US4436684A - Method of forming implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery - Google Patents

Method of forming implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4436684A
US4436684A US06/384,646 US38464682A US4436684A US 4436684 A US4436684 A US 4436684A US 38464682 A US38464682 A US 38464682A US 4436684 A US4436684 A US 4436684A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
selected
dimensional
structure
representation
dimensional coordinates
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US06/384,646
Inventor
David N. White
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Biomet Inc
Original Assignee
Contour Med Partners Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Contour Med Partners Ltd filed Critical Contour Med Partners Ltd
Assigned to CONTOUR MED PARTNERS, LTD. reassignment CONTOUR MED PARTNERS, LTD. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: WHITE, DAVID N.
Priority to US06384646 priority Critical patent/US4436684B1/en
Publication of US4436684A publication Critical patent/US4436684A/en
Assigned to CEMAX MEDICAL PRODUCTS, INC., A CORP. OF CA. reassignment CEMAX MEDICAL PRODUCTS, INC., A CORP. OF CA. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: CONTOUR MED PARTNERS, LTD., A CORP. OF CA.
Publication of US4436684B1 publication Critical patent/US4436684B1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Assigned to BIOMET, INC., A CORP. OF IN reassignment BIOMET, INC., A CORP. OF IN ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: CEMAX, INC., A CORP. OF CA
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/3094Designing or manufacturing processes
    • A61F2/30942Designing or manufacturing processes for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/28Bones
    • A61F2/2803Bones for mandibular reconstruction
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q33/00Methods for copying
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/42Recording and playback systems, i.e. in which the programme is recorded from a cycle of operations, e.g. the cycle of operations being manually controlled, after which this record is played back on the same machine
    • G05B19/4202Recording and playback systems, i.e. in which the programme is recorded from a cycle of operations, e.g. the cycle of operations being manually controlled, after which this record is played back on the same machine preparation of the programme medium using a drawing, a model
    • G05B19/4207Recording and playback systems, i.e. in which the programme is recorded from a cycle of operations, e.g. the cycle of operations being manually controlled, after which this record is played back on the same machine preparation of the programme medium using a drawing, a model in which a model is traced or scanned and corresponding data recorded
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/28Bones
    • A61F2/2875Skull or cranium
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/3094Designing or manufacturing processes
    • A61F2/30942Designing or manufacturing processes for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques
    • A61F2002/30948Designing or manufacturing processes for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques using computerized tomography, i.e. CT scans
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/3094Designing or manufacturing processes
    • A61F2/30942Designing or manufacturing processes for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques
    • A61F2002/30952Designing or manufacturing processes for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques using CAD-CAM techniques or NC-techniques
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/3094Designing or manufacturing processes
    • A61F2/30942Designing or manufacturing processes for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques
    • A61F2002/30957Designing or manufacturing processes for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques using a positive or a negative model, e.g. moulds
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/45Nc applications
    • G05B2219/45168Bone prosthesis
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S623/00Prosthesis, i.e. artificial body members, parts thereof, or aids and accessories therefor
    • Y10S623/901Method of manufacturing prosthetic device
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S623/00Prosthesis, i.e. artificial body members, parts thereof, or aids and accessories therefor
    • Y10S623/912Method or apparatus for measuring or testing prosthetic
    • Y10S623/914Bone

Abstract

Non-invasive method of forming prostheses of skeletal structures internal to a body for use in reconstructive surgery. The selected internal skeletal structure is measured by subjecting the body to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses that are detected to obtain representations delineating the skeletal structure. Three dimensional coordinate data defining the skeletal structure is generated from the obtained representations. The coordinate data is employed to control a sculpting tool to form the prosthesis.

Description

DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates generally to a method of constructing three dimensional corporeal models of structures internal to bodies and, more particularly, to a method of constructing such models from three dimensional representations of the internal structures obtained without physical invasion of the bodies.

A three dimensional corporeal model of a structure whose exact size and/or shape is unknown ordinarily is constructed from direct measurement of the dimensions of the structure. Direct measurement of the internal structure has the advantage of providing precise dimensional information that enables the construction of a corporeal model which accurately represents the internal structure. Often, however, the structure is confined within a body so as not to be accessible for direct measurement. In such cases, the body is either opened or diassembled to provide access for the measurement of the internal structure of interest. When such opening or disassembly has not been practicable or desirable, corporeal models have been constructed with the aid of visual inspections of standard radiographic images of the internal structure of interest, externally formed castings of the body and other techniques of indirect examination of the body. The deficiencies of such techniques, however, have made it difficult to construct corporeal models that accurately represent internal structures. For the most part, such indirect examination techniques are deficient for such purposes because they provide imprecise dimensional information and structural delineation of structures internal to a body.

Accuracy is particularly important in the construction of corporeal models of internal tissue structures of mammalian anatomies. Such models will be referred to herein as prostheses, whether in the form of a surgically implantable prosthesis or an external prosthesis. Though exact measurement and accurate conformation are desirable in the construction of implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery, non-invasive direct measurement of internal anatomic tissue structures is not available by present methods and not practicable for the fabrication of prostheses. Present methods require fabrication of an implantable prosthesis for correction of bony contour abnormalities on the basis of a plaster casting taken over the area of abnormality with soft tissue interposed between the structural defect and the cast. From this case, a model onlay prosthesis is constructed by a hand-sculpting method by a skilled prosthetist on a best-approximation basis, attempting to allow for the inaccuracies resulting from indirect measurement. Residual inaccuracies must then be modified at the time of implantation when direct surgical examination of deep structures is possible.

If a bone graft from the patient is to be fashioned to correct a structural defect, the surgeon has no precise representation of the bony abnormality prior to direct examination at the time of surgery, and is then required to alter the abnormality and fashion the implant in the operating room without the benefit of a prior working model.

Construction of accurate preoperative models and correctional implants avoids the shortcomings of the above-noted hand sculpting technique and diminishes the morbidity associated with the prolonged anesthesia presently required.

The present invention is a method of constructing a three dimensional corporeal model that accurately represents a selected structure internal to a body. The internal structure is measured by subjecting the body to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses that are detected to obtain representions delineating the internal structure three dimensionally. A set of three dimensional coordinates defining a three dimensional representation of the selected internal structure is generated from the obtained representations and is employed to direct a sculpting tool to form a corporeal model of the selected structure. As will become more apparent upon consideration of the detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention found hereinafter, the formation of an accurate corporeal model replica of the selected structure is facilitated by using the generated set of three dimensional coordinates to control the trajectory of a machine-controlled sculpting tool for the purpose of formng the corporeal model. However, the method of the present invention can be practiced to provide three dimensional coordinates that define a mold cavity model representation of the selected structure from which one or more corporeal model replicas may be formed by conventional molding processes. In such implementations, the trajectory of the sculpting tool is directed by the provided three dimensional coordinate data to form the desired mold cavity.

As will become more apparent upon consideration of the description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, noninvasive radiographic image reconstruction techniques and automatically controlled machining techniques are adapted and combined to enable the precise measurement of internal structures and the construction of corporeal models that are accurate representations of the internal structures. A radiographic image reconstruction technique particularly useful in the method of the present invention is computed tomography, according to which a cross sectional tomographic image is constructed from radiant energy transmitted through or reflected from the interior of the body along paths at different angles relative to the body. The image is constructed by computer manipulation of the detected radiant energy according to an algorithm whereby the localized radiant energy responses occurring at the cross section location of the body are computed. The computed radiant energy responses are characteristic of the substances located at the cross section location of the detected radiant energy responses and, therefore, enable formation of an image of the structure at the cross section location. A series of such images is obtained at locations distributed along a line perpendicular to the plane of cross section by subjecting the body to radiant energy and detecting the transmitted or reflected radiant energy at each of the distributed locations. Computerized tomographic devices have employed x-ray, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), positron emission (PET) and ultrasonic radiant energy techniques to obtain data for the construction of images of internal structures. Both analog gray-scale pictures of the detected radiant energy responses and paper printouts of mapped numerical value representations of the gray-scale values are commonly provided by such computerized tomographic devices. Examples of such devices are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,673,394, 4,298,800 and Re 30,397, and references cited in the patents.

Machine-controlled contour sculpting tool devices have been widely used to reproduce three dimensional object surfaces from representations of such surfaces. Some of these devices control tool trajectory relative to a work piece in accordance with numerical data obtained from drawings or photographs of the desired object, for example, by the use of contour or profile following instruments. Other contour sculpting devices utilize contour followers adapted to follow a physical model of the desired object and generate coordinate control data used to control the trajectory of the sculpting tool. Some contour followers are mechanically linked to the sculpting tool whereby movement of the contour follower directly causes corresponding movement of the sculpting tool. Examples of contour sculpting tool devices are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,852,189, 3,195,411, 3,259,022 and 3,796,129.

In the preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention, a computerized x-ray tomographic device is operated to provide representations of the absorption coefficient of substances at locations internal to a body. The absorption coefficient representations delineate the internal structures and are examined to derive three dimensional coordinate data defining a three dimensional representation of a selected delineated internal structure. The coordinate data is derived in a format compatible with a machine-controlled sculpting tool device selected to form the desired corporeal model of the selected internal structure. A model is formed from a workpiece of suitable material by operating the machine-controlled sculpting tool device to control the trajectory of its cutting sculpting tool relative to the workpiece in accordance with the coordinate data derived from the absorption coefficient representations of the structure obtained by the computerized x-ray tomographic device.

The foregoing and other objects, advantages and features characterizing the present invention will become more apparent upon consideration of the following description of specific embodiments and appended claims taken together with the drawings of which:

FIG. 1 is a diagram schematically illustrating the steps of the preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention for obtaining three dimensional coordinate data of a selected structure internal to a body and generating a corporeal model thereof;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a head illustrating the manner in which three dimensional coordinates defining a selected internal anatomic structure are obtained in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary gray-scale tomographic axial image in a plane taken at lines 3--3 of FIG. 2, with the image constructed from x-ray radiation responses obtained from the plane in accordance with the preferred method of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of an enhancement of the exemplary image of FIG. 3 depicting a cross section of a mandible selected to be constructed in model form in accordance with the preferred method of the present invention;

FIGS. 5A and 5B are schematic diagrams illustrating x-ray scanning equipment for obtaining radiation responses from cross sections of a body in accordance with the preferred method of the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a schematic block diagram of a computerized x-ray tomographic apparatus for practicing the preferred method of the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a schematic representation of an exemplary print of a mapped numerical value representation of a reconstructed tomographic image;

FIGS. 8A, 8B and 8C together comprise a schematic diagram of a machine-controlled sculpting tool apparatus for forming corporeal models of selected structures in accordance with the preferred method of the present invention;

FIGS. 9A and 9B together comprise a schematic diagram illustrating the construction of an onlay prosthesis from three dimensional coordinate data translated in accordance with the preferred method of the present invention; and

FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram illustrating the construction of an inlay prosthesis from three dimensional coordinate data translated in accordance with the preferred method of the present invention.

The method of the present invention will be described with reference to a preferred embodiment of the present invention arranged to construct a prosthesis of an internal anatomic tissue structure from three dimensional coordinate data defining the internal structure obtained without the physical invasion of the anatomy. As will be appreciated from the following description of the preferred embodiment, however, the method of the present invention can be practiced to obtain definitive three dimensional coordinate data and construct corporeal models of structures internal to bodies other than anatomies.

Generally and referring to FIG. 1, a corporeal model representation of a selected internal structure of a body is constructed by controlling a sculpting tool to follow a trajectory relative to a workpiece determined by three dimensional coordinate data that specifies the contour of the selected internal structure. To obtain the three dimensional coordinate data in accordance with the method of the present invention, the selected internal structure is scanned as step 81 by subjecting it to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses that delineate the selected structure three dimensionally and are detectable at a location exterior to the body. The radiant energy responses are detected at step 82 and the detected responses processed at step 83 to obtain data delineating the selected structure three dimensionally. At step 84, the three dimensional coordinate data required for the control of the sculpting tool in constructing the desired corporeal model representation of the selected internal structure is generated from the data provided by the performance of step 83. As briefly discussed hereinbefore and as will become more apparant upon consideration of the detailed description of the preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention to follow, various corporeal model representations of a selected structure can be constructed in accordance with the present invention. A scale replica of the internal structure in the state found within the body is constructed from three dimensional coordinate data defining the selected structure at scale. If other than a scale replica of the internal structure is desired, data is manipulated at step 84 to obtain transformed three dimensional coordinate data for constructing an altered corporeal model representation of the selected internal structure. The manipulation can be performed at the time of the generation of three dimensional coordinate data from the data provided by the performance of step 83, for example, by generating the three dimensional coordinate data according to an algorithm relating the untransformed three dimensional coordinate data to the desired transformed three dimensional coordinate data. Alternatively, the transformed three dimensional coordinate data can be obtained by manipulation of generated untransformed three dimensional coordinate data, by manipulation of the data delineating the selecting structure before the generation of the three dimensional coordinate data or by combinations of the aforementioned manipulations. As will be described in further detail hereinafter with reference to the preferred method of the present invention, interpolating, form or curve fitting, scaling and translating are manipulations particularly useful in constructing external and implantable prostheses and mold cavities for casting models of selected internal structures. In any case, the three dimensional coordinate data is generated in a format determined by the sculpting device used in constructing the corporeal model representation of the selected internal structure. The desired corporeal model representation is obtained at step 85 by directing a sculpting tool in accordance with the generated three dimensional coordinate data to follow a trajectory relative to a workpiece that produces the representation defined by the three dimensional coordinate data. The corporeal model is fabricated from suitable material selected according to the expected use of the model. Examples of material suitable for the construction of prostheses are Silastic and Proplast. "Silastic" is a trademark of Dow Corning Corporation used to identify the material it markets. "Proplast" is a trademark of Vitek, Inc. used to identify the material it markets.

A preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention arranged to construct corporeal models of internal anatomic tissue structures will now be described in detail with reference to FIGS. 2-7. The preferred embodiment will be described in connection with the construction of prostheses of a mandible. More specifically and referring to FIGS. 2-4, the mandible 10 of the anatomy 11 is specified three dimensionally by subjecting the anatomy to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses within the anatomy that are characteristic of a selected physical property of substances of and detectable at the exterior of the anatomy. Different substances of the anatomy 11 produce different distinguishable characteristic radiant energy responses which, upon detection, provide distinguishable representations of the different substances located within the anatomy. As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, a computerized tomographic imaging device 13 (FIG. 6) utilizing x-ray radiation is employed in the practice of the preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention to obtain distinguishable representations of different substances within the anatomy 11. As described hereinbefore, computerized tomography devices provide cross sectional representations of the internal structure of the anatomy 11 reconstructed from radiant energy transmitted through or reflected from the interior of the anatomy along paths at different angles relative to the anatomy. In the x-ray tomographic device 13, a narrow x-ray beam 14 (FIGS. 5A and 5B) is directed through the anatomy 11 along several paths (such as depicted by arrows 16) in a plane and the radiation transmitted through the anatomy is measured by x-ray detectors 17. A transmission measurement taken along each path represents a composite of the absorption characteristics of all elements in the path of the beam. A computerized data processing system 18 (FIG. 6) associated with the x-ray tomographic device 13 manipulates the measurements taken along the several paths according to an algorithm to calculate the attenuation coefficient of elements in each XY plane 19 (FIG. 2) through which the x-ray beam 14 is directed. The attenuation coefficients of elements in other planes distributed at spaced locations along the Z axis perpendicular to the XY planes 19, hence the x-ray beam 14, are obtained by relatively moving the body 11 and the x-ray generation and detection apparatus in increments along a line generally perpendicular to the plane of the x-ray beam. Typically, the body 11 is moved through a stationary scanning station at which the x-ray measurements along the several paths in each XY plane are obtained by rotating oppositely disposed x-ray generator 26 and x-ray detector 17 devices (FIGS. 5A and 5B) about the body. The calculated attenuation coefficients provide accurate representations of the densities of the substances within the anatomy. In the processing of the measurements, gray-scale values are assigned to the calculated attenuation coefficient values to provide representations of the elements in each plane 19 suited for displaying an image of the structure of the anatomy 11 at the location of the plane.

For example, FIGS. 3 and 4 schematically illustrate different image reconstructions 20 and 20' respectively, of a single cross section of the anatomy 11 shown in FIG. 2 taken at a plane 19 extending through the mandible 10. As can be seen by inspection of FIGS. 3 and 4, the light gray scale mandible representative values 10 are readily distinguishable from the darker surrounding gray scale representations of other substances. Greater contrast between the mandible representative gray scale values and the gray scale representations of other anatomic tissue substances at the cross section can be obtained by enhancing the image reconstruction in the manner described hereinafter and shown in FIG. 4. In both image reconstructions of FIGS. 3 and 4, the gray scale representations clearly delineate the surface location 12 of the mandible 10, from which the three dimensional coordinates of the mandible are derived. A series of such gray scale cross sectional representations of the anatomy 11 obtained along the Z axis provides information from which three dimensional coordinate data can be derived. As will be described in further detail hereinafter, three dimensional coordinate data specifying a selected structure 10 of which a model is to be constructed is derived from a series of such cross sectional representations of the anatomy 11.

As mentioned hereinbefore, other noninvasive radiographic imaging devices can be utilized in the practice of the method of the present invention to obtain cross sectional representations of the body 11 from which the desired three dimensional coordinate data defining the structure 10 of interest can be obtained. In PET devices, for example, radiant energy originates within the anatomy 11 from an intravenously administered biologically active substance labeled with a positron-emitting radioactive isotope. The isotope decays by emitting positrons that travel a short distance in tissue before colliding with electrons. A collision between a positron and electron annihilates both particles, converting the mass of the two particles into energy divided equally between two gamma rays emitted simultaneously along oppositely directed paths. One PET device in use includes arrays of scintillation detectors encircling the subject supported by a mobile table with the region of interest at the axis about which the detectors are disposed. The arrays of detectors record simultaneously emitted gamma rays at a plurality of spaced axial cross sections of the subject during an imaging cycle, the detectors being linked in opposite pairs so that emitted gamma rays are recorded only when both detectors of a pair simultaneously sense gamma rays. All gamma ray pairs originating within a volume of the subject defined by the cylindrical, colinear field of view joining paired detectors are sensed. Gamma rays orginating outside that volume are not sensed by the detectors. The sensed gamma ray responses are processed to obtain representations delineating the substances in the field of view. The mobile table moves the subject axially relative to the encircling detectors to enable the detection of radiant energy events and concomitant generation of representations of substances at a plurality of spaced axial cross sections of the subject.

NMR imaging devices have the advantage of using a non-ionizing form of radiant energy. In NMR devices, the subject is placed in a strong magnetic field while a brief high frequency signal is beamed at the body. Different atoms of substances of the body respond by sending out different characteristic radio signals that are detected by tunable receiving antennas placed about the body. The tunable receiving antennas are adjusted to be responsive to selected radio signals and thereby obtain representations of selected substances, which are processed by an associated computerized data processing system to generate a distinguishable characteristic representation of such substance in a plane of the subject. Representations of substances in other parallel planes at spaced locations along a defined line are obtained by moving the subject in increments through the magnetic field and past the receiving antennas.

Ultrasonic radiographic imaging devices also can be employed to obtain representations of the internal structure of a body. Like NMR imaging devices, ultrasonic devices have the advantage of using a non-ionizing form of radiant energy in obtaining the data from which representations of the internal structure of bodies are derived. Most ultrasonic imaging devices generate representations of anatomic structures from detected reflections of high frequency pulsed sound waves directed through the anatomy. A series of pulsed sound waves are sent forth into the anatomy by electrically pulsed piezoelectric transducers in contact with the anatomy. The transducers employed are capable of reversibly converting electrical to vibratory mechanical energy at the pulse frequency of interest. After the transmission of each short burst or pulse of sound energy, the circuitry associated with the transducer is switched to act as a receiver for returning or reflected echos of the transmitted sound waves. Echos are reflected when the pulsed sound encounters an interface of tissues of different densities. Tissues of different acoustic impedances return different echos. The reflected echos are converted to representative electrical signals by the piezoelectric transducers, from which planar representations of the internal structure of the anatomy are obtained. The data processing system associated with the ultrasonic device converts elapsed time between transmission of a sound pulse and reception of each echo into a measurement of the distance from the transducer to each location of echo reflection.

Each of the radiographic imaging devices described above provides representations of the internal structure of a body by subjecting the body to selected radiant energy. In x-ray, NMR and ultrasonic devices, the body is subjected to radiant energy projected at it from a location external to the body. With PET devices, however, the body is subjected to radiant energy generated within the body itself. In any case, each of the imaging devices produces radiant energy responses within a body from which distinguishable representations of different internal structures of the body are generated and from which, in turn, three dimensional coordinates defining a selected structure internal to the body are generated for directing a sculpting tool to form a corporeal model representation of the selected internal structure.

A computerized x-ray tomographic system suited for use in obtaining three dimensional coordinate data defining the mandible 10 of the anatomy 11 in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention is marketed by General Electric Company under the model designation CT/T 8800 Scanner System. The preferred method of obtaining three dimensional coordinate data defining the mandible 10 in accordance with the present invention will now be described with reference to the CT/T 8800 Scanner System, which is schematically illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6. The computerized x-ray tomographic system 13 (FIG. 6) is arranged to produce computer reconstructed cross sectional images of any part of the anatomy from multiple x-ray absorption measurements. The system 13 includes a radiation scanning assembly 27 having a mobile table 21 (FIG. 5B) for supporting and transporting a subject through the x-ray scanning station 22 along a path indicated by arrow 23. The table 21 is configured to aid in centering and confining the anatomy 11 in a selected orientation relative to the x-ray generator 26 and detector 17 (FIGS. 5A and 5B) of the scanning assembly.

The radiation scanning assembly 27 also includes a gantry 24 (FIG. 5B) positioned along the path 23 for supporting the x-ray generator 26 and x-ray detector 17 for rotation about the mobile table 21 in a selected plane perpendicular or at an angle to the path 23. The x-ray generator 26 emits an x-ray fan beam 14 that is directed at an array of x-ray radiation sensitive cells forming the detector 17 at the opposite side of the gantry 24. The beam 14 is formed and the detector 17 is arranged to permit scanning of an object detection zone 29 (FIG. 5A) located in the plane of the beam. Each cell of the detector 17 detects a portion of the x-ray beam 14 after its passage through the object detection zone 29 (and any part of a body 11 located in the zone) and provides data representative of the composite x-ray radiation attentuation coefficient along a path between the x-ray generator 26 and the data cell. The data provided by the detector 17 as it and the X-ray generator 26 are rotated about the subject (borne by the table 21) is processed to generate an attenuation coefficient representation for each volume element 31 (FIG. 4) of the cross sections of the anatomy 11 scanned by the x-ray beam 14. The resolution capability of the CT/T 8800 system 13 is dependent upon the fan thickness of the x-ray beam 14 and the power of the data reconstruction algorithm characterizing the software program employed in the system. A typical CT/T 8800 system generates an attenuation coefficient representation for a volume element 31 having a size on the order of 1.5 mm×0.8 mm×0.8 mm, with the long 1.5 mm dimension of the volume element 31 extending in the direction of the fan thickness dimension of the beam 14, hence the cross section of the anatomy 11 scanned. The other dimensions of the volume element 31 in the plane of the scanned cross section are largely determined by the software program, and attenuation coefficient representations of volume elements of smaller dimensions in the plane of the scanned cross section can be obtained by increasing the power of the data reconstruction software program.

Once the anatomy 11 is positioned as desired relative to the scanning station 22, the mobile table 21 and gantry 24 are operated in sequence under control of the computer 32 to (i) position the anatomy 11 within the scanning station 22 at the desired location along path 23, (ii) rotate the x-ray generator 26 and detector 17 for subjecting a cross sectional slice of the anatomy to the x-ray beam 14 and detecting the resulting radiation responses, and (iii) increment the table 21 a distance of 1.5 mm for scanning another cross sectional slice of the anatomy with the x-ray beam. This operation of the table 21 and gantry 24 continues until data from the desired number of cross sectional slices of the anatomy 11 is obtained. Data from each cross sectional slice is obtained by pulsing the x-ray generator 26 to send pulses of x-ray radiation through the cross sectional slice along several hundred different paths while the gantry 24 is operated to rotate the x-ray generator 26 and detector 17 about the anatomy 11. This provides the radiation responsive data from which cross sectional representations of the anatomy are reconstructed.

The radiation responses detected by the detector 17 are processed by data acquisition circuitry 33 (FIG. 6) of the system 13 under control of the computer 32 for storage in a memory 36. A reconstruction data processor 37 is controlled by the computer 32 to reconstruct cross sectional representations of the anatomy 11 from the stored data. More specifically, the reconstruction data processor circuitry 37 is controlled by the computer 32 to manipulate the stored data mathematically according to a reconstruction algorithm to calculate the attenuation coefficient for each volume element 31 (FIG. 4) of each cross sectional slice of the anatomy 11. The calculated attenuation coefficient data is stored in the memory 36 for use as needed. For image display purposes, the calculated attenuation coefficients are converted to gray scale values expressed numerically in Hounsfield units, commonly referred to as "CT numbers".

The computerized data processing system 18 is operable through an operator control system 42 to construct various selectable representations of the anatomy 11 from the detected radiation response data. For example, the cross sectional representations of the anatomy can be enhanced by selectively narrowing the gray scale range and/or offsetting the gray scale range relative to the range of attenuation coefficients of substances found in the anatomy. FIGS. 3 and 4 schematically illustrate an example of the enhancement of the cross sectional representations of the anatomy 11. In the illustrated example, volume elements 31 having attenuation coefficients within a selected range or window are assigned one gray scale value, such as white, while all volume elements having attenuation coefficients outside the selected range or window are assigned a black gray scale value. In this example, the gray scale range is centered at the end of the range of attenuation coefficients where that of bone is found. The operator control system 42 also enables the detected radiation response data to be manipulated to reconstruct sagittal and coronal cross section representations of the anatomy 11 at one or more selected planes orthogonal to the axial plane of the anatomy. Each of the aforementioned reconstructed cross section representations accurately protrays the internal structure of the anatomy 11 at the cross section location of the representation and, therefore, may be used in deriving three dimensional coordinate data for use in constructing corporeal models of internal structures of the anatomy.

Data from which the desired three dimensional coordinate information can be derived is available from the computerized x-ray tomographic system 13 in various formats. Digital data representations of the reconstructed cross sections of the anatomy 11 are stored in the memory 36 and are accessible for use in generating the three dimensional coordinate data. In addition, the system 13 includes an image generation system 28 which is operable to provide a paper printout image in the form of mapped numerical value representations of the reconstructed cross section of the anatomy 11, an analog display of gray scale pictures of the reconstructed cross section, or hard copies of the analog gray scale pictures. More specifically, printouts of mapped numerical value representations of selected reconstructed cross sections of the anatomy 11 is provided by a printer 38 included in the image generation system 28. Analog gray scale pictures of the reconstructed cross sections can be viewed on the CRT display 39 and hard copies obtained from the x-ray film camera 41.

Control of the computerized x-ray tomographic system 13 in generating reconstructed representations of cross sections of the anatomy 11 is exercised by the operator through the operator control system 42. Inasmuch as General Electric Company's CT/T 8800 Scanner System and operator manuals therefor are available from which further details of the construction and operation of system 13 can be determined, such details are not described herein.

To obtain three dimensional coordinate data of the mandible 10 illustrated in FIG. 2, the system 13 is operated to obtain radiation response data from a plurality of contiguous 1.5 mm axial cross sections of the entire mandible. The radiation response data is processed to reconstruct representations of each axial cross section 20, such as illustrated in FIG. 3. To facilitate the reconstruction and use of the axial cross section data, each axial cross section representation is enhanced as illustrated in FIG. 4 to distinguish bone substance from all other substances located at the position of each axial cross section 20'.

Three dimensional coordinate data defining the mandible 10 can be obtained directly from the digital data generated by the computerized x-ray tomographic system 13 and stored in its memory 36. For example, the system 13 generates and manipulates reconstructed digital data representations of cross section volume elements according to the spatial coordinates of the represented volume elements. By accessing such representations within the system 13 according to their spatial coordinates, the three dimensional coordinates of the surface 12 of the mandible 10 can be obtained directly and automatically from the data stored in the memory 36 of the system.

Three dimensional coordinate data also can be obtained directly from analog gray-scale pictures of the reconstructed representations of the axial cross sections, such as illustrated in FIG. 4. Each of the series of pictures of the axial cross sections 20' is composed of known gray scale values from which two planar coordinates is determined, such as X and Y. The distribution of gray scale values in the axial direction, as represented by the series of pictures of axially disposed contiguous cross sections of the anatomy at locations including the mandible 10, provides data from which the third coordinate, Z, is determined. The spatial coordinates defining the three dimensional surface of the mandible 10 is determined from the coordinate location of the gray scale value representation of the surface 12. This coordinate determination can be accomplished through various measuring methods, including manually defining analog prints or displays of each cross section 20' in terms of spatial coordinates. Alternatively, the determination of the coordinates can be carried out through the use of mechanical aids, such as contour or profile follows. Such aids are used to determine the XY planar coordinates of the reconstructed surface representation 12 in each cross section 20', the third coordinate being given by the axial coordinate Z of each reconstructed cross section. If all reconstructed cross section representations of the mandible 10 are employed in the generation of the three dimensional coordinate data, the Z axial coordinate data is distributed at intervals corresponding to the center-to-center spacing of the cross sections of the body 11 represented by the reconstructed data. When the reconstructed data is obtained from contiguous cross sections of the body, the Z axial coordinate data is at intervals of 1.5 mm.

Printouts of mapped numerical value representations of the reconstructed absorption coefficients of the volume elements of each reconstructed cross section also can be used to obtain three dimensional coordinate data defining the surface 12 of the mandible 10. FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration of such a printout. To facilitate the illustration of a mapped numerical value image of a reconstructed cross section of the anatomy 11, a reconstructed cross section 20" of the anatomy is divided by lines into regions of identified significant numerical values. The lines also are used to identify surface boundaries of significant structures internal to the anatomy 11. As discussed hereinbefore, the reconstructed attenuation coefficients are expressed as a Hounsfield unit and are commonly referred to as "CT numbers". In the CT/T 8800 system 13, the range of CT numbers extends from -1000 (which represents air) to +1000 (which represents dense bone). A CT value of 0 represents water. The three dimensional coordinate data defining the surface 12 of the mandible 10 can be obtained from the printouts of mapped CT values in the ways described hereinbefore with reference to the use of analog gray scale pictures or displays of reconstructed axial cross sections. When using printouts of mapped CT values defining reconstructed cross sections 20" of the mandible, the three dimensional coordinates defining the surface of the mandible are determined by following the contour of numerical CT values delineating the reconstructed surface 12 of the reconstructed mandible 10, instead of the contour delineated by a line in an analog gray scale picture or display.

A preferred method of sculpting a corporeal model of a segment 51 (FIGS. 2-4) of the mandible 10 in accordance with the present invention will now be described with reference to the machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus 52 illustrated in FIGS. 8A-8C. The machine-controlled sculpting tool apparatus 52 is arranged to control a cutting tool 53 in accordance with cylindrical coordinates defining the shape of the desired corporeal model representation of the mandible 10. Therefore, the reconstructed tomographic representations of the anatomy 11 generated by the computerized x-ray tomographic system 13 illustrated in FIG. 6 are utilized to derive radial (r), angular (θ) and axial (z) coordinates describing the surface 12 of the mandible segment 51 relative to a selected reference line. Preferably, the selected reference line in a straight line passing through a point lying along the centric of the mandible segment 51. The reference line is depicted in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 by a broken line 54 of alternate long and short lengths. The axial coordinate z extends along the reference line 54, and the radial r and angular θ coordinates are in plane perpendicular to the reference line 54. The deriviation of the cylindrical coordinates relative to the reference line 54 is facilitated by positioning the subject within the scanning station 22 and/or tilting the gantry 24 relative to the mobil table 21 so that the reference line 54 is generally perpendicular to the plane of the x-ray beam 14. In this way, the x-ray tomographic system 13 is operated to provide a series of oblique (i.e., other than axial, coronal or saggital) cross sectional representations of the mandible segment 51 in parallel planes distributed along and perpendicular to the line 54, with of each cross sectional representation centered on the line 54. Such positioning reduces the amount of data processing time required to obtain the cross sectioned representations from the detected radiant energy response and, hence, the three dimensioned coordinates of interest. However, such subject positioning and/or gantry tilting is unnecessary when a radiographic tomographic system 13 is employed that is capable of reconstructing oblique cross section representations of internal anatomic structures from radiant energy responses obtained from a subject oriented in the standard supine position with the axis of the body perpendicular to the cross sections of the body from which the radiant energy responses are obtained.

A workpiece of a material suitable for constructing the desired prosthesis is secured to a rotatable turntable 58 that is coupled to a drive motor 59 by a drive shaft 61. To form the desired model, the drive motor 59 rotates the workpiece 57 about the axis 62 as the trajectory of the cutting tool 53 is controlled to form the desired contour in the workpiece. The axis 62 of rotation of the workpiece 57 is located to pass through the origin relative to which the cutting tool 53 is moved in the radial and axial directions in accordance with the cylindrical coordinates. The origin is located at a point along reference line 54 (FIGS. 2-4), which for convenience is selected to be at one end 55 of the mandible segment 51 being modeled. In the example, the origin is located at the end 55 of the mandible segment 51 closest to the hinge segment 50 of the mandible 10. In generating the three dimensional cylindrical coordinates from the data obtained by the x-ray tomographic system 13, the cylindrical coordinates are specified relative to an origin that is to be coincident with the origin of the coordinate system used in the sculpting tool apparatus 52 to specify the spatial location of the cutting tool 53. The origin of the coordinate system of the sculpting tool apparatus illustrated in FIGS. 8A-8C is located a short distance above the turntable 58.

The cutting tool 53 is moved in the axial z and radial r directions relative to the axis 62 in accordance with the cylindrical coordinate data by cooperating way and carriage assemblies. Movements in the radial direction, r, are governed by a horizontally extending way 64 and a cooperating carriage 65 that carries the cutting tool 53 for movement along the horizontal way. Movements in the axial direction, z, are governed by a pair of vertically extending ways 66a and 66b and cooperating carriages 67a and 67b that support the horizontal way 64 for movement along the vertical way. In the preferred embodiment, the ways 64 and 66 are motor driven lead screws that engage lead screw nut assemblies forming the cooperating carriages 65 and 67. More specifically, each of the vertical lead screws 66a and 66b extends between one of the reversible motors 43a and 43b and one of the cooperating journals 44a and 44b. The driven end of each lead screw is coupled for rotation by the operatively associated motor and the opposite end of that lead screw is seated for rotational support within the cooperating journal. The two motors 43a and 43b are operatively coupled together by a timing chain 45 that maintains the motors in synchronism so that the two lead screws 66a and 66b are synchronously rotated by the two motors. Activation of the motors 43a and 43b rotates the lead screws 66a and 66b in a direction determined by the controlling cylindrical coordinate data, which causes the engaged lead screw nut assemblies 67a and 67b to move in the corresponding direction along the rotated lead screws.

Each lead screw nut assembly 67a and 67b is fastened to one of the support plates 68a and 68b, the two plates serving to support the motor driven horizontal lead screw 64, cooperating lead screw nut 65 and cutting tool 53 assemblies relative to the lead screw nut assemblies 67a and 67b and cooperating lead screws 66a and 66b. The driven end of the horizontal lead screw 64 is coupled for rotation by a motor 46 fastened to the support plate 68a. The horizontal lead screw 64 extends from its driven end to an opposite end supported for rotation within a journal 47 fastened to the support plate 68b. The lead screw nut assembly 65 bears a mounting plate 69 on its upper side, upon which is fastened a motor 70 for rotating a spindle 71 that carries the cutting tool 53 for cutting the workpiece 57. Activation of the motor 46 turns the lead screw 64 in a direction determined by the controlling cylindrical coordinate data, which causes the engaging lead screw nut assembly 65 to move in the corresponding direction along the lead screw.

In the preferred embodiment of the machine tool apparatus 52, the workpiece 57 is located at one side of the structure that supports the cutting tool 53. To permit ready access to the workpiece 57 by the cutting tool 53 along radially and axially adjustable paths, the vertical lead screws 66a and 66b are horizontally displaced to one side of the horizontal lead screw 64.

Additional support for the cutting tool support and positioning apparatus is provided by four vertically extending stationary posts 72 and cooperating sleeve bearings 73. A post 72 is located at each end of each of the support plates 68a and 68b. The sleeve bearings 73 couple the support plates 68a and 68b to the posts 72 for support while permitting the support plates to move relative to the posts when the lead screws 66a and 66b are turned to move the cutting tool 53 in the axial direction, z.

The preferred machine tool apparatus 52 is arranged for constructing models of a wide variety of sizes. For this reason, the cutting tool 53 is supported by a long spindle 71 for movement over a large distance in the radial direction, r. To aid in maintaining the cutting tool 53 in the axial position specified by the cylindrical coordinate data, the spindle 71 is supported for rotational and radial movements by a journal 74 at the support plate 68b nearest the turntable 58. The journal 74 is supported by a platform 75 joined at the top edge of the support plate 68b to extend horizontally therefrom in the direction opposite the turntable 58.

The various motors of the machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus 52 are synchronously controlled by the machine tool controller 63 in accordance with the cylindrical coordinate data derived from the series of oblique cross sectional representations of the mandible 10 so that the workpiece 57 is cut to have a contour corresponding to that represented by the cylindrical coordinates. More specifically, the derived cylindrical coordinate data is stored in a memory 56 for use by the machine tool controller 63 in controlling the trajectory of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece 57. The machine tool controller provides commands to a motor drive circuit 76 coupled to drive the rotary cutting tool 53 at a selected speed suitable for sculpting the workpiece 57 into the desired form and finish. In addition, the controller 63 provides commands to the three motor drive circuits 77, 78 and 79, which are coupled respectively to synchronously drive the radial position determining horizontal lead screw motor 46b, the axial position determining vertical lead screw motors 43a and 43b, and the turntable motor 59. These later commands are provided in accordance with cylindrical coordinate data so that the turntable 58 is rotated and the cutting tool 53 moved relative to the axis 62 whereby the tool follows a trajectory relative to the workpiece 57 productive of the formation of a model that accurately represents the mandible segment 51.

The machine tool controller 63 is arranged to issue commands to the axial motor drive circuit 78 to step the cutting tool 53 in increments along the rotational axis 62 of the turntable 58 so that the workpiece 57 is cut along concentric bands, with each band at a location along the axis 62 corresponding to the location of a plane along line 54 at which a cross sectional representation of the mandible 10 is obtained. In addition, the machine tool controller 63 is able to process the cylindrical coordinate data to calculate, by linear interpolation, the change in the axial coordinate z as a function of the angular coordinate θ between adjacent locations of cross sectional representations of the mandible 10. This calculation provides axial and angular coordinate data permitting the cutting tool 53 to be directed along a spiral trajectory in sculpting the workpiece 57.

The preferred embodiment of the controlled contour machine tool apparatus 52 employs stepping motors for driving the lead screws 64 and 66 and turntable 58. The apparatus 52 is controllable to rotate the turntable 58 in steps as small as fractions of an angular minute and to move the rotary cutting tool 53 in the radial, r, and axial, z, directions in steps as small as fractions of a millimeter. For constructing a prosthesis of an internal anatomic tissue structure, such as mandible 10, however, turntable rotation steps on the order of one or two degrees and cutting tool radial and axial movement steps on the order of tenths of a millimeter are satisfactory.

The preferred method of the present invention has been described in detail with reference to sculpting a corporeal model replica of a segment 51 of a mandible 10 using a machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus 52 having a single cutting tool 53 controlled in accordance with cylindrical coordinates that define a three dimensional representation of the segment. However, it will be appreciated that machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus arranged to control the trajectory of a cutting tool specified by three dimensional Cartesian coordinates can be employed in the method of the present invention to form the corporeal model. Moreover, machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus having a plurality of independently controllable cutting tools can be used to form the corporeal model in accordance with the method of the present invention. The particular nature of the machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus 52 employed to construct a corporeal model representation of a selected structure 10 internal to a body 11 does effect the generation of the three dimensional coordinate data from the cross section representations of the selected structure provided by the tomographic imaging device 13. In some applications, it may be necessary or convenient during the generation and/or use of the three dimensional coordinate data to translate the coordinate data between different coordinate systems or between different spatially oriented sets of axes in the identical coordinate system. For example, translations between the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems is achieved by manipulating the coordinate data defining each cross section representation of the selected structure 10 according to the coordinate translating equations relating rectangular and polar coordinates. Translations between different spatially oriented sets of axes is achieved by manipulating the coordinate data according to vector normalization equations relating the differently orientated sets of axes.

Thus far, the method of the present invention has been described in detail as practiced to construct a corporeal model replica of the selected segment 51 of the mandible 10. It should be appreciated, however, that other model representations of a selected structure internal to a body can be constructed through the practice of the method of the present invention. For example, a mold cavity representation of the selected mandible segment 51 can be constructed from a workpiece from which one or more corporeal model replicas of the segment can be cast. To facilitate the construction of the cavity, it is made in two mating half sections extending in the direction of the line 54. The three dimensional coordinate data is generated from the cross section representations (or translated from previously generated coordinate data defining the surface 12 of the segment 51) to define a mating cavity form of each half of the surface 12. This coordinate data is employed by the machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus 52 to direct the cutting tool 53 along a trajectory that produces one of the mold cavity half sections from a first workpiece 57 and the other of the mold cavity half sections from a second workpiece. In sculpting each mold cavity half section, the turntable 58 is incremented slowly to rotate the workpiece 57 about the axis 62 at a speed that permits the cutting tool 53 to cut the workpiece to the desired shape along a series of parallel radial/axial trajectories relative to the axis 62.

Another salient feature of the method of the present invention relates to the construction of altered corporeal model representations of structures internal to a body. The formation of altered model representations of internal body structures is particularly useful in the construction of surgically implantable prostheses. Often, a prosthesis is made to replace a missing anatomic structure, in which case a representation of the desired prosthesis form will not appear, for example, in the set of cross section images provided by a tomographic imaging device. In accordance with the method of the present invention, however, altered three dimensional coordinate data that defines a representation of the missing structure is generated from the act of cross section images that is obtained for use in forming a prosthetic model of the missing structure. As will become more apparent from the following detailed description, formation of altered three dimensional representations of structures is particularly useful in constructing prosthetic onlays and inlays. Coordinate transformation is one technique suited to the generation of three dimensional coordinate data for the construction of prosthetic onlays and inlays in accordance with the method of the present invention. An example of the use of coordinate transformation in the construction of a prosthetic onlay will now be described with reference to FIGS. 9A and 9B. The coordinate transformation is described as undertaken in the Cartesian coordinate system. However, such transformations can be undertaken in the cylindrical coordinate system as well.

To obtain the necessary coordinate data to construct a prosthesis of, for example, an atrophic mandible 91 illustrated in FIGS. 9A and 9B, data grids 92, 93 and 94 encompassing the atrophic segment of the mandible 91 (indicated by shading in FIG. 9A) are identified. Within the identified data grids, three dimensional X, Y, Z coordinates are established for determining the amount and nature of the desired coordinate translation. This can conveniently be accomplished with the aid of an image processor, such as the image processor marketed by Grinnell, Inc., under the model designation System 271. The Grinnell system is designed to function with a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11/23 computer apparatus having industry standard I/O data communication terminals, a video terminal and monitor, graphic tablet and graphic printer. The Grinnell image processor and DEC computer apparatus form an image processing system arranged to interact with an operator for purposes of image generation and alteration. Image data can be input to the image processing system either from the graphic tablet or from external graphic data sources connected to an I/O data communication terminal of the system. For the purpose of translating the surface of the atrophic mandible 91, the cross section image representations generated by the CT/T 8800 system 8800 are converted to a data format compatible with the image processing system and input to that system for display and image manipulation purposes through an I/O data communication terminal. The image processing system is operable to display two dimensional or three dimensional perspective representations of objects. The desired coordinate translation is determined by displaying either a three dimensional representation of the atrophic mandible 91 or a sequence of two dimensional cross section representations of the atrophic mandible 91. Cross sections of the mandible generally perpendicular to its centric are preferred for this purpose. By use of the graphic tablet of the image processing system, the atrophic superior surface S of the mandible 91 extending from point 92 to point 93 is translated in the direction indicated by the arrows in FIGS. 9A and 9B to the desired new location S' to form an image of the desired altered mandible.

The translation of the atrophic superior surface S can be accomplished in one step, for example, using a three dimensional display of the atrophic mandible 91 (such as seen in FIG. 9A), or it can be done cross section-by-cross section using two dimensional images of the atrophic mandible (such as seen in FIG. 9B) at locations along its centric line. In either case, the superior surface is translated by manipulating the graphic tablet instrument while observing the results of the manipulations on the video monitor and operating the image processing system to delete the atrophic surface S, represented in FIGS. 9A and 9B as a solid line bounding mandible 91, and create the translated surface S' at the location of the dotted line in FIGS. 9A and 9B.

As seen in FIGS. 9A and 9B, all coordinate points on the new surface S' are displaced relative to the corresponding locations on the atrophic surface S by a uniform distance q in the direction of the Z axis. For some prostheses, it may be necessary to move different coordinate points along the atrophic superior surface S by different amounts or by an amount that varies in the direction of a selected dimension of the structure according to a defined gradient. If the atrophic superior surface S is irregular, for example, different coordinate translation distances would be required to create a translated regular surface S'. The three dimensional coordinate representation of the desired altered mandible can be derived from the altered mandible image data present in the Grinnell image processing system in ways like those described hereinbefore with reference to the CT/T 8800 system.

Using an image processing system to translate and generate three dimensional coordinate data defining a desired altered structure has the advantage of enabling inspection and adjustment of the translation to produce the desired altered structure before generating the defining three dimensional coordinate data. When constructing implantable prostheses, for example, it is desirable to preview the translation and adjust it until the displayed altered structure mates with the displayed unaltered structure. This is helpful in constructing an implantable prosthesis that properly mates with the surrounding anatomic structures. However, the desired translation and generation can be accomplished in other ways as well. For example, new coordinate data can be obtained by manipulation of the atrophic mandible coordinate data derived from the CT/T 8800 image representations of the atrophic mandible 91. In either case, the three dimensional coordinate data specifying the altered mandible is obtained by adding a coordinate value corresponding to the distance q to the Z axis coordinate value for all specified coordinate points of the atrophic surface S.

For purposes of constructing an implantable prosthetic onlay, only the altered segment of the altered mandible 91 is required. A three dimensional coordinate specification of only the altered segment is obtained by subtracting each Z axis coordinate value defining the atrophic superior surface S from the axis coordinate value of the translated new surface S' at the corresponding X and Y coordinate locations. An implantable prosthetic onlay is formed according to the remainder coordinate values.

Models of deformed or missing segments of internal structures also can be constructed from coordinate data specifying the deformed or missing segment that is derived from representations of a normal mirror image segment of the structure. For example, coordinate data defining a mirror image segment of a structure is useful in the construction of an implantable prosthetic inlay that is to replace a missing segment of a generally symmetrical internal anatomic structure. Derivation of the mirror image coordinate data can be accomplished through the use of the above-described Grinnell image processor or by manipulation of the coordinate data derived from the data representations provided by the CT/T 8800 system 13. If the image processor is employed, the deformed, but otherwise generally symmetrical structure is displayed and the deformed or missing segment is altered to the desired form by operator manipulation of the graphic tablet, using the video monitor display of the mirror image segment of the structure as a guide. The desired three dimensional coordinate data is generated from the altered segment as described hereinbefore with reference to FIGS. 9A and 9B.

However, the mirror image coordinate data can be obtained directly from the three dimensional coordinate data defining a normal segment of an internal structure that is generated directly from the image representations provided by the CT/T 8800 system 13. Referring to FIG. 10, a deformed mandible 97 is illustrated in relation to three dimensional X, Y, Z coordinates. But for the deformation, the mandible is generally symmetrical about the Y-Z plane extending through the most anterior point 99 of the mandible 97. As seen in FIG. 10, the deformation is in the form of a missing segment 100 located at the left side of the XY plane of symmetry. A normal segment 96 of the mandible 97 exists to right of the nominal XY plane of general symmetry at the mirror image location relative to the missing segment 100. This segment 96 is surrounded by an enclosure 98 that defines data grids including the three dimensional X, Y, Z spatial coordinates defining the normal segment 96. The actual and mirror image coordinates of the normal segment 96 are the same relative to the Y and Z coordinate axes, but are different relative to the X coordinate axis. To obtain the mirror image X coordinate, the distance separating the actual X coordinate value of each coordinate point specifying the normal segment 96 from the X coordinate value of the location of the XY plane of symmetry is multiplied by (-1) and is added to the X coordinate value of the location of the XY plane of symmetry. This coordinate translation technique enables the generation of the mirror image coordinate values of the normal segment 96 by manipulation of the three dimensional coordinate data generated directly from the image representations obtained by the CT/T 8800 system 13.

For convenience, the derivation of translated coordinate data has been described with reference to coordinate manipulation in the Cartesian coordinate system and cross section representations of the internal structure that are defined three dimensionally in relation to orthogonal X, Y, Z axes that are oblique to the axial, coronal and sagital planes. Translation of the coordinates from that axis orientation to any other desired axis orientation or to a cylindrical coordinate system can be accomplished as described in detail hereinbefore. However generated, three dimensional coordinate data in the form required by the machine-controlled contour sculpting tool apparatus 52 is generated from the translated representation and input to the sculpting tool apparatus to control the trajectory of the cutting tool 53 so that the desired altered corporeal model representation of the selected internal structure is formed.

The method of the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the construction of various corporeal model representations of structures internal to bodies from coordinate data obtained from reconstructed representations of contiguous cross sections of the structures. However, corporeal models can be constructed from coordinate data obtained from reconstructed representations of cross sections at spaced intervals along the structure as well. For example, a generally uniform structure, such as the femur bone, can be represented by reconstructed representations taken from widely spaced locations along its length. In such applications, the three dimensional coordinates required for the control of the sculpting tool between the widely spaced locations is generated by interpo-lation of the locations of the selected structure intermediate to the spaced locations and generating corresponding three dimensional coordinates that define the interpolated locations. The corporeal model is formed by directing the sculpting tool in accordance with the three dimensional coordinates that define the spaced and intermediate locations of the selected structures.

One preferred embodiment and certain variations of the method of the present invention have been described in detail as arranged to construct corporeal models of selected internal anatomic structures useful in the study of internal structures of anatomies and in the surgical correction of deformed internal structures. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art, however, that various modifications and changes may be made in the practice and use of the method without departing from the scope of the present invention as set forth in the following appended claims.

Claims (31)

What is claimed is:
1. A method of fabricating a three dimensional corporeal model of a structure internal to a body, comprising:
subjecting the body to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses internal to said body, the radiant energy selected to produce radiant energy responses that are characteristic of a selected physical property of substances detectable exterior of the body;
detecting produced radiant energy responses to obtain representations of substances at locations internal to the body defining structures internal to said body three-dimensionally;
generating from the representations of the substances a set of three dimensional coordinates defining a three dimensional representation of a selected structure internal to the body; and
directing a sculpting tool into a workpiece in accordance with the generated set of three dimensional coordinates to form a corporeal model corresponding to the three dimensional representation of the selected structure.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the subjecting step and detecting step are performed exterior to the body in which said selected structue is located.
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
displaying a visual representation of the selected structure defined by the set of three dimensional coordinates; and
selectively adjusting the three dimensional coordinates; and wherein
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece in accordance with the adjusted three dimensional coordinates.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein:
the generated set of three dimensional coordinates defines an altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure; and
the formed corporeal model corresponds to the altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein a set of transformed three dimensional coordinates are generated from the obtained representations of the substances to define the altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure, further comprising:
displaying a visual representation of the altered three dimensional representations of the selected structure defined by the set of transformed three dimensional coordinates; and
selectively adjusting the transformed three dimensional coordinates; and wherein
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece in accordance with the transformed and selectively adjusted three dimensional coordinates.
6. The method of either claim 3, 4 or 5 wherein:
the generated set of three dimensional coordinates defines an ununiformly altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure; and
the directed sculpting tool forms a corporeal model corresponding to the ununiformly altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the generated set of three dimensional coordinates defines an altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure having a selected surface segment altered in a coordinate direction to effect a unidirectional translation of a corresponding selected surface segment in the formed corporeal model.
8. The method of either claim 3, 4 or 5 wherein:
the generated set of three dimensional coordinates defines a mirror image three dimensional representation of the selected structure; and
the directed sculpting tool forms a corporeal model corresponding to the mirror image three dimensional representation of the selected structure.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein:
the selected structure is a segment of a larger structure internal to the body having a nominal plane of general symmetry; and
the generated set of three dimensional coordinates defines a three dimensional representation of a mirror image of the selected structure taken relative to a mirror plane located at the nominal plane of general symmetry.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the selected structure is a segment of a larger structure internal to the body having a nominal plane of general symmetry, and said segment is located at one side of said nominal plane of symmetry, further comprising:
transforming the three dimensinal coordinates generated from the obtained representations of substances to define a mirror image three dimensional representation of the segment; and wherein
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece in accordance with the transformed three dimensional coordinates to form a mirror image corporeal model of the segment corresponding to the mirror image three dimensional representation.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising:
displaying a visual representation of the mirror image three dimensional representations of the segment defined by the transformed three dimensional coordinates; and
selectively adjusting the transformed three dimensional coordinates; and wherein:
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece in accordance with the transformed and selectively adjusted three dimensional coordinates.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein:
the generated set of three dimensional coordinates defines a three dimensional mold cavity representation of the selected structure; and further comprising
directing the sculpting tool into the workpiece to form a mold cavity in accordance with the three dimensional mold cavity representation;
casting a corporeal model replica of the selected structure defined by the mold cavity.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein:
representations of the substance are obtained for spaced locations defining surfaces of structures; and
the generated set of three dimensional coordinates includes coordinates of spaced locations defining a three dimensional representation of the surface of the selected structure; and further comprising
interpolating locations of the surface of the selected structure intermediate to the spaced locations and generating from said interpolations of the intermediate locations three dimensional coordinates defining the surface of the selected structure at locations between spaced locations; and wherein
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece in accordance with the three dimensional coordinates of the spaced locations and of the interpolated locations.
14. A method of fabricating a three dimensional corporeal model of a selected structure internal to a body by a sculpting tool from three dimensional coordinates defining a three dimensional representation of said selected structure, said data obtained by subjecting the selected structure within the body to radiant energy selected to be productive of selected radiant energy responses that are characteristic of substances and detectable at the exterior of said body, detecting the radiant energy responses to obtain representations of the selected structure, and generating from the representations the three dimensional coordinates, comprising:
directing the sculpting tool into a workpiece in accordance with the generated three dimensional coordinates to form a corporeal model corresponding to the three dimensional representation of the selected structure.
15. The method of claim 14 wherein:
the generated three dimensional coordinates data define a three dimensional mold cavity representation of the selected structure; and further comprising
directing the sculpting tool into the workpiece to form a mold cavity in accordance with the three dimensional mold cavity representation;
casting a material replica of the selected structure defined by the mold cavity.
16. The method of claim 14 wherein:
representations of the substances are obtained for spaced locations defining surfaces of structures;
the generated three dimensional coordinates include coordinates of spaced locations defining a three dimensional representation of the surface of the selected structure; and further comprising
interpolating locations of the surface of the selected structure intermediate to the spaced locations and generating from said interpolations of the intermediate locations three dimensional coordinates defining the surface of the selected structure at locations between spaced locations; and wherein
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece in accordance with the three dimensional coordinates of the spaced locations and of the interpolated locations.
17. A method of generating three dimensional coordinates for directing a sculpting tool to form a three dimensional corporeal model of a structure internal to a body, comprising:
subjecting the body to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses internal to said body that are characteristic of substances and detectable at the exterior the body;
detecting produced radiant energy responses to obtain representations of substances at locations internal to the body defining structures internal to the body three dimensionally; and
generating from the representations of the substances three dimensional coordinates defining a three dimensional representation of a selected structure internal of the body, the three dimensional coordinates generated for directing the sculpting tool into a workpiece to form a corporeal model corresponding to the three dimensional representation of the selected structure.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein the generated three dimensional coordinates define an altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure.
19. The method of claim 17, further comprising:
displaying a visual representation of the selected structure defined by the generated three dimensional coordinates; and
selectively adjusting the three dimensional coordinates; and wherein
the three dimensional coordinates generated for directing the sculpting tool correspond to the adjusted three dimensional coordinates.
20. The method of claim 19 wherein transformed three dimensional coordinates are generated from the obtained representation of the substances to define an altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure;
a visual representation of altered three dimensional representation of the selected structure is displayed; and
the transformed three dimensional coordinates are selectively adjusted.
21. The method of claim 17 wherein the generated three dimensional coordinates define a three dimensional mold cavity representation of the selected structure.
22. The method of claim 17 wherein:
representations of the substances are obtained for spaced locations defining surfaces of structures; and
the generated three dimensional coordinates include coordinates of spaced locations defining a three dimensional representation of the surface of the selected structure; and further comprising
interpolating locations of the surface of the selected structure intermediate to the spaced locations and generating from said interpolations of the intermediate locations three dimensional coordinates defining the surface of the selected structure at locations between spaced locations; and wherein
the three dimensional coordinates generated for directing the sculpting tool include the three dimensional coordinates generated from the interpolations of the intermediate locations.
23. A method of fabricating a three dimensional corporeal model of selected tissue structure internal to an anatomy, comprising:
subjecting the anatomy to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses internal to said anatomy that are characteristic of tissue structure of said anatomy and that are detectable at the exterior of said anatomy at a plurality of locations each of which is along a path extending in a different selected direction relative to the selected tissue structure;
detecting produced radiant energy responses at the exterior of the anatomy at selected locations of the plurality of locations to obtain representations of the selected tissue structure that are definitive of a selected three dimensional representation thereof;
generating from the obtained representations of the selected tissue structure selected three dimensional coordinates defining the selected three dimensional representation of the selected tissue structure; and
directing a sculpting tool into a workpiece in accordance with the generated selected three dimensional coordinates to form a corporeal model corresponding to the selected three dimensional representation of the selected tissue structure.
24. The method of claim 23 wherein transformed three dimensional coordinates are generated from the obtained representations of the selected tissue structure to define an altered selected three dimensional representation of the selected tissue structure.
25. The method of either claim 23 or claim 24, further comprising:
displaying a visual representation of the selected tissue structure defined by the three dimensional coordinates generated from the obtained representations;
selectively adjusting the generated three dimensional coordinates to define the selected three dimensional representation of the selected tissue structure; and wherein
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece in accordance with the adjusted three dimensional coordinates.
26. The method of claim 23 as arranged to fabricate a surgically implantable prosthesis type corporeal model of a selected skeletal tissue structure of a mammalian anatomy wherein:
the mammalian anatomy is subjected to radiant energy to produce radiant energy responses at locations definitive of the surgically implantable prosthesis to be fabricated; and
the generated three dimensional coordinates define a three dimensional representation of the surgically implantable prosthesis.
27. The method of claim 26 wherein the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece to form the surgically implantable prosthesis.
28. The method of claim 26 wherein:
the generated three dimensional coordinates define a three dimensional mold cavity representation of the surgically implantable prosthesis; and
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece to form a mold cavity in accordance with the three dimensional mold cavity representation; and further comprising
casting a surgically implantable prosthesis defined by the mold cavity.
29. A method of fabricating a prosthesis representative of a selected tissue structure internal to a mammalian anatomy, comprising:
subjecting the anatomy to radiant energy; detecting exterior of said anatomy, resulting radiant energy responses produced at a plurality of parallel planes distributed at spaced locations in a selected direction relative to the said anatomy, the radiant energy selected to produce radiant energy responses internal to said anatomy that are characteristic of tissue structure of the anatomy and that are detectable from the exterior of said anatomy, the anatomy subjected to the radiant energy and resulting radiant energy responses detected to be productive of selected representations of the structure internal to the anatomy definitive of the prosthesis to be fabricated;
generating from the selected representations of the structure internal to the anatomy selected three dimensional coordinates defining a selected representation of the prosthesis; and
directing a sculpting tool into the workpiece in accordance with the generated selected three dimensional coordinates to form the selected representation of the prosthesis.
30. The method of claim 29 wherein the selected representation of the prosthesis is a replica of the selected tissue structure.
31. The method of claim 29 wherein:
the generated three dimensional coordinates define a three dimensional mold cavity representation of the prosthesis; and
the sculpting tool is directed into the workpiece to form a mold cavity in accordance with the three dimensional mold cavity representation; and further comprising
casting a prosthesis defined by the mold cavity.
US06384646 1982-06-03 1982-06-03 Expired - Lifetime US4436684B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US06384646 US4436684B1 (en) 1982-06-03 1982-06-03

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US06384646 US4436684B1 (en) 1982-06-03 1982-06-03
EP83303174A EP0097001B1 (en) 1982-06-03 1983-06-02 Method of forming implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery
DE8383303174A DE3366423D1 (en) 1982-06-03 1983-06-02 Method of forming implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery
CA000429520A CA1201512A (en) 1982-06-03 1983-06-02 Method of forming implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery
JP58098131A JPH062137B2 (en) 1982-06-03 1983-06-03 Three-dimensional mammalian body model of the manufacturing apparatus

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4436684A true US4436684A (en) 1984-03-13
US4436684B1 US4436684B1 (en) 1988-05-31

Family

ID=23518156

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US06384646 Expired - Lifetime US4436684B1 (en) 1982-06-03 1982-06-03

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (1) US4436684B1 (en)
EP (1) EP0097001B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH062137B2 (en)
CA (1) CA1201512A (en)
DE (1) DE3366423D1 (en)

Cited By (286)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4506393A (en) * 1983-03-29 1985-03-26 Murphy Stephen B Method of prosthesis design
US4614499A (en) * 1985-04-29 1986-09-30 Universite Laval Simulator for use as a neurosurgical aid in determining potential paths for the implantation of probes through the human body
US4704686A (en) * 1982-04-10 1987-11-03 Aldinger Guenther Method of manufacturing of individually formed prothesis or implant
US4737921A (en) * 1985-06-03 1988-04-12 Dynamic Digital Displays, Inc. Three dimensional medical image display system
WO1988007840A1 (en) * 1987-04-15 1988-10-20 Cemax, Inc. Preoperative planning of bone cuts/joint replacement
US4867922A (en) * 1986-12-29 1989-09-19 Ford Motor Company Method of making styling models
US4873707A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-10-10 Brigham & Women's Hospital X-ray tomography phantoms, method and system
US4969469A (en) * 1984-12-10 1990-11-13 Mills Randell L Paramagnetic dynamo electromotive force detector and imaging system incorporating same
US4976737A (en) * 1988-01-19 1990-12-11 Research And Education Institute, Inc. Bone reconstruction
US5014290A (en) * 1988-10-28 1991-05-07 Moore Robert M Method and apparatus for generating radiation blockers
US5030237A (en) * 1983-06-24 1991-07-09 Queen's University At Kingston Elbow prosthesis
US5041141A (en) * 1987-11-03 1991-08-20 Orthopaedic Technology B.V. Method of shaping an endo-prosthesis, a femoral head prosthesis, an acetabulum prosthesis and a method of fixing a femoral head prosthesis in a bone
US5056204A (en) * 1989-05-17 1991-10-15 Ascom Audiosys Ag Method of producing hearing aids
US5078140A (en) * 1986-05-08 1992-01-07 Kwoh Yik S Imaging device - aided robotic stereotaxis system
US5098383A (en) * 1990-02-08 1992-03-24 Artifax Ltd. Device for orienting appliances, prostheses, and instrumentation in medical procedures and methods of making same
US5127037A (en) * 1990-08-15 1992-06-30 Bynum David K Apparatus for forming a three-dimensional reproduction of an object from laminations
US5132996A (en) * 1988-10-28 1992-07-21 Kermath Manufacturing Company X-ray imaging system with a sweeping linear detector
US5131392A (en) * 1990-02-13 1992-07-21 Brigham & Women's Hospital Use of magnetic field of magnetic resonance imaging devices as the source of the magnetic field of electromagnetic transducers
US5175773A (en) * 1988-09-13 1992-12-29 General Electric Cgr S.A. Method of three-dimensional reconstruction of arborescence by labeling
US5224049A (en) * 1990-04-10 1993-06-29 Mushabac David R Method, system and mold assembly for use in preparing a dental prosthesis
US5257184A (en) * 1990-04-10 1993-10-26 Mushabac David R Method and apparatus with multiple data input stylii for collecting curvilinear contour data
US5274565A (en) * 1990-10-03 1993-12-28 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Process for making custom joint replacements
US5301117A (en) * 1991-10-30 1994-04-05 Giorgio Riga Method for creating a three-dimensional corporeal model from a very small original
US5309365A (en) * 1992-07-02 1994-05-03 Gerber Scientific Products, Inc. System for cutting artificial nail tips and for decorating the same or existing nails using automated cutting processes
US5321800A (en) * 1989-11-24 1994-06-14 Lesser Michael F Graphical language methodology for information display
US5330477A (en) * 1992-01-28 1994-07-19 Amei Technologies Inc. Apparatus and method for bone fixation and fusion stimulation
US5343385A (en) * 1993-08-17 1994-08-30 International Business Machines Corporation Interference-free insertion of a solid body into a cavity
US5347454A (en) * 1990-04-10 1994-09-13 Mushabac David R Method, system and mold assembly for use in preparing a dental restoration
US5360446A (en) * 1992-12-18 1994-11-01 Zimmer, Inc. Interactive prosthesis design system for implantable prosthesis
US5365996A (en) * 1992-06-10 1994-11-22 Amei Technologies Inc. Method and apparatus for making customized fixation devices
WO1995007509A1 (en) * 1993-09-10 1995-03-16 The University Of Queensland Stereolithographic anatomical modelling process
WO1995013758A1 (en) * 1993-11-15 1995-05-26 Urso Paul Steven D Surgical procedures
US5448472A (en) * 1990-04-10 1995-09-05 Mushabac; David R. Method using reference indicia on tape attached to mouth surface to obtain three dimensional contour data
US5452219A (en) * 1990-06-11 1995-09-19 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Method of making a tooth mold
US5488952A (en) * 1982-02-24 1996-02-06 Schoolman Scientific Corp. Stereoscopically display three dimensional ultrasound imaging
US5490507A (en) * 1994-02-23 1996-02-13 Wilk; Peter J. Method and apparatus for generating pelvic model
US5506785A (en) * 1993-02-11 1996-04-09 Dover Systems Corporation Method and apparatus for generating hollow and non-hollow solid representations of volumetric data
US5522402A (en) * 1994-05-13 1996-06-04 Cooley; Robert A. Three-dimensional scanning method for design of protheses
US5539649A (en) * 1993-02-10 1996-07-23 Southwest Research Institute Automated design and manufacture of artificial limbs
US5543103A (en) * 1994-05-31 1996-08-06 Hogan; S. David Process of surface shaping
US5545039A (en) * 1990-04-10 1996-08-13 Mushabac; David R. Method and apparatus for preparing tooth or modifying dental restoration
US5554190A (en) * 1992-04-24 1996-09-10 Draenert; Klaus Prosthesis component and a method of producing it
US5562448A (en) * 1990-04-10 1996-10-08 Mushabac; David R. Method for facilitating dental diagnosis and treatment
AU675179B2 (en) * 1993-11-15 1997-01-23 Paul Steven D'urso Surgical procedures
EP0756852A1 (en) 1995-08-04 1997-02-05 Dentsply International A method of making a tooth mold
US5610966A (en) * 1995-02-15 1997-03-11 Argonne National Laboratories/University Of Chicago Development Corp. Method and device for linear wear analysis
US5630981A (en) * 1984-08-08 1997-05-20 3D Systems, Inc. Method for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography
US5677855A (en) * 1995-01-31 1997-10-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Method of generating grinding paths from a computer model for controlling a numerically controlled grinder
US5682886A (en) * 1995-12-26 1997-11-04 Musculographics Inc Computer-assisted surgical system
US5691905A (en) * 1990-06-11 1997-11-25 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Prosthetic teeth and mold making and polishing therefor
US5716405A (en) * 1993-03-05 1998-02-10 Mittelman; Harry Rhinoplasty kit
US5718585A (en) * 1995-09-15 1998-02-17 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Prosthetic teeth and mold making therefor
US5735277A (en) * 1994-09-27 1998-04-07 Schuster; Luis Method of producing an endoprosthesis as a joint substitute for knee-joints
GB2318058A (en) * 1996-09-25 1998-04-15 Ninian Spenceley Peckitt Three-dimensional modelling of maxillofacial implants
US5768134A (en) * 1994-04-19 1998-06-16 Materialise, Naamloze Vennootschap Method for making a perfected medical model on the basis of digital image information of a part of the body
US5769092A (en) * 1996-02-22 1998-06-23 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. Computer-aided system for revision total hip replacement surgery
US5818042A (en) * 1992-04-10 1998-10-06 Macrorepresentation, Inc. Apparatus for creating three-dimensional physical models of characteristics of microscopic objects
GB2324470A (en) * 1997-04-24 1998-10-28 Customflex Limited Prosthetic implants
US5908387A (en) * 1996-06-21 1999-06-01 Quinton Instrument Company Device and method for improved quantitative coronary artery analysis
US6035860A (en) * 1999-01-14 2000-03-14 Belquette Ltd. System and method for applying fingernail art
US6116911A (en) * 1997-03-27 2000-09-12 The Johns Hopkins University Bone substitute for training and testing
US6126690A (en) * 1996-07-03 2000-10-03 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Anatomically correct prosthesis and method and apparatus for manufacturing prosthesis
US6152731A (en) * 1997-09-22 2000-11-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods for use in dental articulation
US6165193A (en) * 1998-07-06 2000-12-26 Microvention, Inc. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US6177034B1 (en) 1998-04-03 2001-01-23 A-Pear Biometric Replications Inc. Methods for making prosthetic surfaces
US6183515B1 (en) 1994-08-08 2001-02-06 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Artificial bone implants
WO2001032107A2 (en) * 1999-11-02 2001-05-10 Tutogen Medical Gmbh Bone implant
US20020059177A1 (en) * 2000-07-11 2002-05-16 Paul Hansen Method of forming a template and associated computer device and computer software program product
US20020087274A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2002-07-04 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
US6424332B1 (en) * 1999-01-29 2002-07-23 Hunter Innovations, Inc. Image comparison apparatus and method
US20020123817A1 (en) * 2000-12-21 2002-09-05 Bernhard Clasbrummel Method and apparatus for preparing an anatomical implant
US6461372B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-10-08 Sri International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
US6488503B1 (en) 1999-12-21 2002-12-03 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Prosthetic teeth and method of making therefor
US20030012449A1 (en) * 2001-05-02 2003-01-16 Daniel Usikov Method and apparatus for brightness equalization of images taken with point source illumination
US6529759B1 (en) 2001-03-08 2003-03-04 Electrical Geodesics, Inc. Method for mapping internal body tissue
US20030055502A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-03-20 Philipp Lang Methods and compositions for articular resurfacing
US20030093005A1 (en) * 2001-11-13 2003-05-15 Tucker Don M. Method for neural current imaging
US6594521B2 (en) 1999-12-17 2003-07-15 Electrical Geodesics, Inc. Method for localizing electrical activity in the body
US6605111B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2003-08-12 New York University Endovascular thin film devices and methods for treating and preventing stroke
US20030176860A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-09-18 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Operation aid system
US20030187362A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2003-10-02 Gregory Murphy System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20030208269A1 (en) * 2002-05-03 2003-11-06 Eaton L. Daniel Methods of forming prostheses
US20030216669A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-11-20 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US20030214501A1 (en) * 2002-04-29 2003-11-20 Hultgren Bruce Willard Method and apparatus for electronically generating a color dental occlusion map within electronic model images
US20030236473A1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2003-12-25 Sylvie Dore High precision modeling of a body part using a 3D imaging system
US20040026808A1 (en) * 2000-07-04 2004-02-12 Peter Litschko Method for the production of faithfully-reproduced medical implants and epiprostheses and said implants and epiprostheses
US20040027127A1 (en) * 2000-08-22 2004-02-12 Mills Randell L 4 dimensinal magnetic resonance imaging
US20040032261A1 (en) * 2002-07-25 2004-02-19 Achim Schweikard Correcting geometry and intensity distortions in MR data
US20040049115A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2004-03-11 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20040054372A1 (en) * 1997-08-19 2004-03-18 Btg International Limited Biodegradable composites
US20040138754A1 (en) * 2002-10-07 2004-07-15 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-Dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US20040138591A1 (en) * 2001-08-30 2004-07-15 Hiroshi Iseki Method for modeling an implant and an implant manufactured by the method
US20040147927A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-07-29 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US20040153128A1 (en) * 2003-01-30 2004-08-05 Mitta Suresh Method and system for image processing and contour assessment
WO2004070553A2 (en) * 2003-01-30 2004-08-19 Chase Medical L.P. A system and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20040167390A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2004-08-26 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US6788999B2 (en) 1992-01-21 2004-09-07 Sri International, Inc. Surgical system
US20040204760A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2004-10-14 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US20040236424A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2004-11-25 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing total and partial joint arthroplasty
US6850817B1 (en) 1992-01-21 2005-02-01 Sri International Surgical system
US20050065628A1 (en) * 2003-09-18 2005-03-24 Jeffrey Roose Customized prosthesis and method of designing and manufacturing a customized prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US20050148843A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2005-07-07 Roose Jeffrey R. System and method of designing and manufacturing customized instrumentation for accurate implantation of prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US6932842B1 (en) * 1999-05-11 2005-08-23 3Di Gmbh Method for generating patient-specific implants
US20050197814A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2005-09-08 Aram Luke J. System and method for designing a physiometric implant system
US20050203726A1 (en) * 2004-03-11 2005-09-15 Marshall Michael C. System and method for generating an electronic model for a dental impression having a common coordinate system
US20050234461A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-10-20 Burdulis Albert G Jr Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
DE102004020020A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-11-10 Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Three-dimensional model of a human skull in children life-size, and methods using the model
US20050267584A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-12-01 Burdulis Albert G Jr Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US20060095242A1 (en) * 2004-03-11 2006-05-04 Marshall Michael C System and method for determining condyle displacement utilizing electronic models of dental impressions having a common coordinate system
US20060100498A1 (en) * 2002-07-19 2006-05-11 Boyce Todd M Process for selecting bone for transplantation
US20060194896A1 (en) * 2004-05-26 2006-08-31 Sun Benjamin J Low shrinkage dental material and method
US20060269643A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2006-11-30 Marshall Adrian R Producing three-dimensional objects from deformable material
US20070014452A1 (en) * 2003-12-01 2007-01-18 Mitta Suresh Method and system for image processing and assessment of a state of a heart
US20070083266A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-04-12 Vertegen, Inc. Devices and methods for treating facet joints, uncovertebral joints, costovertebral joints and other joints
US20070100462A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-05-03 Conformis, Inc Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US20070198022A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-08-23 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20070203430A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-08-30 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Assessing Cartilage Loss
US20070233269A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-10-04 Conformis, Inc. Interpositional Joint Implant
US20070226986A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2007-10-04 Ilwhan Park Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20070239282A1 (en) * 2006-04-07 2007-10-11 Caylor Edward J Iii System and method for transmitting orthopaedic implant data
US20070270660A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-11-22 Caylor Edward J Iii System and method for determining a location of an orthopaedic medical device
US20070276224A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-11-29 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Devising Treatment
US20070288030A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US7333643B2 (en) 2004-01-30 2008-02-19 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20080071146A1 (en) * 2006-09-11 2008-03-20 Caylor Edward J System and method for monitoring orthopaedic implant data
US20080077158A1 (en) * 2006-06-16 2008-03-27 Hani Haider Method and Apparatus for Computer Aided Surgery
US20080114370A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2008-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Alignment Guide For Multiple Incisions
US20080161815A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2008-07-03 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US20080176182A1 (en) * 2006-10-05 2008-07-24 Bruce Willard Hultgren System and method for electronically modeling jaw articulation
US20080195216A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-08-14 Conformis, Inc. Implant Device and Method for Manufacture
US20080275452A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-06 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Cutting Guide
US20080281426A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-13 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20080319512A1 (en) * 2005-06-30 2008-12-25 Jason Sherman Apparatus, System, and Method for Transcutaneously Transferring Energy
US20090005876A1 (en) * 2007-06-29 2009-01-01 Dietz Terry L Tibial tray assembly having a wireless communication device
US20090024131A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-01-22 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific guides
US20090088753A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Aram Luke J Customized Patient-Specific Instrumentation for Use in Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures
US20090089081A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2009-04-02 Said Haddad Customized patient surgical plan
US20090088674A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 James Caillouette Method and system for designing patient-specific orthopaedic surgical instruments
WO2009052602A1 (en) * 2007-10-24 2009-04-30 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, media, and signals for applying a shape transformation to a three dimensional representation
US20090131941A1 (en) * 2002-05-15 2009-05-21 Ilwhan Park Total joint arthroplasty system
US20090138020A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-05-28 Otismed Corporation Generating mri images usable for the creation of 3d bone models employed to make customized arthroplasty jigs
US20090157083A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-06-18 Ilwhan Park System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US20090163922A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-06-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Acetabular Guide And Method
US20090222014A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20090222016A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-09-03 Otismed Corporation Total hip replacement surgical guide tool
US20090222103A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Articular Implants Providing Lower Adjacent Cartilage Wear
US20090228113A1 (en) * 2008-03-05 2009-09-10 Comformis, Inc. Edge-Matched Articular Implant
US20090254367A1 (en) * 2007-04-17 2009-10-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and Apparatus for Manufacturing an Implant
US20090274350A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US20090276045A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-11-05 Conformis, Inc. Devices and Methods for Treatment of Facet and Other Joints
US20100033560A1 (en) * 2008-08-06 2010-02-11 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Method and Apparatus of Tilted Illumination Observation
US20100042105A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2010-02-18 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US20100069455A1 (en) * 2006-08-21 2010-03-18 Next21 K.K. Bone model, bone filler and process for producing bone filler
US20100086181A1 (en) * 2008-10-08 2010-04-08 James Andrew Zug Method and system for surgical modeling
US20100086186A1 (en) * 2008-10-08 2010-04-08 James Andrew Zug Method and system for surgical planning
US7702380B1 (en) 1999-11-03 2010-04-20 Case Western Reserve University System and method for producing a three-dimensional model
US20100152741A1 (en) * 2008-12-16 2010-06-17 Otismed Corporation Unicompartmental customized arthroplasty cutting jigs and methods of making the same
US20100152782A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2010-06-17 Biomet Manufactring Corp. Patient Specific High Tibia Osteotomy
US20100185202A1 (en) * 2009-01-16 2010-07-22 Lester Mark B Customized patient-specific patella resectioning guide
US20100204816A1 (en) * 2007-07-27 2010-08-12 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, media and signals for producing a representation of a mold
US20100217338A1 (en) * 2009-02-24 2010-08-26 Wright Medical Technology, Inc. Patient Specific Surgical Guide Locator and Mount
US20100217109A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Mechanical Axis Alignment Using MRI Imaging
US20100219546A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2010-09-02 3M Innovative Properties Company Digitally forming a dental model for fabricating orthodontic laboratory appliances
US20100234923A1 (en) * 2005-06-30 2010-09-16 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus, system, and method for transcutaneously transferring energy
US20100274534A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-10-28 Conformis, Inc. Automated Systems for Manufacturing Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants and Instrumentation
US20100298894A1 (en) * 2006-02-06 2010-11-25 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific Joint Arthroplasty Devices for Ligament Repair
US20110004317A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2011-01-06 Hacking Adam S Orthopaedic implants
US20110029093A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-02-03 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110029091A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-02-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Adapted and Improved Orthopedic Implants, Designs, and Related Tools
US20110071528A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2011-03-24 Carson Christopher P Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US20110071645A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-03-24 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110071802A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-03-24 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110087332A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-04-14 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110108047A1 (en) * 2009-10-06 2011-05-12 Goff Christopher L Finger positioning device for a printer
US20110115791A1 (en) * 2008-07-18 2011-05-19 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, signals, and media for producing a computer representation of a three-dimensional surface of an appliance for a living body
US20110139761A1 (en) * 2009-12-15 2011-06-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho (Kobe Steel, Ltd.) Flux-cored wire for stainless steel arc welding
US20110144760A1 (en) * 2004-01-05 2011-06-16 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific and Patient-Engineered Orthopedic Implants
US7967868B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2011-06-28 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant and associated method
USD642263S1 (en) 2007-10-25 2011-07-26 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty jig blank
US8015024B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2011-09-06 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method for managing patient-related data
US20110218545A1 (en) * 2010-03-04 2011-09-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific computed tomography guides
US8070752B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2011-12-06 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific alignment guide and inter-operative adjustment
US20110313556A1 (en) * 2001-12-20 2011-12-22 Sten Holm Method and arrangement at implants preferably for a human intervertebral and such implant
WO2012008930A1 (en) * 2010-07-15 2012-01-19 National University Of Singapore Apparatuses, systems, and methods for prosthetic replacement manufacturing, temperature regulation and tactile sense duplication
US8160345B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-04-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
CN102486641A (en) * 2010-12-03 2012-06-06 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 Artificial-teeth processing route generating method
US20120230566A1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2012-09-13 Case Western Reserve University Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US20120285002A1 (en) * 2011-05-13 2012-11-15 Lin Ting-Sheng Bone Plate Manufacturing Method
US8377066B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-02-19 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US8407067B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-03-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US20130083888A1 (en) * 2010-11-26 2013-04-04 Jae Hwa Jin Apparatus for detecting volume of foreign substance existed in core of geological sample using computer tomography apparatus and method thereof
US8419741B2 (en) 2000-03-17 2013-04-16 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
WO2013066880A1 (en) 2011-11-01 2013-05-10 Thapliyal Hira V Personalized prosthesis and methods of use
US8460302B2 (en) 2006-12-18 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US8460303B2 (en) 2007-10-25 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty systems and devices, and related methods
US8480679B2 (en) 2008-04-29 2013-07-09 Otismed Corporation Generation of a computerized bone model representative of a pre-degenerated state and useable in the design and manufacture of arthroplasty devices
US8521492B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2013-08-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tuning implants for increased performance
US8532807B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2013-09-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Pre-operative planning and manufacturing method for orthopedic procedure
US8535387B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-09-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific tools and implants
US20130244214A1 (en) * 2012-03-15 2013-09-19 Vincent Francavilla Bone augmentation training system
US8545509B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-10-01 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8556983B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US8568487B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-10-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific hip joint devices
US8591516B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-11-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US8597365B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2013-12-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pelvic implants for acetabular reconstruction
US8603180B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US8608749B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US8617171B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8623026B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2014-01-07 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools incorporating anatomical relief
US8632547B2 (en) 2010-02-26 2014-01-21 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Patient-specific osteotomy devices and methods
US8641721B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2014-02-04 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Customized patient-specific orthopaedic pin guides
US8668700B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2014-03-11 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific convertible guides
US8682052B2 (en) 2008-03-05 2014-03-25 Conformis, Inc. Implants for altering wear patterns of articular surfaces
CN103750923A (en) * 2013-12-20 2014-04-30 中山大学附属口腔医院 Artificial temporal-mandibular joint based on selective laser melting technology and manufacturing method thereof
US8715289B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2014-05-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific numerically controlled instrument
US8735773B2 (en) 2007-02-14 2014-05-27 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US8737700B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-27 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8764760B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2014-07-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific bone-cutting guidance instruments and methods
US8777875B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2014-07-15 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs having improved mating accuracy
US8808303B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2014-08-19 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US8840628B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2014-09-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Surgical manipulator for a telerobotic system
US8858561B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2014-10-14 Blomet Manufacturing, LLC Patient-specific alignment guide
US8864769B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2014-10-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Alignment guides with patient-specific anchoring elements
US8956364B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2015-02-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific partial knee guides and other instruments
US8979855B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2015-03-17 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US9020788B2 (en) 1997-01-08 2015-04-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US9024939B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2015-05-05 Vorum Research Corporation Method and apparatus for applying a rotational transform to a portion of a three-dimensional representation of an appliance for a living body
US9060788B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-06-23 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9066734B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2015-06-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac guides and associated methods
US9084618B2 (en) 2011-06-13 2015-07-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Drill guides for confirming alignment of patient-specific alignment guides
US9084653B2 (en) 1998-01-14 2015-07-21 Cadent, Ltd. Methods for use in dental articulation
US9101393B2 (en) 2007-12-06 2015-08-11 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for determining the mechanical axis of a femur
US9113971B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-08-25 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Femoral acetabular impingement guide
US9138239B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2015-09-22 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific tibial cutting blocks
US9168153B2 (en) 2011-06-16 2015-10-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical alignment using references
US9173662B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2015-11-03 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific tibial cutting blocks
US9173661B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-11-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific alignment guide with cutting surface and laser indicator
US9192459B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2015-11-24 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of performing total knee arthroplasty
US9204977B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-12-08 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9208558B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2015-12-08 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9216084B2 (en) 2013-08-09 2015-12-22 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Patient-specific craniofacial implants
US9237950B2 (en) 2012-02-02 2016-01-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Implant with patient-specific porous structure
US9241745B2 (en) 2011-03-07 2016-01-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoral version guide
US9271744B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2016-03-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific guide for partial acetabular socket replacement
US9275191B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2016-03-01 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9289253B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-03-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific shoulder guide
US9295497B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2016-03-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac and pedicle guides
US9301812B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-04-05 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Methods for patient-specific shoulder arthroplasty
US9339278B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9345548B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pre-operative planning
US9351743B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-05-31 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guides
US9386994B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2016-07-12 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Patient-matched instruments
US9386993B2 (en) 2011-09-29 2016-07-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoroacetabular impingement instruments and methods
US9393028B2 (en) 2009-08-13 2016-07-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Device for the resection of bones, method for producing such a device, endoprosthesis suited for this purpose and method for producing such an endoprosthesis
US9402637B2 (en) 2012-10-11 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Customized arthroplasty cutting guides and surgical methods using the same
US9408616B2 (en) 2014-05-12 2016-08-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Humeral cut guide
US9451973B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-09-27 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific glenoid guide
US9486226B2 (en) 2012-04-18 2016-11-08 Conformis, Inc. Tibial guides, tools, and techniques for resecting the tibial plateau
US9498231B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2016-11-22 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US9498233B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-11-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc. Universal acetabular guide and associated hardware
US9517145B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Guide alignment system and method
US9554910B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2017-01-31 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide and implants
US9561040B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-02-07 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9579107B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2017-02-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Multi-point fit for patient specific guide
US9649117B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2017-05-16 Microport Orthopedics Holdings, Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US9675400B2 (en) 2011-04-19 2017-06-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific fracture fixation instrumentation and method
US9675471B2 (en) 2012-06-11 2017-06-13 Conformis, Inc. Devices, techniques and methods for assessing joint spacing, balancing soft tissues and obtaining desired kinematics for joint implant components
US9688023B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2017-06-27 H. David Dean Continuous digital light processing additive manufacturing of implants
US9786022B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2017-10-10 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US9795399B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2017-10-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US9808262B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2017-11-07 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US9820868B2 (en) 2015-03-30 2017-11-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for a pin apparatus
US9826981B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Tangential fit of patient-specific guides
US9826994B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Adjustable glenoid pin insertion guide
US9833249B2 (en) 2011-08-29 2017-12-05 Morton Bertram, III Bony balancing apparatus and method for total knee replacement
US9833245B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-12-05 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Tibial tubercule osteotomy
US9839438B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide with a reusable guide holder
US9839436B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9907659B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2018-03-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US9918740B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2018-03-20 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Backup surgical instrument system and method
US9968376B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2018-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US10105149B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-10-23 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US10149722B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2018-12-11 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Method of fabricating customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US10219811B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2019-03-05 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US10226262B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2019-03-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific humeral guide designs
US10251690B2 (en) 2017-04-26 2019-04-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific fracture fixation instrumentation and method

Families Citing this family (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2577697B1 (en) * 1985-02-15 1988-06-24 Chalmond Bernard Method of manufacturing a personalized surgical implant fits the medullary canal of a bone implant receiver and realized by such process
DE3626549A1 (en) * 1986-08-06 1988-02-11 Mecron Med Prod Gmbh A process for the preparation of an endoprosthesis with individual adaptation
GB8620040D0 (en) * 1986-08-18 1986-10-01 Samangooie F Model making
WO1992008175A1 (en) * 1990-10-31 1992-05-14 416604 Alberta Inc. Laser digitizer system for producing prosthetic devices
CA2095238C (en) * 1990-10-31 2000-04-25 George Clynch Laser digitizer system for producing prosthetic devices
DE4304570A1 (en) * 1993-02-16 1994-08-18 Mdc Med Diagnostic Computing Apparatus and method for preparing and assisting surgery
BE1007032A3 (en) * 1993-04-28 1995-02-21 Ceka Nv Werkijze for the manufacture of a membrane for guided bone regeneration.
FR2704746B1 (en) * 1993-05-06 1995-07-28 Euros Sa A method for manufacturing a special femoral stem by total hip replacement and the rod obtained.
DE4328380C1 (en) * 1993-08-24 1995-04-13 Lauth Klaus A process for the production and / or measurement correction of matched at portions of a living body and auxiliary parts of the measuring device for carrying out the method
DE4341367C1 (en) * 1993-12-04 1995-06-14 Harald Dr Med Dr Med Eufinger A process for the production of endoprostheses
BE1010200A3 (en) * 1996-04-26 1998-03-03 Variphone Benelux Naamloze Ven Method and device for manufacturing earpieces
US6772026B2 (en) 2000-04-05 2004-08-03 Therics, Inc. System and method for rapidly customizing design, manufacture and/or selection of biomedical devices
AU4993501A (en) * 2000-04-05 2001-10-23 Therics Inc System and method for rapidly customizing a design and remotely manufacturing biomedical devices using a computer system
WO2003002332A1 (en) * 2001-06-28 2003-01-09 Akio Kakehi Data re-embodying system, its method, and measuring device
GR1005240B (en) * 2004-09-06 2006-06-19 Βασιλησ Κωστοπουλοσ Individualized anatomical correction and construction of cranial-facial prosthesis for the reinstatement of deficiencies and deformations of patients
WO2008064840A1 (en) * 2006-11-30 2008-06-05 Markus Schlee Method for producing an implant
EP2242441B1 (en) 2007-12-21 2019-01-23 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods of preparing a virtual dentition model and fabricating a dental retainer therefrom
WO2014085913A1 (en) * 2012-12-07 2014-06-12 Jean-Pierre Gibeault Method and system for manufacturing cosmetic prostheses
DE102013215395A1 (en) * 2013-08-05 2015-02-05 Fiagon Gmbh System for reconstruction symmetrical body parts
DE102014217586A1 (en) * 2014-09-03 2016-03-03 Technische Universität Dresden A method for determining data of components, or biological objects and structures for an area in which no component material or biological material is no longer present, or the area defects

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3259022A (en) * 1963-12-17 1966-07-05 Ibm Object scanning techniques
US3796129A (en) * 1970-09-25 1974-03-12 J Cruickshank Apparatus for the manufacture of three-dimensional reproduction of an object

Cited By (625)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5488952A (en) * 1982-02-24 1996-02-06 Schoolman Scientific Corp. Stereoscopically display three dimensional ultrasound imaging
US4704686A (en) * 1982-04-10 1987-11-03 Aldinger Guenther Method of manufacturing of individually formed prothesis or implant
US4506393A (en) * 1983-03-29 1985-03-26 Murphy Stephen B Method of prosthesis design
US5030237A (en) * 1983-06-24 1991-07-09 Queen's University At Kingston Elbow prosthesis
US5630981A (en) * 1984-08-08 1997-05-20 3D Systems, Inc. Method for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography
US4969469A (en) * 1984-12-10 1990-11-13 Mills Randell L Paramagnetic dynamo electromotive force detector and imaging system incorporating same
US4614499A (en) * 1985-04-29 1986-09-30 Universite Laval Simulator for use as a neurosurgical aid in determining potential paths for the implantation of probes through the human body
US4737921A (en) * 1985-06-03 1988-04-12 Dynamic Digital Displays, Inc. Three dimensional medical image display system
US5078140A (en) * 1986-05-08 1992-01-07 Kwoh Yik S Imaging device - aided robotic stereotaxis system
US4867922A (en) * 1986-12-29 1989-09-19 Ford Motor Company Method of making styling models
WO1988007840A1 (en) * 1987-04-15 1988-10-20 Cemax, Inc. Preoperative planning of bone cuts/joint replacement
US4841975A (en) * 1987-04-15 1989-06-27 Cemax, Inc. Preoperative planning of bone cuts and joint replacement using radiant energy scan imaging
US4873707A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-10-10 Brigham & Women's Hospital X-ray tomography phantoms, method and system
US5041141A (en) * 1987-11-03 1991-08-20 Orthopaedic Technology B.V. Method of shaping an endo-prosthesis, a femoral head prosthesis, an acetabulum prosthesis and a method of fixing a femoral head prosthesis in a bone
US4976737A (en) * 1988-01-19 1990-12-11 Research And Education Institute, Inc. Bone reconstruction
US5175773A (en) * 1988-09-13 1992-12-29 General Electric Cgr S.A. Method of three-dimensional reconstruction of arborescence by labeling
US5014290A (en) * 1988-10-28 1991-05-07 Moore Robert M Method and apparatus for generating radiation blockers
US5132996A (en) * 1988-10-28 1992-07-21 Kermath Manufacturing Company X-ray imaging system with a sweeping linear detector
US5056204A (en) * 1989-05-17 1991-10-15 Ascom Audiosys Ag Method of producing hearing aids
US5321800A (en) * 1989-11-24 1994-06-14 Lesser Michael F Graphical language methodology for information display
US5098383A (en) * 1990-02-08 1992-03-24 Artifax Ltd. Device for orienting appliances, prostheses, and instrumentation in medical procedures and methods of making same
US5131392A (en) * 1990-02-13 1992-07-21 Brigham & Women's Hospital Use of magnetic field of magnetic resonance imaging devices as the source of the magnetic field of electromagnetic transducers
US5545039A (en) * 1990-04-10 1996-08-13 Mushabac; David R. Method and apparatus for preparing tooth or modifying dental restoration
US5257184A (en) * 1990-04-10 1993-10-26 Mushabac David R Method and apparatus with multiple data input stylii for collecting curvilinear contour data
US5569578A (en) * 1990-04-10 1996-10-29 Mushabac; David R. Method and apparatus for effecting change in shape of pre-existing object
US5224049A (en) * 1990-04-10 1993-06-29 Mushabac David R Method, system and mold assembly for use in preparing a dental prosthesis
US5562448A (en) * 1990-04-10 1996-10-08 Mushabac; David R. Method for facilitating dental diagnosis and treatment
US5448472A (en) * 1990-04-10 1995-09-05 Mushabac; David R. Method using reference indicia on tape attached to mouth surface to obtain three dimensional contour data
US5347454A (en) * 1990-04-10 1994-09-13 Mushabac David R Method, system and mold assembly for use in preparing a dental restoration
US5452219A (en) * 1990-06-11 1995-09-19 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Method of making a tooth mold
US5691905A (en) * 1990-06-11 1997-11-25 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Prosthetic teeth and mold making and polishing therefor
US5127037A (en) * 1990-08-15 1992-06-30 Bynum David K Apparatus for forming a three-dimensional reproduction of an object from laminations
US5274565A (en) * 1990-10-03 1993-12-28 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Process for making custom joint replacements
US5448489A (en) * 1990-10-03 1995-09-05 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Process for making custom joint replacements
US5301117A (en) * 1991-10-30 1994-04-05 Giorgio Riga Method for creating a three-dimensional corporeal model from a very small original
US6788999B2 (en) 1992-01-21 2004-09-07 Sri International, Inc. Surgical system
US6963792B1 (en) 1992-01-21 2005-11-08 Sri International Surgical method
US6850817B1 (en) 1992-01-21 2005-02-01 Sri International Surgical system
US5330477A (en) * 1992-01-28 1994-07-19 Amei Technologies Inc. Apparatus and method for bone fixation and fusion stimulation
US5818042A (en) * 1992-04-10 1998-10-06 Macrorepresentation, Inc. Apparatus for creating three-dimensional physical models of characteristics of microscopic objects
US5554190A (en) * 1992-04-24 1996-09-10 Draenert; Klaus Prosthesis component and a method of producing it
US5452407A (en) * 1992-06-10 1995-09-19 Amei Technologies Inc. Method for representing a patient's treatment site as data for use with a CAD or CAM device
US5365996A (en) * 1992-06-10 1994-11-22 Amei Technologies Inc. Method and apparatus for making customized fixation devices
US5309365A (en) * 1992-07-02 1994-05-03 Gerber Scientific Products, Inc. System for cutting artificial nail tips and for decorating the same or existing nails using automated cutting processes
US5360446A (en) * 1992-12-18 1994-11-01 Zimmer, Inc. Interactive prosthesis design system for implantable prosthesis
US5539649A (en) * 1993-02-10 1996-07-23 Southwest Research Institute Automated design and manufacture of artificial limbs
US5506785A (en) * 1993-02-11 1996-04-09 Dover Systems Corporation Method and apparatus for generating hollow and non-hollow solid representations of volumetric data
US5716405A (en) * 1993-03-05 1998-02-10 Mittelman; Harry Rhinoplasty kit
US5343385A (en) * 1993-08-17 1994-08-30 International Business Machines Corporation Interference-free insertion of a solid body into a cavity
AU684546B2 (en) * 1993-09-10 1997-12-18 University Of Queensland, The Stereolithographic anatomical modelling process
US5741215A (en) * 1993-09-10 1998-04-21 The University Of Queensland Stereolithographic anatomical modelling process
WO1995007509A1 (en) * 1993-09-10 1995-03-16 The University Of Queensland Stereolithographic anatomical modelling process
US5752962A (en) * 1993-11-15 1998-05-19 D'urso; Paul S. Surgical procedures
WO1995013758A1 (en) * 1993-11-15 1995-05-26 Urso Paul Steven D Surgical procedures
AU675179B2 (en) * 1993-11-15 1997-01-23 Paul Steven D'urso Surgical procedures
US5490507A (en) * 1994-02-23 1996-02-13 Wilk; Peter J. Method and apparatus for generating pelvic model
US5768134A (en) * 1994-04-19 1998-06-16 Materialise, Naamloze Vennootschap Method for making a perfected medical model on the basis of digital image information of a part of the body
US5522402A (en) * 1994-05-13 1996-06-04 Cooley; Robert A. Three-dimensional scanning method for design of protheses
US5543103A (en) * 1994-05-31 1996-08-06 Hogan; S. David Process of surface shaping
US6540784B2 (en) 1994-08-08 2003-04-01 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Artificial bone implants
US6183515B1 (en) 1994-08-08 2001-02-06 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Artificial bone implants
US5735277A (en) * 1994-09-27 1998-04-07 Schuster; Luis Method of producing an endoprosthesis as a joint substitute for knee-joints
US5677855A (en) * 1995-01-31 1997-10-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Method of generating grinding paths from a computer model for controlling a numerically controlled grinder
US5610966A (en) * 1995-02-15 1997-03-11 Argonne National Laboratories/University Of Chicago Development Corp. Method and device for linear wear analysis
US7204844B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2007-04-17 Sri, International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
US20050283140A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2005-12-22 Sri International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
US7824424B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2010-11-02 Sri International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
US20070021776A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2007-01-25 Sri International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
US8012160B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2011-09-06 Sri International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
US8840628B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2014-09-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Surgical manipulator for a telerobotic system
US20110060346A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2011-03-10 Sri International, Inc. Surgical manipulator for a telerobotic system
US20030130648A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2003-07-10 Sri International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
US6461372B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-10-08 Sri International System and method for releasably holding a surgical instrument
EP0756852A1 (en) 1995-08-04 1997-02-05 Dentsply International A method of making a tooth mold
US6174168B1 (en) 1995-09-15 2001-01-16 Dentsply Research & Development Corp Prosthetic teeth and mold making therefor
US5908299A (en) * 1995-09-15 1999-06-01 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Prosthetic teeth and mold making therefor
US5718585A (en) * 1995-09-15 1998-02-17 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Prosthetic teeth and mold making therefor
US5682886A (en) * 1995-12-26 1997-11-04 Musculographics Inc Computer-assisted surgical system
US5871018A (en) * 1995-12-26 1999-02-16 Delp; Scott L. Computer-assisted surgical method
US5769092A (en) * 1996-02-22 1998-06-23 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. Computer-aided system for revision total hip replacement surgery
US5908387A (en) * 1996-06-21 1999-06-01 Quinton Instrument Company Device and method for improved quantitative coronary artery analysis
US6126690A (en) * 1996-07-03 2000-10-03 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Anatomically correct prosthesis and method and apparatus for manufacturing prosthesis
US6459948B1 (en) 1996-07-03 2002-10-01 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Anatomically correct prosthesis and method and apparatus for manufacturing prosthesis
GB2318058A (en) * 1996-09-25 1998-04-15 Ninian Spenceley Peckitt Three-dimensional modelling of maxillofacial implants
GB2318058B (en) * 1996-09-25 2001-03-21 Ninian Spenceley Peckitt Improvements relating to prosthetic implants
US9020788B2 (en) 1997-01-08 2015-04-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US6116911A (en) * 1997-03-27 2000-09-12 The Johns Hopkins University Bone substitute for training and testing
GB2324470A (en) * 1997-04-24 1998-10-28 Customflex Limited Prosthetic implants
US20040054372A1 (en) * 1997-08-19 2004-03-18 Btg International Limited Biodegradable composites
US7347690B2 (en) 1997-09-22 2008-03-25 Russell A Jordan Methods for use in dental articulation
US6152731A (en) * 1997-09-22 2000-11-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods for use in dental articulation
US20020048741A1 (en) * 1997-09-22 2002-04-25 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods for use in dental articulation
US6322359B1 (en) 1997-09-22 2001-11-27 3M Innovative Properties Company Method for use in dental articulation
US9084653B2 (en) 1998-01-14 2015-07-21 Cadent, Ltd. Methods for use in dental articulation
US6177034B1 (en) 1998-04-03 2001-01-23 A-Pear Biometric Replications Inc. Methods for making prosthetic surfaces
US6605111B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2003-08-12 New York University Endovascular thin film devices and methods for treating and preventing stroke
US6666882B1 (en) 1998-06-04 2003-12-23 New York University Endovascular thin film devices and methods for treating and preventing stroke
US7201762B2 (en) 1998-07-06 2007-04-10 Microvention, Inc. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US7799047B2 (en) 1998-07-06 2010-09-21 Microvention, Inc. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US7483558B2 (en) 1998-07-06 2009-01-27 Microvention, Inc. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US20090112250A1 (en) * 1998-07-06 2009-04-30 Greene Jr George R Vascular Embolization With An Expansible Implant
US20110005062A1 (en) * 1998-07-06 2011-01-13 Greene Jr George R Vascular Embolization With An Expansible Implant
US6165193A (en) * 1998-07-06 2000-12-26 Microvention, Inc. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US9034005B2 (en) 1998-07-06 2015-05-19 Microvention, Inc. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US7029487B2 (en) 1998-07-06 2006-04-18 Microvention, Inc. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US6500190B2 (en) 1998-07-06 2002-12-31 Microvention Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US20030083737A1 (en) * 1998-07-06 2003-05-01 Greene George R. Vascular embolization with an expansible implant
US9286686B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2016-03-15 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and assessing cartilage loss
US20070203430A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-08-30 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Assessing Cartilage Loss
US8036729B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2011-10-11 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US20070276224A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-11-29 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Devising Treatment
US20080015433A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2008-01-17 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Devising Treatment
US8112142B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-02-07 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
USRE43282E1 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-03-27 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US7881768B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2011-02-01 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US20020087274A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2002-07-04 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
US8862202B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2014-10-14 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
US20040167390A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2004-08-26 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US8369926B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2013-02-05 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US8265730B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-09-11 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
US8306601B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-11-06 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US6035860A (en) * 1999-01-14 2000-03-14 Belquette Ltd. System and method for applying fingernail art
US6424332B1 (en) * 1999-01-29 2002-07-23 Hunter Innovations, Inc. Image comparison apparatus and method
US6932842B1 (en) * 1999-05-11 2005-08-23 3Di Gmbh Method for generating patient-specific implants
US9626756B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2017-04-18 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9208558B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2015-12-08 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US10068671B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2018-09-04 Osteoplastics, Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US8781557B2 (en) * 1999-08-11 2014-07-15 Osteoplastics, Llc Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US9672617B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2017-06-06 Osteoplastics, Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US20120230566A1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2012-09-13 Case Western Reserve University Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US9275191B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2016-03-01 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9330206B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2016-05-03 Osteoplastics Llc Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US9672302B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2017-06-06 Osteoplastics, Llc Producing a three-dimensional model of an implant
US9292920B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2016-03-22 Osteoplastics, Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
WO2001032107A3 (en) * 1999-11-02 2002-04-04 Kalas Rolf Dieter Bone implant
WO2001032107A2 (en) * 1999-11-02 2001-05-10 Tutogen Medical Gmbh Bone implant
US6988015B1 (en) 1999-11-02 2006-01-17 Tutogen Medical Gmbh Bone implant
US7702380B1 (en) 1999-11-03 2010-04-20 Case Western Reserve University System and method for producing a three-dimensional model
US6594521B2 (en) 1999-12-17 2003-07-15 Electrical Geodesics, Inc. Method for localizing electrical activity in the body
US6488503B1 (en) 1999-12-21 2002-12-03 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Prosthetic teeth and method of making therefor
US9192459B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2015-11-24 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of performing total knee arthroplasty
US8771281B2 (en) 2000-03-17 2014-07-08 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8961529B2 (en) 2000-03-17 2015-02-24 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8936602B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2015-01-20 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US9393032B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2016-07-19 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8936601B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2015-01-20 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US20140194998A1 (en) * 2000-03-17 2014-07-10 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8419741B2 (en) 2000-03-17 2013-04-16 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US20140194997A1 (en) * 2000-03-17 2014-07-10 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US20040026808A1 (en) * 2000-07-04 2004-02-12 Peter Litschko Method for the production of faithfully-reproduced medical implants and epiprostheses and said implants and epiprostheses
US20020059177A1 (en) * 2000-07-11 2002-05-16 Paul Hansen Method of forming a template and associated computer device and computer software program product
US20040027127A1 (en) * 2000-08-22 2004-02-12 Mills Randell L 4 dimensinal magnetic resonance imaging
US7382129B2 (en) 2000-08-22 2008-06-03 Mills Randell L 4 dimensional magnetic resonance imaging
US20030236473A1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2003-12-25 Sylvie Dore High precision modeling of a body part using a 3D imaging system
US7636459B2 (en) 2000-10-31 2009-12-22 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (C.N.R.S.) High precision modeling of a body part using a 3D imaging system
US20020123817A1 (en) * 2000-12-21 2002-09-05 Bernhard Clasbrummel Method and apparatus for preparing an anatomical implant
US20110071528A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2011-03-24 Carson Christopher P Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US20110071532A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2011-03-24 Carson Christopher P Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US20110071529A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2011-03-24 Carson Christopher P Systems using imaging data to facilitate surgical procedures
US7142904B1 (en) 2001-03-08 2006-11-28 Electrical Geodesics, Inc. Method and composition for probing the body through the skin
US6529759B1 (en) 2001-03-08 2003-03-04 Electrical Geodesics, Inc. Method for mapping internal body tissue
US20030187362A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2003-10-02 Gregory Murphy System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US7646901B2 (en) 2001-04-30 2010-01-12 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US7773785B2 (en) 2001-04-30 2010-08-10 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20040176678A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2004-09-09 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US7327862B2 (en) 2001-04-30 2008-02-05 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20040049115A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2004-03-11 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20040176679A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2004-09-09 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20050020929A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2005-01-27 Chase Medical, Lp System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US7536042B2 (en) * 2001-04-30 2009-05-19 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20040049116A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2004-03-11 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US7526112B2 (en) 2001-04-30 2009-04-28 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20030012449A1 (en) * 2001-05-02 2003-01-16 Daniel Usikov Method and apparatus for brightness equalization of images taken with point source illumination
US6819805B2 (en) * 2001-05-02 2004-11-16 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for brightness equalization of images taken with point source illumination
US8951260B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-02-10 Conformis, Inc. Surgical cutting guide
US8562618B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8561278B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20080275452A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-06 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Cutting Guide
US20080281426A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-13 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20080281328A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-13 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US20080281329A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-13 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US7468075B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2008-12-23 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8562611B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9603711B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-03-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US9579110B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-02-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8556907B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9495483B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-11-15 Conformis, Inc. Automated Systems for manufacturing patient-specific orthopedic implants and instrumentation
US9439767B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-09-13 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8568480B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-29 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9387079B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-07-12 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8377129B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-02-19 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9358018B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-06-07 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9333085B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-05-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US8568479B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-29 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8585708B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-11-19 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8366771B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-02-05 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US9308091B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-04-12 Conformis, Inc. Devices and methods for treatment of facet and other joints
US8556906B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8617242B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-12-31 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US8617172B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-12-31 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8343218B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-01-01 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8641716B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-02-04 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9700971B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-07-11 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US7534263B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2009-05-19 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US8337501B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-12-25 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8337507B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-12-25 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US9295482B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-03-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8657827B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-02-25 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US20050267584A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-12-01 Burdulis Albert G Jr Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US20090222014A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20040236424A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2004-11-25 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing total and partial joint arthroplasty
US20090222103A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Articular Implants Providing Lower Adjacent Cartilage Wear
US9775680B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-10-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8768028B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-07-01 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8556983B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US8551102B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20090276045A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-11-05 Conformis, Inc. Devices and Methods for Treatment of Facet and Other Joints
US7618451B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2009-11-17 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing total and partial joint arthroplasty
US20090306676A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-12-10 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8439926B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-05-14 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20030055502A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-03-20 Philipp Lang Methods and compositions for articular resurfacing
US9216025B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-12-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8551099B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US20040204760A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2004-10-14 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US8234097B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-07-31 Conformis, Inc. Automated systems for manufacturing patient-specific orthopedic implants and instrumentation
US9186254B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-11-17 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US9186161B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-11-17 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US8690945B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-04-08 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US9877790B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2018-01-30 Conformis, Inc. Tibial implant and systems with variable slope
US20030216669A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-11-20 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US7717956B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2010-05-18 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices formed in situ
US9125672B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-09-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9125673B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-09-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20100160917A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-06-24 Conformis, Inc. Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20100168754A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-07-01 Conformis, Inc. Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US9107679B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-08-18 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20070250169A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-10-25 Philipp Lang Joint arthroplasty devices formed in situ
US9107680B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-08-18 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8551103B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9084617B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-07-21 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9072531B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-07-07 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9066728B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-06-30 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US8460304B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-06-11 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8122582B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-02-28 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US20070233269A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-10-04 Conformis, Inc. Interpositional Joint Implant
US8105330B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-01-31 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8882847B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-11-11 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US20100274534A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-10-28 Conformis, Inc. Automated Systems for Manufacturing Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants and Instrumentation
US8906107B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-12-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US8083745B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-12-27 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US20100281678A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-11-11 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools Facilitating Increased Accuracy, Speed and Simplicity in Performing Joint Arthroplasty
US8926706B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-01-06 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8551169B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8066708B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-11-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20100305573A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20100305708A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Knee Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US20100305574A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20100329530A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-30 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Knee Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US9055953B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-06-16 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8062302B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-11-22 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US20070198022A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-08-23 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110029093A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-02-03 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8945230B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-02-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US8480754B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-07-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110066193A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-03-17 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US20070100462A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-05-03 Conformis, Inc Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US8545569B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US9023050B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-05-05 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US20110071581A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-03-24 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US20070083266A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-04-12 Vertegen, Inc. Devices and methods for treating facet joints, uncovertebral joints, costovertebral joints and other joints
US8529630B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-09-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8951259B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-02-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20110087332A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-04-14 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8998915B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-04-07 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8974539B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-03-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US7981158B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-07-19 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20050234461A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-10-20 Burdulis Albert G Jr Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US20080195216A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-08-14 Conformis, Inc. Implant Device and Method for Manufacture
US7050877B2 (en) * 2001-08-30 2006-05-23 Pentax Corporation Method for modeling an implant and an implant manufactured by the method
US20040138591A1 (en) * 2001-08-30 2004-07-15 Hiroshi Iseki Method for modeling an implant and an implant manufactured by the method
US20030093005A1 (en) * 2001-11-13 2003-05-15 Tucker Don M. Method for neural current imaging
US7840250B2 (en) 2001-11-13 2010-11-23 Electrical Geodesics, Inc. Method for neural current imaging
US20110313556A1 (en) * 2001-12-20 2011-12-22 Sten Holm Method and arrangement at implants preferably for a human intervertebral and such implant
US20030176860A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-09-18 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Operation aid system
US20030214501A1 (en) * 2002-04-29 2003-11-20 Hultgren Bruce Willard Method and apparatus for electronically generating a color dental occlusion map within electronic model images
USRE44465E1 (en) 2002-04-29 2013-08-27 Geodigm Corporation Method and apparatus for electronically generating a color dental occlusion map within electronic model images
US7716024B2 (en) 2002-04-29 2010-05-11 Geodigm Corporation Method and apparatus for electronically generating a color dental occlusion map within electronic model images
US20030208269A1 (en) * 2002-05-03 2003-11-06 Eaton L. Daniel Methods of forming prostheses
US7058439B2 (en) * 2002-05-03 2006-06-06 Contourmed, Inc. Methods of forming prostheses
US8801719B2 (en) 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
US20090131941A1 (en) * 2002-05-15 2009-05-21 Ilwhan Park Total joint arthroplasty system
US8801720B2 (en) 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
US20060100498A1 (en) * 2002-07-19 2006-05-11 Boyce Todd M Process for selecting bone for transplantation
US8750960B2 (en) * 2002-07-19 2014-06-10 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Process for selecting bone for transplantation
US6788062B2 (en) * 2002-07-25 2004-09-07 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co., Kg Correcting geometry and intensity distortions in MR data
US20040032261A1 (en) * 2002-07-25 2004-02-19 Achim Schweikard Correcting geometry and intensity distortions in MR data
US20040138754A1 (en) * 2002-10-07 2004-07-15 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-Dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US9872773B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2018-01-23 Conformis, Inc. Standard or customized tibial implant with multiple convexities and concavities, and variable slope
US7799077B2 (en) * 2002-10-07 2010-09-21 Conformis, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US20110066245A1 (en) * 2002-10-07 2011-03-17 Conformis, Inc. Minimally Invasive Joint Implant with 3-Dimensional Geometry Matching the Articular Surfaces
US8709089B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2014-04-29 Conformis, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US8965088B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2015-02-24 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US7796791B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2010-09-14 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US20040147927A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-07-29 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US20040153079A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-08-05 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US8634617B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2014-01-21 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US8932363B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2015-01-13 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US20100303317A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Methods for Determining Meniscal Size and Shape and for Devising Treatment
US8077950B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2011-12-13 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
WO2004070553A2 (en) * 2003-01-30 2004-08-19 Chase Medical L.P. A system and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US20040153128A1 (en) * 2003-01-30 2004-08-05 Mitta Suresh Method and system for image processing and contour assessment
US20050043609A1 (en) * 2003-01-30 2005-02-24 Gregory Murphy System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
WO2004070553A3 (en) * 2003-01-30 2005-03-31 Chase Medical Lp A system and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US7693563B2 (en) 2003-01-30 2010-04-06 Chase Medical, LLP Method for image processing and contour assessment of the heart
US7369909B2 (en) * 2003-04-30 2008-05-06 Adrian Richard Marshall Producing three-dimensional objects from deformable material
US20060269643A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2006-11-30 Marshall Adrian R Producing three-dimensional objects from deformable material
US20050065628A1 (en) * 2003-09-18 2005-03-24 Jeffrey Roose Customized prosthesis and method of designing and manufacturing a customized prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US6944518B2 (en) 2003-09-18 2005-09-13 Depuy Products, Inc. Customized prosthesis and method of designing and manufacturing a customized prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US9381025B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-07-05 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9241725B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-01-26 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9241724B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-01-26 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9295481B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-03-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9314256B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-04-19 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9308005B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-04-12 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20070014452A1 (en) * 2003-12-01 2007-01-18 Mitta Suresh Method and system for image processing and assessment of a state of a heart
US8175683B2 (en) 2003-12-30 2012-05-08 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method of designing and manufacturing customized instrumentation for accurate implantation of prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US20050148843A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2005-07-07 Roose Jeffrey R. System and method of designing and manufacturing customized instrumentation for accurate implantation of prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US10085839B2 (en) 2004-01-05 2018-10-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient-specific and patient-engineered orthopedic implants
US20110144760A1 (en) * 2004-01-05 2011-06-16 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific and Patient-Engineered Orthopedic Implants
US7333643B2 (en) 2004-01-30 2008-02-19 Chase Medical, L.P. System and method for facilitating cardiac intervention
US7383164B2 (en) 2004-03-05 2008-06-03 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method for designing a physiometric implant system
US20050197814A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2005-09-08 Aram Luke J. System and method for designing a physiometric implant system
US8417493B2 (en) 2004-03-11 2013-04-09 GeoDigm Scanning dental models
US7702492B2 (en) 2004-03-11 2010-04-20 Geodigm Corporation System and method for generating an electronic model for a dental impression having a common coordinate system
US20060095242A1 (en) * 2004-03-11 2006-05-04 Marshall Michael C System and method for determining condyle displacement utilizing electronic models of dental impressions having a common coordinate system
US7824346B2 (en) 2004-03-11 2010-11-02 Geodigm Corporation Determining condyle displacement utilizing electronic models of dental impressions having a common coordinate system
US20050203726A1 (en) * 2004-03-11 2005-09-15 Marshall Michael C. System and method for generating an electronic model for a dental impression having a common coordinate system
DE102004020020A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-11-10 Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Three-dimensional model of a human skull in children life-size, and methods using the model
DE102004020020B4 (en) * 2004-04-23 2009-04-23 Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Three-dimensional model of a human skull children life-size
US20060194896A1 (en) * 2004-05-26 2006-08-31 Sun Benjamin J Low shrinkage dental material and method
US20100234923A1 (en) * 2005-06-30 2010-09-16 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus, system, and method for transcutaneously transferring energy
US8244368B2 (en) 2005-06-30 2012-08-14 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus, system, and method for transcutaneously transferring energy
US8092412B2 (en) 2005-06-30 2012-01-10 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus, system, and method for transcutaneously transferring energy
US8187213B2 (en) 2005-06-30 2012-05-29 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus, system, and method for transcutaneously transferring energy
US20100241040A1 (en) * 2005-06-30 2010-09-23 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus, system, and method for transcutaneously transferring energy
US20080319512A1 (en) * 2005-06-30 2008-12-25 Jason Sherman Apparatus, System, and Method for Transcutaneously Transferring Energy
US9220517B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2015-12-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9326780B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2016-05-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools incorporating anatomical relief
US9220516B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2015-12-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9308053B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2016-04-12 Conformis, Inc. Patient-specific joint arthroplasty devices for ligament repair
US20100298894A1 (en) * 2006-02-06 2010-11-25 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific Joint Arthroplasty Devices for Ligament Repair
US8500740B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2013-08-06 Conformis, Inc. Patient-specific joint arthroplasty devices for ligament repair
US8623026B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2014-01-07 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools incorporating anatomical relief
US9808262B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2017-11-07 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20070226986A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2007-10-04 Ilwhan Park Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US9017336B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2015-04-28 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US9662216B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-05-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific hip joint devices
US8282646B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-10-09 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US9289253B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-03-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific shoulder guide
US8535387B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-09-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific tools and implants
US9339278B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9345548B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pre-operative planning
US9480490B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-11-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific guides
US20090163922A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-06-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Acetabular Guide And Method
US9480580B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-11-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US9700329B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-07-11 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US20130131681A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2013-05-23 Biomet Manufacturing Corporation Patient-Specific Elbow Guides And Associated Methods
US9522010B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-12-20 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US8241293B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-08-14 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific high tibia osteotomy
US9539013B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-01-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US20090024131A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-01-22 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific guides
US20100152782A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2010-06-17 Biomet Manufactring Corp. Patient Specific High Tibia Osteotomy
US10206695B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2019-02-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Femoral acetabular impingement guide
US8070752B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2011-12-06 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific alignment guide and inter-operative adjustment
US8591516B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-11-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US8568487B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-10-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific hip joint devices
US9913734B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2018-03-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US8377066B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-02-19 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US8900244B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2014-12-02 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide and method
US8864769B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2014-10-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Alignment guides with patient-specific anchoring elements
US8133234B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-03-13 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific acetabular guide and method
US9918740B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2018-03-20 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Backup surgical instrument system and method
US20080161815A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2008-07-03 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US8603180B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US8608748B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific guides
US8608749B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9662127B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-05-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9113971B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-08-25 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Femoral acetabular impingement guide
US8828087B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2014-09-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific high tibia osteotomy
US9173661B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-11-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific alignment guide with cutting surface and laser indicator
US9005297B2 (en) * 2006-02-27 2015-04-14 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US20070270660A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-11-22 Caylor Edward J Iii System and method for determining a location of an orthopaedic medical device
US8015024B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2011-09-06 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method for managing patient-related data
US20070239282A1 (en) * 2006-04-07 2007-10-11 Caylor Edward J Iii System and method for transmitting orthopaedic implant data
US10172551B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2019-01-08 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. System and method for transmitting orthopaedic implant data
US8075627B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2011-12-13 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method for transmitting orthopaedic implant data
US8668742B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2014-03-11 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC System and method for transmitting orthopaedic implant data
US8398646B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2013-03-19 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US8979936B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2015-03-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-modified implant
US8858561B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2014-10-14 Blomet Manufacturing, LLC Patient-specific alignment guide
US9993344B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2018-06-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-modified implant
US20080114370A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2008-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Alignment Guide For Multiple Incisions
US10206697B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2019-02-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US20070288030A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US9861387B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2018-01-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US8298237B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2012-10-30 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific alignment guide for multiple incisions
US9795399B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2017-10-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US8092465B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2012-01-10 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US20080077158A1 (en) * 2006-06-16 2008-03-27 Hani Haider Method and Apparatus for Computer Aided Surgery
US20100069455A1 (en) * 2006-08-21 2010-03-18 Next21 K.K. Bone model, bone filler and process for producing bone filler
US20080071146A1 (en) * 2006-09-11 2008-03-20 Caylor Edward J System and method for monitoring orthopaedic implant data
US8632464B2 (en) 2006-09-11 2014-01-21 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC System and method for monitoring orthopaedic implant data
US20080176182A1 (en) * 2006-10-05 2008-07-24 Bruce Willard Hultgren System and method for electronically modeling jaw articulation
US8460302B2 (en) 2006-12-18 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US8735773B2 (en) 2007-02-14 2014-05-27 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US8407067B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-03-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US7967868B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2011-06-28 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant and associated method
US8473305B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-06-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US20090254367A1 (en) * 2007-04-17 2009-10-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and Apparatus for Manufacturing an Implant
US8486150B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-07-16 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant
US9907659B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2018-03-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US20090005876A1 (en) * 2007-06-29 2009-01-01 Dietz Terry L Tibial tray assembly having a wireless communication device
US8080064B2 (en) 2007-06-29 2011-12-20 Depuy Products, Inc. Tibial tray assembly having a wireless communication device
US9737417B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2017-08-22 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, media and signals for producing a representation of a mold
US20100204816A1 (en) * 2007-07-27 2010-08-12 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, media and signals for producing a representation of a mold
US8535580B2 (en) 2007-09-27 2013-09-17 3M Innovative Properties Company Digitally forming a dental model for fabricating orthodontic laboratory appliances
US20100219546A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2010-09-02 3M Innovative Properties Company Digitally forming a dental model for fabricating orthodontic laboratory appliances
US8265949B2 (en) 2007-09-27 2012-09-11 Depuy Products, Inc. Customized patient surgical plan
US20090089081A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2009-04-02 Said Haddad Customized patient surgical plan
US20090093816A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-09 Roose Jeffrey R System and Method for Fabricating a Customized Patient-Specific Surgical Instrument
US8594395B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-11-26 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC System and method for fabricating a customized patient-specific surgical instrument
US8377068B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-02-19 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC. Customized patient-specific instrumentation for use in orthopaedic surgical procedures
US20090088759A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Aram Luke J Customized Patient-Specific Instrumentation and Method for Performing a Bone Re-Cut
US20090088674A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 James Caillouette Method and system for designing patient-specific orthopaedic surgical instruments
US20090088755A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Chris Aker Customized Patient-Specific Instrumentation for Use in Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures
US8357166B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-01-22 Depuy Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific instrumentation and method for performing a bone re-cut
US20090099567A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-16 Eric Zajac Customized Patient-Specific Bone Cutting Blocks
US8398645B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-03-19 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Femoral tibial customized patient-specific orthopaedic surgical instrumentation
US10028750B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2018-07-24 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Apparatus and method for fabricating a customized patient-specific orthopaedic instrument
US8357111B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-01-22 Depuy Products, Inc. Method and system for designing patient-specific orthopaedic surgical instruments
US8419740B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-04-16 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC. Customized patient-specific bone cutting instrumentation
US20090088758A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Travis Bennett Orthopaedic Bone Saw and Method of Use Thereof
US9314251B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2016-04-19 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US8343159B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-01-01 Depuy Products, Inc. Orthopaedic bone saw and method of use thereof
US8425523B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-04-23 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Customized patient-specific instrumentation for use in orthopaedic surgical procedures
US8323288B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2012-12-04 Depuy Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US20090088761A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Roose Jeffrey R Patient-Customizable Device and System for Performing an Orthopaedic Surgical Procedure
US20090088754A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Chris Aker Customized Patient-Specific Multi-Cutting Blocks
US8425524B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-04-23 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Customized patient-specific multi-cutting blocks
US8979855B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2015-03-17 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US20090131942A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-05-21 Chris Aker Femoral Tibial Customized Patient-Specific Orthopaedic Surgical Instrumentation
US9173662B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2015-11-03 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific tibial cutting blocks
US20090088753A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Aram Luke J Customized Patient-Specific Instrumentation for Use in Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures
US9786022B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2017-10-10 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US20090088760A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Aram Luke J Customized Patient-Specific Bone Cutting Instrumentation
US9138239B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2015-09-22 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific tibial cutting blocks
US8361076B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-01-29 Depuy Products, Inc. Patient-customizable device and system for performing an orthopaedic surgical procedure
US20090088763A1 (en) * 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Aram Luke J Customized Patient-Specific Bone Cutting Block with External Reference
US20110134123A1 (en) * 2007-10-24 2011-06-09 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, media, and signals for applying a shape transformation to a three dimensional representation
US8576250B2 (en) 2007-10-24 2013-11-05 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, media, and signals for applying a shape transformation to a three dimensional representation
WO2009052602A1 (en) * 2007-10-24 2009-04-30 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, media, and signals for applying a shape transformation to a three dimensional representation
US8460303B2 (en) 2007-10-25 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty systems and devices, and related methods
USD642263S1 (en) 2007-10-25 2011-07-26 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty jig blank
USD691719S1 (en) 2007-10-25 2013-10-15 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty jig blank
US20090138020A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-05-28 Otismed Corporation Generating mri images usable for the creation of 3d bone models employed to make customized arthroplasty jigs
US9101393B2 (en) 2007-12-06 2015-08-11 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for determining the mechanical axis of a femur
US8617171B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US20090157083A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-06-18 Ilwhan Park System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US8968320B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2015-03-03 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US9456902B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2016-10-04 The Royal Institution For The Advancement Of Learning/Mcgill University Orthopaedic implants
US20100042105A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2010-02-18 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US20110004317A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2011-01-06 Hacking Adam S Orthopaedic implants
US9649170B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2017-05-16 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8545509B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-10-01 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8221430B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2012-07-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US8715291B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-06 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8737700B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-27 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8734455B2 (en) 2008-02-29 2014-05-27 Otismed Corporation Hip resurfacing surgical guide tool
US20090222016A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-09-03 Otismed Corporation Total hip replacement surgical guide tool
US9408618B2 (en) 2008-02-29 2016-08-09 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Total hip replacement surgical guide tool
US20090222015A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-09-03 Otismed Corporation Hip resurfacing surgical guide tool
US9700420B2 (en) 2008-03-05 2017-07-11 Conformis, Inc. Implants for altering wear patterns of articular surfaces
US9180015B2 (en) 2008-03-05 2015-11-10 Conformis, Inc. Implants for altering wear patterns of articular surfaces
US20090228113A1 (en) * 2008-03-05 2009-09-10 Comformis, Inc. Edge-Matched Articular Implant
US8682052B2 (en) 2008-03-05 2014-03-25 Conformis, Inc. Implants for altering wear patterns of articular surfaces
US10159498B2 (en) 2008-04-16 2018-12-25 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US9646113B2 (en) 2008-04-29 2017-05-09 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Generation of a computerized bone model representative of a pre-degenerated state and useable in the design and manufacture of arthroplasty devices
US8480679B2 (en) 2008-04-29 2013-07-09 Otismed Corporation Generation of a computerized bone model representative of a pre-degenerated state and useable in the design and manufacture of arthroplasty devices
US9208263B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2015-12-08 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8532361B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2013-09-10 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US20090274350A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8483469B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2013-07-09 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8160345B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-04-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8311306B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-11-13 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US20110115791A1 (en) * 2008-07-18 2011-05-19 Vorum Research Corporation Method, apparatus, signals, and media for producing a computer representation of a three-dimensional surface of an appliance for a living body
US8777875B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2014-07-15 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs having improved mating accuracy
US20100033560A1 (en) * 2008-08-06 2010-02-11 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Method and Apparatus of Tilted Illumination Observation
US8521492B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2013-08-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tuning implants for increased performance
US8160326B2 (en) 2008-10-08 2012-04-17 Fujifilm Medical Systems Usa, Inc. Method and system for surgical modeling
US8160325B2 (en) 2008-10-08 2012-04-17 Fujifilm Medical Systems Usa, Inc. Method and system for surgical planning
US8634618B2 (en) 2008-10-08 2014-01-21 Fujifilm Medical Systems Usa, Inc. Method and system for surgical planning
US20100086181A1 (en) * 2008-10-08 2010-04-08 James Andrew Zug Method and system for surgical modeling
US20100086186A1 (en) * 2008-10-08 2010-04-08 James Andrew Zug Method and system for surgical planning
US8750583B2 (en) 2008-10-08 2014-06-10 Fujifilm Medical Systems Usa, Inc. Method and system for surgical modeling
US8617175B2 (en) 2008-12-16 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Unicompartmental customized arthroplasty cutting jigs and methods of making the same
US20100152741A1 (en) * 2008-12-16 2010-06-17 Otismed Corporation Unicompartmental customized arthroplasty cutting jigs and methods of making the same
US20100185202A1 (en) * 2009-01-16 2010-07-22 Lester Mark B Customized patient-specific patella resectioning guide
US8170641B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2012-05-01 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method of imaging an extremity of a patient
US20100217109A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Mechanical Axis Alignment Using MRI Imaging
US9949747B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2018-04-24 Microport Orthopedics Holdings, Inc. Systems and methods for installing an orthopedic implant
US9320620B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2016-04-26 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US9566075B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2017-02-14 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Patient specific surgical guide locator and mount
US9883870B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2018-02-06 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Method for forming a patient specific surgical guide mount
US9089342B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2015-07-28 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Patient specific surgical guide locator and mount
US20100217338A1 (en) * 2009-02-24 2010-08-26 Wright Medical Technology, Inc. Patient Specific Surgical Guide Locator and Mount
US9017334B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2015-04-28 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Patient specific surgical guide locator and mount
US8808303B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2014-08-19 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US20100212138A1 (en) * 2009-02-24 2010-08-26 Wright Medical Technology, Inc. Method For Forming A Patient Specific Surgical Guide Mount
US9642632B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2017-05-09 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US9675365B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2017-06-13 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. System and method for anterior approach for installing tibial stem
US9901353B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2018-02-27 Microport Holdings Inc. Patient specific surgical guide locator and mount
US10039557B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2018-08-07 Micorport Orthopedics Holdings, Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US9113914B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2015-08-25 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Method for forming a patient specific surgical guide mount
US9649117B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2017-05-16 Microport Orthopedics Holdings, Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US20110029091A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-02-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Adapted and Improved Orthopedic Implants, Designs, and Related Tools
US20110071802A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-03-24 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110071645A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-03-24 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8771365B2 (en) 2009-02-25 2014-07-08 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs, and related tools
US9024939B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2015-05-05 Vorum Research Corporation Method and apparatus for applying a rotational transform to a portion of a three-dimensional representation of an appliance for a living body
US9839433B2 (en) 2009-08-13 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Device for the resection of bones, method for producing such a device, endoprosthesis suited for this purpose and method for producing such an endoprosthesis
US9393028B2 (en) 2009-08-13 2016-07-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Device for the resection of bones, method for producing such a device, endoprosthesis suited for this purpose and method for producing such an endoprosthesis
US10052110B2 (en) 2009-08-13 2018-08-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Device for the resection of bones, method for producing such a device, endoprosthesis suited for this purpose and method for producing such an endoprosthesis
US20110108047A1 (en) * 2009-10-06 2011-05-12 Goff Christopher L Finger positioning device for a printer
US8757171B2 (en) 2009-10-06 2014-06-24 Mattel, Inc. Finger positioning device for a printer
US20110139761A1 (en) * 2009-12-15 2011-06-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho (Kobe Steel, Ltd.) Flux-cored wire for stainless steel arc welding
US10149722B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2018-12-11 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Method of fabricating customized patient-specific bone cutting blocks
US8632547B2 (en) 2010-02-26 2014-01-21 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Patient-specific osteotomy devices and methods
US9456833B2 (en) 2010-02-26 2016-10-04 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Patient-specific osteotomy devices and methods
US9579112B2 (en) 2010-03-04 2017-02-28 Materialise N.V. Patient-specific computed tomography guides
US9066727B2 (en) 2010-03-04 2015-06-30 Materialise Nv Patient-specific computed tomography guides
US20110218545A1 (en) * 2010-03-04 2011-09-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific computed tomography guides
US9615834B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2017-04-11 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods utilizing patient-matched instruments
US9386994B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2016-07-12 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Patient-matched instruments
WO2012008930A1 (en) * 2010-07-15 2012-01-19 National University Of Singapore Apparatuses, systems, and methods for prosthetic replacement manufacturing, temperature regulation and tactile sense duplication
US10183477B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2019-01-22 H. David Dean Absorbant and reflecting biocompatible dyes for highly accurate medical implants
US9688023B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2017-06-27 H. David Dean Continuous digital light processing additive manufacturing of implants
US9271744B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2016-03-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific guide for partial acetabular socket replacement
US20130083888A1 (en) * 2010-11-26 2013-04-04 Jae Hwa Jin Apparatus for detecting volume of foreign substance existed in core of geological sample using computer tomography apparatus and method thereof
US9968376B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2018-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
CN102486641A (en) * 2010-12-03 2012-06-06 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 Artificial-teeth processing route generating method
CN102486641B (en) 2010-12-03 2014-02-12 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 Artificial-teeth processing route generating method
US9241745B2 (en) 2011-03-07 2016-01-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoral version guide
US9743935B2 (en) 2011-03-07 2017-08-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoral version guide
US9445907B2 (en) 2011-03-07 2016-09-20 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific tools and implants
US9717510B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2017-08-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific numerically controlled instrument
US8715289B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2014-05-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific numerically controlled instrument
US9675400B2 (en) 2011-04-19 2017-06-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific fracture fixation instrumentation and method
US8668700B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2014-03-11 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific convertible guides
US8956364B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2015-02-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific partial knee guides and other instruments
US9474539B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2016-10-25 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific convertible guides
US9743940B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2017-08-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific partial knee guides and other instruments
US8683669B2 (en) * 2011-05-13 2014-04-01 I-Shou University Bone plate manufacturing method
US20120285002A1 (en) * 2011-05-13 2012-11-15 Lin Ting-Sheng Bone Plate Manufacturing Method
US8903530B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2014-12-02 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Pre-operative planning and manufacturing method for orthopedic procedure
US9757238B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2017-09-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Pre-operative planning and manufacturing method for orthopedic procedure
US8532807B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2013-09-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Pre-operative planning and manufacturing method for orthopedic procedure
US9687261B2 (en) 2011-06-13 2017-06-27 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Drill guides for confirming alignment of patient-specific alignment guides
US9084618B2 (en) 2011-06-13 2015-07-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Drill guides for confirming alignment of patient-specific alignment guides
US9168153B2 (en) 2011-06-16 2015-10-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical alignment using references
US10219811B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2019-03-05 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US10080617B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2018-09-25 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US9498231B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2016-11-22 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US8641721B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2014-02-04 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Customized patient-specific orthopaedic pin guides
US9561039B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-02-07 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific orthopaedic pin guides
US9095355B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2015-08-04 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Customized patient-specific orthopaedic pin guides
US8764760B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2014-07-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific bone-cutting guidance instruments and methods
US9173666B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2015-11-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific-bone-cutting guidance instruments and methods
US9668747B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2017-06-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific-bone-cutting guidance instruments and methods
US8597365B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2013-12-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pelvic implants for acetabular reconstruction
US9427320B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-08-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pelvic implants for acetabular reconstruction
US9833249B2 (en) 2011-08-29 2017-12-05 Morton Bertram, III Bony balancing apparatus and method for total knee replacement
US9066734B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2015-06-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac guides and associated methods
US9603613B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2017-03-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac guides and associated methods
US9439659B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2016-09-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac guides and associated methods
US9295497B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2016-03-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac and pedicle guides
US9386993B2 (en) 2011-09-29 2016-07-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoroacetabular impingement instruments and methods
US9936962B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2018-04-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific glenoid guide
US9351743B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-05-31 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guides
US9301812B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-04-05 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Methods for patient-specific shoulder arthroplasty
US9554910B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2017-01-31 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide and implants
US9451973B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-09-27 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific glenoid guide
US9801739B1 (en) 2011-11-01 2017-10-31 Aneumed, Inc. Personalized prosthesis and methods of use
WO2013066880A1 (en) 2011-11-01 2013-05-10 Thapliyal Hira V Personalized prosthesis and methods of use
US9801741B1 (en) 2011-11-01 2017-10-31 Aneumed, Inc. Personalized prosthesis and methods of use
US9744060B2 (en) 2011-11-01 2017-08-29 Aneumed, Inc. Personalized prosthesis and methods of use
US9801740B1 (en) 2011-11-01 2017-10-31 Aneumed, Inc. Method for manufacturing a personalized prothesis
US9237950B2 (en) 2012-02-02 2016-01-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Implant with patient-specific porous structure
US9827106B2 (en) 2012-02-02 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Implant with patient-specific porous structure
US20130244214A1 (en) * 2012-03-15 2013-09-19 Vincent Francavilla Bone augmentation training system
US8641422B2 (en) * 2012-03-15 2014-02-04 Vincent Francavilla Bone augmentation training system
US20140220528A1 (en) * 2012-03-15 2014-08-07 Vincent C. Francavilla Training kit for dentists and oral surgeons
US9486226B2 (en) 2012-04-18 2016-11-08 Conformis, Inc. Tibial guides, tools, and techniques for resecting the tibial plateau
US9675471B2 (en) 2012-06-11 2017-06-13 Conformis, Inc. Devices, techniques and methods for assessing joint spacing, balancing soft tissues and obtaining desired kinematics for joint implant components
US9402637B2 (en) 2012-10-11 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Customized arthroplasty cutting guides and surgical methods using the same
US9204977B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-12-08 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9597201B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2017-03-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9060788B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-06-23 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9839438B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide with a reusable guide holder
US9700325B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2017-07-11 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Multi-point fit for patient specific guide
US9579107B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2017-02-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Multi-point fit for patient specific guide
US9826981B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Tangential fit of patient-specific guides
US9498233B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-11-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc. Universal acetabular guide and associated hardware
US9517145B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Guide alignment system and method
US10105149B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-10-23 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US10080662B2 (en) 2013-08-09 2018-09-25 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Patient-specific craniofacial implants
US9216084B2 (en) 2013-08-09 2015-12-22 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Patient-specific craniofacial implants
CN103750923A (en) * 2013-12-20 2014-04-30 中山大学附属口腔医院 Artificial temporal-mandibular joint based on selective laser melting technology and manufacturing method thereof
US9408616B2 (en) 2014-05-12 2016-08-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Humeral cut guide
US9839436B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9561040B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-02-07 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9826994B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Adjustable glenoid pin insertion guide
US9833245B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-12-05 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Tibial tubercule osteotomy
US9820868B2 (en) 2015-03-30 2017-11-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for a pin apparatus
US10226262B2 (en) 2015-06-25 2019-03-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific humeral guide designs
US10251690B2 (en) 2017-04-26 2019-04-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific fracture fixation instrumentation and method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0097001B1 (en) 1986-09-24
CA1201512A (en) 1986-03-04
JPS59151953A (en) 1984-08-30
DE3366423D1 (en) 1986-10-30
EP0097001A1 (en) 1983-12-28
CA1201512A1 (en)
US4436684B1 (en) 1988-05-31
JPH062137B2 (en) 1994-01-12

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3061936A (en) Stereotaxical methods and apparatus
Adams et al. Computer-assisted surgery
US5119408A (en) Rotate/rotate method and apparatus for computed tomography x-ray inspection of large objects
EP0936889B8 (en) Enhanced breast imaging/biopsy system employing targeted ultrasound
US6206693B1 (en) Buccal impression registration apparatus, and method of use
US7154988B2 (en) X-ray computed tomographic imaging apparatus
US5119817A (en) Apparatus for imaging the anatomy
JP3684243B2 (en) Apparatus construction method and for its 3 or 4-dimensional images using ultrasonic energy, the system
CA1329434C (en) Method and apparatus for video presentation from a variety of scanner imaging sources
EP0558029B1 (en) Apparatus for ultrasonic wave medical treatment using computed tomography
US5840022A (en) Method for imaging display of a part of the human body
CN1711052B (en) Apparatus and method for cone beam volume computed tomography breast imaging
CN1331004C (en) X-ray CT system
US5054470A (en) Ultrasonic treatment transducer with pressurized acoustic coupling
US4182311A (en) Method and system for cardiac computed tomography
US5810008A (en) Apparatus and method for visualizing ultrasonic images
EP0425495B1 (en) Ultrasound brain lesioning system
US5214686A (en) Three-dimensional panoramic dental radiography method and apparatus which avoids the subject's spine
US7103139B2 (en) X-ray CT device and image displaying method therefor
US4923459A (en) Stereotactics apparatus
EP0574099A2 (en) Method for converting image data to vector data
Greitz et al. Head fixation system for integration of radiodiagnostic and therapeutic procedures
US4433380A (en) Tomographic scanner
US6684098B2 (en) Versatile stereotactic device and methods of use
EP0942682B1 (en) Adjustable computer tomography device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: CONTOUR MED PARTNERS, LTD., 1931-A MIDDLEFIELD WAY

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:WHITE, DAVID N.;REEL/FRAME:004017/0849

Effective date: 19820529

AS Assignment

Owner name: CEMAX MEDICAL PRODUCTS, INC., 1931-A OLD MIDDLEFIE

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:CONTOUR MED PARTNERS, LTD., A CORP. OF CA.;REEL/FRAME:004484/0048

Effective date: 19851127

RR Request for reexamination filed

Effective date: 19870713

B1 Reexamination certificate first reexamination
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

AS Assignment

Owner name: BIOMET, INC., A CORP. OF IN, INDIANA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:CEMAX, INC., A CORP. OF CA;REEL/FRAME:005659/0889

Effective date: 19910312

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12