USRE46953E1 - Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy - Google Patents

Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE46953E1
USRE46953E1 US14/020,500 US201314020500A USRE46953E US RE46953 E1 USRE46953 E1 US RE46953E1 US 201314020500 A US201314020500 A US 201314020500A US RE46953 E USRE46953 E US RE46953E
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
radiation
leaf
treatment
arc
aperture
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
US14/020,500
Inventor
Cedric X. Yu
Shuang Luan
Danny Z. Chen
Matthew A. Earl
Chao Wang
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
University of Maryland, Baltimore
STC.UNM
University of Notre Dame
Original Assignee
University of Maryland, Baltimore
STC.UNM
University of Notre Dame
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US91317507P priority Critical
Priority to PCT/US2008/005028 priority patent/WO2008130634A1/en
Priority to US12/589,205 priority patent/US8014494B2/en
Priority to US14/020,500 priority patent/USRE46953E1/en
Application filed by University of Maryland, Baltimore, STC.UNM, University of Notre Dame filed Critical University of Maryland, Baltimore
Assigned to THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO reassignment THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: LUAN, SHUANG
Assigned to STC.UNM reassignment STC.UNM ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO
Assigned to REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO reassignment REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: LUAN, SHUANG
Assigned to UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE reassignment UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: EARL, Matthew, YU, Xinsheng
Assigned to STC.UNM reassignment STC.UNM ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO
Assigned to UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME DU LAC reassignment UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME DU LAC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: CHEN, DANNY Z., WANG, CHAO
Publication of USRE46953E1 publication Critical patent/USRE46953E1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Assigned to NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH), U.S. DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (DHHS), U.S. GOVERNMENT reassignment NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH), U.S. DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (DHHS), U.S. GOVERNMENT CONFIRMATORY LICENSE (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/10X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy
    • A61N5/103Treatment planning systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/10X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy
    • A61N5/103Treatment planning systems
    • A61N5/1036Leaf sequencing algorithms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/10X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy
    • A61N5/1042X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy with spatial modulation of the radiation beam within the treatment head
    • A61N5/1045X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy with spatial modulation of the radiation beam within the treatment head using a multi-leaf collimator, e.g. for intensity modulated radiation therapy or IMRT
    • A61N5/1047X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy with spatial modulation of the radiation beam within the treatment head using a multi-leaf collimator, e.g. for intensity modulated radiation therapy or IMRT with movement of the radiation head during application of radiation, e.g. for intensity modulated arc therapy or IMAT
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21KTECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING PARTICLES OR IONISING RADIATION NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; IRRADIATION DEVICES; GAMMA RAY OR X-RAY MICROSCOPES
    • G21K1/00Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating
    • G21K1/02Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating using diaphragms, collimators
    • G21K1/04Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating using diaphragms, collimators using variable diaphragms, shutters, choppers
    • G21K1/046Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating using diaphragms, collimators using variable diaphragms, shutters, choppers varying the contour of the field, e.g. multileaf collimators

Abstract

Provided herein are methods and systems for designing a radiation treatment for a subject using single arc dose painting. The methods and systems comprise an algorithm or a computer-readable product having the same, to plan the radiation treatment. The algorithm converts pairs of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves to sets of leaf aperture sequences that form a shortest path single arc thereof where the pairs of MLC leaves each aligned to an intensity profile of densely-spaced radiation beams, and connects each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc. Also provided is a method for irradiating a tumor in a subject using single arc dose painting.

Description

FEDERAL FUNDING LEGEND

This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. CCF-0515203 and by National Institutes of Health Grant No. CA117997. The U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This U.S. national application claims benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 of international application PCT/US2008/005028, filed Apr. 18, 2008 which claims benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of provisional application U.S. Ser. No. 61/913,175, filed Apr. 20, 2007, now abandoned.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This U.S. national application claims benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. § 120 of international application PCT/US2008/005028, filed Apr. 18, 2008 which claims benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of provisional application U.S. Ser. No. 60/913,175, filed Apr. 20, 2007, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to the field of radiation oncology for malignant tumors and the like. Specifically, the present invention provides methods and systems for planning delivery of radiation therapy by means of a single-arc dose of radiation.

2. Description of the Related Art

Conformal radiation therapy is an important procedure available to the physician for the treatment of malignant tumors. Such therapy is used for eradicating or shrinking tumors that are relatively inaccessible to other modes of treatment such as surgical excision. However, because the ionizing radiation that is administered is damaging to both healthy and malignant tissue, it is important to confine the effect of the irradiation to the target tissue, to the extent possible, while sparing the adjacent tissue by minimizing irradiation thereto. To achieve this goal, various techniques of irradiating a target tumor with a defined beam of ionizing radiation have been devised.

Although simple masking techniques using radiation absorbing materials have some utility, techniques using radiation beams directed at the target tissue from various angles about a patient have come to be preferred. Such beams are often provided from a radiation source, e.g., x-ray photons or high-energy electrons, mounted on a rotating gantry, so that the radiation source revolves in a generally circular path while providing a beam of radiation directed generally at the isocenter of such a path. A patient is positioned within the circular path, preferably with the tumor located, to the extent possible, at the isocenter for receiving the maximum dose of radiation as the source is revolved. The cross-sectional shape and size of the radiation beam is typically varied as the source is positioned at different angles by rotation of the gantry in order to assure, to the extent possible, that the radiation is incident on the tumor itself and not on adjacent healthy tissue.

A number of techniques have been developed with the intention of providing for maximum absorption of radiation within the tumor while minimizing exposure of adjacent healthy tissue. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was developed based on the principle that for a given tumor, there is a set of preferred ways to direct the radiation to it. More radiation can be sent through some beam angles than others and within the same beam angle, there are preferred locations through which the radiation is directed to the tumor. Computer-assisted treatment planning systems have been developed to take advantage of such preferred angles and locations, e.g., by varying the intensity of the radiation beam across the radiation fields, in order to accomplish better treatment regimens.

Consequently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been widely adopted as a new tool in radiation therapy to deliver high doses of radiation to the tumor while providing maximal sparing of surrounding critical structures. Both rotational and gantry-fixed IMRT techniques have been implemented clinically using dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC) (1-6).

In gantry-fixed IMRT, multiple radiation beams at different orientations, each with spatially modulated beam intensities, are used (1-2, 4). The beams may be administered to the patient in a single transverse plane as the source revolves around the patient (coplanar) or may be shifted axially with respect to the patient (non-coplanar). Rotational IMRT, typically, administered by a continuously revolving source that is also moved axially along the patient, as it is currently practiced, mainly employs temporally modulated fan beams (3). Although the quality of IMRT treatment plans has steadily improved, the plans tend to be relatively complicated, which makes for a somewhat inefficient delivery of treatment. Consequently, labor-intensiveness has been one of the drawbacks of IMRT. Furthermore, in general, a large number of different complex field shapes is often needed, which also compromises the efficiency of the treatment and can result in an increased number of collimator artifacts (7). Nevertheless, while long-term clinical results of IMRT treatments are still limited, initial results appear very promising, and with increased use of IMRT, more encouraging results are emerging.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,818,902 to Yu teaches the use of overlapping multiple arcs to deliver modulated beam intensities around the patient which is called intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Delivery of the radiation during overlapping multiple arcs achieves modulated beam intensities at all angles around the patient (5-6). However, IMAT has not been widely adopted for clinical use. In IMAT, the intensity distributions are first optimized using a treatment planning system for tightly-spaced beam angles every 5-10 degrees all around the tumor. These intensity distributions are then approximated by a stack of uniform intensity segments with different cross sectional shapes. These stacks of uniform beam segments at all beam angles are then sequentially administered as the radiation source describes multiple rotational arcs while the beam cross sections are defined at each angular position by a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) with its leaves moved by a computer-programmed controller to provide a sequence of predetermined apertures.

The inverse planning procedures used to determine beam cross-sections and intensities when planning IMRT and IMAT treatments have typically required the user to predetermine the number of beams to use and their orientations. This limitation can significantly affect the quality of the treatment plans because the most preferred angle might be completely missed. Rotational IMRT does not have such problems since all angles are considered in the plan.

Furthermore, because the delivery of IMAT requires the use of multiple (4-11) arcs, each of which may take 1 to 2 minutes to deliver, the total treatment time is similar to that of fixed beam IMRT treatments. It is also relevant that, even when intensity distribution is determined for densely-spaced beam angles, i.e., 5 to 10 degrees, and sequenced for delivery in a limited number of multiple arcs, the resultant distribution of radiation absorption in the tumor can still only approximate that which would be provided by optimized beam intensities and cross-sections, because each of the planned beams may require significant variations that cannot be accommodated by the plan as executed by the equipment. As a result, the final IMAT plan is almost always degraded from the unconstrained optimized plan.

One attempt to solve this problem is a method for optimizing IMAT using Direct Aperture Optimization, in which the shape and weight of the apertures contained in one or more arcs are optimized simultaneously (8). A similar method (9), who showed that a single arc optimization using a method similar to Direct Aperture Optimization could generate satisfactory treatment plans for a simple case. In both methods, a limited number of beam angles were used to illustrate the principle. For complicated cases, single-arc optimization over a limited number of angles cannot generate plans that rival fixed-beam IMRT plans (8). Using such methods, it is prohibitive with today's technology to optimize the rotational delivery with more beam angles, because pencil beams must be calculated for all the beam angles (8-9).

Another concern with current radiation treatment planning methods is that no method developed hitherto can create a rotational IMRT plan that consistently rivals fixed beam IMRT without requiring beam intensity modulation. For simple cases it was demonstrated that a single optimized arc can yield results as good as those of fixed-field IMRT, while, for more complicated cases, such as head and neck cases with multiple targets, such an approach would not work well, and intensity modulation is required (8). Although allowing the planned dose rate to vary with gantry angle provides a new degree of freedom, such relaxation of a restraint is not sufficient in itself to establish that a single arc using the described optimization method can replace multiple-arc IMAT. Treatment planning using current optimization schemes requires intensity modulation consistently to rival fixed beam IMRT (10). Another method that can achieve very good efficiency utilizes optimization based on the direct aperture optimization method of Shepard et al (10). However, although the optimization starts with a limited number of fields and the connectedness of the field shapes can be ignored, as the optimization progresses, constraint to force the shape-connectedness will compromise the quality of he treatment plans. As the result, one would know what the ultimate plan quality is like.

Thus, there is a recognized need in the art for improved radiation therapy planning methods that enable greater efficiency in delivery of radiation therapy. More specifically, the prior art is deficient in methods and systems for single-arc dose radiation therapy. The present invention fulfills this long-standing need and desire in the art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a method for designing a radiation treatment for a subject using single arc dose painting. The method comprises providing an unconstrained optimization map which supplies intensity profiles of densely-spaced radiation beams and aligning each intensity profile to a pair of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves. A shortest path algorithm is applied to convert each pair of MLC leaves to a set of leaf aperture sequences, where each set of leaf aperture sequences forms a shortest path single arc thereof and each single arc of leaf apertures is connected to form a final treatment single arc, thereby designing the single arc dose painting radiation treatment. The present invention is directed to a related method further comprising delivering a continuous dose of radiation to the subject through each aperture during a single rotation along one or more final treatment single arc paths. The present invention is directed to another related method further comprising adjusting a shape of the aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the final treatment single arc. The present invention is directed to yet another related method for irradiating a tumor in a subject with the continuous dose of radiation through sets of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) aperture sequences during a single rotation along one or more of the treatment single arc paths. The present invention is directed a related method further comprising adjusting the aperture shape as described supra. Further still to these related methods the present invention is directed to a method further comprising repeating the irradiation step during another rotation along the treatment single arc path(s).

The present invention is directed further to a system for delivering radiation treatment using single arc dose painting. The system comprises a radiation source for generating a radiation beam, a multiple leaf collimator having a plurality of leafs for shaping the radiation beam, a structure for generating an unconstrained optimization map of intensity profiles of densely-spaced radiation beams, a structure for aligning each intensity profile to a pair of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves, and a structure for applying a shortest path algorithm, said shortest path algorithm converting each pair of MLC leaves to a set of leaf aperture sequences forming a shortest path single arc thereof, such that the shortest path algorithm further connects each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc effective for single arc dose painting. The present invention is directed a related system where the shortest path algorithm further comprises adjusting the aperture shape as described supra.

The present invention is directed further still to a computer-readable medium tangibly storing an algorithm to determine a final single arc path for a single arc dose painting radiation treatment. The algorithm enables instructions to convert pairs of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves to sets of leaf aperture sequences that form a shortest path single arc thereof, where the pairs of MLC leaves each are aligned to an intensity profile of densely-spaced radiation beams, and to connect each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc. The present invention is directed a related computer-readable medium where the shortest path algorithm further enables adjusting the aperture shape as described supra.

The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be described herein, which form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that any conception and specific embodiment disclosed herein may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent constructions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

The novel features which are believed to be characteristic of the invention, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages will be better understood from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying figures. It is to be expressly understood, however, that any description, figure, example, etc. is provided for the purpose of illustration and description only and is by no means intended to define the limits the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A-1C illustrate how to flip the monotone decreasing path pr to a monotone increasing path p′r (FIG. 1A), how to flip two monotone decreasing paths pl and pr to two monotone increasing paths p′′l and p′r (FIG. 1B) and how the xy-monotone region enclosed by the two paths p′′l and p′r in FIG. 1B corresponds to a sequence of n vertical bars B1B2, . . . , Bn (FIG. 1C). Note that after the flipping operations in FIGS. 1A-1B, neither the steepness nor the closeness constraint is violated, and Ii,pl,pr=Ii,p′lp′r holds for every i, which implies that the total error remains the same.

FIGS. 2A-2D illustrate the transformation of G′ into ^G (FIGS. 2A-2B) and the layered DAGs Gi1,i1+1, Gi1,i1+2, and Gi1,n (FIG. 2C) where each vertex layer is represented by a vertical line segment, and the set of edges from one vertex layer to the next layer is represented by an arrow and the DAG Gi1 after merging the DAGs Gi1,i1+1, Gi1,i1+2, and Gi1,n (FIG. 2D).

FIGS. 3A-3C illustrate the geometry of the vertex layer L′i of the DAG G′ for lstart<i≤rstart, rstart<i≤lend, and lend<i≤rend. In each figure, all vertices in the vertex layer Li (or L′i) are mapped to circled points on the 2-D plane; these points form all the lattice points in a convex polygon (possibly degenerated to a line segment) marked by the shaded area.

FIGS. 4A-4B illustrates sliding window leaf sequencing. In FIG. 4A the desired intensity profile is aligned with a leaf pair. FIG. 4B shows separated intensity profiles to be conformed by the leading (right) and training (left) leaves. FIG. 4C shows adjusted leaf traveling trajectories after considering the physical constraints of leaf travel.

FIGS. 5A-5D illustrate steps of the shortest path graph algorithm for converting an intensity profile into k MLC leaf openings with the minimum error.

FIGS. 6A-6C illustrate a step of the shortest path graph algorithm for adjusting a one-dimensional IMAT arc.

FIGS. 7A-7B illustrate the planning of a single arc dose painting.

FIGS. 8A-8B illustrate leaf position and aperture weight optimization using the shortest path graph algorithm.

FIGS. 9A-9D illustrate field width adjustment on the right side (FIGS. 9A-9B) and on the left side (FIGS. 9C-9D).

FIGS. 10A-10C illustrate a planned (FIGS. 10A-10B) and delivered (FIG. 10C) dose distribution for a complicated head and neck case with single arc dose painting.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

I. Definitions

As used herein the specification, “a” or “an” may mean one or more. As used herein in the claim(s), when used in conjunction with the word “comprising”, the words “a” or “an” may mean one or more than one. As used herein “another” may mean at least a second or more. Furthermore, unless otherwise required by context, singular terms shall include pluralities and plural terms shall include the singular.

As used herein, the term “or” in the claims is used to mean “and/or” unless explicitly indicated to refer to alternatives only or the alternatives are mutually exclusive, although the disclosure supports a definition that refers to only alternatives and “and/or.”

As used herein, “about” refers to numeric values, including whole numbers, fractions, percentages, etc., whether or not explicitly indicated. The term “about” generally refers to a range of numerical values, e.g., +/−5-10% of the recited value, that one would consider equivalent to the recited value, e.g., having the same function or result. In some instances, the term “about” may include numerical values that are rounded to the nearest significant figure.

As used herein, the term “subject” refers to any recipient of single arc dose painting radiation treatment

II. Present Invention

In one embodiment of the present invention there is provided method for designing a radiation treatment for a subject using single arc dose painting, comprising providing an unconstrained optimization map which supplies intensity profiles of densely-spaced radiation beams; aligning each intensity profile to a pair of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves; applying a shortest path algorithm to convert each pair of MLC leaves to a set of leaf aperture sequences, where the set of leaf aperture sequences form a shortest path single arc thereof; and connecting each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc, thereby designing the single arc dose painting radiation treatment.

Further to this embodiment the method comprises delivering a continuous dose of radiation to the subject through each aperture during a single rotation along one or more final treatment single arc paths. In another further embodiment the method comprises adjusting a shape of the aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the final treatment single arc.

In all embodiments the paths of more than one single arc may be non-coplanar. Also, the apertures may sweep back and forth along the single arc path during delivery of the radiation dose. In addition multiple leaf collimation may be dynamic.

In all embodiments sequencing leaf apertures may comprise one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures or optimization of leaf position and aperture weight. Also, the leaf aperture sequences in each set may have one or both of a different starting or ending leaf aperture. In addition, starting and ending positions of a leaf aperture trajectory may be fixed.

In another further embodiment of the present invention there is provided a method irradiating a tumor in a subject with the continuous dose of radiation through sets of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) aperture sequences during a single rotation along one or more of the treatment single arc paths. Further still to this further embodiment the method may comprise adjusting a shape of the aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the treatment single arc to keep the dose constant. Further still to both of these further embodiments the method may comprise repeating the irradiation step during another rotation along the treatment single arc path(s).

In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a system for delivering radiation treatment using single arc dose painting, comprising a radiation source for generating a radiation beam; a multiple leaf collimator having a plurality of leafs for shaping the radiation beam; a structure for generating an unconstrained optimization map of intensity profiles of densely-spaced radiation beams; a structure for aligning each intensity profile to a pair of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves; and a structure for applying a shortest path algorithm, where the shortest path algorithm converts each pair of MLC leaves to a set of leaf aperture sequences forming a shortest path single arc thereof and where the shortest path algorithm further connects each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc effective for single arc dose painting.

Further to this embodiment the shortest path algorithm may adjust a shape of the leaf aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the final treatment single arc. Also the shortest path algorithm may sequence leaf apertures via one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures or optimization of leaf position and aperture weight. In addition multiple leaf collimation may be dynamic.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a computer-readable medium tangibly storing an algorithm to determine a final single arc path for a single arc dose painting radiation treatment, said algorithm enabling processor-executable instructions to convert pairs of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves to sets of leaf aperture sequences that form a shortest path single arc thereof, where the pairs of MLC leaves are each aligned to an intensity profile of densely-spaced radiation beams; and connect each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc. Further to this embodiment the algorithm may enable instructions to adjust a shape of the leaf aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the final treatment single arc thereby keeping the dose constant. Also, the algorithm may sequence leaf apertures via one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures or optimization of leaf position and aperture weight.

Provided herein are methods and systems to plan and deliver a new rotational radiation therapy, identified herein as single arc dose painting (SADP), that can achieve a quality of treatment comparable to that of multi-arc IMAT using only one continuous rotation of the beam around the patient. The efficiency of such treatment delivery, as compared with that of IMAT, is significantly improved. Generally, the difference in the methods provided herein from prior methods is that the planning process is two steps. In the first step, intensity distributions are optimized over densely spaced beams, for example, on 36 or 72 fields. Because no delivery constraints are applied at the optimization step, the plan quality represents the ultimate. In the second step, the intensity modulated beams are sequenced into a single arc delivery, Planning a single arc capable of delivering the ultimately optimal radiation treatment is based on the recognition that the same intended dose to the tumor delivered by an aperture at a planned angle can be delivered by a slightly modified aperture from a slightly different angle. Consequently, a single rotation with dynamically varying apertures can achieve the same results as a procedure that delivers a plurality of intensity modulated fixed beams.

Furthermore, methods to convert the intensity or fluence patterns in the target, as optimized at fixed beam angles, into a single arc of beam rotation are also new and innovative. The inventive leaf sequencing method of the invention achieves an interconnected relationship of multiple leaf collimator (MLC) apertures so that the MLC leaves are not required to move large distances between adjacent angles of the planned treatment. By sweeping the apertures (windows) back and forth, the requirement of connectedness is much easier to meet.

Also, the dose rate can change among the angular intervals. However, such a change in dose rate is not a requirement. Typically, the aperture size and shape can be optimized to maintain a substantially constant dose rate throughout the entire treatment arc.

Within a planning interval, the apertures can have different weights, delivered either through dose rate variation with all apertures occupying the same angular range or delivered without dose rate variation by allowing the aperture with higher weights to be delivered over a larger angular range. That is, the method is applicable to machines with and without the ability to change dose rates during delivery.

For treatment of tumor or other sites amenable to radiation therapy where use of multiple non-coplanar arcs is beneficial, multiple non-coplanar arcs can be planned according to the methods of the invention. However, with single arc dose painting, it is typically unnecessary to have overlapping arcs. Accordingly, the dose overlap in the tumor is considered, rather than beam overlap in each beam direction as with current IMRT planning. This relies on the recognition that the same dose can be delivered to the tumor by two beam apertures of slightly different shapes directed at the tumor from two angular directions a few degrees apart.

Planning starts with an unconstrained optimization with a large number of beams evenly spaced, for example, every 5-10 degrees. Depending on the complexity of the optimal intensity distribution, different number of apertures and weights are initialized using a “sliding window” line-segment approximation. Because the initial shapes are derived from the “sliding window” principle, the apertures are interconnected. The shape and weights of these apertures are further optimized (fine-tuned) to improve the plan quality. To deliver these apertures in one arc, they are spaced within their own planning angular interval by moving the overlapping apertures to other beam angles within the interval. To ensure that the apertures deliver the same dose to the tumor as they are moved away from the planned angle, the aperture shapes are varied, depending on how many degrees they are moved from the planned angle. Adjusting the aperture shape is to faithfully create the intensity maps that were created under unconstrained optimization and to maintain the ultimate plan quality.

Intensity modulation is allowed during intensity optimization and more than one aperture shapes is allowed within each planning angular interval. As compared with IMAT, the apertures are spaced and adjusted within the planning angular interval rather than overlapped to be delivered by using multiple arcs. Because, as described herein, an entire treatment dose is delivered in a single rotation, the number of different apertures per planning angular interval can vary according to the complexity of the required intensity distribution.

As such, systems effective to deliver radiation to a tumor using single arc dose painting comprise those radiation delivery devices having suitable structures for radiation therapy of malignant tumors or other conditions responsive to such treatment. As is known in the art such devices comprise at least a source of radiation, amoveable, rotatable gantry, a multiple leaf collimator, e.g., a dynamic multiple leaf collimater, a platform for a subject receiving radiation therapy, and the necessary computer hardware and software, processor, memory and network or other connections necessary to run the device. In addition, the system comprises a module or structure, such as, but not limited to, a computer memory, a computer-readable memory or computer program to, storage device which is suitable to tangibly store and execute the algorithms described herein, such as, standard algorithms for intensity profile optimization and the novel short path algorithms provided herein.

The following examples are given for the purpose of illustrating various embodiments of the invention and are not meant to limit the present invention in any fashion.

EXAMPLE 1

Constrained Coupled Path Planning (CCPP)

In constrained coupled path planning, the starting and ending points of the sought paths are prespecified. Precisely, the constrained coupled path planning (CCPP) problem is: Given an n×H uniform grid Rg, a non-negative function ƒ defined on the integers in {1, 2, . . . , n}, and positive integers lstart, rstart, lend, rend, c, and Δ (Δ≤H), find two noncrossing paths pl and pr of height H along the edges of Rg to minimize the total error ϵ(pl, pr) Δ=Σn i+1|li,pl,pr−f(i)|, subject to the following constraints: (1) pl (resp., pr) starts at (lstart, 0) (resp., (rstart, 0)) and ends at (lend, H) (resp., (rend,H)), (2) (the steepness constraint) both pl and pr are c-steep paths, and (3) (the closeness constraint) |li,pl,pr−f(i)|≤Δ for all i=1, 2, . . . , n.

Without loss of generality, it is assumed that lstart≤lend and rstart≤rend, so that the two sought paths pl and pr are both xy-monotone increasing paths. Otherwise, the CCPP problem can be transformed to a new CCPP problem that satisfies this condition. By flipping (FIGS. 1A-1B) one or both of the optimal paths for this new problem, two optimal paths are obtained for the original CCPP problem.

Algorithm for the Case where lend≥rstart

It is to be noted that the algorithm can be adapted easily to handle the other case in which lend<rstart. The region P(pl, pr) is a rectilinear xy-monotone polygon in Rg and consists of a sequence of n vertical bars. Thus, the CCPP problem can be solved by transforming it to computing a shortest path in a directed acyclic graph, DAG G′. The DAG G′ (FIG. 2A-2D) also contains a source s, a sink t, and n layers of vertices, L′1, L′2 . . . , L′n, which are defined as follows to satisfy the additional geometric constraints of the CCPP problem:

L i { { ( [ α , β ] ) ( i ) α = β = 0 and β - α - f ( i ) < Δ } if 1 <= i <= I start { ( [ α , β ] ) ( i ) 0 = α < β <= H - c and β - α - f ( i ) < Δ } if I start < i <= r start { ( [ α , β ] ) ( i ) c <= α <= β <= H - c and β - α - f ( i ) < Δ } if r start < i <= I endt { ( [ α , β ] ) ( i ) c <= α < β = H and β - α - f ( i ) < Δ } if I end < i <= r end { ( [ α , β ] ) ( i ) α = β = H and β - α - f ( i ) < Δ } if r end < i <= n Eq . ( 1 )

The weight of a [α, β](i) is defined as ω′([α, β](i))=β−⊕−f (i)| and the edges of G′ are defined based on the same domination relation D(•,•). A shortest s-to-t path in G corresponds to an optimal solution for the CCPP problem and, further, the vertices and edges of G0 have geometric properties similar to those of dominated sets (FIGS. 3A-3C). Such similar dominated sets may be D(H,H), D(α,H) (0<α<H), D(0,H), D(α,β) (0<α≤β<H) D(0,β) (0<β<H), and D(0, 0). Thus the shortest path computation can be sped up and the CCPP algorithm takes O(nHΔ) time.

EXAMPLE 2

Computing the Complete Set of all CCPP Problem Instances

Overview of the Algorithm

Given f, n, H, Δ, and c, CCPP problem instances are solved on f, n, H, Δ, c, lstart, rstart, lend, and rend for all possible combinations of lstart, rstart, lend, and rend. Without loss of generality, only those combinations which satisfy lstart≤lend and rstart≤rend are considered. All problem instances are classified into two subsets S1 and S2, with S1 (resp., S2) containing those with lend≥rstart (resp., lend<rstart).

Solving all CCPP Instances in S1

It is to be noted that this approach can be adapted easily to solve all instances in S2. Since 0≤lstart≤rstart≤lend≤rend≤n, there are totally N=Θ(n4) problem instances, denoted by l1, l2, . . . , lN. Let l(k) start, r(k) start, l(k) end, and r(k) end be the corresponding specification for the problem instance lk. An instance lk (1≤k≤N) corresponds to a shortest path problem on a vertex-weighted DAG, denoted by G′k, of O(nHΔ) vertices and O(nH2Δ2) edges. The key observation is that G′k can be transformed into an edge-weighted DAG, denoted by ^Gk, with only O(Δ) vertices and O(Δ2) edges.

The algorithm consists of two main steps. First, prepare the weights of all edges in ^G1, ^G2, . . . , and ^GN (O(Δ2) edges for each ^Gk). The weights of all the O(n4Δ2) edges are implicitly computed and stored in a batch fashion, in totally O(n2H2) time, such that for any edge, its weight can be reported in O(1) time. Second, a shortest path is computed in ^G1, ^G2, . . . , and ^GN, respectively. It is shown that each ^Gk (1≤k≤N) is a DAG satisfying the Monge property (1-2,4). Since the weight of any edge can be obtained in O(1) time, a shortest path in ^Gk takes only O(Δ) time to compute. The algorithm thus takes O(n22+n4Δ) time, improving the straightforward O(n5HΔ) time algorithm, i.e., applying the CCPP algorithm N=O(n4) times) by a factor of min{nH, n3/Δ}.

The Graph Transformation

For fixed lstart, lend, rstart, and rend (0≤lstart≤rstart lend≤rend≤n), let l be the corresponding CCPP problem instance and G′=(V(G′),E(G′)) be the vertex-weighted DAG defined in Example 1 for solving l. For u is an element of V(G), denote its weight by ω′(u). For a path p in G′, the weight ω′(p) of p is defined as ω′(p)=Σu is element of p ω′(u). For u, v is an element of V(G′), denote by π′(u, v) a shortest u-to-v path in G′.

An edge-weighted directed graph ^G=(V(^G),E(^G)) is constructed from G′ as follows (FIGS. 2A-2B). The vertex set V(^G) is a subset of V(^G), and consists of two dummy vertices s and t and four vertex layers:

L ^ 1 = Δ L i start , L ^ 2 = Δ L r start , L ^ 3 = Δ L I end + 1 , and L ^ 4 = Δ L r end + 1 .
The edge set E(^G) is simply
Ut−1 3({circumflex over (L)}t×{circumflex over (L)}t+1)∪({s}×{circumflex over (L)}1)∪({circumflex over (L)}4×{t}).
Thus, the subgraph of ^G between any two consecutive vertex layers is a complete bipartite graph. For each edge (u, v) is an element of E(^G), a weight ^ω(u, v)=ω′(π′(u, v))−ω′ (u) is assigned to it, i.e., the weight of a shortest u-to-v path in G′ minus the vertex weight of u. For convenience, ^ω(u, v)Δ=+∞ if there is no path from u to v in G′.

^G is an edge-weighted DAG and has O(Δ) vertices and O(Δ2) edges (by the definition of L′i in Example 1). Define the weight ^ω(p) of a path p in ^G as ^ω(p)=Σe is an element of p ^ω(e). A shortest s-to-t path in G′ is closely related to a shortest s-to-t path in ^G. In fact, it is not difficult to show that if p′=s→u1→u2→ . . . →un→t is a shortest s-to-t path in G′, then ^p=s→ulstart→urstart→Ulend+1→Urend+1→t is a shortest s-to-t path in ^G, with ^ω(^p)=ω′(p″) This is due to the optimal-substructure property of shortest paths, i.e., any subpath of a shortest path is also a shortest path. Moreover, if s→v2→v3→v4→t is a shortest s-to-t path in ^G, then s

Figure USRE046953-20180717-P00001
v1
Figure USRE046953-20180717-P00002
v2
Figure USRE046953-20180717-P00003
v3
Figure USRE046953-20180717-P00004
v4
Figure USRE046953-20180717-P00005

is a shortest s-to-t path in G′.

Before explaining why the vertex layers L′lstart, L′rstart, L′lend+1, and L′rend+1, from G′ for the construction of ^G were chosen, Equation (1) must be reviewed. Observe that if i is fixed and lstart, rstart, lend, and rend are temporarily viewed as parameters, then Equation (1) implies that the i-th vertex layer in any G (1≤k≤N) is in exactly one of five possible states, denoted by Λi (I), Λi (II), Λi (III), Λi (IV), and Λi (V), e.g., Λi (I) if 1≤i≤lstart). For a fixed k (1≤k≤N), in the DAG G′k, the i-th vertex layer L is of type I if L=Λi (I). The type II, III, IV, and V vertex layers are defined similarly.

Clearly, in the DAG G′, all vertex layers between s and L′lstart, L′lstart and Lrstart, L″rstart and L′lend+1, L′lend+1, and L′rend+1, and L′rend+1 and t are of type I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively (FIG. 2A). This implies an interesting property: For any edge (u, v) of ^G, all vertex layers between u and v in G′ are of the same type. As will be shown, this property plays a key role in speeding up the computation of the weights of all edges in the transformed DAGs ^G1, ^G2, . . . ^GN. It should be pointed out that for one DAG G′, although ^G is of a much smaller size than G′, the weights of the edges of ^G are costly to compute. Thus transforming G′ to ^G will not yield a faster algorithm for solving a single CCPP problem instance.

Computing the Edge Weights for all Transformed DAGs

It is demonstrated herein how to compute the weights of all edges in the transformed DAGs ^G1, ^G2, . . . , ^GN. Recall that the weight of an edge in ^Gk corresponds to a one-pair shortest path problem instance on G′k. Since every ^Gk has O(Δ2) edges, there are in total O(n4Δ2) edges in ^G1, ^G2, . . . , ^GN, corresponding to O(n4Δ2) one-pair shortest path problem instances.

It is stated that the O(n4Δ2) edges actually correspond to only O(n2Δ2) distinct one-pair shortest path problem instances. For any k that is an element of {1, 2, . . . , N} and for any edge (u, v) that is an element of ^Gk, denote by SP(u, v, k) the corresponding one-pair shortest path instance, i.e., finding a shortest u-to-v path in G′k. Considering the indices of the vertex layers in which u and v lie in ^Gk respectively, there are five cases. Only the most typical case, in which u (resp., v) lies in the 2nd (resp., 3rd) layer of ^Gk is discussed. For this case, let i1=r(k) start and i2=l(k) end+1; then u is an element of ΛII i1⊂V(G′k), v is an element of ΛIV i2⊂V(G′k), and all vertex layers between u and v in G′k are of type III (FIG. 2A). Let Gi1,i2 be a layered DAG whose vertices consist of the vertex layers ΛII i1, ΛIII i1+1, ΛIII i1+2, . . . , ΛIII i2−1, and ΛIV i2, in this order, and whose edges are defined based on the same domination relation D(•,•).

Clearly, SP(u, v, k) is equivalent to finding a shortest u-to-v path in Gi1,i2. Since ii (resp., i2) ranges from 1 to n, Gi1,i2 has O(n2) possible choices. Note that u (resp., v) belongs to the layer ΛII i1 (resp., ΛIV i2), which contains O(Δ) vertices for any ii (resp., i2). It follows that SP(u, v, k) has O(n4Δ2) possible choices for the case where u (resp., v) lies in the 2nd (resp., 3rd) layer of ^Gk. Other cases can be analyzed similarly. Since there are five cases, SP(u, v, k) has O(n2Δ2)×O(1)=O(n2Δ2) possible choices in total.

Since there are only O(n2Δ2) distinct one-pair shortest path problem instances, it is preferred to implicitly compute and store the weight of each edge of ^G1, ^G2, . . . , ^GN. More specifically, distinct one-pair shortest path instances are solved and the corresponding shortest paths along with their lengths are stored, so that given an edge (u, v) of any ^Gk, its weight can be reported in O(1) time.

It is demonstrated how to solve the O(n2Δ2) distinct one-pair shortest path problem instances in a batch fashion. First a set of one-pair shortest path instances are combined into one single-source shortest path problem instance. Second, a set of single-source shortest path instances are solved in one shot by “merging” the underlying DAGs into one DAG of a comparable size. This approach is illustrated by showing how to solve the one-pair shortest path instances in Gi1,i2 (as defined in the previous paragraph) for all i1, i2. Each instance is specified by a source vertex u is an element of ΛII i1 and a destination vertex v is an element of ΛIV i2. Recall that Gi1,i2 contains the vertex layers ΛII i1, ΛIII i1+1, ΛIII i1+, . . . , ΛIII i2−1, and ΛIV i2, For a fixed i1, the layered DAGs Gi1,i2, for all i2=i1+1, . . . , n, can be merged into one DAG, simply denoted by Gi1 (FIGS. 5C-5D). For any vertex u is an element of ΛII i1, its single-source shortest paths can be computed in Gi1, in O(nHΔ) time as in the CCPP algorithm. Since |ΛII i1|=O(Δ) and i1 ranges from 1 to n, the one-pair shortest path instances in Gi1,i2 can be solved for all i1, i2, in O(nHΔ)×O(n)×O(Δ)=O(n2Δ2) time.

Shortest Path Computation on the Transformed DAGs

The algorithm for computing a shortest path in the DAG ^G as defined as defined above is presented. The key idea is to show that ^G satisfies the Monge property [1, 2, 4], and thus a shortest path in ^G can be computed by examining only a small portion of its edges.

Consider the vertex layers ^L2 and ^L3 of ^G. Clearly, ^L2=L′rstart={[α, β](rstart)0=α<β<=H−c and |β−α−f (rstart)|≤Δ}={[0, β](rstart)|0<β<=H−c and |β−f(rstart)|≤Δ}). Thus ^L2 can be written as ^L2={u1, u2, . . . , u|^L2|}, where uk=[0, βk](rstart)(1≤k≤|^L2|) and 0<β1<β2< . . . <β|^L2|≤H−c. Similarly, write ^L3 as ^L3={v1, v2, . . . , v|L3|}, where vk=[k, H](lend+1)(1≤k≤|^L3|) and c≤α12< . . . <α|^L3|<H. The following lemma shows the properties of the edges from the vertices on ^L2 to ^L3 in ^G.

Lemma: (A) Let ui (resp., vj) be a vertex on ^L2 (resp., ^L3) of ^G, with 1≤i≤|^L2| (resp., 1≤j≤|^L3|). If ^ω(ui, vj)=1, then for any j′<j (resp., i′>i), ^ω(ui, vj)=∞(resp., ^ω (ui′, vj)=∞). (B) Let ui, uj′ (resp., vj, vj′) be two vertices on ^L2 (resp., ^L3) of ^G, with 1≤i<i′≤|^L2| (resp., 1≤j<j′≤|^L3|). If both edges e1=(ui, vj′) and e2=(ui′,vj) have finite weights, then edges e3=(ui, vj) and e4=(ui′, vj′) also both have finite weights. Moreover, ^ω(e3)+^ω(e4) ^ω(e1)+^ω(e2).

The lemma implies that the matrix A of size |^L2|×|^L3|, with =^ω(ui, vj), is a Monge matrix. Note that for any i and j, ^ω(ui, vj) can be reported in O(1) time as described above. Thus in ^G, once the shortest paths from s to all vertices in ^L2 are computed, using the Monge matrix multiplication algorithms [1, 2, 4], the shortest paths from s to all vertices in ^L3 can be computed in O(Δ) time. Observe that outside the subgraph of ^G between the vertex layers ^L2 and ^L3 (FIG. 2B), there are only O(Δ) edges of ^G. Hence a shortest s-to-t path in ^G can be computed in O(Δ) time. Thus, the following theorem is:

Given a non-negative function ƒ defined on {1, 2, . . . , n} and positive integers c, H, and Δ(Δ≤H), the complete set of the CCPP problem instances is computable in O(n2H2+n4) time.

EXAMPLE 3

Unconstrained Intensity Optimization in Single-arc Dose Painting

The first planning step for single arc dose painting is unconstrained intensity optimization. Different algorithms can be used for achieving this step (11-13). Suitable algorithms are available in the relevant literature (8,10). As with IMAT, an arc is approximated with multiple fixed radiation beams evenly spaced every 5-10 degrees (5).

EXAMPLE 4

Leaf-sequencing in Single-arc Dose Painting

Step two in single-arc dose painting is the conversion of the optimized beam intensities into connected field apertures. The goal is to find a set of connected field shapes that when delivered dynamically based on linear interpolation between the apertures, will result in minimum discrepancy to the optimized intensity profile. For leaf sequencing, a hybrid approach has been developed. For simple cases the method called line segment approximation on component intensity profiles is appropriate. For more complicated cases, leaf position and aperture weight optimization and leaf position and aperture weight optimization may be used.

Line Segment Approximation to Component Intensity Profiles

This method is based on a “sliding window” technique. Recognizing that any intensity pattern can be delivered by sliding a varying aperture in either direction, each of the intensity patterns can be converted into “sliding window” dynamic control points. The only constraint to ensure the interconnectedness of the intensity patterns is that in the next interval, the direction of the “sliding window” has to be in the opposite direction. Accordingly, the apertures defined by the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) sweep back and forth, completing one cycle in every two intervals.

The conversion from fluence distributions to MLC “sliding window” delivery is illustrated by FIGS. 4A-4B. For a given arbitrary intensity distribution aligned with a pair of opposing leaves, such as that shown in FIG. 4A, initially, a separation is made between the portion to be delivered by the leading leaf (right leaf) and that to be delivered by the trailing leaf (left leaf). With the radiation source turned on, for a fixed left leaf position, moving the right leaf towards the right will create a negative gradient. Likewise, for a fixed right leaf position, moving the left leaf towards the right will create a positive intensity gradient. Therefore, the method first finds the points that separate the positive and negative gradients, as illustrated by the vertical lines. Then positive gradient portions are to the trailing profile and inverted negative gradient portions to the leading profile as shown on FIG. 4B. The vertical axis represents beam intensity in radiation monitor units (MUs), which is also time for a given machine dose rate. With this separation, the profile may be defined as follows:
Original profile=Trailing Profile−Leading profile.
The separated profiles become the leading and trailing leaf positions as functions of time. If both leaves are moved according to FIG. 1B, the desired intensity profile will be created.

Inspection of FIG. 4B, reveals that for both leaves, there will be sections where the leaves are required to change positions with no elapsed time (the flat portions of the profiles). Accordingly, in order to make the dose delivery physically achievable, the minimum gradient required for leaf travel (governed by the maximum leaf traveling speed) is added to the flat portions, while the same amount is added to the other profile so that the difference between the two profiles is kept substantially constant (FIG. 4C). When this intensity profile is delivered, the apertures of varying width formed by both leaves will move smoothly from the left to the right. Such smooth motion is the origin of the term “sliding window technique”. The left leaf can alternatively be considered to be the leading leaf and the right leaf to be the trailing leaf, thereby delivering the same intensity distribution by sliding the “window” from the right to the left.

With the current art of dynamic MLC leaf sequencing, the control-points are generated by evenly dividing the total monitor units (MUs) required by the number of segments, which is normally relatively large (˜50). Rather than a pure “sliding window” leaf-sequencing as described in FIGS. 4A-4B, it is also possible to sequence the optimized intensity maps in a “sliding window” fashion using a graph algorithm known and standard in the art. Because the treatment apparatus, linac and MLC, performs the linear interpolation automatically, accurate delivery is ensured if the vertices that join two lines of different slopes are used as control points. Therefore, the gradient turning positions of the original intensity profile (the intercepts of the vertical lines with the profiles) are used as the initial estimations of the control points. In essence, the original component intensity profiles are approximated with connected line segments. These initial control points are used as the input to the next step of the leaf sequencing process.

As indicated in FIGS. 4A-4B, the apertures selected from the sliding window leaf sequence are naturally interconnected within each planning interval. The apertures within each interval will move either left to right or right to left. To make it easier to connect all intervals into one arc, the apertures are sequenced in such a way that: 1) the MLC leaves move in opposite directions in any two neighboring angular intervals; and 2) the two aperture shapes connecting any two angular intervals do not violate the physical constraints of the MLC (i.e., the shapes are not so drastically different as to require large MLC movements). Because any intensity map can be delivered dynamically in either left-to-right or right-to-left leaf motion, the direction of MLC motion alternates between neighboring beams and the aperture shape connectivity is considered throughout the arc. As a result, the shape-varying beam aperture (or “dynamic window”) slides back and forth while the gantry rotates around the patient.

Leaf Position and Aperture Weight Optimization

One of the concerns presented by method using line segment approximation to component intensity profiles is that for complex intensity distributions, using this method alone may result in a plan with very high machine beam-on times and may requires too many control points to maintain a very close dose conformity. Thus for more complicated cases, two alternative, and somewhat more complex, methods can be used, as described below.

Observe that during the delivery of a set of densely-spaced intensity patterns, each pair of MLC leaves will deliver a set of densely-spaced intensity profiles that are aligned with this leaf pair. The method comprises the following key steps:

First, for every pair of MLC leaves, each of its aligned intensity profiles is converted into a set of k leaf openings using a geometric k-link shortest path algorithm with equal beam-on times that incurs the minimum error. Second, the leaf openings for the same pair of MLC leaves are connected together to form a single-arc of leaf openings using a geometric shortest path algorithm that ensures a smooth transition between adjacent leaf openings while minimizing the error incurred. Third, the single-arcs for each pair of MLC leaves are then combined to form the final single-arc treatment plan.

FIGS. 5A-5D illustrate the key idea of this step. In FIG. 5A, the optimized fluence profile is represented by the functional curve ƒ(x) and the resulting simplified profile is the rectilinear functional curve g(x) that is deliverable by k=4 leaf openings with equal beam-on. The error here is the integral of the absolute difference between the two functions, ∫|ƒ(x)−g(x)|dx (the shaded area in FIG. 5C). In FIG. 5A, each leaf opening is represented by a rectangle whose left and right ends are the positions of the MLC leaf pair and whose height is its beam-on time. The simplified intensity profile is created by “stacking up” these rectangles. Since all the leaf openings have the same beam-on time, i.e., the rectangles representing the leaf openings all have the same height, the resulting profile g(x) can have up to k upward edges and k downward edges, if we traverse the profile curve from left to right (FIG. 5B). This problem can be solved by searching for an optimal k-weight path in a graph capturing the geometry of the problem; the total cost of the path represents the error between the simplified profile and the input profile, and its weight indicates how many leaf openings are needed to create the simplified profile. FIG. 5C illustrates such a k-weight path, where the k upward edges are highlighted in red (solid if black and white) and the error is the area sum of the shaded regions.

To find such a k-weight path, a directed graph G is constructed as in FIG. 5D. Specifically, for each possible height h of the rectangles, a grid structure is imposed, whose vertical edge lengths are h and horizontal edge lengths are of the resolution size of the given intensity patterns. Each grid node is a vertex of the graph G. The lower leftmost grid node is the source vertex s of G, and the lower rightmost node is the sink vertex t. For any horizontal grid edge, we put an edge in G from left to right with a zero weight and a cost that is the error incurred when this edge is used by the resulting profile (FIG. 5D) for a horizontal edge and its cost, i.e., the shaded area). For each vertical grid edge, we put in G an upward edge with a unit weight and a downward edge with a zero weight. Observe that a k-weight optimal s-to-t path in G thus constructed yields a desired simplified profile. This optimal path problem can be solved by the constrained shortest path algorithm.

The k-link path algorithm above will convert each intensity profile into a simplified profile that can be deliverable by k leaf openings. For each simplified profile, there are potentially k! ways to break it up into leaf openings. In this algorithm, break each simplified intensity profile is broken into a set of canonical leaf openings. Specifically, a set of leaf openings is called canonical if only if for any two leaf openings [li, ri] and [lj, rj] (where and li and lj denote the left leaf positions, and ri and rj denote the right leaf positions), either li≤li, rj≤rj, or li≥li, rj≥rj. Intuitively, a set of canonical leaf openings can be sorted from left to right.

FIGS. 6A-6C illustrate the key concept for the second step, i.e., for combining the canonical leaf openings into arcs. When combining the leaf openings to form a single-arc, for each pair of leaves, its single-arc can be viewed as two curves, each representing the leaf trajectory as a function of the leaf position with respect to the gantry angles. The solid curves in FIG. 6B show the corresponding leaf trajectories of the single-arc illustrated in FIG. 6A. If this single-arc is not deliverable under the maximum leaf speed constraint, the arc has to be adjusted to make it deliverable while minimizing the error incurred by the adjustment.

Geometrically, the effect of the adjustment is to deform the original leaf trajectories into two new leaf trajectories. FIG. 6B gives such an adjustment where the original solid curves are changed to the dashed ones. The error is the area sum of the shaded regions. Since each leaf trajectory is a function of the leaf position with respect to the gantry angles, it can be viewed as a path of leaf positions along the gantry angle direction. This implies that the above adjustment problem can be solved by modeling it as a shortest path problem, in which the cost of a path is the error of the adjustment. FIG. 6C shows the graph construction. Each possible leaf position is a vertex, and two vertices for adjacent gantry angles are connected by an edge if they satisfy the maximum leaf speed constraint. Each vertex has a cost for the error incurred when adjusting the corresponding original leaf position for its gantry angle using that vertex. Geometrically, this error corresponds to a shaded region in FIG. 6B. Hence, the problem of adjusting a single arc as originally planned into a deliverable arc becomes a shortest path problem.

The spacing of the apertures within each interval is also straightforward. This is because the apertures obtained for each angular interval can sorted from left to right. The angular interval can be evenly divided the by the number of apertures used to reproduce the intensity distribution. The apertures can be sequenced in such a way that: 1) the MLC leaves move in opposite directions in any two neighboring angular intervals; and 2) the two aperture shapes connecting any two angular intervals do not violate the physical constraints of the MLC, i.e., they are not so drastically different as to require large MLC movements. As the result, the shape-varying beam aperture slides back and forth while the gantry rotates around the patient. Since the apertures for different angular intervals are obtained with different dose rates, this single arc plan may require dose rate changes during the delivery.

Leaf Position and Aperture Weight Optimization

In some clinical cases, it may be desirable to construct a series of single-arc plans that represent a tradeoff between machine beam-on times and error between the delivered fluence and prescribed ideal fluences. In such a case, in the event that each of the previously described two methods fails to give a high quality plan, the following method described in this section may be used.

Consider FIGS. 7A-7B, and, for simplicity, assume that the MLC consists of only one pair of leaves. FIG. 7A shows a sample single-arc plan, where the red curve represents the left leaf trajectory and the blue curve represents the right leaf trajectory. Note that, since, in a single-arc plan, the MLC keeps moving as the gantry rotates 360° around the patient at constant speed, the leaf trajectory is actually a functional curve between gantry angle and MLC leaf positions. For each small angular interval Δθ (typically)5°-10°, the portions of the leaf trajectories deliver a fluence profile (FIG. 7B).

The above observation forms the basis for the following method:

First, for each given error bound, the intensity profile in every planning beam interval for each pair of MLC leaves is converted to a set of candidate sequences of leaf openings using a shortest path algorithm with minimized error subject to the error bound. These candidate sequences may differ from each other in the starting and/or ending leaf openings. FIG. 8B shows a candidate sequence for the intensity profile as shown in FIG. 8A with certain starting and ending leaf trajectory positions. The goal here is to construct a graph whose nodes are the candidate leaf trajectories. Each node will have a cost associated with it, which is the error of the trajectory when delivering its own profile. Two nodes from adjacent angular intervals are connected together if their transitions are smooth. A shortest path here yields an optimal single-arc plan. To improve the running time, one limits the number of candidate trajectories. e.g., by restricting the trajectories to be monotonic.

Second the sequences computed in the first step are connected together to form a single arc of leaf openings using a shortest path to ensure a smooth transition of the leaf positions between adjacent planning beam intervals while minimizing the total error incurred. Third, the single arcs for each pair of MLC leaves are then combined to form the final single-arc treatment plan.

Since the above method can compute a single-arc plan subject to an error bound, the method can compute a tradeoff between error and number of control points, or error and machine beam-on times.

EXAMPLE 4

Single Arc Sequencing

Note that up to this point, the apertures are all at the designated planning angle at the center of the planning interval. When we move the aperture to another angle a few degrees away, the dose will change slightly. To maintain the dose delivered to the target, the apertures are adjusted as follows:

In FIG. 9A, AB is the radiation source to rotational center i.e. isocenter, distance, and BC=x is the x coordinate of the right leaf. If the same opening is delivered at angle r away, the same opening will not be able to cover the same width of target as originally intended. To cover the same target width, the aperture needs to be enlarged by Dx. FIG. 9B omits DABC for clarity. From FIGS. 9A-9B, the following equation may be written:

tan ( ρ + Δρ ) = x · sin γ S A D - x · cos γ .
This yields:

x + Δ x = S A D · tan ( ρ + Δρ ) = S A D · x · sin γ S A D - x · cos γ .
Substituting

γ = π 2 - θ ,
the following is obtained:

x - Δ x = S A D · x · sin ( π 2 - θ ) S A D + x · cos ( π 2 - θ ) = S A D · x · cos θ S A D - x · sin θ .
Similarly, the adjustment on the other side can be deduced. From FIGS. 9C-9D:

tan ( ρ - Δρ ) = x · sin γ S A D + x · cos γ .
This gives:

x - Δ x = S A D · tan ( ρ - Δρ ) = S A D · x · sin γ S A D + x · cos γ .
Substituting

γ = π 2 - θ ,
the following is obtained:

x + Δ x = S A D · x · sin ( π 2 - θ ) S A D - x · cos ( π 2 - θ ) = S A D · x · cos θ S A D + x · sin θ .

When the aperture is moved counterclockwise from the planned angle, r will be negative. Given these simple relationships, the new aperture widths can be set to provide the same coverage at the new angle as the original aperture provided at the planned angle. Alternatively or in addition to the above mentioned aperture shape adjustment for the apertures moved away from the planning angle, a simple aperture weight and shape optimization can be performed to further refine the single arc to deplete any potential rooms of improvement of the treatment plan quality.

EXAMPLE 5

Single Arc Painting for Cancer of Larynx

Sample plans were developed for several clinical cases. The plans were transferred to a Varian linear accelerator and delivered to a phantom. Comparison of the delivered and measured doses showed good agreement. One plan is for a larynx case with 3 targets, each with different dose specifications (FIG. 10A). FIG. 10B shows the dose distribution on a transverse slice at neck level resulting from the single-arc plan and FIG. 10C is the result of dose verification by delivering the single-arc plan to a phantom. Note that the phantom is different in size and shape from the patient and the calculated dose from the same plan is therefore also different.

THE FOLLOWING REFERENCES ARE CITED HEREIN

  • 1. Bortfeld et al., Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys, 28(3):723-730 (1994).
  • 2. Boyer, A. & Yu, C., Seminars in Radiation Oncol 9(1):48-59 (1999).
  • 3. Mackie et al., Med Phys, 20(6):1709-19 (1993).
  • 4. Yu et al., Phys. Med. Biol., 40:769-787 (1995).
  • 5. Yu, C. X., Phys. Med. Biol., 40:1435-49, (1995).
  • 6.Yu et al., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53(2):453-63 (2002).
  • 7. Cho, P. S. & Marks, R. J. II, Phys. Med. Biol, 45(2):429-440 (2000).
  • 8. Earl et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 48(8):075-89 (2003).
  • 9. Cameron, C., Phys Med. 50(18):4317-36 (2005).
  • 10. Shepard et al., Med. Phys. 34(2):464-470 (February 2007).
  • 11. Brahme, A., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 49(2):327-37 (2001).
  • 12. Shepard et al., Physics in Medicine and Biology, 45(1): 69-90 (1999).
  • 13. Webb, S., Phys. Med. Biol. 39(12):2229-2246 (1994).

Any patents or publications mentioned in this specification are indicative of the level of those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains. Further, these patents and publications are incorporated by reference herein to the same extent as if each individual publication was specifically and individually incorporated by reference.

One skilled in the art would appreciate readily that the present invention is well adapted to carry out the objects and obtain the ends and advantages mentioned, as well as those objects, ends and advantages inherent herein. Changes therein and other uses which are encompassed within the spirit of the invention as defined by the scope of the claims will occur to those skilled in the art.

Claims (48)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for designing a radiation treatment for a subject using single arc dose painting, comprising:
providing an unconstrained optimization map which supplies intensity profiles of densely-spaced radiation beams;
aligning each intensity profile to a pair of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves;
applying a shortest path algorithm to convert each pair of MLC leaves to a set of leaf aperture sequences, said set of leaf aperture sequences forming a shortest path single arc thereof; and
connecting each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc path, thereby designing the single arc dose painting radiation treatment; and
delivering a treatment dose of radiation to the subject during a single rotation along one or more of the final treatment single arc path.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
delivering wherein the treatment dose is a continuous dose of radiation delivered to the subject through each aperture during a the single rotation along one or more final treatment single arc paths.
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
adjusting a shape of the aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the final treatment arc.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the paths of more than one single arc are non-coplanar.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the apertures sweep back and forth along the single arc path during delivery of the radiation dose.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein sequencing leaf apertures comprises one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures and optimization of leaf position and aperture weight.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the leaf aperture sequences in each set have one or both of a different starting or ending leaf aperture.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein a starting and ending position of a leaf aperture trajectory are fixed.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein multiple leaf collimation is dynamic.
10. The method of claim 1, further comprising
irradiating a tumor in a subject with the continuous dose of radiation through sets of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) aperture sequences during a single rotation along one or more of the treatment single arc paths.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising:
adjusting a shape of the aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the treatment single arc path.
12. The method of claim 10, further comprising:
repeating the irradiation step during another rotation along the treatment single arc path(s).
13. The method of claim 10, wherein each set of MLC aperture sequences form a shortest path single arc thereof, said sets connected to form a shortest path treatment single arc.
14. A system for delivering radiation treatment using single arc dose painting, comprising in a radiation delivery device:
a radiation source for generating a radiation beam;
a multiple leaf collimator having a plurality of leafs for shaping the a radiation beam;
structure for generating tangibly storing an algorithm enabling processor-executable instructions to generate an unconstrained optimization map of intensity profiles of densely-spaced radiation beams;
structure for aligning tangibly storing an algorithm enabling processor-executable instructions to align each intensity profile to a pair of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves; and
structure for applying tangibly storing a shortest path algorithm, said shortest path algorithm converting enabling processor-executable instructions to convert each pair of MLC leaves to a set of leaf aperture sequences forming a shortest path single arc thereof, said shortest path algorithm and to further connecting connect each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc effective for single arc dose painting; and
a source of a dose of continuous radiation beams, varying radiation beams or both deliverable to the subject through each aperture during a single rotation along the final treatment single arc path.
15. The system of claim 14, the shortest path algorithm further adjusting enabling processor-executable instructions to adjust a shape of the leaf aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the final treatment single arc.
16. The system of claim 14, wherein the shortest path algorithm sequences enables processor-executable instructions to sequence leaf apertures via one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures or optimization of leaf position and aperture weight.
17. The system of claim 14, wherein the multiple leaf collimator is dynamic.
18. A computer-readable medium tangibly storing an algorithm to determine a final single arc path for a single arc dose painting radiation treatment, said algorithm enabling processor-executable instructions to:
convert pairs of multiple leaf collimation (MLC) leaves to sets of leaf aperture sequences that form a shortest path single arc thereof, said pairs of MLC leaves each aligned to an intensity profile of densely-spaced radiation beams; and
connect each single arc of leaf apertures to form a final treatment single arc.
19. The computer-readable medium of claim 18, said algorithm further enabling instructions to:
adjust a shape of the leaf aperture as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the final treatment single arc.
20. The computer-readable medium of claim 18, wherein the algorithm sequences leaf apertures via one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures or optimization of leaf position and aperture weight.
21. A method for designing a radiation treatment using a treatment arc comprising:
accessing an optimization map that supplies intensity profiles wherein at least some of the intensity profiles differ from one another with respect to a plurality of radiation beams;
aligning specific ones of the intensity profiles to corresponding pairs of multiple leaf collimator (MLC) leaves;
determining via a shortest path algorithm, for at least one of the pairs of MLC leaves, a plurality of leaf aperture sequences corresponding to angular intervals as each comprise a part of the treatment arc and combining the plurality of leaf aperture sequences over the angular intervals to form a treatment arc;
developing a final treatment arc using the treatment arc; and
delivering a dose of radiation to a subject based upon the leaf aperture sequences while traversing the final treatment arc; wherein the dose of radiation comprises a continuous dose of radiation, a varying dose of radiation or both while traversing the final treatment arc.
22. The method of claim 21 wherein the plurality of radiation beams comprises a plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams.
23. The method of claim 22 wherein the plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams are spaced no less than about ten degrees from one another.
24. The method of claim 21, wherein delivering a continuous dose of radiation to the subject comprises, at least in part, sweeping MLC apertures back and forth along the final treatment arc.
25. The method of claim 21 wherein determining a plurality of leaf aperture sequences comprises, at least in part, adjusting MLC aperture shapes as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the treatment arc.
26. The method of claim 21 wherein determining the plurality of leaf aperture sequences comprises one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures, and optimization of leaf position and aperture weight.
27. The method of claim 21 wherein the plurality of leaf aperture sequences provide for dynamic multiple leaf collimation over the treatment arc.
28. The method of claim 21 wherein the optimization map comprises, at least in part, fluence distribution.
29. A method for designing a radiation treatment comprising:
accessing an optimization map that supplies intensity profiles wherein at least some of the intensity profiles differ from one another with respect to a plurality of radiation beams;
using the intensity profiles to develop a plurality of multiple leaf collimator aperture settings for use at various angles along a treatment arc;
determining via a shortest path algorithm a plurality of leaf aperture sequences from the plurality of multiple leaf collimator aperture settings;
using the plurality of leaf aperture sequences to form a radiation treatment plan to deliver a dose of radiation to a subject while dynamically adjusting a corresponding leaf collimator aperture based upon the plurality of leaf aperture sequences while traversing the treatment arc; and
delivering a dose of radiation to the subject while traversing the treatment arc using the radiation treatment plan; wherein the dose of radiation comprises a continuous dose of radiation, a varying dose of radiation or both while traversing the treatment arc via the radiation treatment plan.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein delivering the dose of radiation to the subject while dynamically adjusting a corresponding leaf collimator aperture comprises, at least in part, sweeping MLC apertures back and forth along the treatment arc.
31. The method of claim 29 wherein determining a plurality of leaf aperture sequences comprises, at least in part, adjusting MLC aperture shapes as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the treatment arc.
32. A method for designing a radiation treatment using a treatment arc comprising:
accessing an optimization map that supplies intensity profiles wherein at least some of the intensity profiles differ from one another with respect to a plurality of radiation beams;
determining via a shortest path algorithm a plurality of multiple leaf collimator aperture sequences corresponding to angular intervals as each comprise a part of the treatment arc and forming the treatment arc based at least in part on the plurality of leaf aperture sequences over the angular intervals to form a treatment arc that provides for sweeping a multiple leaf collimator aperture back and forth along a treatment arc; and
delivering a dose of radiation to a subject while sweeping the multiple leaf collimator aperture back and forth along the treatment arc; wherein the dose of radiation comprises a continuous dose of radiation, a varying dose of radiation or both along the treatment arc during delivery.
33. The method of claim 32 wherein the plurality of radiation beams comprises a plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams.
34. The method of claim 33 wherein the plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams are spaced no less than about ten degrees from one another.
35. A planning system for developing a radiation treatment to be administered via a radiation source for generating a plurality of radiation beams and a multiple leaf collimator having a plurality of leafs for shaping the radiation beams, the planning system comprising:
structure tangibly storing an algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to access an optimization map that supplies intensity profiles wherein at least some of the intensity profiles differ from one another with respect to the plurality of radiation beams;
structure tangibly storing an algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to align specific ones of the intensity profiles to corresponding pairs of multiple leaf collimator (MLC) leaves;
structure tangibly storing a shortest path algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to:
determine, for at least one of the pairs of MLC leaves, a plurality of leaf aperture sequences corresponding to angular intervals as each comprise a part of the treatment arc;
combine the plurality of leaf aperture sequences over the angular intervals to form a treatment arc; and
develop a final treatment arc using the treatment arc;
a source of a continuous dose of radiation deliverable to a subject based upon the leaf aperture sequences while traversing the single treatment arc; and
a source of a varying dose of radiation deliverable to a subject based upon the leaf aperture sequences while traversing the single treatment arc.
36. The planning system of claim 35 wherein the plurality of radiation beams comprises a plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams.
37. The planning system of claim 36 wherein the plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams are spaced no less than about ten degrees from one another.
38. The planning system of claim 35, wherein the source of the continuous dose of radiation is configured to deliver the continuous dose of radiation by, at least in part, sweeping MLC apertures back and forth along the final treatment arc.
39. The planning system of claim 35 wherein the shortest path algorithm enables processor-executed instructions to, at least in part, adjust MLC aperture shapes as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the treatment arc.
40. The planning system of claim 35 wherein the shortest path algorithm enables processor-executed instructions to use one or more of a line segment approximation on component intensity profiles leaf position, weight optimization of apertures, and optimization of leaf position and aperture weight.
41. The planning system of claim 35 wherein the plurality of leaf aperture sequences provide for dynamic multiple leaf collimation over the treatment arc.
42. The planning system of claim 35 wherein the optimization map comprises, at least in part, fluence distribution.
43. A planning system for developing a radiation treatment to be administered via a radiation source for generating a plurality of radiation beams and a multiple leaf collimator having a plurality of leafs for shaping the radiation beams, the planning system comprising:
structure tangibly storing an algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to access an optimization map that supplies intensity profiles wherein at least some of the intensity profiles differ from one another with respect to a plurality of radiation beams;
structure tangibly storing an algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to use the intensity profiles to develop a plurality of multiple leaf collimator aperture settings for use at various angles along a treatment arc;
structure tangibly storing a shortest path algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to determine a plurality of leaf aperture sequences using the plurality of multiple leaf collimator aperture settings and to use the plurality of leaf aperture sequences to form a radiation treatment plan to deliver a dose of radiation to a subject while dynamically adjusting a corresponding leaf collimator aperture based upon the plurality of leaf aperture sequences while traversing the single treatment arc; and
a source of a continuous dose of radiation, a varying dose of radiation or both deliverable to the subject while traversing the single treatment arc.
44. The planning system of claim 43 wherein the shortest path algorithm enables processor-executed instructions to deliver the dose of radiation to the subject by, at least in part, sweeping MLC apertures back and forth along the single treatment arc.
45. The planning system of claim 43 wherein the algorithm for determining a plurality of leaf aperture sequences determines the plurality of leaf aperture sequences by, at least in part, adjusting MLC aperture shapes as a radiation dose delivery angle changes along the treatment arc.
46. A planning system for developing a radiation treatment to be administered via a radiation source for generating a plurality of radiation beams and a multiple leaf collimator having a plurality of leafs for shaping the radiation beams, the planning system comprising:
structure tangibly storing an algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to access an optimization map that supplies intensity profiles wherein at least some of the intensity profiles differ from one another with respect to a plurality of radiation beams;
structure tangibly storing a shortest path algorithm enabling processor-executed instructions to:
determine a plurality of multiple leaf collimator aperture sequences corresponding to angular intervals as each comprise a part of the treatment arc; and
form the treatment arc based at least in part on the plurality of leaf aperture sequences over the angular intervals to form a treatment arc that provides for sweeping a multiple leaf collimator aperture back and forth along the treatment arc; and
a source of a continuous dose of radiation, a varying dose of radiation or both deliverable to a subject while sweeping the multiple leaf collimator aperture back and forth along the treatment arc.
47. The planning system of claim 46 wherein the plurality of radiation beams comprises a plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams.
48. The planning system of claim 47 wherein the plurality of densely-spaced radiation beams are spaced no less than about ten degrees from one another.
US14/020,500 2007-04-20 2013-09-06 Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy Active USRE46953E1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US91317507P true 2007-04-20 2007-04-20
PCT/US2008/005028 WO2008130634A1 (en) 2007-04-20 2008-04-18 Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy
US12/589,205 US8014494B2 (en) 2009-10-20 2009-10-20 Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy
US14/020,500 USRE46953E1 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-09-06 Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/020,500 USRE46953E1 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-09-06 Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/589,205 Reissue US8014494B2 (en) 2009-10-20 2009-10-20 Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE46953E1 true USRE46953E1 (en) 2018-07-17

Family

ID=62837361

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/020,500 Active USRE46953E1 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-09-06 Single-arc dose painting for precision radiation therapy

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) USRE46953E1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10449389B2 (en) * 2016-12-05 2019-10-22 Varian Medical Systems International Ag Dynamic target masker in radiation treatment of multiple targets
US10525283B2 (en) * 2017-03-09 2020-01-07 Dalhousie University Systems and methods for planning and controlling the rotation of a multileaf collimator for arc therapy

Citations (261)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3133227A (en) 1958-06-25 1964-05-12 Varian Associates Linear particle accelerator apparatus for high energy particle beams provided with pulsing means for the control electrode
US3144552A (en) 1960-08-24 1964-08-11 Varian Associates Apparatus for the iradiation of materials with a pulsed strip beam of electrons
US3193717A (en) 1959-03-09 1965-07-06 Varian Associates Beam scanning method and apparatus
GB1328033A (en) 1970-11-06 1973-08-22 Philips Electronic Associated Apparatus for measuring the surface configuration of at least part of a body
US3906233A (en) 1973-10-12 1975-09-16 Varian Associates System and method for administering radiation
FR2269745A1 (en) 1972-08-17 1975-11-28 Lescrenier Charles Position control of operating fable for radiation therapy - arrangement and method for holding a position reference between an emitter and a receiver object
US3987281A (en) 1974-07-29 1976-10-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health, Education And Welfare Method of radiation therapy treatment planning
US4149247A (en) 1975-12-23 1979-04-10 Varian Associates, Inc. Tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing planar slices from non-absorbed and non-scattered radiation
US4149248A (en) 1975-12-23 1979-04-10 Varian Associates, Inc. Apparatus and method for reconstructing data
US4208675A (en) 1978-03-20 1980-06-17 Agence Nationale De Valorization De La Recherche (Anvar) Method and apparatus for positioning an object
US4209706A (en) 1976-11-26 1980-06-24 Varian Associates, Inc. Fluoroscopic apparatus mounting fixture
EP0062941A1 (en) 1981-04-08 1982-10-20 Philips Electronics N.V. Contour recording device
JPS5976A (en) 1982-06-22 1984-01-05 Nippon Electric Co High energy ct for radiation treatment
FR2551664A1 (en) 1982-09-13 1985-03-15 Varian Associates Thin mirror for illuminating an area for a medical electron accelerator
US4521808A (en) 1979-03-22 1985-06-04 University Of Texas System Electrostatic imaging apparatus
WO1985003212A1 (en) 1984-01-18 1985-08-01 Lescrenier, Charles Improved means for visually indicating an x-ray field
US4547892A (en) 1977-04-01 1985-10-15 Technicare Corporation Cardiac imaging with CT scanner
US4593967A (en) 1984-11-01 1986-06-10 Honeywell Inc. 3-D active vision sensor
US4628523A (en) 1985-05-13 1986-12-09 B.V. Optische Industrie De Oude Delft Direction control for radiographic therapy apparatus
EP0205720A1 (en) 1985-06-28 1986-12-30 Instrument Ab Scanditronix CT scanner for radiation theraphy planning
US4675731A (en) 1983-02-01 1987-06-23 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Diagnostic apparatus
US4679076A (en) 1983-06-08 1987-07-07 Vikterloef Karl Johan Means for registering coordinates
US4726046A (en) 1985-11-05 1988-02-16 Varian Associates, Inc. X-ray and electron radiotherapy clinical treatment machine
US4741621A (en) 1986-08-18 1988-05-03 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Geometric surface inspection system with dual overlap light stripe generator
JPS63294839A (en) 1987-05-27 1988-12-01 Nec Corp Ct simulator for radiotherapy
DE3828639A1 (en) 1987-08-24 1989-03-16 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Ionised particle beam therapy device
US4825393A (en) 1986-04-23 1989-04-25 Hitachi, Ltd. Position measuring method
JPH01162682A (en) 1987-11-24 1989-06-27 W Reiners Verwalt Gmbh Traverse apparatus of spinning machinery
US4853777A (en) 1987-07-07 1989-08-01 Ashland Oil, Inc. Method for evaluating smooth surfaces
US4868843A (en) 1986-09-10 1989-09-19 Varian Associates, Inc. Multileaf collimator and compensator for radiotherapy machines
WO1990014129A1 (en) 1989-05-18 1990-11-29 University Of Florida Dosimetric technique for stereotactic radiosurgery
US5001344A (en) 1988-08-26 1991-03-19 Hitachi, Ltd. Scanning electron microscope and method of processing the same
US5014292A (en) 1990-01-29 1991-05-07 Siczek Bernard W Tiltable x-ray table integrated with carriage for x-ray source and receptor
WO1992000567A1 (en) 1990-07-02 1992-01-09 Varian Associates, Inc. Computed tomography apparatus using image intensifier detector
US5080100A (en) 1988-10-04 1992-01-14 Cgr Mev System and method for measuring and/or checking the position of a patient in a radio-therapy machine
EP0471455A2 (en) 1990-08-14 1992-02-19 Picker International, Inc. Imaging apparatus and methods
WO1992002277A1 (en) 1990-08-03 1992-02-20 Siemens Medical Laboratories, Inc. Portal imaging device
US5099505A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-03-24 Varian Associates Method for increasing the accuracy of a radiation therapy apparatus
EP0480035A1 (en) 1989-06-30 1992-04-15 Yokogawa Medical Systems, Ltd Radiotherapeutic system
US5117445A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-05-26 Varian Associates, Inc. Electronically enhanced x-ray detector apparatus
US5157707A (en) 1989-02-20 1992-10-20 Ao Medical Products Ab Method and a cassette holder for performing x-ray examination
WO1992020202A1 (en) 1991-05-06 1992-11-12 Moore Robert M Radiation image generating system and method
US5168532A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-12-01 Varian Associates, Inc. Method for improving the dynamic range of an imaging system
US5207223A (en) 1990-10-19 1993-05-04 Accuray, Inc. Apparatus for and method of performing stereotaxic surgery
US5262649A (en) 1989-09-06 1993-11-16 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan Thin-film, flat panel, pixelated detector array for real-time digital imaging and dosimetry of ionizing radiation
DE4223488A1 (en) 1992-07-17 1994-01-20 Despina Dr Med Katsohi Restituierbare compensation device for radiation treatment
US5332908A (en) 1992-03-31 1994-07-26 Siemens Medical Laboratories, Inc. Method for dynamic beam profile generation
US5335255A (en) 1992-03-24 1994-08-02 Seppi Edward J X-ray scanner with a source emitting plurality of fan beams
WO1995000204A1 (en) 1993-06-18 1995-01-05 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method for radiation therapy planning
US5394452A (en) 1992-03-19 1995-02-28 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Verification system for radiation therapy
US5400255A (en) 1994-02-14 1995-03-21 General Electric Company Reconstruction of images from cone beam data
US5411026A (en) 1993-10-08 1995-05-02 Nomos Corporation Method and apparatus for lesion position verification
US5427097A (en) 1992-12-10 1995-06-27 Accuray, Inc. Apparatus for and method of carrying out stereotaxic radiosurgery and radiotherapy
US5438991A (en) 1993-10-18 1995-08-08 William Beaumont Hospital Method and apparatus for controlling a radiation treatment field
US5442675A (en) 1992-03-19 1995-08-15 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Dynamic collimator for radiation therapy
JPH07255717A (en) 1994-03-25 1995-10-09 Toshiba Corp Radiation treatment system
US5471546A (en) 1993-12-29 1995-11-28 Abb Research Ltd. Fiber-optic transmission sensor with modulator
US5471516A (en) 1994-10-06 1995-11-28 Varian Associates, Inc. Radiotherapy apparatus equipped with low dose localizing and portal imaging X-ray source
US5509042A (en) 1991-02-13 1996-04-16 Lunar Corporation Automated determination and analysis of bone morphology
US5521957A (en) 1994-03-15 1996-05-28 Hansen; Steven J. X-ray imaging system
US5537452A (en) 1994-05-10 1996-07-16 Shepherd; Joseph S. Radiation therapy and radiation surgery treatment system and methods of use of same
US5591983A (en) 1995-06-30 1997-01-07 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Multiple layer multileaf collimator
WO1997013552A1 (en) 1995-10-07 1997-04-17 Philips Electronics N.V. Radiotherapy apparatus for treating a patient
US5647663A (en) 1996-01-05 1997-07-15 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Radiation treatment planning method and apparatus
US5661773A (en) 1992-03-19 1997-08-26 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Interface for radiation therapy machine
US5663999A (en) 1996-06-28 1997-09-02 Systems Medical Systems, Inc. Optimization of an intensity modulated field
US5663995A (en) 1996-06-06 1997-09-02 General Electric Company Systems and methods for reconstructing an image in a CT system performing a cone beam helical scan
US5673300A (en) 1996-06-11 1997-09-30 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method of registering a radiation treatment plan to a patient
US5675625A (en) 1994-06-17 1997-10-07 Lap Gmbh Laser Applikationen Apparatus for positioning and marking a patient at a diagnostic apparatus
DE19614643A1 (en) 1996-04-13 1997-10-16 Werner Dipl Phys Brenneisen Stereotaxial targetted irradiation process for brain tumours
WO1997042522A1 (en) 1996-05-07 1997-11-13 The Regents Of The University Of California Radiation therapy dose calculation engine
US5719914A (en) 1995-11-13 1998-02-17 Imatron, Inc. Method for correcting spherical aberration of the electron beam in a scanning electron beam computed tomography system
US5724400A (en) 1992-03-19 1998-03-03 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Radiation therapy system with constrained rotational freedom
US5727554A (en) 1996-09-19 1998-03-17 University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Apparatus responsive to movement of a patient during treatment/diagnosis
US5748703A (en) 1994-03-22 1998-05-05 Cosman; Eric R. Dynamic collimator for a linear accelerator
JPH10113400A (en) 1996-10-11 1998-05-06 Hitachi Medical Corp Radiotherapy system
US5757881A (en) 1997-01-06 1998-05-26 Siemens Business Communication Systems, Inc. Redundant field-defining arrays for a radiation system
US5802136A (en) 1994-05-17 1998-09-01 Nomos Corporation Method and apparatus for conformal radiation therapy
US5818902A (en) 1996-03-01 1998-10-06 Elekta Ab Intensity modulated arc therapy with dynamic multi-leaf collimation
US5835558A (en) 1996-07-09 1998-11-10 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Mobile x-ray exposure apparatus
WO1998052635A1 (en) 1997-05-23 1998-11-26 William Beaumont Hospital Method and apparatus for delivering radiation therapy during suspended ventilation
US5848126A (en) 1993-11-26 1998-12-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Radiation computed tomography apparatus
JPH10328318A (en) 1997-05-29 1998-12-15 Hitachi Medical Corp Radiotherapy system
US5858891A (en) 1993-12-16 1999-01-12 France Telecom Glass-ceramic materials especially for lasers and optical amplifiers, doped with rare earths
WO1999003397A1 (en) 1997-07-17 1999-01-28 Medlennium Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for radiation and hyperthermia therapy of tumors
US5877501A (en) 1996-11-26 1999-03-02 Picker International, Inc. Digital panel for x-ray image acquisition
US5912943A (en) 1997-11-26 1999-06-15 Picker International, Inc. Cooling system for a sealed housing positioned in a sterile environment
EP0922943A2 (en) 1997-11-28 1999-06-16 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Radiation detecting device and radiation detecting method
US5926521A (en) 1998-03-31 1999-07-20 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Exact region of interest cone beam imaging using 3D backprojection
DE19800946A1 (en) 1998-01-13 1999-07-22 Siemens Ag Volume computer tomography system
US5929449A (en) 1995-07-31 1999-07-27 1294339 Ontario, Inc. Flat panel detector for radiation imaging with reduced electronic noise
US5949811A (en) 1996-10-08 1999-09-07 Hitachi Medical Corporation X-ray apparatus
US5956382A (en) 1997-09-25 1999-09-21 Eliezer Wiener-Avnear, Doing Business As Laser Electro Optic Application Technology Comp. X-ray imaging array detector and laser micro-milling method for fabricating array
US5960055A (en) 1997-12-19 1999-09-28 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Fast cone beam image reconstruction using a detector weight list
WO1999048558A1 (en) 1998-03-20 1999-09-30 Elekta Ab (Publ) Controlling delivery of radiotherapy
EP0948930A1 (en) 1998-04-06 1999-10-13 Picker International, Inc. Acquiring volumetric image data
US5999587A (en) 1997-07-03 1999-12-07 University Of Rochester Method of and system for cone-beam tomography reconstruction
DE19931243A1 (en) 1998-07-08 2000-02-17 Siemens Medical Systems Inc A method and system for reducing dosage errors in an optimized static intensity modulation
US6031888A (en) 1997-11-26 2000-02-29 Picker International, Inc. Fluoro-assist feature for a diagnostic imaging device
US6038283A (en) 1996-10-24 2000-03-14 Nomos Corporation Planning method and apparatus for radiation dosimetry
WO2000015299A1 (en) 1998-09-10 2000-03-23 The Regents Of The University Of California Falcon: automated optimization method for arbitrary assessment criteria
US6052430A (en) 1997-09-25 2000-04-18 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Dynamic sub-space intensity modulation
JP2000116638A (en) 1998-10-15 2000-04-25 Shimadzu Corp Transmission type ct apparatus
JP2000140137A (en) 1998-08-31 2000-05-23 Sumitomo Heavy Ind Ltd Method and device for positioning patient of radiotherapy
JP2000152927A (en) 1998-11-19 2000-06-06 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Radiography device
US6075836A (en) 1997-07-03 2000-06-13 University Of Rochester Method of and system for intravenous volume tomographic digital angiography imaging
US6078638A (en) 1998-09-30 2000-06-20 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Pixel grouping for filtering cone beam detector data during 3D image reconstruction
US6104780A (en) 1997-11-24 2000-08-15 Oec Medical Systems, Inc. Mobile bi-planar fluoroscopic imaging apparatus
US6104778A (en) 1997-10-16 2000-08-15 Varian Systems, Inc. X-ray treatment method and apparatus
US6108400A (en) 1998-08-10 2000-08-22 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. System and method for using precalculated strips in calculating scatter radiation
US6113264A (en) 1997-06-04 2000-09-05 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray diagnostic apparatus with C-shaped arms
US6134296A (en) 1999-01-20 2000-10-17 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Microgradient intensity modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6142925A (en) 1999-01-20 2000-11-07 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Method and system for increasing resolution in a radiotherapy system
US6144875A (en) 1999-03-16 2000-11-07 Accuray Incorporated Apparatus and method for compensating for respiratory and patient motion during treatment
US6148058A (en) 1998-10-23 2000-11-14 Analogic Corporation System and method for real time measurement of detector offset in rotating-patient CT scanner
JP2000317000A (en) 1999-05-13 2000-11-21 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Control unit of radiation irradiation device for radiation therapy
US6152598A (en) 1997-09-02 2000-11-28 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba R/F and chest radiography compatible X-ray imaging table
JP2001029489A (en) 1999-07-15 2001-02-06 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Irradiating device and method of radiation
JP2001029491A (en) 1999-07-15 2001-02-06 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Device and method for calculating exposure value and recording medium
US6200024B1 (en) 1998-11-27 2001-03-13 Picker International, Inc. Virtual C-arm robotic positioning system for use in radiographic imaging equipment
JP2001095793A (en) 1999-10-04 2001-04-10 Hitachi Medical Corp X-ray ct apparatus
US6219403B1 (en) 1999-02-17 2001-04-17 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Radiation therapy method and system
US6219441B1 (en) 1993-06-22 2001-04-17 General Electric Company Reconstruction of images from three-dimensional cone beam data
US6222901B1 (en) 1995-12-18 2001-04-24 U.S. Philips Corporation X-ray examination apparatus including an image sensor matrix with a correction unit
EP1095628A2 (en) 1999-10-29 2001-05-02 Marconi Medical Systems, Inc. Planning minimally invasive procedures for in - vivo placement of objects
JP2001120528A (en) 1999-10-29 2001-05-08 Konica Corp Medical imaging method and medical imaging apparatus
US20010001807A1 (en) 1997-12-19 2001-05-24 Varian, Inc. Radiotherapy machine including magnetic resonance imaging system
US6240161B1 (en) 1997-09-25 2001-05-29 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Multi-leaf collimator constrained optimization of intensity modulated treatments
US6256366B1 (en) 1999-07-22 2001-07-03 Analogic Corporation Apparatus and method for reconstruction of volumetric images in a computed tomography system using sementation of slices
US20010008271A1 (en) 2000-01-12 2001-07-19 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Planar X-ray detector
US6269143B1 (en) 1998-08-31 2001-07-31 Shimadzu Corporation Radiotherapy planning system
US6269141B1 (en) 1998-08-05 2001-07-31 U.S. Philips Corporation Computer tomography apparatus with a conical radiation beam and a helical scanning trajectory
US6278766B1 (en) 1996-10-25 2001-08-21 Sherwood Services Ag Jaw and circular collimator
WO2001060236A2 (en) 2000-02-18 2001-08-23 William Beaumont Hospital Cone-beam computerized tomography with a flat-panel imager
US6285739B1 (en) 1999-02-19 2001-09-04 The Research Foundation Of State University Of New York Radiographic imaging apparatus and method for vascular interventions
EP0965104B1 (en) 1997-03-07 2001-09-05 Computerized Medical Systems, Inc. Autosegmentation/autocontouring methods for use with three-dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning
US6292526B1 (en) 1999-10-27 2001-09-18 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for preprocessing volumetric computed tomography data
US6307914B1 (en) 1998-03-12 2001-10-23 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Moving body pursuit irradiating device and positioning method using this device
US6314159B1 (en) 1999-12-08 2001-11-06 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. System and method for optimizing radiation treatment with an intensity modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6318892B1 (en) 1998-10-28 2001-11-20 Hitachi Medical Corporation Radiography apparatus with rotatably supported cylindrical ring carrying image pickup unit
US6325537B1 (en) 1998-10-16 2001-12-04 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray diagnosis apparatus
US6325758B1 (en) 1997-10-27 2001-12-04 Nomos Corporation Method and apparatus for target position verification
US6330300B1 (en) 2000-08-23 2001-12-11 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. High definition intensity modulating radiation therapy system and method
US6335961B1 (en) 1998-10-06 2002-01-01 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Integrated high definition intensity multileaf collimator system which provides improved conformal radiation therapy while minimizing leakage
US20020006182A1 (en) 2000-05-19 2002-01-17 Siyong Kim Multi-source intensity-modulated radiation beam delivery system and method
US6345114B1 (en) 1995-06-14 2002-02-05 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method and apparatus for calibration of radiation therapy equipment and verification of radiation treatment
US6349129B1 (en) 1999-12-08 2002-02-19 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System and method for defining radiation treatment intensity maps
WO2002013907A1 (en) 2000-08-16 2002-02-21 Elekta Ab (Publ) Radiotherapy simulation apparatus
US6353222B1 (en) 1998-09-03 2002-03-05 Applied Materials, Inc. Determining defect depth and contour information in wafer structures using multiple SEM images
WO2002024277A1 (en) 2000-09-22 2002-03-28 Radiological Imaging Technology, Inc. Automated calibration for radiation dosimetry using fixed or moving beams and detectors
US6370421B1 (en) 2000-06-30 2002-04-09 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Density modulated catheter for use in fluoroscopy based 3-D neural navigation
US6381302B1 (en) 2000-07-05 2002-04-30 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Computer assisted 2D adjustment of stereo X-ray images
US6385288B1 (en) 2001-01-19 2002-05-07 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Radiotherapy apparatus with independent rotation mechanisms
US6385286B1 (en) 1998-08-06 2002-05-07 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Delivery modification system for radiation therapy
US6385477B1 (en) 1997-06-19 2002-05-07 Elektra Ab Method for automatized dose planning
US6393096B1 (en) 1998-05-27 2002-05-21 Nomos Corporation Planning method and apparatus for radiation dosimetry
US20020066860A1 (en) 2000-12-04 2002-06-06 General Electric Company Imaging array minimizing leakage currents
US6411675B1 (en) 2000-11-13 2002-06-25 Jorge Llacer Stochastic method for optimization of radiation therapy planning
US6429578B1 (en) 1999-01-26 2002-08-06 Mats Danielsson Diagnostic and therapeutic detector system for imaging with low and high energy X-ray and electrons
WO2002061680A2 (en) 2001-01-31 2002-08-08 3Q Technologies Ltd Surface imaging
US6435715B1 (en) 1998-11-30 2002-08-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Radiography device
US6438202B1 (en) 1998-08-06 2002-08-20 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method using post-patient radiation monitor to verify entrance radiation and dose in a radiation therapy machine
US6445766B1 (en) 2000-10-18 2002-09-03 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System and method for improved diagnostic imaging in a radiation treatment system
US6463122B1 (en) 2000-08-21 2002-10-08 Bio-Imaging Resource, Inc. Mammography of computer tomography for imaging and therapy
US6473490B1 (en) 2001-09-28 2002-10-29 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Intensity map reconstruction for radiation therapy with a modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6480565B1 (en) 1999-11-18 2002-11-12 University Of Rochester Apparatus and method for cone beam volume computed tomography breast imaging
US20020179812A1 (en) 2001-03-06 2002-12-05 Topcon Corporation Electron beam device and method for stereoscopic measurements
US6504892B1 (en) 2000-10-13 2003-01-07 University Of Rochester System and method for cone beam volume computed tomography using circle-plus-multiple-arc orbit
US6504899B2 (en) 2000-09-25 2003-01-07 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for selecting beam orientations in intensity modulated radiation therapy
WO2003003796A1 (en) 2001-06-26 2003-01-09 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Method and system for predictive physiological gating
US6508586B2 (en) 2000-09-29 2003-01-21 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba IVR-CT apparatus
WO2003008986A2 (en) 2001-07-20 2003-01-30 Elekta Ab (Publ) Mri in guided radiotherapy and position verification
DE10139934A1 (en) 2001-08-14 2003-03-13 Siemens Ag Chemotherapy device with integral radiographic imaging device for preparation of 3-D data of the examination area so that radiation treatment is accurately targeted and its effect is maximized while side effects are minimized
US6546073B1 (en) 1999-11-05 2003-04-08 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Systems and methods for global optimization of treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy
US6560311B1 (en) 1998-08-06 2003-05-06 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method for preparing a radiation therapy plan
US20030086530A1 (en) 2001-09-25 2003-05-08 Karl Otto Methods and apparatus for planning and delivering intensity modulated radiation fields with a rotating multileaf collimator
US6582121B2 (en) 2001-11-15 2003-06-24 Ge Medical Systems Global Technology X-ray positioner with side-mounted, independently articulated arms
US6590953B2 (en) 2000-09-12 2003-07-08 Hitachi Medical Corporation X-ray CT scanner
US20030212325A1 (en) 2002-03-12 2003-11-13 Cristian Cotrutz Method for determining a dose distribution in radiation therapy
US20030219098A1 (en) 2002-05-23 2003-11-27 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Inverse planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy
US6661870B2 (en) 2001-03-09 2003-12-09 Tomotherapy Incorporated Fluence adjustment for improving delivery to voxels without reoptimization
US6661872B2 (en) 2000-12-15 2003-12-09 University Of Florida Intensity modulated radiation therapy planning system
US20040001569A1 (en) 2002-04-29 2004-01-01 Chunsong Luo Intensity modulated radiotherapy inverse planning algorithm
US20040022438A1 (en) 2002-08-02 2004-02-05 Hibbard Lyndon S. Method and apparatus for image segmentation using Jensen-Shannon divergence and Jensen-Renyi divergence
US6714620B2 (en) 2000-09-22 2004-03-30 Numerix, Llc Radiation therapy treatment method
JP2004097646A (en) 2002-09-11 2004-04-02 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Radiotherapy system
US20040071261A1 (en) * 2001-12-03 2004-04-15 University Of Maryland At Baltimore Novel method for the planning and delivery of radiation therapy
US6744848B2 (en) 2000-02-11 2004-06-01 Brandeis University Method and system for low-dose three-dimensional imaging of a scene
US20040116804A1 (en) 1998-10-23 2004-06-17 Hassan Mostafavi Method and system for radiation application
JP2004166975A (en) 2002-11-20 2004-06-17 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Radiotherapy system, and operation method therefor
US20040120452A1 (en) 2002-12-18 2004-06-24 Shapiro Edward G. Multi-mode cone beam CT radiotherapy simulator and treatment machine with a flat panel imager
US6757355B1 (en) * 2000-08-17 2004-06-29 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. High definition radiation treatment with an intensity modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6760402B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2004-07-06 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Verification of mlc leaf position and of radiation and light field congruence
JP2004194697A (en) 2002-12-16 2004-07-15 Toshiba Corp X-ray diagnostic apparatus
US20040165696A1 (en) * 1999-11-05 2004-08-26 Lee Eva K. Systems and methods for global optimization of treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy
DE10305421A1 (en) 2003-02-05 2004-08-26 Universität Rostock Method for the automatic calculation of at least one upper barrier, at least one aperture and at least one parameter set for the irradiation of a target volume in a body
US6792074B2 (en) 2001-03-05 2004-09-14 Brainlab Ag Method for producing or updating radiotherapy plan
US20040190680A1 (en) 2003-03-28 2004-09-30 The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Residual map segmentation method for multi-leaf collimator-intensity modulated radiotherapy
US6813336B1 (en) 2000-08-17 2004-11-02 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. High definition conformal arc radiation therapy with a multi-leaf collimator
US20040254448A1 (en) 2003-03-24 2004-12-16 Amies Christopher Jude Active therapy redefinition
US6850252B1 (en) 1999-10-05 2005-02-01 Steven M. Hoffberg Intelligent electronic appliance system and method
EP1165182B1 (en) 1999-04-02 2005-03-02 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Megavoltage computed tomography during radiotherapy
US6865254B2 (en) 2002-07-02 2005-03-08 Pencilbeam Technologies Ab Radiation system with inner and outer gantry parts
US20050061972A1 (en) 2003-07-24 2005-03-24 Topcon Corporation Electron beam system and electron beam measuring and observing methods
US6879659B2 (en) 2000-12-13 2005-04-12 Elekta Ab Radiotherapeutic apparatus
US6888919B2 (en) 2001-11-02 2005-05-03 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Radiotherapy apparatus equipped with an articulable gantry for positioning an imaging unit
US20050096515A1 (en) 2003-10-23 2005-05-05 Geng Z. J. Three-dimensional surface image guided adaptive therapy system
US20050111621A1 (en) 2003-10-07 2005-05-26 Robert Riker Planning system, method and apparatus for conformal radiation therapy
WO2005057738A2 (en) 2003-12-02 2005-06-23 Fox Chase Cancer Center Method of modulating protons for radiation therapy
US6914959B2 (en) 2001-08-09 2005-07-05 Analogic Corporation Combined radiation therapy and imaging system and method
US20050148841A1 (en) * 2003-12-15 2005-07-07 Srijit Kamath Leaf sequencing method and system
US6937693B2 (en) 2003-03-12 2005-08-30 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Optimal configuration of photon and electron multileaf collimators in mixed beam radiotherapy
US20050197564A1 (en) 2004-02-20 2005-09-08 University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc. System for delivering conformal radiation therapy while simultaneously imaging soft tissue
US6968035B2 (en) 2002-05-01 2005-11-22 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System to present focused radiation treatment area
US6990175B2 (en) 2001-10-18 2006-01-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray computed tomography apparatus
US20060060780A1 (en) 2004-09-07 2006-03-23 Masnaghetti Douglas K Apparatus and method for e-beam dark field imaging
JP2006079006A (en) 2004-09-13 2006-03-23 Ricoh Co Ltd Electrophotographic photoreceptor and electrophotographic method using the same
US7030386B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2006-04-18 Sunnybrook And Women's College Health Scinences Centre High quantum efficiency x-ray detector for portal imaging
US20060176295A1 (en) 2003-05-30 2006-08-10 Lattice Technology, Inc. 3-Dimensional graphics data display device
US7096055B1 (en) 1998-06-24 2006-08-22 Achim Schweikard Method to control delivery of radiation therapy
US20060235260A1 (en) 2004-07-20 2006-10-19 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Adaptive intracavitary brachytherapy applicator
US20060256915A1 (en) * 2005-05-13 2006-11-16 Karl Otto Method and apparatus for planning and delivering radiation treatment
US20060274925A1 (en) 2005-06-02 2006-12-07 West Jay B Generating a volume of interest using a dose isocontour
US20060274061A1 (en) 2005-06-02 2006-12-07 Hongwu Wang Four-dimensional volume of interest
JP2006339541A (en) 2005-06-03 2006-12-14 Citizen Electronics Co Ltd Chip led
US7180980B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2007-02-20 Prowess, Inc. Method for intensity modulated radiation treatment using independent collimator jaws
US7221733B1 (en) 2002-01-02 2007-05-22 Varian Medical Systems Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for irradiating a target
US7227925B1 (en) 2002-10-02 2007-06-05 Varian Medical Systems Technologies, Inc. Gantry mounted stereoscopic imaging system
US20070220108A1 (en) 2006-03-15 2007-09-20 Whitaker Jerry M Mobile global virtual browser with heads-up display for browsing and interacting with the World Wide Web
US20070221842A1 (en) 2006-03-14 2007-09-27 Hidetoshi Morokuma Workpiece size measurement method and apparatus
US20070230770A1 (en) 2005-11-18 2007-10-04 Ashok Kulkarni Methods and systems for determining a position of inspection data in design data space
US20070242797A1 (en) 2005-11-09 2007-10-18 Dexela Limited Methods and apparatus for obtaining low-dose imaging
US7346144B2 (en) 2002-03-14 2008-03-18 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. In vivo planning and treatment of cancer therapy
US7349522B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2008-03-25 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Dynamic radiation therapy simulation system
US7369645B2 (en) 2004-06-21 2008-05-06 Derek Graham Lane Information theoretic inverse planning technique for radiation treatment
US20080114564A1 (en) 2004-11-25 2008-05-15 Masayoshi Ihara Information Classifying Device, Information Classifying Method, Information Classifying Program, Information Classifying System
JP2008163575A (en) 2006-12-27 2008-07-17 Comany Inc Moving wall speed reducer at intersection of ceiling rail
US20080226030A1 (en) 2005-07-25 2008-09-18 Karl Otto Methods and Apparatus For the Planning and Delivery of Radiation Treatments
US7438685B2 (en) 2001-11-05 2008-10-21 Computerized Medical Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for registration, guidance and targeting of external beam radiation therapy
US20080298550A1 (en) 2005-07-25 2008-12-04 Karl Otto Methods and apparatus for the planning and delivery of radiation treatments
US20080317330A1 (en) 2006-02-28 2008-12-25 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Circuit-pattern inspecting apparatus and method
US7525090B1 (en) 2007-03-16 2009-04-28 Kla-Tencor Technologies Corporation Dynamic centering for behind-the-lens dark field imaging
US7529599B1 (en) 2003-09-30 2009-05-05 Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc. Systems and methods for coordination motion instructions
US20090161827A1 (en) 2007-12-23 2009-06-25 Oraya Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and devices for detecting, controlling, and predicting radiation delivery
US20090207975A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2009-08-20 Elekta Ab (Publ) Multi-leaf collimator
US20090213991A1 (en) * 2006-04-27 2009-08-27 Elekta Ab (Publ) Radiotherapeutic apparatus
US20090220046A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-09-03 Korea Institute Of Radiological & Medical Sciences Collimator device for radiotherapy and radiotherapy apparatus using the same
US20090230304A1 (en) 2008-03-13 2009-09-17 Michio Hatano Scanning electron microscope
US20090297019A1 (en) 2005-11-18 2009-12-03 Kla-Tencor Technologies Corporation Methods and systems for utilizing design data in combination with inspection data
US20090322973A1 (en) 2008-06-26 2009-12-31 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Charged particle beam apparatus
US20100020931A1 (en) 2006-07-27 2010-01-28 British Columbia Cancer Agency Branch Systems and methods for optimization of on-line adaptive radiation therapy
US7657304B2 (en) 2002-10-05 2010-02-02 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Imaging device for radiation treatment applications
US20100054410A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-04 Varian Medical Systems International Ag, Inc. Trajectory optimization method
US7755043B1 (en) 2007-03-21 2010-07-13 Kla-Tencor Technologies Corporation Bright-field/dark-field detector with integrated electron energy spectrometer
EP1308185B1 (en) 2001-11-02 2010-12-29 Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc. System and method for measuring beam quality using electronic portal imaging
US7872236B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2011-01-18 Hermes Microvision, Inc. Charged particle detection devices
US20110012911A1 (en) 2009-07-14 2011-01-20 Sensaburo Nakamura Image processing apparatus and method
US7881772B2 (en) 2002-03-15 2011-02-01 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Electronic portal imaging for radiotherapy
EP1383427B1 (en) 2001-04-12 2011-03-16 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Mr-based real-time radiation therapy oncology simulator
EP1397700B1 (en) 2001-06-01 2015-07-22 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Diagnostic imaging system comprising a source of penetrating radiation and also a radiopharmaceutical source injected into the subject
JP5894835B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2016-03-30 Kyb株式会社 Seal structure of endless track drive

Patent Citations (318)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3133227A (en) 1958-06-25 1964-05-12 Varian Associates Linear particle accelerator apparatus for high energy particle beams provided with pulsing means for the control electrode
US3193717A (en) 1959-03-09 1965-07-06 Varian Associates Beam scanning method and apparatus
US3144552A (en) 1960-08-24 1964-08-11 Varian Associates Apparatus for the iradiation of materials with a pulsed strip beam of electrons
GB1328033A (en) 1970-11-06 1973-08-22 Philips Electronic Associated Apparatus for measuring the surface configuration of at least part of a body
FR2269745A1 (en) 1972-08-17 1975-11-28 Lescrenier Charles Position control of operating fable for radiation therapy - arrangement and method for holding a position reference between an emitter and a receiver object
US3906233A (en) 1973-10-12 1975-09-16 Varian Associates System and method for administering radiation
US3987281A (en) 1974-07-29 1976-10-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health, Education And Welfare Method of radiation therapy treatment planning
US4149247A (en) 1975-12-23 1979-04-10 Varian Associates, Inc. Tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing planar slices from non-absorbed and non-scattered radiation
US4149248A (en) 1975-12-23 1979-04-10 Varian Associates, Inc. Apparatus and method for reconstructing data
US4209706A (en) 1976-11-26 1980-06-24 Varian Associates, Inc. Fluoroscopic apparatus mounting fixture
US4547892A (en) 1977-04-01 1985-10-15 Technicare Corporation Cardiac imaging with CT scanner
US4208675A (en) 1978-03-20 1980-06-17 Agence Nationale De Valorization De La Recherche (Anvar) Method and apparatus for positioning an object
US4521808A (en) 1979-03-22 1985-06-04 University Of Texas System Electrostatic imaging apparatus
EP0062941A1 (en) 1981-04-08 1982-10-20 Philips Electronics N.V. Contour recording device
EP0062941B1 (en) 1981-04-08 1984-09-26 Philips Electronics N.V. Contour recording device
JPS5976A (en) 1982-06-22 1984-01-05 Nippon Electric Co High energy ct for radiation treatment
FR2551664A1 (en) 1982-09-13 1985-03-15 Varian Associates Thin mirror for illuminating an area for a medical electron accelerator
US4675731A (en) 1983-02-01 1987-06-23 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Diagnostic apparatus
US4679076A (en) 1983-06-08 1987-07-07 Vikterloef Karl Johan Means for registering coordinates
WO1985003212A1 (en) 1984-01-18 1985-08-01 Lescrenier, Charles Improved means for visually indicating an x-ray field
US4593967A (en) 1984-11-01 1986-06-10 Honeywell Inc. 3-D active vision sensor
US4628523A (en) 1985-05-13 1986-12-09 B.V. Optische Industrie De Oude Delft Direction control for radiographic therapy apparatus
EP0205720A1 (en) 1985-06-28 1986-12-30 Instrument Ab Scanditronix CT scanner for radiation theraphy planning
US4726046A (en) 1985-11-05 1988-02-16 Varian Associates, Inc. X-ray and electron radiotherapy clinical treatment machine
US4825393A (en) 1986-04-23 1989-04-25 Hitachi, Ltd. Position measuring method
US4741621A (en) 1986-08-18 1988-05-03 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Geometric surface inspection system with dual overlap light stripe generator
US4868843A (en) 1986-09-10 1989-09-19 Varian Associates, Inc. Multileaf collimator and compensator for radiotherapy machines
US4868844A (en) 1986-09-10 1989-09-19 Varian Associates, Inc. Mutileaf collimator for radiotherapy machines
JPS63294839A (en) 1987-05-27 1988-12-01 Nec Corp Ct simulator for radiotherapy
US4853777A (en) 1987-07-07 1989-08-01 Ashland Oil, Inc. Method for evaluating smooth surfaces
DE3828639A1 (en) 1987-08-24 1989-03-16 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Ionised particle beam therapy device
US5039867A (en) 1987-08-24 1991-08-13 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Therapeutic apparatus
JPH01162682A (en) 1987-11-24 1989-06-27 W Reiners Verwalt Gmbh Traverse apparatus of spinning machinery
US5027818A (en) 1987-12-03 1991-07-02 University Of Florida Dosimetric technique for stereotactic radiosurgery same
US5001344A (en) 1988-08-26 1991-03-19 Hitachi, Ltd. Scanning electron microscope and method of processing the same
US5080100A (en) 1988-10-04 1992-01-14 Cgr Mev System and method for measuring and/or checking the position of a patient in a radio-therapy machine
US5247555A (en) 1988-10-28 1993-09-21 Nucletron Manufacturing Corp. Radiation image generating system and method
US5157707A (en) 1989-02-20 1992-10-20 Ao Medical Products Ab Method and a cassette holder for performing x-ray examination
WO1990014129A1 (en) 1989-05-18 1990-11-29 University Of Florida Dosimetric technique for stereotactic radiosurgery
EP0480035B1 (en) 1989-06-30 1994-11-09 Yokogawa Medical Systems, Ltd Radiotherapeutic system
EP0480035A1 (en) 1989-06-30 1992-04-15 Yokogawa Medical Systems, Ltd Radiotherapeutic system
US5262649A (en) 1989-09-06 1993-11-16 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan Thin-film, flat panel, pixelated detector array for real-time digital imaging and dosimetry of ionizing radiation
US5014292A (en) 1990-01-29 1991-05-07 Siczek Bernard W Tiltable x-ray table integrated with carriage for x-ray source and receptor
WO1992000567A1 (en) 1990-07-02 1992-01-09 Varian Associates, Inc. Computed tomography apparatus using image intensifier detector
US5117445A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-05-26 Varian Associates, Inc. Electronically enhanced x-ray detector apparatus
US5099505A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-03-24 Varian Associates Method for increasing the accuracy of a radiation therapy apparatus
US5168532A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-12-01 Varian Associates, Inc. Method for improving the dynamic range of an imaging system
US5692507A (en) 1990-07-02 1997-12-02 Varian Associates, Inc. Computer tomography apparatus using image intensifier detector
WO1992002277A1 (en) 1990-08-03 1992-02-20 Siemens Medical Laboratories, Inc. Portal imaging device
EP0471455A2 (en) 1990-08-14 1992-02-19 Picker International, Inc. Imaging apparatus and methods
EP0713677A1 (en) 1990-08-14 1996-05-29 Picker International, Inc. Imaging apparatus and methods
US5207223A (en) 1990-10-19 1993-05-04 Accuray, Inc. Apparatus for and method of performing stereotaxic surgery
US5509042A (en) 1991-02-13 1996-04-16 Lunar Corporation Automated determination and analysis of bone morphology
WO1992020202A1 (en) 1991-05-06 1992-11-12 Moore Robert M Radiation image generating system and method
DE69319010T2 (en) 1992-03-19 1998-10-08 Wisconsin Alumni Res Found Device for X-ray therapy
US5394452A (en) 1992-03-19 1995-02-28 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Verification system for radiation therapy
US5724400A (en) 1992-03-19 1998-03-03 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Radiation therapy system with constrained rotational freedom
US5661773A (en) 1992-03-19 1997-08-26 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Interface for radiation therapy machine
US5442675A (en) 1992-03-19 1995-08-15 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Dynamic collimator for radiation therapy
US5335255A (en) 1992-03-24 1994-08-02 Seppi Edward J X-ray scanner with a source emitting plurality of fan beams
US5332908A (en) 1992-03-31 1994-07-26 Siemens Medical Laboratories, Inc. Method for dynamic beam profile generation
DE4223488A1 (en) 1992-07-17 1994-01-20 Despina Dr Med Katsohi Restituierbare compensation device for radiation treatment
US5427097A (en) 1992-12-10 1995-06-27 Accuray, Inc. Apparatus for and method of carrying out stereotaxic radiosurgery and radiotherapy
EP0810006B1 (en) 1993-06-09 2000-08-30 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Radiation therapy system
WO1995000204A1 (en) 1993-06-18 1995-01-05 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method for radiation therapy planning
EP0656797B1 (en) 1993-06-18 1998-09-23 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Apparatus and method for radiation therapy planning
US6219441B1 (en) 1993-06-22 2001-04-17 General Electric Company Reconstruction of images from three-dimensional cone beam data
US5411026A (en) 1993-10-08 1995-05-02 Nomos Corporation Method and apparatus for lesion position verification
US5438991A (en) 1993-10-18 1995-08-08 William Beaumont Hospital Method and apparatus for controlling a radiation treatment field
US5848126A (en) 1993-11-26 1998-12-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Radiation computed tomography apparatus
US5858891A (en) 1993-12-16 1999-01-12 France Telecom Glass-ceramic materials especially for lasers and optical amplifiers, doped with rare earths
US5471546A (en) 1993-12-29 1995-11-28 Abb Research Ltd. Fiber-optic transmission sensor with modulator
US5400255A (en) 1994-02-14 1995-03-21 General Electric Company Reconstruction of images from cone beam data
US5521957A (en) 1994-03-15 1996-05-28 Hansen; Steven J. X-ray imaging system
US5748703A (en) 1994-03-22 1998-05-05 Cosman; Eric R. Dynamic collimator for a linear accelerator
JPH07255717A (en) 1994-03-25 1995-10-09 Toshiba Corp Radiation treatment system
US5748700A (en) 1994-05-10 1998-05-05 Shepherd; Joseph S. Radiation therapy and radiation surgery treatment system and methods of use of same
US5537452A (en) 1994-05-10 1996-07-16 Shepherd; Joseph S. Radiation therapy and radiation surgery treatment system and methods of use of same
US5802136A (en) 1994-05-17 1998-09-01 Nomos Corporation Method and apparatus for conformal radiation therapy
US5675625A (en) 1994-06-17 1997-10-07 Lap Gmbh Laser Applikationen Apparatus for positioning and marking a patient at a diagnostic apparatus
US5471516A (en) 1994-10-06 1995-11-28 Varian Associates, Inc. Radiotherapy apparatus equipped with low dose localizing and portal imaging X-ray source
US6345114B1 (en) 1995-06-14 2002-02-05 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method and apparatus for calibration of radiation therapy equipment and verification of radiation treatment
US5591983A (en) 1995-06-30 1997-01-07 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Multiple layer multileaf collimator
US5929449A (en) 1995-07-31 1999-07-27 1294339 Ontario, Inc. Flat panel detector for radiation imaging with reduced electronic noise
US5751781A (en) 1995-10-07 1998-05-12 Elekta Ab Apparatus for treating a patient
WO1997013552A1 (en) 1995-10-07 1997-04-17 Philips Electronics N.V. Radiotherapy apparatus for treating a patient
EP0814869B1 (en) 1995-10-07 2004-12-29 Elekta Ab Radiotherapy apparatus for treating a patient
US5719914A (en) 1995-11-13 1998-02-17 Imatron, Inc. Method for correcting spherical aberration of the electron beam in a scanning electron beam computed tomography system
US6222901B1 (en) 1995-12-18 2001-04-24 U.S. Philips Corporation X-ray examination apparatus including an image sensor matrix with a correction unit
US5647663A (en) 1996-01-05 1997-07-15 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Radiation treatment planning method and apparatus
US5818902A (en) 1996-03-01 1998-10-06 Elekta Ab Intensity modulated arc therapy with dynamic multi-leaf collimation
US6260005B1 (en) 1996-03-05 2001-07-10 The Regents Of The University Of California Falcon: automated optimization method for arbitrary assessment criteria
DE19614643A1 (en) 1996-04-13 1997-10-16 Werner Dipl Phys Brenneisen Stereotaxial targetted irradiation process for brain tumours
WO1997042522A1 (en) 1996-05-07 1997-11-13 The Regents Of The University Of California Radiation therapy dose calculation engine
US5663995A (en) 1996-06-06 1997-09-02 General Electric Company Systems and methods for reconstructing an image in a CT system performing a cone beam helical scan
US5673300A (en) 1996-06-11 1997-09-30 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method of registering a radiation treatment plan to a patient
US5663999A (en) 1996-06-28 1997-09-02 Systems Medical Systems, Inc. Optimization of an intensity modulated field
US5835558A (en) 1996-07-09 1998-11-10 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Mobile x-ray exposure apparatus
US5727554A (en) 1996-09-19 1998-03-17 University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Apparatus responsive to movement of a patient during treatment/diagnosis
US5949811A (en) 1996-10-08 1999-09-07 Hitachi Medical Corporation X-ray apparatus
JPH10113400A (en) 1996-10-11 1998-05-06 Hitachi Medical Corp Radiotherapy system
US6038283A (en) 1996-10-24 2000-03-14 Nomos Corporation Planning method and apparatus for radiation dosimetry
US6278766B1 (en) 1996-10-25 2001-08-21 Sherwood Services Ag Jaw and circular collimator
US5877501A (en) 1996-11-26 1999-03-02 Picker International, Inc. Digital panel for x-ray image acquisition
US5757881A (en) 1997-01-06 1998-05-26 Siemens Business Communication Systems, Inc. Redundant field-defining arrays for a radiation system
EP0965104B1 (en) 1997-03-07 2001-09-05 Computerized Medical Systems, Inc. Autosegmentation/autocontouring methods for use with three-dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning
WO1998052635A1 (en) 1997-05-23 1998-11-26 William Beaumont Hospital Method and apparatus for delivering radiation therapy during suspended ventilation
JPH10328318A (en) 1997-05-29 1998-12-15 Hitachi Medical Corp Radiotherapy system
US6113264A (en) 1997-06-04 2000-09-05 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray diagnostic apparatus with C-shaped arms
EP0989886B1 (en) 1997-06-19 2004-09-15 Elekta Ab Method and device for automatized dose planning
US6385477B1 (en) 1997-06-19 2002-05-07 Elektra Ab Method for automatized dose planning
US5999587A (en) 1997-07-03 1999-12-07 University Of Rochester Method of and system for cone-beam tomography reconstruction
US6075836A (en) 1997-07-03 2000-06-13 University Of Rochester Method of and system for intravenous volume tomographic digital angiography imaging
WO1999003397A1 (en) 1997-07-17 1999-01-28 Medlennium Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for radiation and hyperthermia therapy of tumors
US6152598A (en) 1997-09-02 2000-11-28 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba R/F and chest radiography compatible X-ray imaging table
US5956382A (en) 1997-09-25 1999-09-21 Eliezer Wiener-Avnear, Doing Business As Laser Electro Optic Application Technology Comp. X-ray imaging array detector and laser micro-milling method for fabricating array
US6052430A (en) 1997-09-25 2000-04-18 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Dynamic sub-space intensity modulation
US6240161B1 (en) 1997-09-25 2001-05-29 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Multi-leaf collimator constrained optimization of intensity modulated treatments
US6104778A (en) 1997-10-16 2000-08-15 Varian Systems, Inc. X-ray treatment method and apparatus
US6325758B1 (en) 1997-10-27 2001-12-04 Nomos Corporation Method and apparatus for target position verification
US6104780A (en) 1997-11-24 2000-08-15 Oec Medical Systems, Inc. Mobile bi-planar fluoroscopic imaging apparatus
US5912943A (en) 1997-11-26 1999-06-15 Picker International, Inc. Cooling system for a sealed housing positioned in a sterile environment
US6031888A (en) 1997-11-26 2000-02-29 Picker International, Inc. Fluoro-assist feature for a diagnostic imaging device
EP0922943A2 (en) 1997-11-28 1999-06-16 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Radiation detecting device and radiation detecting method
JPH11160440A (en) 1997-11-28 1999-06-18 Canon Inc Device and method for detecting radiation
US5960055A (en) 1997-12-19 1999-09-28 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Fast cone beam image reconstruction using a detector weight list
US20010001807A1 (en) 1997-12-19 2001-05-24 Varian, Inc. Radiotherapy machine including magnetic resonance imaging system
DE19800946A1 (en) 1998-01-13 1999-07-22 Siemens Ag Volume computer tomography system
US6307914B1 (en) 1998-03-12 2001-10-23 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Moving body pursuit irradiating device and positioning method using this device
WO1999048558A1 (en) 1998-03-20 1999-09-30 Elekta Ab (Publ) Controlling delivery of radiotherapy
US5926521A (en) 1998-03-31 1999-07-20 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Exact region of interest cone beam imaging using 3D backprojection
US6041097A (en) 1998-04-06 2000-03-21 Picker International, Inc. Method and apparatus for acquiring volumetric image data using flat panel matrix image receptor
EP0948930A1 (en) 1998-04-06 1999-10-13 Picker International, Inc. Acquiring volumetric image data
EP0948930B1 (en) 1998-04-06 2007-09-05 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Acquiring volumetric image data
US6393096B1 (en) 1998-05-27 2002-05-21 Nomos Corporation Planning method and apparatus for radiation dosimetry
US7096055B1 (en) 1998-06-24 2006-08-22 Achim Schweikard Method to control delivery of radiation therapy
DE19931243A1 (en) 1998-07-08 2000-02-17 Siemens Medical Systems Inc A method and system for reducing dosage errors in an optimized static intensity modulation
US6269141B1 (en) 1998-08-05 2001-07-31 U.S. Philips Corporation Computer tomography apparatus with a conical radiation beam and a helical scanning trajectory
AU746987B2 (en) 1998-08-06 2002-05-09 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Delivery modification system for radiation therapy
US6560311B1 (en) 1998-08-06 2003-05-06 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method for preparing a radiation therapy plan
US6438202B1 (en) 1998-08-06 2002-08-20 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method using post-patient radiation monitor to verify entrance radiation and dose in a radiation therapy machine
US6385286B1 (en) 1998-08-06 2002-05-07 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Delivery modification system for radiation therapy
EP1525902B1 (en) 1998-08-06 2015-04-22 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Delivery modification system for radiation therapy
US6108400A (en) 1998-08-10 2000-08-22 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. System and method for using precalculated strips in calculating scatter radiation
US6269143B1 (en) 1998-08-31 2001-07-31 Shimadzu Corporation Radiotherapy planning system
JP2000140137A (en) 1998-08-31 2000-05-23 Sumitomo Heavy Ind Ltd Method and device for positioning patient of radiotherapy
US6353222B1 (en) 1998-09-03 2002-03-05 Applied Materials, Inc. Determining defect depth and contour information in wafer structures using multiple SEM images
WO2000015299A1 (en) 1998-09-10 2000-03-23 The Regents Of The University Of California Falcon: automated optimization method for arbitrary assessment criteria
US6078638A (en) 1998-09-30 2000-06-20 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Pixel grouping for filtering cone beam detector data during 3D image reconstruction
US6335961B1 (en) 1998-10-06 2002-01-01 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Integrated high definition intensity multileaf collimator system which provides improved conformal radiation therapy while minimizing leakage
JP2000116638A (en) 1998-10-15 2000-04-25 Shimadzu Corp Transmission type ct apparatus
US6325537B1 (en) 1998-10-16 2001-12-04 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray diagnosis apparatus
US6148058A (en) 1998-10-23 2000-11-14 Analogic Corporation System and method for real time measurement of detector offset in rotating-patient CT scanner
US20040116804A1 (en) 1998-10-23 2004-06-17 Hassan Mostafavi Method and system for radiation application
US8788020B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2014-07-22 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Method and system for radiation application
US6318892B1 (en) 1998-10-28 2001-11-20 Hitachi Medical Corporation Radiography apparatus with rotatably supported cylindrical ring carrying image pickup unit
JP2000152927A (en) 1998-11-19 2000-06-06 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Radiography device
US6200024B1 (en) 1998-11-27 2001-03-13 Picker International, Inc. Virtual C-arm robotic positioning system for use in radiographic imaging equipment
US6435715B1 (en) 1998-11-30 2002-08-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Radiography device
US6142925A (en) 1999-01-20 2000-11-07 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Method and system for increasing resolution in a radiotherapy system
US6134296A (en) 1999-01-20 2000-10-17 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. Microgradient intensity modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6429578B1 (en) 1999-01-26 2002-08-06 Mats Danielsson Diagnostic and therapeutic detector system for imaging with low and high energy X-ray and electrons
US6219403B1 (en) 1999-02-17 2001-04-17 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Radiation therapy method and system
US6285739B1 (en) 1999-02-19 2001-09-04 The Research Foundation Of State University Of New York Radiographic imaging apparatus and method for vascular interventions
US6144875A (en) 1999-03-16 2000-11-07 Accuray Incorporated Apparatus and method for compensating for respiratory and patient motion during treatment
EP1165182B1 (en) 1999-04-02 2005-03-02 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Megavoltage computed tomography during radiotherapy
JP2000317000A (en) 1999-05-13 2000-11-21 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Control unit of radiation irradiation device for radiation therapy
JP2001029491A (en) 1999-07-15 2001-02-06 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Device and method for calculating exposure value and recording medium
JP2001029489A (en) 1999-07-15 2001-02-06 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Irradiating device and method of radiation
US6256366B1 (en) 1999-07-22 2001-07-03 Analogic Corporation Apparatus and method for reconstruction of volumetric images in a computed tomography system using sementation of slices
JP2001095793A (en) 1999-10-04 2001-04-10 Hitachi Medical Corp X-ray ct apparatus
US6850252B1 (en) 1999-10-05 2005-02-01 Steven M. Hoffberg Intelligent electronic appliance system and method
US6292526B1 (en) 1999-10-27 2001-09-18 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for preprocessing volumetric computed tomography data
JP2001120528A (en) 1999-10-29 2001-05-08 Konica Corp Medical imaging method and medical imaging apparatus
EP1095628A2 (en) 1999-10-29 2001-05-02 Marconi Medical Systems, Inc. Planning minimally invasive procedures for in - vivo placement of objects
US7046762B2 (en) 1999-11-05 2006-05-16 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Systems and methods for global optimization of treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy
US6546073B1 (en) 1999-11-05 2003-04-08 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Systems and methods for global optimization of treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy
US6741674B2 (en) 1999-11-05 2004-05-25 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Systems and methods for global optimization of treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy
US20040165696A1 (en) * 1999-11-05 2004-08-26 Lee Eva K. Systems and methods for global optimization of treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy
US6480565B1 (en) 1999-11-18 2002-11-12 University Of Rochester Apparatus and method for cone beam volume computed tomography breast imaging
US6314159B1 (en) 1999-12-08 2001-11-06 Siemens Medical Systems, Inc. System and method for optimizing radiation treatment with an intensity modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6349129B1 (en) 1999-12-08 2002-02-19 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System and method for defining radiation treatment intensity maps
US20010008271A1 (en) 2000-01-12 2001-07-19 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Planar X-ray detector
US6744848B2 (en) 2000-02-11 2004-06-01 Brandeis University Method and system for low-dose three-dimensional imaging of a scene
US7471765B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2008-12-30 William Beaumont Hospital Cone beam computed tomography with a flat panel imager
WO2001060236A2 (en) 2000-02-18 2001-08-23 William Beaumont Hospital Cone-beam computerized tomography with a flat-panel imager
US20030007601A1 (en) 2000-02-18 2003-01-09 Jaffray David A. Cone-beam computerized tomography with a flat-panel imager
US6842502B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2005-01-11 Dilliam Beaumont Hospital Cone beam computed tomography with a flat panel imager
US7826592B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2010-11-02 William Beaumont Hospital Cone-beam computed tomography with a flat-panel imager
US20020006182A1 (en) 2000-05-19 2002-01-17 Siyong Kim Multi-source intensity-modulated radiation beam delivery system and method
US6370421B1 (en) 2000-06-30 2002-04-09 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. Density modulated catheter for use in fluoroscopy based 3-D neural navigation
US6381302B1 (en) 2000-07-05 2002-04-30 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Computer assisted 2D adjustment of stereo X-ray images
WO2002013907A1 (en) 2000-08-16 2002-02-21 Elekta Ab (Publ) Radiotherapy simulation apparatus
US6757355B1 (en) * 2000-08-17 2004-06-29 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. High definition radiation treatment with an intensity modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6813336B1 (en) 2000-08-17 2004-11-02 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. High definition conformal arc radiation therapy with a multi-leaf collimator
US6463122B1 (en) 2000-08-21 2002-10-08 Bio-Imaging Resource, Inc. Mammography of computer tomography for imaging and therapy
US6330300B1 (en) 2000-08-23 2001-12-11 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. High definition intensity modulating radiation therapy system and method
US6590953B2 (en) 2000-09-12 2003-07-08 Hitachi Medical Corporation X-ray CT scanner
US6934653B2 (en) 2000-09-22 2005-08-23 Radiological Imaging Technology, Inc. System or method for calibrating a radiation detection medium
EP1318857B1 (en) 2000-09-22 2008-07-09 Radiological Imaging Technology, Inc. Automated calibration for radiation dosimetry
US6714620B2 (en) 2000-09-22 2004-03-30 Numerix, Llc Radiation therapy treatment method
WO2002024277A1 (en) 2000-09-22 2002-03-28 Radiological Imaging Technology, Inc. Automated calibration for radiation dosimetry using fixed or moving beams and detectors
US6504899B2 (en) 2000-09-25 2003-01-07 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for selecting beam orientations in intensity modulated radiation therapy
US6508586B2 (en) 2000-09-29 2003-01-21 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba IVR-CT apparatus
US7813822B1 (en) 2000-10-05 2010-10-12 Hoffberg Steven M Intelligent electronic appliance system and method
AU2002215340B2 (en) 2000-10-13 2005-04-14 University Of Rochester System and method for cone beam volume computed tomography using circle-plus-multiple-ARC orbit
US6504892B1 (en) 2000-10-13 2003-01-07 University Of Rochester System and method for cone beam volume computed tomography using circle-plus-multiple-arc orbit
US6445766B1 (en) 2000-10-18 2002-09-03 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System and method for improved diagnostic imaging in a radiation treatment system
US6411675B1 (en) 2000-11-13 2002-06-25 Jorge Llacer Stochastic method for optimization of radiation therapy planning
US20020066860A1 (en) 2000-12-04 2002-06-06 General Electric Company Imaging array minimizing leakage currents
US6879659B2 (en) 2000-12-13 2005-04-12 Elekta Ab Radiotherapeutic apparatus
US6661872B2 (en) 2000-12-15 2003-12-09 University Of Florida Intensity modulated radiation therapy planning system
US6385288B1 (en) 2001-01-19 2002-05-07 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Radiotherapy apparatus with independent rotation mechanisms
WO2002061680A2 (en) 2001-01-31 2002-08-08 3Q Technologies Ltd Surface imaging
US6792074B2 (en) 2001-03-05 2004-09-14 Brainlab Ag Method for producing or updating radiotherapy plan
US6852974B2 (en) 2001-03-06 2005-02-08 Topcon Corporation Electron beam device and method for stereoscopic measurements
US20050040332A1 (en) 2001-03-06 2005-02-24 Topcon Corporation Electron beam device and method for stereoscopic measurements
US20020179812A1 (en) 2001-03-06 2002-12-05 Topcon Corporation Electron beam device and method for stereoscopic measurements
US6661870B2 (en) 2001-03-09 2003-12-09 Tomotherapy Incorporated Fluence adjustment for improving delivery to voxels without reoptimization
EP1383427B1 (en) 2001-04-12 2011-03-16 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Mr-based real-time radiation therapy oncology simulator
EP1397700B1 (en) 2001-06-01 2015-07-22 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Diagnostic imaging system comprising a source of penetrating radiation and also a radiopharmaceutical source injected into the subject
WO2003003796A1 (en) 2001-06-26 2003-01-09 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Method and system for predictive physiological gating
WO2003008986A2 (en) 2001-07-20 2003-01-30 Elekta Ab (Publ) Mri in guided radiotherapy and position verification
US6914959B2 (en) 2001-08-09 2005-07-05 Analogic Corporation Combined radiation therapy and imaging system and method
DE10139934A1 (en) 2001-08-14 2003-03-13 Siemens Ag Chemotherapy device with integral radiographic imaging device for preparation of 3-D data of the examination area so that radiation treatment is accurately targeted and its effect is maximized while side effects are minimized
US20030086530A1 (en) 2001-09-25 2003-05-08 Karl Otto Methods and apparatus for planning and delivering intensity modulated radiation fields with a rotating multileaf collimator
US6907105B2 (en) * 2001-09-25 2005-06-14 Bc Cancer Agency Methods and apparatus for planning and delivering intensity modulated radiation fields with a rotating multileaf collimator
US6473490B1 (en) 2001-09-28 2002-10-29 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Intensity map reconstruction for radiation therapy with a modulating multi-leaf collimator
US6990175B2 (en) 2001-10-18 2006-01-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray computed tomography apparatus
US6888919B2 (en) 2001-11-02 2005-05-03 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Radiotherapy apparatus equipped with an articulable gantry for positioning an imaging unit
EP1308185B1 (en) 2001-11-02 2010-12-29 Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc. System and method for measuring beam quality using electronic portal imaging
US7438685B2 (en) 2001-11-05 2008-10-21 Computerized Medical Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for registration, guidance and targeting of external beam radiation therapy
US6582121B2 (en) 2001-11-15 2003-06-24 Ge Medical Systems Global Technology X-ray positioner with side-mounted, independently articulated arms
US7333591B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2008-02-19 University Of Maryland, Baltimore Method for the planning and delivery of radiation therapy
US7162008B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2007-01-09 University Of Maryland, Baltimore Method for the planning and delivery of radiation therapy
US20040071261A1 (en) * 2001-12-03 2004-04-15 University Of Maryland At Baltimore Novel method for the planning and delivery of radiation therapy
US7221733B1 (en) 2002-01-02 2007-05-22 Varian Medical Systems Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for irradiating a target
US20030212325A1 (en) 2002-03-12 2003-11-13 Cristian Cotrutz Method for determining a dose distribution in radiation therapy
US7346144B2 (en) 2002-03-14 2008-03-18 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. In vivo planning and treatment of cancer therapy
US7881772B2 (en) 2002-03-15 2011-02-01 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Electronic portal imaging for radiotherapy
US20040001569A1 (en) 2002-04-29 2004-01-01 Chunsong Luo Intensity modulated radiotherapy inverse planning algorithm
US6882702B2 (en) 2002-04-29 2005-04-19 University Of Miami Intensity modulated radiotherapy inverse planning algorithm
US6968035B2 (en) 2002-05-01 2005-11-22 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System to present focused radiation treatment area
WO2003099380A1 (en) 2002-05-23 2003-12-04 Koninklijke Philips Electronics Nv Inverse planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy
US6735277B2 (en) 2002-05-23 2004-05-11 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Inverse planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy
US20030219098A1 (en) 2002-05-23 2003-11-27 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Inverse planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy
US6865254B2 (en) 2002-07-02 2005-03-08 Pencilbeam Technologies Ab Radiation system with inner and outer gantry parts
US6760402B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2004-07-06 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Verification of mlc leaf position and of radiation and light field congruence
US20040022438A1 (en) 2002-08-02 2004-02-05 Hibbard Lyndon S. Method and apparatus for image segmentation using Jensen-Shannon divergence and Jensen-Renyi divergence
JP2004097646A (en) 2002-09-11 2004-04-02 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Radiotherapy system
US7227925B1 (en) 2002-10-02 2007-06-05 Varian Medical Systems Technologies, Inc. Gantry mounted stereoscopic imaging system
US7657304B2 (en) 2002-10-05 2010-02-02 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Imaging device for radiation treatment applications
US7030386B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2006-04-18 Sunnybrook And Women's College Health Scinences Centre High quantum efficiency x-ray detector for portal imaging
JP2004166975A (en) 2002-11-20 2004-06-17 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Radiotherapy system, and operation method therefor
JP2004194697A (en) 2002-12-16 2004-07-15 Toshiba Corp X-ray diagnostic apparatus
US7945021B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2011-05-17 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Multi-mode cone beam CT radiotherapy simulator and treatment machine with a flat panel imager
US20040120452A1 (en) 2002-12-18 2004-06-24 Shapiro Edward G. Multi-mode cone beam CT radiotherapy simulator and treatment machine with a flat panel imager
US8116430B1 (en) 2002-12-18 2012-02-14 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Multi-mode cone beam CT radiotherapy simulator and treatment machine with a flat panel imager
DE10305421A1 (en) 2003-02-05 2004-08-26 Universität Rostock Method for the automatic calculation of at least one upper barrier, at least one aperture and at least one parameter set for the irradiation of a target volume in a body
US6937693B2 (en) 2003-03-12 2005-08-30 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Optimal configuration of photon and electron multileaf collimators in mixed beam radiotherapy
US20040254448A1 (en) 2003-03-24 2004-12-16 Amies Christopher Jude Active therapy redefinition
US6853705B2 (en) 2003-03-28 2005-02-08 The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Residual map segmentation method for multi-leaf collimator-intensity modulated radiotherapy
US20040190680A1 (en) 2003-03-28 2004-09-30 The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Residual map segmentation method for multi-leaf collimator-intensity modulated radiotherapy
US20060176295A1 (en) 2003-05-30 2006-08-10 Lattice Technology, Inc. 3-Dimensional graphics data display device
US7151258B2 (en) 2003-07-24 2006-12-19 Topcon Corporation Electron beam system and electron beam measuring and observing methods
US20060289757A1 (en) 2003-07-24 2006-12-28 Topcon Corporation Electron beam system and electron beam measuring and observing methods
US20050061972A1 (en) 2003-07-24 2005-03-24 Topcon Corporation Electron beam system and electron beam measuring and observing methods
US7329867B2 (en) 2003-07-24 2008-02-12 Topcon Corporation Electron beam system and electron beam measuring and observing methods
US7529599B1 (en) 2003-09-30 2009-05-05 Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc. Systems and methods for coordination motion instructions
US20050111621A1 (en) 2003-10-07 2005-05-26 Robert Riker Planning system, method and apparatus for conformal radiation therapy
US7831289B2 (en) 2003-10-07 2010-11-09 Best Medical International, Inc. Planning system, method and apparatus for conformal radiation therapy
US20050096515A1 (en) 2003-10-23 2005-05-05 Geng Z. J. Three-dimensional surface image guided adaptive therapy system
WO2005057738A2 (en) 2003-12-02 2005-06-23 Fox Chase Cancer Center Method of modulating protons for radiation therapy
US7085348B2 (en) 2003-12-15 2006-08-01 The University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Leaf sequencing method and system
US20050148841A1 (en) * 2003-12-15 2005-07-07 Srijit Kamath Leaf sequencing method and system
US7907987B2 (en) 2004-02-20 2011-03-15 University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc. System for delivering conformal radiation therapy while simultaneously imaging soft tissue
US20050197564A1 (en) 2004-02-20 2005-09-08 University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc. System for delivering conformal radiation therapy while simultaneously imaging soft tissue
US7369645B2 (en) 2004-06-21 2008-05-06 Derek Graham Lane Information theoretic inverse planning technique for radiation treatment
US7556596B2 (en) 2004-07-20 2009-07-07 Board Of Regents The University Of Texas System Adaptive intracavitary brachytherapy applicator
US20060235260A1 (en) 2004-07-20 2006-10-19 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Adaptive intracavitary brachytherapy applicator
US7180980B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2007-02-20 Prowess, Inc. Method for intensity modulated radiation treatment using independent collimator jaws
US20060060780A1 (en) 2004-09-07 2006-03-23 Masnaghetti Douglas K Apparatus and method for e-beam dark field imaging
JP2006079006A (en) 2004-09-13 2006-03-23 Ricoh Co Ltd Electrophotographic photoreceptor and electrophotographic method using the same
US7693683B2 (en) 2004-11-25 2010-04-06 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Information classifying device, information classifying method, information classifying program, information classifying system
US20080114564A1 (en) 2004-11-25 2008-05-15 Masayoshi Ihara Information Classifying Device, Information Classifying Method, Information Classifying Program, Information Classifying System
US20060256915A1 (en) * 2005-05-13 2006-11-16 Karl Otto Method and apparatus for planning and delivering radiation treatment
US20060274925A1 (en) 2005-06-02 2006-12-07 West Jay B Generating a volume of interest using a dose isocontour
US20060274061A1 (en) 2005-06-02 2006-12-07 Hongwu Wang Four-dimensional volume of interest
US7352370B2 (en) 2005-06-02 2008-04-01 Accuray Incorporated Four-dimensional volume of interest
JP2006339541A (en) 2005-06-03 2006-12-14 Citizen Electronics Co Ltd Chip led
US7349522B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2008-03-25 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Dynamic radiation therapy simulation system
US8696538B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2014-04-15 Karl Otto Methods and apparatus for the planning and delivery of radiation treatments
US7880154B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2011-02-01 Karl Otto Methods and apparatus for the planning and delivery of radiation treatments
US20080298550A1 (en) 2005-07-25 2008-12-04 Karl Otto Methods and apparatus for the planning and delivery of radiation treatments
US7906770B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2011-03-15 Karl Otto Methods and apparatus for the planning and delivery of radiation treatments
US20080226030A1 (en) 2005-07-25 2008-09-18 Karl Otto Methods and Apparatus For the Planning and Delivery of Radiation Treatments
US20070242797A1 (en) 2005-11-09 2007-10-18 Dexela Limited Methods and apparatus for obtaining low-dose imaging
US20070230770A1 (en) 2005-11-18 2007-10-04 Ashok Kulkarni Methods and systems for determining a position of inspection data in design data space
US20090297019A1 (en) 2005-11-18 2009-12-03 Kla-Tencor Technologies Corporation Methods and systems for utilizing design data in combination with inspection data
US20080317330A1 (en) 2006-02-28 2008-12-25 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Circuit-pattern inspecting apparatus and method
US20070221842A1 (en) 2006-03-14 2007-09-27 Hidetoshi Morokuma Workpiece size measurement method and apparatus
US20070220108A1 (en) 2006-03-15 2007-09-20 Whitaker Jerry M Mobile global virtual browser with heads-up display for browsing and interacting with the World Wide Web
US7961843B2 (en) 2006-04-27 2011-06-14 Elekta Ab (Publ) Radiotherapeutic apparatus
US20090213991A1 (en) * 2006-04-27 2009-08-27 Elekta Ab (Publ) Radiotherapeutic apparatus
US20100020931A1 (en) 2006-07-27 2010-01-28 British Columbia Cancer Agency Branch Systems and methods for optimization of on-line adaptive radiation therapy
JP2008163575A (en) 2006-12-27 2008-07-17 Comany Inc Moving wall speed reducer at intersection of ceiling rail
JP5057028B2 (en) 2006-12-27 2012-10-24 コマニー株式会社 Moving wall speed reducer at the intersection of ceiling rails
US7872236B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2011-01-18 Hermes Microvision, Inc. Charged particle detection devices
US7525090B1 (en) 2007-03-16 2009-04-28 Kla-Tencor Technologies Corporation Dynamic centering for behind-the-lens dark field imaging
US7755043B1 (en) 2007-03-21 2010-07-13 Kla-Tencor Technologies Corporation Bright-field/dark-field detector with integrated electron energy spectrometer
US20090161827A1 (en) 2007-12-23 2009-06-25 Oraya Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and devices for detecting, controlling, and predicting radiation delivery
US20090207975A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2009-08-20 Elekta Ab (Publ) Multi-leaf collimator
US20090220046A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-09-03 Korea Institute Of Radiological & Medical Sciences Collimator device for radiotherapy and radiotherapy apparatus using the same
US20090230304A1 (en) 2008-03-13 2009-09-17 Michio Hatano Scanning electron microscope
US20090322973A1 (en) 2008-06-26 2009-12-31 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Charged particle beam apparatus
US20100054410A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-04 Varian Medical Systems International Ag, Inc. Trajectory optimization method
US20110012911A1 (en) 2009-07-14 2011-01-20 Sensaburo Nakamura Image processing apparatus and method
JP5894835B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2016-03-30 Kyb株式会社 Seal structure of endless track drive

Non-Patent Citations (358)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
A CCTV-Microcomputer Biostereometric System for Use in Radiation Therapy (Topography, Medical Physics, Tissue Compensators) Optimization by simulated annealing, Keys, D , et al., 1984, p. 3857.
A cone-beam megavoltage CT scanner for treatment verification in conformal radiotherapy, M. Shirazi, P. Evans, W. Swindell, S. Webb, M. Partridge, 1998, pp. 319-328.
A diagnostic X ray field verification device for a 10 MV linear accelerator, Biggs PJ,Goitein M,Russell MD, Mar. 1985, pp. 635-643.
A dual computed tomography linear accelerator unit for stereotactic radiation therapy: a new approach without cranially fixated stereotactic frames, Uematsu M, Fukui T, Shioda A, Tokumitsu H, Takai K, Kojima T, Asai, Jun. 1, 1996, pp. 587-592.
A Feasibility Study for Megavoltage Cone Beam CT Using a Commercial EPID, Midgley, S., et al., 1998, pp. 155-169.
A ghost story: spatio-temporal response characteristics of an indirect-detection flat- panel imager, J. H. Siewerdsen and D. A. Jaffray, 1999, pp. 1624-1641.
A method for implementing dynamic photon beam intensity modulation using independent jaws and a multileaf collimator, Yu C. et al., 1995, pp. 769-787.
A Method to Analyze 2-Dimensional Daily Radiotherapy Portal Images from an On-Line Fiber-Optic Imaging System, Graham M. et al., 1991, pp. 613-619.
A Model to Accumulate Fractionated Dose in a Deforming Organ, Yan D. et al., 1999, pp. 665-675.
A Multileaf Collimator Field Prescription Preparation System for Conventional Radiotherapy, Du M. et al., 1994, pp. 707-714.
A Multileaf Collimator Field Prescription Preparation System for Conventional Radiotherapy, Du M. et al., 1995, pp. 513-520.
A multiray model for calculating electron pencil beam distribution, Yu C. et al., 1988, pp. 662-671.
A new approach to CT pixel-based photon dose calculations in heterogeneous media, Wong J. and Henkelman M., 1983, pp. 199-208.
A New Model for "Accept or Reject" Strategies in Off-Line and On-Line Megavoltage Treatment Evaluation, Yan D. et al., 1995, pp. 943-952.
A Performance Comparison of Flat-Panel Imager-Based MV and kV Conebeam CT, Groh, B A., et al., Jun. 2002, pp. 967-975.
A Radiographic and Tomographic Imaging System Integrated into a Medical Linear Accelerator for Localization of a Bone and Soft-Tissue Targets, D. Jaffray, D. Drake, M. Moreau, A. Martinez, J. Wong, 1999, pp. 773-789.
A Radiographic and Tomographic Imaging System Integrated into a Medical Linear Accelerator for Localization of Bone and Soft-Tissue Targets, Jaffray, D A., et al., 1999, pp. 773-789.
A Real-Time, Flat-Panel, Amorphous Silicon, Digital X-ray Imager, Antonuk L, et al., Jul. 1995, pp. 993-1000.
A review of electronic portal imaging devices, Boyer A et al., 1992, pp. 1-16.
A room-based diagnostic imaging system for measurement of patient setup, Schewe JE, Lam KL, Baiter JM, Ten Haken RK, Dec. 1998, pp. 2385-2387.
A video-Based Patient Contour Acquisition System for the Design Radiotherapy Compensators, Andrew, et al., 1989, pp. 425-430.
AAPM Report No. 54-Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Schell et al., Jun. 1995, pp. 1-88.
Accuracy improvement of irradiation position and new trend, Nakagawa T., et al., 2001, pp. 102-105.
Active Breathing Control (ABC) for Hodgkin's Disease: Reduction in Normal Tissue Irradiation with Deep Inspiration and Implications for Treatment, Stromberg J. et al., 2000, pp. 797-806.
Adaptive Modification of Treatment Planning to Minimize the Deleterious Effects of Treatment Setup Errors, D. Yan, J. Wong, F. Vicini, J. Michalski, C. Pan, A. Frazier, E. Horwitz, A. Martinez, 1997, pp. 197-206.
Adaptive Radiation Therapy, Yan D. et al., 1997, pp. 123-132.
Advanced Workstation for Irregular Field Simulation and Image Matching, MDS Nordion, 1999, 7 pages.
AIM Project A2003: COmputer Vision in RAdiology (COVIRA), Kuhn, MH, Oct. 1994, pp. 17-31.
An Interactive Computer System for Studying Human Mucociliary Clearance, Bassett P., 1979, pp. 97-105.
Analysis of various beamlet sizes for IMRT with 6 MV Photons, Sohn et al., 2003, pp. 2432-2439.
Anderson, R., "Software system for automatic parameter logging on Philips SL20 linear accelerator", 1995, p. 220-222.
Antonuk, L.E. et al., Demonstration of megavoltage and diagnostic x-ray imaging with hydrogenated amorphous silicon arrays, 1992, p. 1455-1466.
Antonuk, L.E. et al., Thin-Film, Flat-Panel, Composite Imagers for Projection and Tomographic Imaging, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 1994, p. 482-490.
Aperture modulated arc therapy, S. Crooks, X.Wu, C. Takita, M. Watzich, L. Xing, 2003, pp. 1333-1344.
Arnfield et al., "The use of film dosimetry of the penumbra region to improve the accuracy of intensity modulated radiotherapy", 2005, p. 12-18.
Automated selection of beam orientations and segmented intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for treatment of oesophagus tumors, E. Woudstra, B. Heijmen, P. Storchi, 2005, pp. 254-261.
Automatic generation of beam apertures, Brewster, et al., 1993, pp. 1337-1342.
Automatic Variation of Field Size and Dose Rate in Rotation Therapy, Mantel and Perry, 1977, pp. 697-704.
Bedford, J.L. et al., "Constrained segment shapes in direct-aperture optimization for step-and shoot IMRT", Med. Phys. 33(4). 944-958 (Mar. 17, 2006).
Bergman et al., "The use modified single pencil beam dose kernels to improve IMRT dose calculation accuracy", 2004, p. 3279-3287.
Bissonnette, J-P et al., An Alternative X-Ray Detector for Portal Imaging: High Density Glass Scintillator, 1993, p. 36-37.
Bissonnette, J-P et al., Physical characterization and optimal magnification of a portal imaging system, 1992, p. 182-188.
Bjamgard, BE, and Kijewski, PK. Computer-Controlled Radiation Therapy. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care. 1978 86-92.
Bortfeld et al., "Clinically relevant intensity modulation optimization using physical criteria," In Proceedings of the XII International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1-4 (1997).
Bortfeld, et al. X-Ray Field Compensation with Multileaf Collimaters, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys. vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 723-730, 1994.
Boyer et al., A review of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs), 1992, pp. 1-16.
Boyer et al., Laser "Cross-hair" sidelight, 1978, p. 58-60.
Boyer, A.L. and Yu, C.X. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy with Dynamic Multileaf Collimators, Seminars in Radiation Oncology, vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 48-59, Jan. 1999.
Braime, Anders, Individualizing Cancer Treatment: Biological Optimization Models in Treatment Planning and Delivery, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys, vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 327-337, 2001.
BrainLAB New Gating System from BrainLAB Enables Breakthrough in the Radiotherapy Treatment of Lung and Liver Patients, Sep. 28, 2004, 4 pages.
Bratengeier, K. "2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions," Med. Phys. 32, pp. 3849-3861, 2005.
Brock, K.K. et al., "Feasibility of a novel deformable image registration technique to facilitate classification, targeting, and monitoring of tumor and normal tissue", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 64(4), 1245-1254 (2006).
Budgell, "Temporal resolution requirements for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by multileaf collimators", 1999, p. 1581-1596.
Bzdusek et al. Development and Evaluation of an Efficient Approach to Volumetric Arc Therapy Planning, Med Phys, vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 2328-2339, Jun. 2009.
C. X. Yu, "Intensity-modulated arc therapy with dynamic multileaf collimation: An alternative to tomotherapy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, pp. 1435-1449, 1995.
C.T. Kelly, "Iterative Methods for Optimization", North Carolina State University, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1999, p. 1-188.
Cameron, C., "Sweeping-window arc therapy: An implementation of rotational IMRT with automatic beam-weight calculation," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, pp. 4317-4336, 2005.
Cameron, C., Sweeping-Window Arc Therapy: An Implementation of Rotational IMRT with Automatic Beam-Weight Calculation, Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 50, pp. 4317-4336, 2005.
Cao et al., "Continuous Intensity Map Optimization (CIMO): A Novel Approach to Leaf Sequencing in Step and Shoot IMRT", Med. Phys. 33 (4) (2006), pp. 859-867.
Chabbal, J. et al., Amorphous Silicon X-ray Image Sensor, 1996, p. 499-510.
Chang SX, and Gibbons JP. Clinical Implementation of Non-Physical Wedges. AAPM Refresher Course presented at 41st Annual Meeting, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Jul. 29, 1999.
Characterization of a Fluoroscopic Imaging System for kV and MV Radiography, Drake, D.G. et al., May 2000, pp. 898-905.
Chin LM, Kijewski PK, Svensson GK, Bjärngard BE. Dose optimization with computer-controlled gantry rotation, collimator motion and dose-rate variation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1983. 9(5):723-9.
Cho, P.S. and Marks II, R.J., Hardware-Sensitive Optimization for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy, Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 45, pp. 429-440, 2000.
Cho, Y., et al., Thermal Modelling of a Kilovoltage X-Ray Source for Portal Imaging, 2000, p. 1856-1860.
Christos H. Papadimitriou, "Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity", Dover Books on Mathematics, 1982, Chapter 1, p. 2-25.
Chui, C.S. et al., "Dose calculation for photon beams with intensity modulation generated by dynamic jaw or multileaf collimations", Med. Phys, 21(8), 1237-1244 (1994).
Clinac 600C & 600 C/D Equipment Specifications, Varian Medical Systems, 2000.
Clinac Accelerators, Varian Medical Systems, 2003.
Clinical Implementation of Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy (IMAT) for Rectal Cancer, W. Duthoy, W. De Gersem, K. Vergote, T. Boterberg, C. Derie, P. Smeets, C. Wagter, W. De Neve, 2004, pp. 794-806.
Colbeth, R. et al., 40×30 cm Flat Panel Imager for Angiography, R&F, and Cone-Beam CT Applications, 2001, p. 94-102.
Colbeth, R. et al., A Multi-mode X-ray Imager for Medical and Industrial Applications, 1998, p. 629-632.
Colbeth, R. et al., Characterization of a third generation, multi-mode sensor panel, 1999, p. 491-500.
Colbeth, R. et al., Characterization of an Amorphous Silicon Fluoroscopic Imager, 1997, p. 42-51.
Colbeth, R. et al., Flat panel imaging system for fluoroscopy applications, 1998, p. 376-387.
Comparison of CT numbers determined by a simulator CT & a diagnostic scanner, M. Hartson, D. Champney, J. Currier, J. Krise, J. Marvel, M. Schrijvershof, J. Sensing, 1995, pp. 37-45.
Comparison of flat-panel detector and image-intensifier detector for cone-beam CT, R. Baba, Y. Konno, K. Ueda, S. Ikeda, 2002, pp. 153-158.
Cone-beam computed tomography with a flat-panel imager: Effects of image lag, J. Siewerdsen, D. Jaffray, 1999, pp. 2635-2647.
Cone-beam computed tomography with a flat-panel imager: Initial performance characterization, D. Jaffray, J. Siewerdsen, Jun. 2000, pp. 1311-1323.
Cone-Beam CT for Radiotherapy Applications, Cho, Paul S. et al., 1995, pp. 1863-1883.
Cone-Beam CT with a Flat-Panel Imager: Noise Considerations for Fully 3-D Computed Tomography, J. Siewerdsen, D. Jaffray, 2000, pp. 408-416.
Cone-beam CT: applications in image-guided external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, Jaffray, DA, et al., Jul. 2000, p. 2044.
Cortrutz, C. et al., "Segment-based dose optimization using a genetic algorithm", Phys. Med. Biol. 48(18), 2987-2998 (2003).
Court, L. et al, "An automatic CT-guided adaptive radiation therapy technique by on-line modification of MLC leaf positions for prostate cancer", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 62(1), 154-163 (2005).
Court, L.E. et al., "Automatic online adaptive radiation therapy techniques for targets with significant shape change: A feasibility study", Phys. Med. Biol. 51(10), 2493-2501 (Apr. 27, 2006).
Crooks et al., "Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy", 2001, p. 2587-2606.
Crooks, S.M. et al., "Aperture modulated arc therapy," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, pp. 1333-1344, 2003.
D. Verellen et al., A (short) history image-guided radiotherapy, Radiotherapy & Oncology, vol. 86, 2008, p. 4-13.
Dadone et al., "Progressive Optimization", Computers & Fluids, 29 (2000), p. 1-32.
Daily Monitoring and Correction of Radiation Field Placement Using a Video-Based Portal Imaging System: A Pilot Study, Ezz A. et al., 1991, pp. 159-165.
Daily Targeting of Intrahepatic Tumors for Radiotherapy, Baiter, James M. et al., 2002, pp. 266-271.
Davis, B.C. et al., "Automatic segmentation of intra-treatment CT images for adaptive radiation therapy of the prostate", Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv. Int. Conf. Med. Image. Comput. Comput. Assist Interv. 8(Pt 1), 442-450 (2005).
De Gersem, W. et al. "Leaf position optimization for step-and-shoot IMRT," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 51, pp. 1371-1388, 2001.
De Neve, W., et al., Routine clinical on-line portal imaging followed by immediate field adjustment using a tele-controlled patient couch, 1992, p. 45-54.
Development of a Second-Generation Fiber-Optic On-Line Image Verification System, Wong J. et al., 1993, pp. 311-320.
Development of corn beam X-ray CT system, Watanabe Y., Oct. 2002, pp. 778-783.
Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Supplement 11, Radiotherapy Objects, final text dated Jun. 4, 1997, as a supplement to the DICOM Standard, and an extension to Parts 3, 4, and 6 of the published DICOM Standard.
Digital radiotherapy simulator, P. Cho, K. Lindsley, J. Douglas, K. Stelzer, T. Griffin, 1998, pp. 1-7.
DMLC Implementation Guide. ("DMLCIG"). Varian Medical Systems. 2006. 1-44.
Dosimetric Evaluation of the Conformation of the Multileaf Collimator to Irregularly Shaped Fields, Frazier A. et al., 1995, pp. 1229-1238.
Duan J, Shen S, Fiveash JB, Brezovich IA, Popple RA, Pareek PN. Dosimetric effect of respiration-gated beam on IMRT delivery. Med Phys. 2003. 30(8):2241-52.
Duthoy W, De Gersem W, Vergote K, Coghe M, Boterberg T, De Deene Y, De Wagter C, Van Belle S, De Neve, W. Whole Abdominopelvic Radiotherapy (Waprt) Using Intensitymodulated Arc Therapy (Imat): First Clinical Experience Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol, Phys,, 2003. 57:1019-1032.
Dynamic Beam Delivery (DBD) Toolbox User's Manual. Varian Medical Systems.
Earl et al. Inverse Planning for Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy Using Direct Aperture Optimization, Phy. Med. Biol., vol. 48, pp. 1075-1089, 2003.
Earl et al., "Inverse Planning for Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy Using Direct Aperture Optimization", Physics in Medicine and Biology 48 (2003), Institute of Physics Publishing, pp. 1075-1089.
Effect of small Inhomogeneities on dose in a cobalt-60 beam, Wong J. et al., 1981, pp. 783-791.
Effects of the intensity levels and beam map resolutions on static IMRT plans, Sun et al., 2004, pp. 2402-2411.
Effects of Treatment Setup Variation on Beam's Eye View Dosimetry for Radiation Therapy Using the Multileaf Collimator vs. the Cerrobend Block, Frazier A. et al., 1995, pp. 1247-1256.
Elbert, M. et al., 3D image guidance in radiotherapy: a feasibility study, 2001, p. 1807-1816.
Electronic portal imaging devices: a review and historical perspective of contemporary technologies and research, Antonuk, 2002, pp. R31-R65.
Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, Cullity B., 1978, pp. 6-12.
Entwicklung eines inversen Bestrahlungsplans mit linearer Optimierung, Matthias Hilbig; Robert Hanne; Peter Kneschaurek; Frank Zimmermann, Achim Schweikard, 2002, v. 12, pp. 89-96.
Feasible Cone Beam Scanning Methods for Exact Reconstruction in Three-Dimensional Tomography, Kudo et al., 1990, p. 2169.
Ferris et al., An optimization approach for radiosurgery treatment planning, 2003, vol. 13, pp. 921-937.
Ferris, M. et al., "An Optimization Approach for Radiosurgery Treatment Planning", 2003, p. 921-937.
Ferris, M. et al., "Radiosurgery Treatment Planning via Nonlinear Programming", 2003, p. 247-260.
Flat-Panel Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy, Jaffray et al., 2002, pp. 1337-1349.
Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT on a Mobile Isocentric C-Arm for Image-Guided Brachytherapy, D. Jaffray, J. Siewerdsen, G. Edmundson, J. Wong, A. Martinez, 2002, pp. 209-217.
Fluenzmodulierte Strahlentherapie mit in die Optimierung integrierter Segmentierung, Werner Baer; Markus Alber; Fridtjof Nuesslin, 2003, v. 13, pp. 12-15.
Ford, E.C. et al., Cone-beam CT with megavoltage beams and an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device: Potential for verification of radiotherapy of lung cancer, 2002, p. 2913-2924.
Foskey, M., "Large deformation three-dimensional image registration in image-guided radiation therapy", Phys. Med. Biol. 50(24), 5869-5892 (Dec. 7, 2005).
Galvin JM, Chen XG, Smith RM. Combining multileaf fields to modulate fluence distributions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Oct. 20, 1993;27(3):697-705.
Gélinas D. Commissioning A Dynamic Multileaf Collimator On A Linear Accelerator. Thesis, Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montrea, Canada 1999.
Gerard Verfaillie et al., Russian Doll Search for Solving Constraint Optimization Problems, AAAI-96 Proceedings, 1996, p. 181-187.
Ghilezan, M.J. et al., "Prostate gland motion assessed with cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI)", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 62(2), 406-417 (2005).
Gilblom, D. et al., A real-time, high-resolution camera with an amorphous silicon large-area sensor, 1998, p. 29-38.
Gilblom, D. et al., Real-time x-ray imaging with flat panels, 1998, p. 213-223.
Gladwish, A. et al., "Segmentation and leaf sequencing for intensity modulated arc therapy," Med. Phys. 34, pp. 1779-1788, 2007.
Godfrey, D.J. et al., "Digital tomosynthesis with an on-board kilovoltage imaging device", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 65(1), 8-15 (2006).
Graham Carey, Computational Grids Generational, Adaptation and Solution Strategies, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1997.
Guidance document on delivery, treatment planning, and clinical implementation of IMRT: Report of the IMRT subcommittee of the AAPM radiation therapy committee, Ezzell et al., Aug. 2003, pp. 2089-2115.
Hardemark et al., "Direct Machine Parameter Optimization with RayMachine in Pinnacle", RaySearch White Paper, RaySearch Laboratories (2003), pp. 1-3.
Harms W. et al., A software tool for the qualitative evaluation of 3D dose calculation algorithms,1998, pp. 1830-1836.
Hatano, Clinical application of IMRT, 2002, pp. 199-204.
Heikki Joensuu, "Intensiteettimuokattu sadehoito-uusi tekniikka parantanee hoitotuloksia", 2001, p. 389-394.
Herman M. et al., Clinical use of electronic portal imaging: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 58, 2001, pp. 712-737.
Hoogeman, M.S. et al, "A model to simulate day-to-day variations in rectum shape", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 54(2), 615-625 (2002).
Hunt, P. et al., Development of an IMRT quality assurance program using an amorphous silicon electronic portal Imaging device, 2000, 1 page.
I.M.R.T.C.W. Group, "Intensity-modulated radiotherapy: Current status and issues of interest", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 51(4), 880-914 (2001).
Implementing multiple static field delivery for intensity modulated beams, Wu Y. et al., Nov. 2001, pp. 2188-2197.
Initial Performance Evaluation of an Indirect-Detection, Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imager (AMFPI) Prototype for Megavoltage Imaging, Antonuk L, et al., 1998, pp. 661-672.
Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) with centrally blocked rotational fields, C. Cotrutz, C. Kappas, S. Webb, 2000, pp. 2185-2206.
Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy: Technology and Clinical Implementation, C. Yu, Sep. 1995, pp. 1-14.
Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Treatment of High-Risk Endometrial Malignancies, E. Wong, D. D'Souza, J. Chen, M. Lock, G. Rodrigues, T. Coad, K. Trenka, M. Mulligan, G. Bauman, 2005, pp. 830-841.
Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy Simplified, E. Wong, J. Chen, J. Greenland, 2002, pp. 222-235.
Intensity-modulated arc therapy with dynamic multileaf collimation: An alternative to tomotherapy, C. X. Yu, 1995, pp. 1435-1449.
Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Current Status and Issues of Interest, Boyer A et al., 2001, pp. 880-914.
Interactive image segmentation for radiation treatment planning, Elliott, PJ, et al., 1992, pp. 620-634.
Intersection of shaped radiation beams with arbitrary image sections, Mohan, R, et al., Jun. 1987, pp. 161-168.
Inverse Bestrahlungsplanung fuer intensitaetsmodulierte Strahlenfelder mit Linearer Programmierung als Optimierungsmethode, Matthias Hilbig, 2003, 156 pages.
Inverse Planning for Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy Using Direct Aperture Optimization, Earl et al., 2003, pp. 1075-1089.
Ion Beam Sputter-Deposited SiN/TiN Attenuating Phase-Shift Photoblanks, Dieu L. et al., 2001, pp. 810-817.
Jaffray D. and Battista J., X-ray sources of medical linear accelerators: Focal and extra-focal radiation, 1993, pp. 1417-1427.
Jaffray D. and Wong J., Exploring "Target of the Day" Strategies for a Medical Linear Accelerator With Conebeam-CT Scanning Capability,1997, pp. 172-174.
Jaffray D. and Wong J., Managing Geometric Uncertainty in Conformal Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, 1999, pp. 4-19.
Jaffray D. et al., Activity distribution of a cobalt-60 teletherapy source, 1991, pp. 288-291.
Jaffray D. et al., Conebeam Tomographic Guidance of Radiation Field Placement for Radiotherapy of the Prostate, 1998, pp. 1-32.
Jaffray D. et al., Dual-Beam Imaging for Online Verification of Radiotherapy Field Placement,1995, pp. 1273-1280.
Jaffray D., X-ray scatter in megavoltage transmission radiography: Physical characteristics and influence on image quality, 1994, pp. 45-60.
Jaffray et al., A Volumentric Cone-Beam CT System Based on a 41×41 cm2 Flat-Panel Imager, 2001, p. 800-807.
Jaffray et al., Image Guided Radiotherapy of the Prostate, 2001, p. 1075-1080.
Jaffray, D. et al., Medical linear accelerator x-ray sources: Variation with make, model, and time, 1992, p. 174-181.
Jaffray, et al., "Cone-beam computed tomography on a medical linear accelerator using a flat-panel imager", 2000, p. 558-560.
Jan Blachut et al., "Emerging Methods for Multidisciplinary Optimization", CISM Courses and Lectures No. 425, International Centre for Mechanical Science, 2001, p. 1-337.
Jiang, Z. et al., "An examination of the number of required apertures for step-and-shoot-IMRT", Phys. Med. Biol. 50 (23), 5653-5663 (Nov. 24, 2005).
Johnsen, S. et al., "Improved Clinac Electron Beam Quality", 1983, p. 737.
Jyrki Alakuijala, "Algorithms for modeling anatomic and target volumes in image-guided neurosurgery and radiotherapy", 2001, p. 1-121.
Karzmark, C. J., "A Primer on Theory and Operation of Linear Accelerators in Radiation Therapy", 1981, p. 1-61.
Kaver G, Lind BK, Lof J, Liander A, Brahme A. Stochastic optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy to account or uncertainties in patient sensitivity. Phys. Med. Biol. 1999. 44:2955-2969.
Kestin L. et al., Improving the Dosimetric Coverage of Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Breast Implants, 2000, pp. 35-43.
Kestin L. et al., Intensity Modulation to Improve Dose Uniformity With Tangential Breast Radiotherapy: Initial Clinical Experience, 2000, pp. 1559-1568.
Kini V. et al., Use of Three-Dimensional Radiation Therapy Planning Tools and Intraoperative Ultrasound to Evaluate High Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Implants., 1999, pp. 571-578.
Kirby, M.C. et al., Clinical Applications of Composite and Realtime Megavoltage Imaging, 1995, p. 308-316.
Kirkpatrick, S. et al., "Optimization by simulated annealing", Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
Klausmeier-Brown, M.E. et al., Real-Time Image Processing in a Flat-Panel, Solid-State, Medical Fluoroscopic Imaging System, 1998, p. 2-7.
Kolda et al., "Optimization by Direct Search: New Perspectives on Some Classical and Modern Methods", 2003, p. 385-482.
Kubo, H., Potential and role of a prototype amorphous silicon array electronic portal imaging device in breathing synchronized radiotherapy, 1999, p. 2410-2414.
Kumar MD, Thirumavalavan N, VenugopalKrishna D, Babaiah M. QA of intensity-modulated beams using dynamic MLC log files. 2006. Med. Phys., 31(1 ):36-41.
Laughlin J. et al. Evaluation of High Energy Photon External Beam Treatment Planning: Project Summary, 1991, pp. 3-8.
Lim, J., Optimization in Radiation Treatment Planning, 2002.
Lof J, Lind BK, Brahme A. An adaptive control algorithm for optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy considering uncertainties in beam profiles, patient set-up and internal organ motion. Phys. Med. Biol. 1998. 43:1605-1628.
Lof J, Lind BK, Brahme A. Optimal radiation beam profiles considering the stochastic process of patient positioning in fractionated radiation therapy. Inverse Problems. 2005. 11:1189-1209.
Lof J, Lind BK, Liander A, Brahme A. Simultaneous Optimization of Beam Orientations and Intensity Modulation in Radiation Therapy Using the New Optimization Strategy P. ELEKTA-ITC968-00122743. pp. 1-18.
Lof, J. Development of a general framework for optimization of radiation therapy. Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm 2000. pp. 1-42.
Low DA, Mutic S, Dempsey JF, Markman J, Goddu SM, Purdy JA. Abutment region dosimetry for serial tomotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999. 45(1):193-203.
Lu et al., "Fast free-form deformable registration via calculus of variations", 2004, p. 3067-3087.
M. Van Herk et al., Automatic three-dimensional correlation of CT-CT, CT-MRI, and CT-SPECT using chamfer matching, Medical Physics, 1994, p. 1163-1178.
MacKenzie, M. et al., Intensity modulated arc deliveries approximated by a large number of fixed gantry position sliding window dynamic multileaf collimator fields, 2002, p. 2359-2365.
Mackie et al. Tomotherapy: A New Concept for the Delivery of Dynamic Conformal Radiotherapy, Med. Phys., vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 1709-1719, Nov./Dec. 1993.
MacKie, T.R. et al., "Image guidance for precise conformal radiotherapy", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 56(1), 89-105 (2003).
Malik, R. et al., "Simulator Based CT: 4 Years of Experience at the Royal North Shore Hospital", Sydney, Australia, 1993, p. 177-185.
Maria Korteila, "Varianin avulla Ade tappaa kasvaimen tarkasti", 2000, p. 1-8.
Martinez A. et al., Improvement in Dose Escalation Using the Process of Adaptive Radiotherapy Combined with Three-Dimensional Conformal or Intensity-Modulated Beams for Prostate Cancer, 2001, pp. 1226-1234.
Masterson M. et al., Interinstitutional Experience in Verification of External Photon Dose Calculations,1991, pp. 37-58.
Meedt G, Alber M, Nüsslin F.. Non-coplanar beam direction optimization for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2003. 48(18):2999-3019.
Megavoltage Imaging with a Large-Area, Flat-Panel, Amorphous Silicon Imager, Antonuk L, et al., 1996, pp. 661-672.
Mestovic, A. et al., "Direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy", Med. Phys. 34(5), Apr. 19, 2007, pp. 1631-1646.
Methods of mathematical simulation and planning of fractionated irradiationof malignant tumors, Klepper L. Ya., Sotnikov V.M., Zamyatin O.A., Nechesnyuk A.V., 2000, v. 2, pp. 73-79.
Michalski J. et al., An Evaluation of Two Methods of Anatomical Alignment of Radiotherapy Portal Images, 1993, pp. 1199-1206.
Michalski J. et al., Prospective Clinical Evaluation of an Electronic Portal Imaging Device, 1996, pp. 943-951.
Michalski J. et al., The Use of On-line Image Verification to Estimate the Variation in Radiation Therapy Dose Delivery, 1993, pp. 707-716.
Midgley, S.M. et al., A Feasibility Study for the Use of Megavoltage Photons and a Commercial Electronic Portal Imaging Area Detector for Beam Geometry CT Scanning to Obtain 3D Tomographic Data Sets of Radiotherapy Patients in the Treatment Position, 1996, 2 pages.
Milette, M.P. et al., "Maximizing the potential of direct aperture optimization through collimator rotation," Med. Phys. 34, pp. 1431-1438, 2007.
Milliken B. et al., Verification of the omni wedge technique, 1998, pp. 1419-1423.
Mohan R., Three-Dimensional Dose Calculations for Radiation Treatment Planning, 1991, pp. 25-36.
Mohan, R. et al., "Use of deformed intensity distributions for on-line modification of image-guided IMRT to account for interfractional anatomic changes", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 61(4), 1258-1266 (2005).
Mosleh-Shirazi et al., Rapid portal imaging with a high-efficiency, large field-of-view detector, 1998, pp. 2333-2346.
Mosleh-Shirazi MA, Evans PM, Swindell W, Webb S, Partridge M.. A cone-beam megavoltage CT scanner for treatment verification in conformal radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 1998. 48(3):319-28.
Mueller, Fast and Accurate Three-Dimensional Reconstruction from Cone-Beam Projection Data Using Algebraic Methods,1998, pp. 1-114.
Mueller, K. et al., Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CT) for a Megavoltage Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART), 2000, p. 2875-2878.
Munbodh, R. et al., "Automated 2D-3D registration of a radiograph and a cone beam CT using line-segment enhancement", Med. Phys. 33(5), 1398-1411 (Apr. 27, 2006).
Munro P., et al., Therapy imaging⋅ limitations of imaging with high energy x-ray beams, 1987, p. 178-184.
Munro, P. et al., "Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Using a High Quantum Efficiency Image Receptor", 2002, p. 1340.
Munro, P. et al., A Digital Fluoroscopic Imaging Device for Radiotherapy Localization, 1990, p. 641-649.
Munro, P., "On Line Portal Imaging", 1997, p. 114.
Munro, P., Portal Imaging Technology: Past, Present, and Future, Seminars in Radiation Oncology, 1995, p. 115-133.
Nag, S., et al., Intraoperative Planning and Evaluation of Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: Report of the American Brachytherapy Society, 2001, p. 1422-1430.
Nakagawa, Keiichi, et al., Megavoltage CT-Assisted Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Thoracic Tumors: Original Research in the Treatment of Thoracic Neoplasms, 2000, pp. 449-457.
New development of integrated CT simulation system for radiation therapy planning, Kushima, T, et al., 1993, pp. 197-213.
New Patient Set Up in Linac-CT Radiotherapy System-First Mention of a Hybrid CT-Linac System, Akanuma, A., et al., 1984, pp. 465-467.
Nichol, A.M. et al., "A magnetic resonance imaging study of prostate deformation relative to implanted gold fiducial markers", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 67(1), 48-56 (2007).
Nichol, A.M. et al., "Intra-prostatic fiducial markers and concurrent androgen deprivation", Clin. Oncol. (R Coll. Radiol) 17(6), 465-468 (2005).
Niemierko, A. et al., "Random sampling for evaluation treatment plans", Med. Phys. 17(5), 753-762 (1990).
Ning, R, Wang, X., Shen, J, Conover DL., An Image Intensifier-Based Volume Tomograpric Angiography Imaging System: System Evaluation, SPIE, 2432 280-290.
Ning, R. et al., Real Time Flat Panel Detector-Based Volume Tomographic Angiography Imaging: Detector Evaluation, 2000, p. 396-407.
Ning, R. et al., Selenium Flat Panel Detector-Based Volume Tomographic Angiography Imaging: Phantom Studies, 1998, p. 316-324.
Ning, R., Chen, B., Yu, R., Conover, D. Tang, X., Ning, Y., Flat Panel Detector-Based Cone-Beam Volume CT Angiography Imaging: System Evaluation, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 19: 949-963, 2000.
Novel Approximate Approach for High-Quality Image Reconstruction in Helical Cone Beam CT at Arbitrary Pitch, Schaller et al., 2001, pp. 113-127.
Oldham M. et al., Practical aspects of in situ 16O (y,n) 15O activation using a conventional medical accelerator for the purpose of perfusion imaging, 2001, pp. 1669-1678.
On methods of inhomogeneity corrections for photon transport, Wong J. and Purdy J., 1990, pp. 807-814.
On-line image verification in radiation therapy: an early USA experience, Wong J. et al., 1993, pp. 43-54.
On-line Readiotherapy Imaging with an Array of Fiber-Optic Image Reducers, Wong J. et al., 1990, pp. 1477-1484.
Optimal radiographic magnification for portal imaging, Bissonnette J. et al.,1994, pp. 1435-1445.
Optimization of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery, Ferris et al., Apr. 8, 2004, pp. 1-76.
Optimization of the scintillation detector in a combined 3D megavoltage CT scanner and portal imager, Mosleh-Shirazi M. et al., Oct. 1998, pp. 1880-1890.
Optimization of x-ray imaging geometry (with specific application to flat-panel cone-beam computed tomography), J. Siewerdsen, D. Jaffray, Aug. 2000, pp. 1903-1914.
Optimized Intensity-modulated Arc Therapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment, L. Ma, C. Yu, M. Earl, T. Holmes, M. Sarfaraz, X. Li, D. Shepard, P. Amin, S. DiBiase, M. Suntharalingam, C. Mansfield, 2001, pp. 379-384.
Otto et al., "Enhancement of IMRT Delivery through MLC Rotation", Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3997-4017 (2002).
Otto, K, Intensity Modulation of Therapeutic Photon Beams Using a Rotating Multileaf Collimator, 2004, vol. 31 (3), p. 686.
P. Rizo, P. Grangeat, P. Sire, P. Lemasson, and P. Melennec, Comparison of two three-dimensional x-ray cone-beam-reconstruction algorithms with circular source trajectories, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8: 1639-1648. 1991.
Partridge et al., Linear accelerator output variations and their consequences for megavoltage imaging, 1998, pp. 1443-1452.
Patient Beam Positioning System Using CT Images, Masshiro, et al., 1982, pp. 301-305.
Pekka Kolmonen, "The direct control of the Multi-Leaf Collimator in the inverse problem of radiotherapy treatment planning", Mar. 19, 2004, p. 1-81.
Perera H. et al., Rapid Two-Dimensional Dose Measurement in Brachytherapy Using Plastic Scintillator Sheet: Linearity, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, and Energy Response Characteristics, 1992, pp. 1059-1069.
Performance of a Volumetric CT Scanner Based Upon a Flat-Panel Imager, D. Jaffray, J. Siewersen, D. Drake, Feb. 1999, pp. 204-214.
Photon does calculation incorporating explicit electron transport, Yu C. et al., Jul. 1995, pp. 1157-1166.
Photon dose perturbations due to small inhomogeneities, Yu C. et al., 1987, pp. 78-83.
Pisani, L., Lockman, D., Jaffray, D.,Yan, D. Martinez, A., Wong, J., Setup Error in Radiotherapy: On-Line correction Using Electronic Kilovoltage and Megavoltage Radiographs.
Podgorsak EB, Olivier A, Pla M, Lefebvre PY, Hazel J. Dynamic stereotactic radiosurgery. Int J Radial Oncol Biol Phys. 1988. 14(1):115-26.
Portal Dose Images I: Quantitative Treatment Plan Verification, Wong J. et al., 1990, pp. 1455-1463.
Portal Dose Images II: Patient Dose Estimation, Ying X. et al., 1990, pp. 1465-1475.
Powell, M.J.D., "Direct search algorithms for optimization calculations", Cambridge University Press, Acta Numerica (1998), p. 287-336.
Practical Cone-Beam Algorithm, Feldkamp, L.A. et al., Jun. 1984, pp. 612-619.
Preciado-Walters, "A coupled column generation, mixed integer approach to optimal planning of intensity modulated radiation therapy for cancer", 2004, p. 319-338.
Purdy J. et al., State of the Art of High Energy Photon Treatment Planning,1987, pp. 4-24.
Qiuwen, Wu et al., Dynamic Splitting of Large Intensity-Modulated Fields, Phys. Med. Biol. 45 (2000), Richmond, VA, USA, p. 1731-1740.
R. A. Reynolds, M. R. Sontag, and L. S. Chen, "An algorithm for three-dimensional visualization of radiation therapy beams", Med. Phys. 15, pp. 24-28, 1988.
R. Fletcher, "Practical Methods of Optimization", Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK, Wiley-Interscience Publication,1987, p. 1-436.
R.P. Woods et al., MRI-PET Registration with Automated Algorithm, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 1993, p. 536-546.
R.T.O.G. 0415, "A Phase III Randomized Study of Hypofractionated 3D-CRT/IMRT Versus Conventionally Fractionated 3D-CRT/IMRT in patients with favourable-risk prostate cancer", (www.RTOG.orgaccessed on Jul. 2006) (2006).
Ragan, D.P., Tongming He, T., Liu, X., Correction for distortion in a beam outline transfer device in radiotherapy CT-based simulation, Medical Physics 20: 179-185 ,1993.
Rangarajan K. Sundaram, "A First Course in Optimization Theory", New York University, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Reconsideration of the power-law (Batho) equation for inhomogeneity corrections, Wong J. and Henkelman M., 1982, pp. 521-530.
Redpath, A.T. et al., Chapter 6: Simulator Computed Tomography, The Modern Technology of Radiation Oncology, 1999, pp. 169-189.
Redpath, A.T., Wright, D.H., The use of a Simulator and Treatment Planning Computer as a CT Scanner for Radiotherapy Planning, Eight International Conference on the use of computer in radiation therapy, IEEE Computer Society Press, ISBN 0-8186-0559-6, 1984.
Relative dosimetry using active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology, El-Mohri Y. et al., 1999, pp. 1530-1541.
Role of Inhomogeneity Corrections in Three-Dimensional Photon Treatment Planning, Wong J. et al., 1991, pp. 59-69.
Rostkowska, J. et al., "Physical and Dosimetric Aspects of Quality Assurance in Sterotactic Radiotherapy", 2001, p. 53-54.
Rowbottom, C. et al., "Simultaneous optimization of beam orientations and beam weights in conformal radiotherapy", 2001, p. 1696-1702.
Ruchala, K.J., Olivera, G.H., Schloesser, E.A., Mackie, T.R., Megavoltage CT on a tomotherapy system, Phys. Med. Biol. 44: 2597-2621, 1999.
S. Agostinelli, F. Foppiano, A prototype 3D CT extension for radiotherapy simulators, 2001, pp. 11-21.
Sampling Issues for Optimization in Radiotherapy, Ferris et al., 2006, pp. 95-115.
Sanguineti, G. et al., "Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and prostate gland shrinkage during conformal radiotherapy", Radiother, Oncol. 66(2), 151-157 (2003).
Scholz, C. et al., "Development and clinical application of a fast superposition algorithm in radiation therapy", 2003, p. 79-90.
Second scatter contribution to dose in a cobalt-60 beam, Wong J. et al., 1981, pp. 775-782.
Selected pages of Appendix 2 to Complainants' Eighth Supplemental Responses and Objections to Respondents' First Set of Interrogatories, dated Mar. 28, 2016 in Certain Radiotherapy Systems and Treatment Planning Software, and Components Thereof, Investigation No. 337-TA-968.
Sephton, R., et al., A diagnostic-quality electronic portal imaging system, 1995, p. 204-247.
Sharpe M. et al., Compensation of x-ray beam penumbra in conformal radiotherapy, 2000, pp. 1739-1745.
Sharpe M. et al., Monitor unit settings for intensity modulated beams delivered using a step-and-shoot approach, 2000, pp. 2719-2725.
Shepard et al. An Arc-Sequencing Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy, Med. Phys., vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 464-470, Feb. 2007.
Shepard et al. Iterative Approaches to Dose Optimization in Tomotherapy, Phys. Med. Biol. vol. 45, pp. 69-90, 2000.
Shepard et al., "An Arc-Sequencing Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy", Med. Phys. 34 (2) (2007), pp. 464-470.
Shepard et al., "Direct Aperture Optimization: A Turnkey Solution for Step-and-Shoot IMRT", Med. Phys. 29 (6) (2002), pp. 1007-1018.
Shiu A. et al., Verification data for electron beam dose algorithms, 1992, pp. 623-636.
Sidhu, K. et al., "Optimization of Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy Plance While Using Cone-Beam CT Imaging for Treatment Verification", 2001, p. 175-176.
Siewerdsen J. et al., Empirical and theoretical investigation of the noise performance of indirect detection, active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) for diagnostic radiology, 1997, pp. 71-89.
Siewerdsen J. et al., Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology, 1998, pp. 614-628.
Siewerdsen, J.H. and Jaffray, D.A., Optimization of x-ray imaging geometry (with specific application to flat-panel conebeam computed tomography), Medical Physics 27: 1903-1914, 2000.
Siewerdsen, JH and Jaffray, D.A. Cone-beam computed tomography with a flat-panel imager: Magnitude and effects of xray scatter, Medical Physics 28: 220-231, 2001.
Signal, noise, and readout considerations in the development of amorphous silicon photodiode arrays for radiotherapy and diagnostic x-ray imaging, Antonuk et al., 1991, pp. 108-119.
Sillanpaa J, Chang J and Mageras G. Developments in megavoltage cone beam CT with an amorphous silicon EPID: Reduction of exposure and synchronization with respiratory gating 2005. Medical Physics, 32:819-829.
Simo Muinonen, "Sadehoiden valmistelun optimointi fysiikan keinoin", 1995, p. 1-166.
Singiresu S. Rao, "Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice", 1996, p. 1-840.
Smith, R. et al., "Development of cone beam CT for radiotherapy treatment planning", 2001, p. 115.
Spirou et al., "A Gradient Inverse Planning Algorithm with Dose-Volume Contraints", Med. Phys. 25, pp. 321-333 (1998).
Spirou et al., "Generation of Arbitrary Intensity Profiles by Dynamic Jaws or Multileaf Collimators", Med. Phys. 21, pp. 1031-1041 (1994).
State-of-the-Art of External Photon Beam Radiation Treatment Planning, Sontag M. et al., 1991, pp. 9-23.
Strategies to improve the signal and noise performance of active matrix, flat-panel imagers for diagnostic x-ray applications, Antonuk L. et al., Feb. 2000, pp. 289-306.
Stromberg, J.S., Sharpe, M.D., Kim, L.H., Kini, V.R., Jaffray, D.A., Martinez, A.A., Wong, J.W., Active Breathing control (ABC) for Hodgkins Disease Reduction in Normal Tissue Irradiation with Deep Inspiration and Implications for Treatment, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys.,2000 vol. 48, pp. 797-806.
Studholme et al., "Automated three-dimensional registration of magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography brain images by multiresolution optimization of voxel similarity measures", 1997, p. 25-35.
Study of Treatment Variation in the Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Tumors Using a Fiber-Optic On-Line Radiotherapy Imaging System, Halverson K. et al., 1991, pp. 1327-1336.
Swindell, W., Simpson, R.G., Oleson, J.R., Chen, C.T., Grubbs, E.A., Computed tomography with a linear accelerator with radiotherapy applications, Medical Physics 10, 416-420, 1983.
Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): average tumour trajectory for lung patients, T. Neicu, H. Shirato, Y. Seppenwoolde, S. Jiang, 2003, pp. 587-598.
Systematic verification of a three-dimensional electron beam dose calculation algorithm, Cheng A. et al., 1996, pp. 685-693.
Takahashi S. Conformation Radiotherapy: Rotation Techniques As Applied to Radiography and Radiotherapy of Cancer, ACTA Radiologica Supplementum 242, Stockholm 1965. 11-142.
Teicher B. et al., Allosteric effectors of hemoglobin as modulators of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo,1998, pp. 24-30.
Tepper J. et al., Three-Dimensional Display in Planning Radiation Therapy: A Clinical Perspective, 1991, pp. 79-89.
Tervo et al., "A Model for the Control of a Multileaf Collimator in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning", Inverse Problems 16 (2000), pp. 1875-1895.
The application of dynamic field shaping and dynamic does rate control in conformal rotational treatment of prostate, Tobler, 2003.
The Influence of Interpatient and Intrapatient Rectum Variation on External Beam Treatment of Prostate Cancer, Yan D. et al., 2001, pp. 1111-1119.
The Physics of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, Boyer, 2002, pp. 38-44.
The Relationship Between the Number of Shots and the Quality of Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries, Cheek et al., 2005, pp. 449-462.
The Stanford medical linear accelerator. II. Installation and physical measurements, Weissbluth, M., C. J. Karzmark et al., 1959, pp. 242-253.
The Use of Active Breathing Control (ABC) to Reduce Margin for Breathing Motion, Wong J. et al., 1999, pp. 911-919.
The Use of Adaptive Radiation Therapy to Reduce Setup Error: A Prospective Clinical Study, Yan D. et al., 1998, pp. 715-720.
Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Reconstruction Using a C-Arm Mounted XRII: Image Based Correction of Gantry Motion Nonidealities, Fahrig and Holdsworth, Jan. 2000, pp. 30-38.
Three-Dimensional Photon Treatment Planning for Hodgkin's Disease, Brown A. et al., May 1992, pp. 205-215.
Three-dimensional radiation planning. Studies on clinical integration, Gademann, G, et al., 1993, pp. 159-167.
Tina Seppala, "FiR 1 epithermal neutron beam model and dose calculation for treatment planning in neutron capture therapy", 2002, p. 1-46.
Tobler M, Watson G, Leavitt DD. The application of dynamic field shaping and dynamic dose rate control in conformal rotational treatment of the prostate. Med Dosim. 2002 Winter;27(4):251-4.
Tomotherapy: a new concept for the delivery of dynamic conformal radiotherapy, Mackie TR, Holmes T, Swerdloff S, Reckwerdt P, Deasy JO, Yang J, Paliwal, 1993, pp. 1709-1719.
Treatment Verifications and Patient Dose Estimations Using Portal Dose Imaging, Wong J. et al., 1988, pp. 213-225.
Uematsu, M., Fukui, T., Shioda, A., Tokumitsu, H., Takai, K., Kojima, T., Asai, Y. Kusano, S., Dual Computed Tomography Linear Accelerator Unit for Stereotactic Radiation Therapy: A New Approach Without Cranially Fixated Stereotactic Frames, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 587-592, 1996.
Uematsua, M., Shioda, A., Suda, A., Taharaa, K., Kojima, T, Hama, Y, Kono, M., Wong, J.R., Fukui, T, Kusanoa, S., Intrafractional Tumor Position Stability During Computed Tomography (CT)-Guided Frameless Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Lung or Liver Cancers With a Fusion of CT and Linear Accelerator (Focal) Unit, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., 48: 443-448, 2000.
Uematsua, M., Sonderegger, M., Shioda, A., Taharaa, K., Fukui, T., Hama, Y., Kojima, T., Wong, J.R., Kusanoa, S., Daily positioning accuracy of frameless stereotactic radiation therapy with a fusion of computed tomography and linear accelerator (focal) unit: evaluation of z-axis with a z-marker, Radiotherapy and Oncology 50: 337-339, 1999.
Ulrich et al., "Development of an Optimization Concept for Arc-Modulated Cone Beam Therapy", Phys. Med. Biol. 52 (2007), pp. 4099-4119.
Urie M. et al., The Role of Uncertainty Analysis in Treatment Planning, 1991, pp. 91-107.
Varian 2002 Annual Report, 2002, p. 1-28.
Varian Medical Systems, Radiation Therapy Acuity, 2005, 1 page.
Verfaillie G, Lemaitre M, Schiex T. Russian Doll Search for Solving Constraint Optimization Problems. 1996. AAAI-96 Proceedings: 181-187.
Vicini F. et al., Dose-Volume Analysis for Quality Assurance of Interstitial Brachytherapy for Breast Cancer,1999, pp. 803-810.
Vicini F. et al., Implementation of 3D-Virtual Brachytherapy in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Description of a New Method of Interstitial Brachytherapy, 1998, pp. 620-635.
Vicini F. et al., Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as the Sole Radiation Modality in the Management of Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated with Breast-Conserving Therapy: Preliminary Results of a Pilot Trial, 1997, pp. 301-310.
Wang X, Zhang X, Dong L, Liu H, Wu Q, Mohan R.. Development of methods for beam angle optimization for IMRT using an accelerated exhaustive search strategy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004. 60(4):1325-37.
Webb et al., "Inverse planning with constraints to generate smoothed intensity-modulated beams", 1998, p. 2785-2794.
Webb, Optimizing the Planning of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, Phys. Med. Biol. vol. 39, pp. 2229-2246, 1994.
Webb, S. et al., Tomographic Reconstruction from Experimentally Obtained Cone-Beam Projections, 1987, p. 67-73.
Williamson J. et al., One-dimensional scatter-subtraction method for brachytherapy dose calculation near bounded heterogeneities, 1993, pp. 233-244.
Wong J. et al., Conservative management of osteoradionecrosis, 1997, pp. 16-21.
Wong J. et al., The Cumulative Verification Image Analysis Tool for Offline Evaluation of Portal Images, 1995, pp. 1301-1310.
Wong, E. et al., "Intensity-modulated arc therapy simplified," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 53, pp. 222-235, 2002.
Wong, J. et al., "Behandlung des Lungenkarzinoms mittels stereotaktischer Strahlentherapie unter Verwednung des weltweit ersten PRIMATOM Systems-eine Fallstudie", 2001, p. 133-136.
Wong, J. et al., "Initial clinical experience with a gantry mounted dual beam imaging system for setup error localization", 1998, p. 138.
Wright, M. et al., Amorphous silicon dual mode medical imaging system, 1998, p. 505-514.
Wu et al., "Algorithm and Functionality of an Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Optimization System", Med. Phys. 27, pp. 701-711 (2000).
Xia et al., "Multileaf Collimator Leaf Sequencing Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Beams with Multiple Static Segments", Med. Phys. 25, pp. 1424-1434 (1998).
Xia P, Chuang CF, Verhey LJ. Communication and sampling rate limitations in IMRT delivery with a dynamic multileaf collimator system. Med Phys. 2002. 29(3):412-23.
Xing et al., "Dosimetric verification of a commercial inverse treatment planning system", 1999, p. 463-478.
Xing et al., "Iterative methods for inverse treatment planning", 1996, p. 2107-2123.
X-ray detector in IT era-FPD : Flat Panel Detector, Nishiki M., 2001, pp. 1-2.
Yan, D. et al., "Computed tomography guided management of interfractional patient variation", Semin. Radiat, Oncol. 15, 168-179 (2005).
Yan, D. et al., "The influence of interpatient and intrapatient rectum variation on external beam treatment of prostate cancer", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 51(4), 1111-1119 (2001).
Yan, X. H., and Leahy, R.M., Derivation and Analysis of a Filtered Backprojection Algorithm for Cone Beam Projection Data, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 10, 462-472, 1991.
Yu CX, Li XA, Ma L, Chen D, Naqvi S, Shepard D, Sarfaraz M, Holmes TW, Suntharalingam M, Mansfield CM. Clinical implementation of intensity-modulated arc therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002. 53(2):453-63.
Yu et al. Clinical Implementation of Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys, vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 453-463, 2002.
Yu, C.X., Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy with Dynamic Multileaf Collimation: An Alternative to Tomotherapy, hys. Med. Biol., vol. 40, pp. 1435-1449, 1995.
Zellars, R.C. et al., "Prostate position late in the course of external beam therapy: Patterns and predictors", Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 47(3), 655-660 (2000).
Zheng, Z, et al., Fast 4D Cone-Beam Reconstruction Using the McKinnon-Bates Algorithm with Truncation Correction and Non Linear Filtering, , 2011, p. 1-8.

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10449389B2 (en) * 2016-12-05 2019-10-22 Varian Medical Systems International Ag Dynamic target masker in radiation treatment of multiple targets
US10525283B2 (en) * 2017-03-09 2020-01-07 Dalhousie University Systems and methods for planning and controlling the rotation of a multileaf collimator for arc therapy

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Verhey Comparison of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy systems
Galvin et al. Combining multileaf fields to modulate fluence distributions
Van Santvoort et al. Dynamic multileaf collimation withouttongue-and-groove'underdosage effects
Deng et al. The MLC tongue-and-groove effect on IMRT dose distributions
Boyer et al. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with dynamic multileaf collimators
Guckenberger et al. Is a single arc sufficient in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for complex-shaped target volumes?
US7496173B2 (en) Method and system for optimizing dose delivery of radiation
US6560311B1 (en) Method for preparing a radiation therapy plan
US8658992B2 (en) Methods and apparatus for the planning and delivery of radiation treatments
US9687674B2 (en) Methods and apparatus for the planning and delivery of radiation treatments
Xia et al. Comparison of treatment plans involving intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma
US6795523B2 (en) Method and apparatus for controlling a rotatable multi-element beam shaping device
Bortfeld et al. Single-arc IMRT?
US7590219B2 (en) Automatically determining a beam parameter for radiation treatment planning
Khoo et al. Comparison of intensity-modulated tomotherapy with stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy for brain tumors
Holt et al. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiotherapy of lung tumors: a comparison with intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques
Bedford Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy
US6661870B2 (en) Fluence adjustment for improving delivery to voxels without reoptimization
Galvin et al. Evaluation of multileaf collimator design for a photon beam
US7469035B2 (en) Method to track three-dimensional target motion with a dynamical multi-leaf collimator
JP2007514499A (en) System and method for global optimization of treatment plans for external beam irradiation therapy
Shepard et al. Direct aperture optimization: a turnkey solution for step‐and‐shoot IMRT
Craft et al. Multicriteria VMAT optimization
Wang et al. Arc-modulated radiation therapy (AMRT): a single-arc form of intensity-modulated arc therapy
US8483357B2 (en) Dose calculation method for multiple fields

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO, NEW M

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LUAN, SHUANG;REEL/FRAME:032219/0061

Effective date: 20140128

Owner name: STC.UNM, NEW MEXICO

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO;REEL/FRAME:032219/0118

Effective date: 20140207

AS Assignment

Owner name: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:YU, XINSHENG;EARL, MATTHEW;SIGNING DATES FROM 20130918 TO 20130929;REEL/FRAME:032459/0781

Owner name: STC.UNM, NEW MEXICO

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO;REEL/FRAME:032459/0387

Effective date: 20140207

Owner name: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO, NEW MEXIC

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LUAN, SHUANG;REEL/FRAME:032459/0491

Effective date: 20140128

Owner name: UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME DU LAC, INDIANA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CHEN, DANNY Z.;WANG, CHAO;REEL/FRAME:032459/0344

Effective date: 20131008

MAFP Maintenance fee payment

Free format text: PAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEE, 8TH YEAR, LARGE ENTITY (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: M1552); ENTITY STATUS OF PATENT OWNER: LARGE ENTITY

Year of fee payment: 8

AS Assignment

Owner name: NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH), U.S. DEPT. OF

Free format text: CONFIRMATORY LICENSE;ASSIGNOR:UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE;REEL/FRAME:048929/0832

Effective date: 20180731