of the direction vertical (pass moving direction 33) pushing pass 26 peripheral parts with the siphunculus direction by this supporting substrates 28 supporting, as shown in figure 16, make conical surface contact pass 26 peripheral parts of wedge metal mould 30, utilize the adjustment that screws togather with wedge metal mould 30 with screw rod 31 mobile wedge metal mould on siphunculus direction 25, apply pushing force thus.In Figure 16, when to the right rotation adjustment when the screw rod 31, wedge metal mould 30 rises, the pass that contacts with its conical surface 26 moves to left.In addition, fastening fixing after the pass fine position is whole with screw rod 32, pass 26 is fixed on the supporting substrates 28.
Using this device, is pipe with the steel pipe of φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL, will plug 1 inserts plug will be floated, and carries this blank to be pressed in the mould 2 continuously, makes tube with high dimensional accuracy by this punch process.Steel pipe after the punch process connects the hole 27 near the pass 26 at mould 2 outlet side places.The hole 27 of pass 26 is straight holes, and its aperture is than mould outlet aperture (being φ 35mm in this embodiment) big 0.5mm.
Before reality is made, repeatedly carry out the punch process experiment that multiple spot changes the pass position with standard pipe, measure canal curvature, try to achieve the relation of canal curvature variable quantity after the variable quantity of pass position and the punching press.In reality is made, when canal curvature will surpass the threshold value of regulation, according to above-mentioned relation pass is moved to the orientation that bending diminishes, thereby carry out the inching of pass position.
(embodiment 9.2)
As shown in figure 17, canal curvature micro-adjusting device 24 is being set, guide cylinder 35 is being set, guide cylinder 36 is being set at outlet side place near canal curvature micro-adjusting device 24 near mould 2 entrance sides near mould 2 outlet sides.In addition, though diagram has been done omission, be provided with crawler belt at the entrance side of entrance side guide cylinder 35 and clamp pipe 4 and will manage the continuous extruder that is pressed into mould 2 continuously.
As shown in figure 18, canal curvature micro-adjusting device 24 utilize supporting substrates 28 in the plane vertical with the siphunculus direction movably supporting have the pass 26 that makes the hole 27 that pipe passes through, and use pass travel mechanism 29 any position or 2 above positions in 4 positions of the direction vertical (pass moving direction 33) pushing or traction pass 26 peripheral parts of supporting by this supporting substrates 28 with the siphunculus direction, utilize the small-sized oil hydraulic cylinder 34 that contacts with pass 26 peripheral parts to exert pressure.In Figure 18, by adjusting the pressure differential of two relative oil hydraulic cylinders 34, pass 26 moves in the relative direction of these two oil hydraulic cylinders 34.In addition, after the pass fine position was whole, the pressure differential of setting between the relative oil hydraulic cylinder 34 was zero, and pass 26 is fixed on the supporting substrates 28.
Using this device, is blank with the steel pipe of φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL, will plug 1 inserts plug will be floated, and carries this blank to be pressed in the mould 2 continuously, makes tube with high dimensional accuracy by this punch process.Steel pipe before the punch process connects the guide cylinder 35 of entrance side, and the steel pipe after the punch process connects successively near the hole 27 of the pass 26 at its 2 outlet side place of mould and the guide cylinder 36 of outlet side.The hole 27 of pass 26 is bellmouths, and the aperture of its maximum inner diameter portion (being positioned at entrance side) is than the big 2.5mm in mould 2 outlet apertures (being φ 33mm in this embodiment).In addition, the aperture of the minimum diameter portion (being positioned at outlet side) of pass 26 is identical with mould 2 outlet apertures.And, make pipe not produce defective, the internal diameter of the guide cylinder 35,36 of entrance side and outlet side is than the also big 0.5mm of external diameter of the pipe of homonymy.
Before reality is made, repeatedly carry out the punch process experiment that multiple spot changes the pass position with standard pipe, measure canal curvature, try to achieve the relation of the variable quantity of canal curvature after the variable quantity of pass position and the punching press.In reality is made, when canal curvature will surpass the threshold value of regulation, according to above-mentioned relation pass is moved to the orientation that bending diminishes, thereby carry out the inching of pass position.
(comparative example 9.1)
As shown in figure 19, guide cylinder 35 is set, near guide cylinder 36 being set with the outlet side place at entrance side place near mould 2.In addition, though diagram has been done omission, be provided with crawler belt at the entrance side of entrance side guide cylinder 35 and clamp pipe 4 and will manage the continuous extruder that is pressed into mould 2 continuously.
Use this device, steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a blank, to in the plug 1 insertion pipe plug be floated, and carry this blank continuously, make tube with high dimensional accuracy by this punch process to be pressed in the mould 2 (outlet aperture is φ 35mm in this embodiment).Steel pipe before the punch process connects entrance side guide cylinder 35, and the steel pipe after the punch process connects entrance side guide cylinder 36.
(comparative example 9.2)
As shown in figure 20, near mould 2 entrance side places with near the outlet side place any device be not set.In addition, done omission, be provided with crawler belt at mould 2 entrance sides and clamp pipe 4 and will manage the continuous extruder that is pressed into mould 2 continuously though illustrate.
Use this device, steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a blank, to in the plug 1 insertion pipe plug be floated, and carry this blank continuously, make tube with high dimensional accuracy by this punch process to be pressed in the mould 2 (outlet aperture is φ 35mm in this embodiment).
(comparative example 9.3)
As shown in figure 21, near mould 2 entrance side places with near the outlet side place any device be not set.At mould 2 entrance sides extruder is not set, but drawbench 37 is set at mould 2 outlet sides.
Use this device, steel pipe with φ 40mm * 6.0mmt * 5.5mL is a blank, to in the plug 1 insertion pipe plug be floated, and with drawbench 37 grip tube front ends, from mould 2 (outlet aperture is φ 35mm in this embodiment) to drawing direction 38 drawing steel pipes, by this drawing processing and manufacturing tube with high dimensional accuracy.
Utilize the bending of pipe of method manufacturing of the foregoing description and comparative example and the investigation result of dimensional accuracy to be shown in Table 9.Make straight line set pattern contact tube, the straight line scale of the pipe central portion during with length of tube 500mm and the maximum in the gap between the pipe are estimated canal curvature.Dimensional accuracy with wall thickness deviation and outside diameter tolerance (each example all is the maximum of the data of many pipes making) expression pipe.According to the data that the circumferencial direction cross section of image analysis pipe obtains, try to achieve these deviations, wall thickness deviation is as the deviate with respect to average wall thickness, and outside diameter tolerance is as obtaining with respect to just justifying the deviate of (target external diameter).
As shown in Table 9, utilize the present invention can obtain significantly good dimensional accuracy, can fully prevent canal curvature after the punching press.
Embodiment 10
Embodiments of the invention constitute equipment group as shown in figure 22.The 39th, press-working apparatus, this device carries out following punch process, is about to plug 1 and packs in the pipe and it is floated, and should manage with continuously extruded device 43 and to be pressed into mould 2 continuously and it is passed through.As suitable mode, more changing device 44 and curved anti locking apparatus 46 are arranged in this press-working apparatus 39 simultaneously for die-changing apparatus 45, plug as constituted above.
From upstream side, in turn pipe end face grinding attachment 40, lubricant impregnation coating pan 41 and drying device 42 are configured in the entrance side of press-working apparatus 39.Constituting of pipe end face grinding attachment 40 can trim the end face of pipe arranged side by side on platform with grinding knife tool and tube axial direction with meeting at right angles, thereby grinding forms the right angle.Lubricant impregnation coating pan 41 is stored drying property hydrodynamic lubrication agent emulsion, by pipe being immersed in the above-mentioned latex bath, goes up application of lubricating to pipe.Drying device 42 constitutes, and can carry out drying by the pipe blowing hot-air behind application of lubricating arranged side by side on the platform.In addition, accept pipe that operation in the past sends here and the pipe receiving platform 47 that passes to pipe end face grinding attachment 40 in the configuration of the entrance side of this equipment group, and, going out to manage platform 48 what outlet side disposed operation efferent duct backward, described pipe has become production tube by punch process.
Use this equipment group, to in the size range of external diameter 25~120mm φ, wall thickness 2~8mm, length 5~13m, having various size and adhering to the pipe of oxide skin, order is implemented pipe end face right angle and is formed, and lubricant impregnation coating, dry, punch process obtain production tube.
On the one hand, in Figure 23, show manufacturing equipment group as a comparative example according to existing drawing processing.This equipment group is provided with pipe receiving platform 47 at the entrance side of drawing processing unit (plant) 50, sets out pipe platform 48 at outlet side, drawing processing unit (plant) 50, plug 1 packed into floats it in the pipe, and with drawing processing unit (plant) 50 from mould 2 drawing pipes.In addition, in drawing processing unit (plant) 39, be provided with simultaneously and the same plug that constitutes of embodiment more changing device 44 and die-changing apparatus 45.In this equipment group, the pipe that directly drawing and embodiment are same with oxide skin, must with through the 1st pretreatment procedure shown in Figure 23 and at the pipe of thereafter the 2nd pretreatment procedure as pipe.
The 1st pretreatment procedure must be the operation that is formed for the strong lubricating film of drawing processing, is made of following a plurality of sequential steps: the pipe that will have oxide skin is cut into short size → remove descale → usefulness alkali neutralizing acid → washing → adhesion process → coating metal soap → drying by pickling.When carrying out the collinear configuration of a plurality of dipping tanks of the 1st pretreatment procedure or device and drawing processing unit (plant) 50, productivity is low, therefore wants other line configuration.And, in order to make the drawing processing unit (plant) 50 can grip tube, the 2nd pretreatment procedure must be the operation of for example managing the interface processing of front end with rotary swager, when this rotary swager during also with the 50 collinear configurations of drawing processing unit (plant), productivity is low, therefore wants other line configuration.
Use the equipment row of this comparative example, utilize the 1st, the 2 pretreatment procedure sequential processes pipe that have oxide skin identical, only the pipe of handling is applied drawing processing, make production tube with embodiment.
Manufacturing lead time and production tube dimensional accuracy that research embodiment and comparative example obtain are shown in Table 10.With begin from the regulation pipe that has oxide skin in batches to obtain till the production tube the total processing time/always handle radical to estimate manufacturing lead time, in table 10, the evaluation of estimate of establishing comparative example is 1, uses with its ratio and represents.Represent dimensional accuracy with wall thickness deviation and outside diameter tolerance.According to the data that the circumferencial direction cross section of image analysis pipe obtains, try to achieve these deviations, wall thickness deviation is as the deviate with respect to average wall thickness, and outside diameter tolerance is as obtaining with respect to just justifying the deviate of (target external diameter).
As shown in Table 10, utilize the present invention can make tube with high dimensional accuracy expeditiously.
Tube with high dimensional accuracy of the present invention has significantly good dimensional accuracy, thereby has good fatigue strength, but and low cost fabrication, therefore, have and obviously help lend some impetus to the light-weighted excellent effect that automobile-use drives base part etc. And, according to manufacture method of the present invention, have and can low cost fabrication require the excellent effect of the significantly good metal tube of dimensional accuracy in the size range at the pipe of wide region.
Table 1
Processing mode Mould Plug Diameter reducing rate (%) The outlet side wall thickness Outside diameter tolerance*(%) Inner diameter deviation*(%) The circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation*(%) Fatigue test endurance number of times (inferior)
Embodiment 1.1 Punching press One-piece type fixing Fixing   10 Same entrance side   0.5   0.5   0.5   500×10 3
Embodiment 1.2 Punching press One-piece type fixing Fixing   5 Same entrance side   0.7   2.5   0.7   500×10 3
Embodiment 1.3 Punching press One-piece type fixing Float   5 Same entrance side   0.3   0.5   0.5   500×10 3
Comparative example 1.1 Drawing One-piece type fixing Fixing   5 Subtract thick   4.0   4.0   5.0   100×10 3
Comparative example 1.2 Be pressed into Combined rotation Fixing   5 Same entrance side   3.3   3.5   4.2   200×10 3
Comparative example 1.3 Be pressed into Combined rotation Fixing   5 Thicken   3.5   4.0   4.5   200×10 3
*Deviation with desired value
Table 2
Processing method The outlet side wall thickness Outside diameter tolerance (%) Inner diameter deviation (%) Circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation (%) Working (machining) efficiency: 1 hour processing radical (root)
The inventive example Punching press Same entrance side   0.5   0.5   0.5   130
Comparative example 2.1 Drawing Subtract thick   4.0   4.6   5.0   40
Comparative example 2.2 Swaging is pressed into Thicken   3.8   4.0   4.5   60
Table 3
Processing method Have or not lubricating film Lubricant Zero defect is arranged Wall thickness deviation (%) Inner diameter deviation (%) Outside diameter tolerance (%)
Comparative example 3.1 Punching press Nothing Nothing Have   2.0   2.0   1.0
The inventive example 3.1 Punching press Have Fluid lubricant Nothing   0.5   0.5   0.5
The inventive example 3.2 Punching press Have The lubricating grease series lubricant agent Nothing   0.5   0.5   0.5
The inventive example 3.3 Punching press Have The drying property resin Nothing   0.3   0.3   0.3
The inventive example 3.4 Punching press Have The solvent dilution of drying property resin Nothing   0.3   0.3   0.3
The inventive example 3.5 Punching press Have The latex of drying property resin Nothing   0.3   0.3   0.3
Comparative example 3.2 Drawing Have Fluid lubricant Nothing   4.5   3.5   3.5
Comparative example 3.3 Be pressed into* Have Fluid lubricant Nothing   4.5   4.0   3.5
*The swaging plunging
Table 4
Processing method Pipe expanding rate % Diameter reducing rate %   θA   °   θB   ° The target external diameter*2   mm Wall thickness deviation % Inner diameter deviation % Outside diameter tolerance % Section hardness Hv External diameter mm after the processing Wall thickness mm after the processing Remarks
  1 Punching press   8   8   4.95   4.97   40   0.3   0.3   0.3   320   40   6.0 The inventive example
  2 Punching press   6   8   3.64   4.85   39   0.25   0.3   0.3   320   39   6.0 The inventive example
  3 Punching press   1   17   0.59   9.88   34   0.15   0.2   0.2   320   34   6.0 The inventive example
  4 Drawing   -   8   0   4.85   39   5.0   4.0   4.0   200   39   5.8 Comparative examples A
  5 Drawing   -   16   0   9.20   34   4.5   3.5   3.5   320   34   5.1 Comparative examples A
  6 Be pressed into*1   -   8   0   4.85   39   4.5   4.0   3.5   200   39   6.2 Comparative example B
*1: the swaging plunging
*2: the target external diameter of the pipe of mould outlet side
Table 5
The shape condition of plug and mould Could make Dimensional accuracy
Processing method Plug reducing diameter part angle (°) Plug reducing diameter part length (mm) Plug support length (mm) Die angle (°) Wall thickness deviation (%) Inner diameter deviation (%) Outside diameter tolerance (%)
The inventive example 5.1 Punching press   21   11   20   21 Can   0.5   0.5   0.5
The inventive example 5.2 Punching press   11   20   15   13 Can   0.5   0.5   0.5
The inventive example 5.3 Punching press   5   90   4   5 Can   0.8   0.8   0.7
The inventive example 5.4 Punching press   40   5   35   40 Can   0.3   0.4   0.3
Comparative example 5.1 Punching press    4   11   4   4.5 No   -   -   -
Comparative example 5.2 Punching press    45   11   210    45 No   -   -   -
Comparative example 5.3 Punching press   21    4   4.5   21 No   -   -   -
Comparative example 5.4 Punching press   5    105   210   5 No   -   -   -
Conventional example 5.1    Drawing   21   11   20   21 Can   4.5   3.5   3.5
Conventional example 5.2    Rotation is forged    Make and be pressed into   21   11   20   21 Can   4.5   4.0   3.5
Table 6
Processing method Change condition in the process Relative process time Add the loss in man-hour Wall thickness deviation (%) Outside diameter tolerance (%)
Embodiment 6.1 Punching press The shape of mould and plug   0.2 Nothing   0.5   0.6
Comparative example 6.1 Punching press The kind mould of lubricant and the shape of plug   1 Mould is damaged   0.5   0.6
Comparative example 6.2 Drawing The shape of mould and plug   2 Mould is damaged   3.5   3.2
Table 7
Processing mode Mould Plug The outlet side wall thickness Circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation (%) Inner diameter deviation (%) Outside diameter tolerance (%)
Embodiment 7.1 Punching press (intermittently) One-piece type fixing Fixing Same entrance side   0.5   0.5   0.5
Embodiment 7.2 Punching press (intermittently) One-piece type fixing Float Same entrance side   0.4   0.5   0.3
Embodiment 7.3 Punching press (continuously) One-piece type fixing Float Same entrance side   0.3   0.3   0.3
Comparative example 7.1 Drawing (continuously) One-piece type fixing Fixing Subtract thick   5.0   4.0   4.0
Comparative example 7.2 Be pressed into (intermittently) Combined rotation Fixing Thicken   4.5   4.0   3.5
Table 8
Working (machining) efficiency Wall thickness deviation (%) Outside diameter tolerance (%)
The inventive example 8.1   10   0.5   0.5
The inventive example 8.1   10   0.5   0.5
Comparative example 8.1   1.2   0.8   0.7
Comparative example 8.2   1   0.8   0.7
Table 9
Processing method Prevent bending apparatus Crooked (mm) Wall thickness deviation (%) Outside diameter tolerance (%)
Embodiment 9.1 Punching press The crooked micro-adjusting device of pipe near the mould outlet side   0.1   0.5   0.6
Embodiment 9.2 Punching press Near the crooked micro-adjusting device of the pipe of mould outlet side+gateway side guide cylinder   0.2   0.5   0.6
Comparative example 9.1 Punching press Gateway side guide cylinder   0.7   0.5   0.6
Comparative example 9.2 Punching press Nothing   1.8   0.5   0.6
Comparative example 9.3 Drawing The pulling force of outlet side drawing direction   0.3   3.5   3.0
Table 10
Processing method Manufacturing lead time (ratio) Wall thickness deviation (%) Outside diameter tolerance (%)
Embodiment Punching press   0.1   0.5   0.6
Comparison array Drawing   1   3.5   3.2

Claims (25)

1. the tube with high dimensional accuracy of a punching press state, it is characterized in that, under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into metal tube is pressed into die hole and its cold stamping of passing through is made by carrying out, and in the outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation any or more than two below 3.0%.
2. the tube with high dimensional accuracy of punching press state as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, make by carrying out cold stamping and the metal tube wall thickness of described mould outlet side being set at the wall thickness that is less than or equal to entrance side, described cold stamping is under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into metal tube to be pressed into die hole and it is passed through; And in outside diameter tolerance, internal diameter deviation, the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation any or more than two below 3.0%.
3. as each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in the claim 1~2, it is characterized in that described mould is one-piece type and/or the fixed mould.
4. the high efficiency manufacture method of a tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, carry out the cold stamping that makes metal tube be pressed into die hole and it is passed through under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into, improve more than any one or two kinds of in the outside diameter tolerance that makes pipe by punch process, internal diameter deviation, the circumferencial direction wall thickness deviation when forming tube with high dimensional accuracy, plug packed into makes in the pipe it float, and utilizes the pipe feeder of die entrance side to manage continuously simultaneously and sends in the mould.
5. the high efficiency manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that before as claimed in claim 4, and described pipe feeder is the crawler belt that clamps the preceding pipe of processing.
6. the high efficiency manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the endless belt that compresses the preceding pipe of processing.
7. the high efficiency manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the intermittent delivery machine that clamps preceding pipe of processing and mutual intermittent delivery.
8. the high efficiency manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the forcing press of the pipe before the order pushing processing.
9. the high efficiency manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that, described pipe feeder is the hole type roll that clamps the preceding pipe of processing.
10. the manufacture method of the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of a surface quality, it is characterized in that, carry out the cold stamping that makes metal tube be pressed into die hole and it is passed through under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into, after forming lubricated tunicle on the inner surface of pipe and/or the outer surface, plug is packed in the pipe, utilize mould to carry out the cold stamping of pipe.
11. the manufacture method of the tube with high dimensional accuracy that surface quality as claimed in claim 10 is good is characterized in that, the pipe of the lubricated tunicle of described formation is the steel pipe that adheres to the oxide skin state.
12. the manufacture method as the good tube with high dimensional accuracy of claim 10 or 11 described surface quality is characterized in that, forms described lubricated tunicle with the drying property resin.
13. the manufacture method of a tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, carry out making metal tube be pressed into die hole under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into and making its cold stamping of passing through, described plug is the plug of the angle of taper of enlarged tube portion less than the angle of taper of diameter shrinkage part.
14. the stable manufacture method of a tube with high dimensional accuracy, it is characterized in that, carry out the cold stamping that makes metal tube be pressed into die hole and it is passed through under the state in metal tube that plug is packed into, when being pressed in the die hole by the pipe that will wherein be incorporated with plug and make its punch process of passing through make tube with high dimensional accuracy, as described plug, use diameter shrinkage part table and and the angle that forms of machining center axle be 5~40 ° and be the plug of 5~100mm with the length of diameter shrinkage part, as described mould, the angle that the internal surface of hole of use entrance side and machining center axle form is 5~40 ° a mould.
15. the stable manufacture method of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 14 is characterized in that, the length of the supporting part of described plug is 5~200mm.
16. the manufacturing installation of a tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that, has: the plug that can contact with metal pipe internal surface wholecircle week, having can be with the mould in the hole that contacts with tube outer surface wholecircle week, push the tube extruding press with pipe; And practicable cold stamping, described cold stamping is, under the state in this pipe that described plug is packed into, utilizes described tube extruding press to be pressed into metal tube in the described die hole and it is passed through.
17. the manufacturing installation of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 16 is characterized in that, described mould is one-piece type and/or the fixed mould.
18. the manufacturing installation as claim 16 or 17 described tube with high dimensional accuracy is characterized in that described plug is a floating mandrel.
19. the manufacturing installation as each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in the claim 16~17 is characterized in that, the continuously extruded described pipe of described tube extruding press.
20. the manufacturing installation of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 18 is characterized in that, the continuously extruded described pipe of described tube extruding press.
21. the manufacturing installation as each described tube with high dimensional accuracy in the claim 16~17 is characterized in that, described tube extruding press intermittently pushes described pipe.
22. the manufacturing installation of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 18 is characterized in that, described tube extruding press intermittently pushes described pipe.
23. the manufacturing installation of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 16, have and make mould that pipe passes through and pipe is pressed into extruder in this mould, it is characterized in that, be provided with the canal curvature micro-adjusting device near described mould outlet side place, this canal curvature micro-adjusting device has pass that pipe is passed through, can support the supporting substrates of this pass movably in the plane vertical with the siphunculus direction and be bearing in the pass travel mechanism that described pass is moved.
24. the manufacturing equipment group of a tube with high dimensional accuracy, manufacturing installation with the tube with high dimensional accuracy described in the claim 16, it is characterized in that, can become the cross grinding of pipe the pipe end face grinding attachment vertical, lubricant impregnation is coated on lubricant impregnation coating pan on the pipe, the pipe that is coated with lubricant is carried out the drying device of drying and the manufacturing installation of described tube with high dimensional accuracy disposes by said sequence with tube axial direction.
25. the manufacturing equipment group of tube with high dimensional accuracy as claimed in claim 24, it is characterized in that, replace described lubricant impregnation coating pan and described drying device, in the die entrance side configuration of the manufacturing installation of described tube with high dimensional accuracy lubricant is sprayed on lubricant spray equipment on the pipe, perhaps lubricant configuration is sprayed on and makes its dry lubricant spraying drying device on the pipe then.
CNB2004800030567A 2003-04-11 2004-04-08 Method and device for manufacturing tube with high dimensional accuracy CN100366354C (en)

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JP2003107364A JP4285053B2 (en) 2003-04-11 2003-04-11 High dimensional accuracy tube and manufacturing method thereof
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JP139264/2003 2003-05-16
JP171819/2003 2003-06-17
JP179022/2003 2003-06-24
JP279072/2003 2003-07-24
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