US5871018A - Computer-assisted surgical method - Google Patents

Computer-assisted surgical method Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US5871018A
US5871018A US08870218 US87021897A US5871018A US 5871018 A US5871018 A US 5871018A US 08870218 US08870218 US 08870218 US 87021897 A US87021897 A US 87021897A US 5871018 A US5871018 A US 5871018A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
method
means
performing surgery
surgery
resection
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US08870218
Inventor
Scott L. Delp
J. Peter Loan
Craig B. Robinson
Arthur Y. Wong
S. David Stulberg
Original Assignee
Delp; Scott L.
Loan; J. Peter
Robinson; Craig B.
Wong; Arthur Y.
Stulberg; S. David
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/14Surgical saws ; Accessories therefor
    • A61B17/15Guides therefor
    • A61B17/154Guides therefor for preparing bone for knee prosthesis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T19/00Manipulating 3D models or images for computer graphics
    • G06T19/20Editing of 3D images, e.g. changing shapes or colours, aligning objects or positioning parts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/14Surgical saws ; Accessories therefor
    • A61B17/15Guides therefor
    • A61B17/154Guides therefor for preparing bone for knee prosthesis
    • A61B17/155Cutting femur
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/14Surgical saws ; Accessories therefor
    • A61B17/15Guides therefor
    • A61B17/154Guides therefor for preparing bone for knee prosthesis
    • A61B17/157Cutting tibia
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/101Computer-aided simulation of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/102Modelling of surgical devices, implants or prosthesis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/101Computer-aided simulation of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/105Modelling of the patient, e.g. for ligaments or bones
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2068Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis using pointers, e.g. pointers having reference marks for determining coordinates of body points
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • A61B2034/252User interfaces for surgical systems indicating steps of a surgical procedure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • A61B2034/256User interfaces for surgical systems having a database of accessory information, e.g. including context sensitive help or scientific articles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • A61B2090/363Use of fiducial points
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2210/00Indexing scheme for image generation or computer graphics
    • G06T2210/41Medical
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2219/00Indexing scheme for manipulating 3D models or images for computer graphics
    • G06T2219/20Indexing scheme for editing of 3D models
    • G06T2219/2021Shape modification
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S128/00Surgery
    • Y10S128/92Computer assisted medical diagnostics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S128/00Surgery
    • Y10S128/92Computer assisted medical diagnostics
    • Y10S128/922Computer assisted medical diagnostics including image analysis

Abstract

A method for planning surgery on a body portion is provided in the steps of gathering image data, storing the image data, reading the image data into a computer, generating a three-dimensional computer model of the body portion from the image data, identifying anatomical features relevant to the surgery, and defining at least one desired correction to anatomical structures to be accomplished by the surgery. Also, a method for performing surgery on a body portion is provided in the steps of loading surgical plan data into a computer, registering a three-dimensional computer model of the body portion stored in the surgical plan data to the body portion, providing at least one surgical tool, positioning the surgical tool relative to the body portion and performing the surgery. Further, a jig assembly is provided in the form of a femoral docking jig, a femoral contouring jig, and a tibial jig.

Description

This is a divisional of application Ser. No. 08/578,497 filed on Dec. 26, 1995 now U.S. Pat. No. 5,682,886.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to computer-assisted surgical systems, and in particular to a computer-assisted knee replacement system used to achieve accurate limb alignment with minimal surgical invasiveness.

One application for computer-assisted surgical systems is in the field of knee arthroplasty. Knee arthroplasty is a surgical procedure in which the articular surfaces of the femur and tibia (and the patella, in the case of tricompartmental knee arthroplasty) are cut away and replaced by metal and/or plastic prosthetic components. The goals of knee arthroplasty are to resurface the bones in the knee joint and to reposition the joint center on the mechanical axis of the leg. Knee arthroplasty is performed to relieve pain and stiffness in patients suffering from joint damage caused by osteo-, rheumatoid, or post-traumatic arthritis. In 1993, approximately 189,000 knee arthroplasties were performed in the United States, and this number is expected to increase over the next decade as the U.S. population ages.

More than 95% of knee arthroplasties performed in the U.S. are tricompartmental. Tricompartmental knee arthroplasty ("TKA") involves the replacement of all the articular surfaces of the knee joint, and is performed when arthritis is present in two or more of the three compartments of the knee: medial (toward the body's central axis), lateral (away from the body's central axis), and patello-femoral (frontal).

The remaining knee arthroplasties are unicompartmental knee arthroplasties ("UKA"). UKAs involve the replacement of the articular surfaces of only one knee compartment, usually the medial. UKAs are indicated when arthritis is present in only one compartment and when the patellar surface appears healthy.

UKAs have several advantages over TKAs. These include the preservation of more patient anatomy, increased knee stability, less complicated revision surgery, and the potential for installation through a smaller incision, as compared with a TKA. A TKA requires the resection of the entire tibial plateau, both condyles of the femur, and the posterior side of the patella, because all compartments of the knee are replaced. As a result, in TKAs, the anterior cruciate ligament, which is attached to the front of the tibial plateau, usually is removed, severely reducing the stability of the knee after the operation. In contrast, during UKAs, only one compartment is replaced, and thus only one side of the tibial plateau is removed. As a result, the anterior cruciate ligament may be preserved, allowing for increased knee stability. In addition, if a revision surgery is required, more natural bone stock is present on which to place the revision components. Finally, since the resections and components used in UKAs are smaller, minimally-invasive surgical procedures may be applied.

In the late 1970s, there were reports of high failure rates for UKAs due to problems such as improper alignment. One study, for example, reported that 10% of UKA patients needed revision surgery because one or both of the other knee compartments degenerated due to the presence of polyethylene particles that flaked off the prosthetic components. Overcorrection of the varus/valgus deformity, which is the angle between the mechanical axis of the femur and the mechanical axis of the tibia in the anterior/posterior ("A/P") plane, was one suspected cause of the excessive component wear.

In contrast, many recent studies have indicated high success rates for UKAs. These studies report that the incidence of failure for UKAs is comparable to or less than that for TKAs. The higher success rates for UKAs are likely due to the use of thicker tibial components than used in earlier UKAs, the use of component materials that are less susceptible to wear than earlier materials, and better alignment of the components by the surgeon so as to not overcorrect varus/valgus deformity.

Despite those recent studies, in many cases where UKAs are indicated, orthopaedic surgeons in the U.S. still perform TKAs. This conservative attitude towards UKAs is believed to be the result of several factors, such as the use of poor instrumentation to install the implants, concern over arthritis spreading to other compartments, and the early mixed reviews of UKA outcomes in the literature. Because of this conservative attitude, the benefits of UKAs are not realized by many patients.

Although UKA success rates are higher than they were 20 years ago, there are still important problems in UKA and TKA performance. For example, alignment of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components with respect to the bones and to each other currently involves the use of purely mechanical instrumentation systems. Typical femoral instrumentation consists of an intramedullary rod (a metal rod that is aligned with the femoral shaft via insertion into the medullary canal of the femur) and several slotted cutting jigs for guiding a saw blade used to resect the bone. The surgeon aligns the jigs first by drilling a hole through the center of the distal end of the femur into the medullary canal, which runs the length of the femoral shaft, and then inserts the intramedullary rod into the canal. Thereafter, the surgeon removes the rod from the femur, and slides a cutting guide onto the rod. The surgeon next reintroduces the rod into the medullary canal, and positions the cutting guide against the distal end of the femur. To account for the fact that the rod is oriented along the femoral shaft, which does not correspond to the mechanical axis of the femur, the cutting guide is usually offset by a predetermined and fixed distance from the rod in the A/P plane. The offset is provided to allow a distal cut to be made that is perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the femur, thus correcting any varus/valgus deformity. The depth of the distal cut is usually adjustable in discrete intervals: some systems have cutting blocks with slots at multiple depths, while others have cutting blocks with pin holes at multiple depths allowing the entire block to be moved up or down on a set of parallel pins. The remaining cuts vary depending on the geometry of the implant being installed. The depth and orientation of all these cuts, however, are determined by the cuts already made and/or by visual means.

Tibial instrumentation consists of an extramedullary rod (a metal rod that the surgeon aligns with the tibial shaft via external anatomical landmarks) and a slotted cutting guide. The mechanical axis of the tibia is assumed to run along the tibial shaft. The surgeon places the cutting jig at the top of the rod, with the cutting surface perpendicular to the rod. The depth of the cut is adjusted by moving the jig along the rod. The surgeon clamps the bottom of the rod around the ankle, just proximal to the malleoli (which form the distal portion of the tibia and fibula).

The instrumentation systems just described suffer from certain problems. Femoral varus/valgus alignment, for example, is determined by a discrete and predefined offset from the femoral shaft, which may not result in the desired angular correction. The amount of bone resected is adjustable, but only through slots positioned at discrete intervals of about two millimeters. Other parameters, such as rotation around the axis of the limb, must be determined visually. The tibial jig is aligned almost entirely by the surgeon's visual judgment.

Discretely adjustable alignment systems can introduce inaccuracies when an optimal resection falls between or outside of the range of predefined alternatives. The surgeon in such circumstances must decide which of the available alternatives is closest to the optimal resection. Moreover, the accuracy of visual alignment is primarily the product of the surgeon's experience in performing TKAs and UKAs. The accuracy needed in alignment of the prosthetic components with respect to the bones is still being debated, but it has been shown that misalignment of the components can cause excessive component wear. As a result, revision surgery often is necessary.

Moreover, because current UKA instrumentation systems are, for the most part, modified TKA instrumentation systems, some of the possible benefits unique to UKAs have not been realized. For example, because UKA components are less than half the size of TKA components, they can be implanted using a smaller surgical incision. However, many of the instrumentation sets for UKAs still require full exposure of the knee, and the use of an intramedullary rod, which can be a source of complications. Thus, the benefits of limited exposure, such as shorter operating room ("OR") time, decreased healing time, and less morbidity, have not been realized with current UKA techniques.

New technologies, in addition, reveal that existing procedures may be improved. Recent advances in medical imaging technology, such as computed tomography ("CT") and magnetic resonance ("MR") imaging, have made it possible to display and manipulate realistic computer-generated images of anatomical structures. These advances have had immediate practical applications to surgery simulation, i.e., computer-modeled surgical procedures used to plan, teach, or aid surgery. Many of the early simulations are related to planning and evaluating neurosurgery. More recently, three-dimensional reconstructions from CT data have been used to plan total hip reconstructions, osteotomies (a removal of a piece of bone to correct a deformity), and allograft procedures (tissue graft), and to design custom prostheses. Such surgical planning systems can be used to develop three-dimensional models, which help surgeons properly size and "pose" surgical tools and prosthetic components in the body. (As used herein, "pose" refers to the position and the orientation of a structure, and may be used as a noun or as a verb.) Most systems, however, have no way of transferring this information into the operating room. The computer assists in the planning, but not in the implementation, of the procedure. For the computer to assist in the implementation of the surgical plan, the models used in the surgical planning procedure must be "registered" to the patient intraoperatively. Registration is the process of defining a geometric transform between the physical world and a computer model. In this way, the computer can direct the placement of the tools and prosthetic components relative to the patient.

Some computer-assisted surgery systems combine surgical planning software with a registration method to implement surgical plans. These systems have been applied to the planning and implementation of orthopaedic procedures. For example, the "Robodoc" hip replacement system from Integrated Surgical Systems (Sacramento, Calif.) uses a computer-based surgical plan with a robotic manipulator to perform intraoperative registration and some of the bone resections needed for hip replacement. The Robodoc system has been tested in the operating room and has produced accurate bone resections, but the system has several important limitations. It is expensive, for example, and must be operated by a specially-trained technician. It also adds substantially to OR time, increasing the cost of using the system. Another problem is that the Robodoc system uses a pin-based registration method. The pins, called "fiducials," are inserted into the patient's bones prior to imaging. Registration is achieved by aligning the fiducials in the image data with the fiducials on the patient. Pin-based registration requires an additional surgical procedure to insert the pins, causing additional pain to the patient, and lengthening the patient's rehabilitation time.

The present invention is intended to overcome the disadvantages associated with current knee arthroplasty procedures, surgical planning systems, and computer-assisted surgery systems. The present invention determines optimal alignment of resections preoperatively, and uses computer modeling techniques to help the surgeon achieve that alignment. Moreover, smaller jigs are used in the present invention, and therefore, smaller incisions are made in the patient's leg. The present invention also plans the surgical procedure preoperatively, and assists in implementing the plan. Further, the present invention is less expensive than many prior art systems, and makes it possible to use pinless registration methods. Thus, the present invention represents a significant solution to many problems experienced in the field.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention is embodied in a method for planning surgery on a portion of a body with the goals of improving the accuracy of the surgery and reducing the risks associated with surgery. This method comprises the steps of gathering image data of the portion of a body using a radiant energy means for gathering image data. The image data is stored in a memory means. The stored image data then is read into a computer having a visual display for displaying images generated in at least one process step. The system uses the image data to generate a three-dimensional computer model of the body portion using a modeling means, and identifies anatomical features relevant to the surgery on the three-dimensional computer model. Finally, the system defines at least one desired correction to the anatomical structures to be accomplished by the surgery. In one embodiment of the invention, the method for planning surgery is used to plan unicompartmental knee arthroplasty surgery.

The invention further is embodied in a method of performing surgery on a portion of a body with the goals of improving the accuracy of the surgery and reducing the risks associated with surgery. The method comprises the steps of loading surgical plan data stored in a memory means into a computer having a visual display for displaying images generated in at least one process step. The surgical plan data comprises a three-dimensional computer model of a body portion, and data relating to at least one prosthesis of defined size and position relative to the body portion. The system then registers the three-dimensional computer model of the body portion to the actual body portion using a registration means. The system next provides at least one surgical tool that has a defined relationship relative to the prosthesis defined in the surgical plan data, the relationship defining a desired pose for the surgical tool relative to the body portion. Finally, the system allows the user to pose the surgical tool relative to the body portion in the desired pose, and the surgery is performed. In one embodiment of the invention, the method for performing surgery is used to perform unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. In another embodiment of the invention, the method for performing surgery further comprises the step of performing at least one resection on the body portion, wherein the resection is performed using a burring device.

The invention also is found in a jig assembly for guiding a device used to resect a femur and a tibia. The jig assembly comprises a femoral docking jig having a body, and a first aperture for receiving a positioning device. The jig assembly also comprises a femoral contouring jig that has a second aperture for receiving the femoral docking jig and at least one surface for guiding a device used to resect the femur and the tibia. Finally, the jig assembly comprises a tibial jig having a horizontal cutting guide surface and a vertical cutting guide surface to guide the device used to resect the femur and the tibia, and a docking hole for receiving a positioning device. In another embodiment where the tibial prosthesis employs a fixation post, a tibial post hole jig also is positioned.

It is an object of the invention to provide a computer-assisted surgical system that costs substantially less than current systems.

It is another object of the invention to provide a computer-assisted surgical system that requires shorter OR time than current systems.

Another object of the invention is to provide a computer-assisted surgical system method that decreases patient complications.

It is another object of this invention to provide a computer-assisted surgical system that decreases the length of a patient's hospital stay.

Another object of the invention is to provide a computer-assisted surgical system that decreases a patient's rehabilitation time.

Another object of the invention to provide a computer-assisted surgical system that allows surgeons to install unicompartmental knee implants more accurately and less invasively than is possible with current systems, thereby increasing implant longevity and improving knee function.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a method of performing knee arthroplasty that allows for more accurate alignment of the prosthetic components with respect to the bones than is currently available using mechanical instruments with slots distanced at discrete intervals.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method of performing knee arthroplasty that does not require the use of an intramedullary rod in the femur.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method for implanting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty components using a smaller surgical incision than is used by current methods.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method of registering a computer model and surgical plan to a patient's body using a coordinate measuring machine.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method of registering a computer model and surgical plan to a patient without the need for an additional surgical procedure.

Still another object of the invention is to provide cutting jigs that are smaller than current cutting jigs, thereby requiring smaller incisions for placement.

Another object of the invention is to provide cutting jigs each of which can guide multiple bone resections necessary for UKAs, thereby reducing the number of cutting jigs required to perform UKAs.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a front plan view of a femur.

FIG. 2 is a front plan view of a tibia.

FIG. 3 is a front elevational view of the knee joint, showing the bottom of a femur, with the patella deleted to expose the femur, tibia, and ligaments.

FIG. 4 is a functional block diagram of the planning computer and associated hardware used in the invention.

FIG. 5 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to generate a three-dimensional computer model of a patient's anatomy.

FIG. 6 is a top plan view of a CT image slice outlined by an active contour.

FIG. 7 is a side view of a three-dimensional computer model, based in part on the active contour shown in FIG. 6, of the top of a femur lying horizontally.

FIG. 8 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to find a hip center, a knee center, and an ankle center.

FIG. 9 is a plan view of a femur and a tibia, and their mechanical axes.

FIG. 10 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to position and align a patient's leg.

FIG. 11 is a side view of a femoral prosthetic component.

FIG. 12 is a bottom view of a femoral prosthetic component.

FIG. 13 is a side view of a tibial prosthetic component.

FIG. 14 is a bottom view of a tibial prosthetic component.

FIG. 15 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to size and select a prosthetic component.

FIG. 16 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to pose a prosthetic component.

FIG. 17 is a functional block diagram of the procedure computer and associated hardware used in the invention.

FIG. 18 is a side view of a coordinate measuring machine and a pointer useful in the invention.

FIG. 19 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to prepare the patient's leg for surgery.

FIG. 20 is a perspective view of a pointer and a transdermal means for registering points underneath a patient's skin useful in the invention.

FIG. 21 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to register a femur to a computer model using suggested pose registration.

FIG. 22 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to register a femur to a computer model using multi-point optimization registration.

FIG. 23 is a top view of a femoral docking jig.

FIG. 24 is a side view of a femoral docking jig.

FIG. 25 is a top view of a femoral contouring jig.

FIG. 26 is a side view of a femoral contouring jig.

FIG. 27 is a perspective view of a CMM tool mount useful in the invention.

FIG. 28 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to place femoral jigs onto a femur.

FIG. 29 is a top view of a tibial cutting jig.

FIG. 30 is a rear view of a tibial cutting jig.

FIG. 31 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful in the invention to resect a tibia and to resect a femur.

FIG. 32 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful as an alternative embodiment of the invention to determine how close actual resections are to intended resections.

FIG. 33 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful as an alternative embodiment of the invention to determine placement error of a prosthetic component.

FIG. 34 is a flow chart illustrating one sequence of steps that is useful as an alternative embodiment of the invention to perform a trial reduction, to cement prosthetic components into place, to close an incision, to display the amount of time a surgeon took to complete the process steps, and to provide an inventory control for devices used in surgery.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

While the invention will be described in connection with a system for performing UKAs, this description is not intended to limit the invention to that application. Rather, it is intended to cover other surgeries and applications to which the technology may be beneficially applied. For example, the invention can be used in connection with TKAs, revision knee surgery, and other surgeries. Likewise, the invention can be used for other joint replacements that involve placing a rigid prosthetic component, or surgical instrumentation, on a bone. The invention also may be used in surgeries to install screws into broken hips or to correct other bone injuries. Persons skilled in the art will be able to adapt the invention to other applications with ready facility. Moreover, the invention need not be limited to the exact order of the steps specified herein, except to the extent that a step requires information that is obtained in a previous step. For example, in the case of UKA surgery described herein, steps that are to be performed on the tibia may occur before steps to be performed on the femur, notwithstanding the ordering of steps that follows below.

UKA surgery involves two bones shown in FIGS. 1 and 2: the femur 10 and the tibia 20. As shown in FIG. 1, the femur 10 extends from the hip (not shown) to the tibia 20, and has a top 30 and bottom 40 separated by a long shaft 50. The top 30 of the femur 10 is dominated by a femoral head 60, which is nearly spherical, and which extends at an angle of about 135 degrees from the shaft 50 of the femur 10 towards the center of the body, to fit within a hip socket. The bottom 40 of the femur 10 consists of a medial condyle 70 and a lateral condyle 80, which are rounded knobs separated by a smooth depression in front, called the trochlea 90, and a large notch in the rear (not shown), called the intercondylar notch. The medial condyle 70 is the condyle that is closest to the center axis of the body, and the lateral condyle 80 is the furthest from the center axis of the body.

Turning now to FIGS. 2 and 3, the tibia 20 extends from the femur 10 to the ankle (not shown), and has a top 100 and bottom 110 separated by a long shaft 120. The top 100 of the tibia 20, known as the tibial plateau 130, consists of a medial condyle 140 and lateral condyle 150, which are concave, and separated by a small ridge, called the tibial spine 160. The tibial medial condyle 140 and lateral condyle 150 articulate with the corresponding femoral medial condyle 70 and lateral condyle 80 of the femur 10. Several centimeters below the tibial plateau 130 is the tibial tuberosity 170, which is a mass that protrudes slightly from the tibia's anterior surface down from the top portion 100 of the tibia 20. The bottom 110 of the tibia 20 consists of a medial malleolus 180. which is a bony protuberance that protects the joint between the tibia 20 and the talus (not shown), a small bone just below the tibia 20. The anterior cruciate ligament 190 connects the lateral condyle 80 of the femur 10 and the anterior part of the tibial plateau 130, and provides stability to the knee.

The system of the present invention can be described as two subsystems: (1) a planning subsystem and (2) a procedure subsystem. The planning subsystem hardware, as shown in FIG. 4, first is composed of a planning workstation 200, which is a computer 210 interfaced with a memory means 220 for storing image data so that the image data may be read into the computer 210. The memory means 220 is of any suitable form, such as electronic storage media, electronically erasable storage media, electromagnetic storage media, magnetic storage media, optical storage media, or magnetic-optical storage media. The computer 210 also includes a visual display means 230 for visually displaying images generated in at least one process step, but preferably displays images generated in more than one process steps. The visual display means 230 is preferably a raster display means; however, other visual display means 230 (such as a vector display means) may be used without departing from the instant invention. An embodiment of the instant invention uses a Silicon Graphics Indigo 2 workstation as the computer 210; however, other computers having adequate graphics and processing capability may be used without departing from the invention. The planning subsystem also is composed of preoperative planning software used to process medical image data, build a three-dimensional computer model of the patient's leg from that data, align the model of the limb, and size and place the representations of prosthetic components.

Turning now to FIG. 5, in the first step of the planning subsystem, the operator gathers image data of the patient's leg using a radiant energy means for gathering image data, as reflected by block 240. The radiant energy means is preferably a CT device well-known in the art; however, other radiant energy means, such as MR imaging devices and X-ray devices, may be used without departing from the instant invention. When using the preferred CT device, a conventional scanning protocol is employed to collect image data. Thus, in one embodiment, the protocol collects the following image data with the knee in full extension to create a three-dimensional computer model of the patient's bones: ten 1.5 mm CT image "slices" (or, in other words, ten slices 1.5 mm apart) at the hip, several 50 mm slices through the shaft 50 of the femur 10, seventy 1.5 mm slices at the knee, several 50 mm slices through the shaft 120 of the tibia 20, and ten 1.5 mm slices at the ankle. A "slice" is a two-dimensional image of a body portion taken in the transverse plane (as seen looking down from above the head) by an imaging means, preferably an X-ray. The number of slices that are taken for the femur 10 and tibia 20 will depend on the length of those bones, but enough slices must be taken to create an accurate three-dimensional computer model of those bones. For a normal-sized leg, the operator will take approximately fifty slices for each of the femur 10 and tibia 20. As already noted, image data collection using other imaging techniques, for the purpose of developing three-dimensional computer models of the imaged body, is well-known in the field. The collected image data then is stored on the memory means 220.

After the image data is collected, the system uses the data to generate a three-dimensional computer model of the bones. First, an operator interfaces the memory means 220 to the computer 210, and locates the image data in the memory means 220. The planning software then, as reflected by block 250, reads the image data into the planning computer 210. After the image data has been loaded, the operator may view the image data to confirm its quality and accuracy. The operator then, as reflected by block 260, directs the use of a modeling means for creating three-dimensional anatomical models from image data. The image data represent discrete areas corresponding to the relevant anatomical structures (for UKAs, those anatomical structures are the femur 10 and tibia 20), wherein boundaries defining each anatomical structure are determined by variations in the image data such as color or brightness gradients (variations in color or light-to-dark changes) The operator uses the modeling means to locate the boundaries that define the surfaces of the anatomical structure, and to define continuous curves (or, in other words, outlines) corresponding to those boundaries, to create the three-dimensional computer model of the anatomy from those continuous curves. The operator also may locate anatomical landmarks in the image data for use in surgical planning.

(As used in this application, the term "three-dimensional model," whether applied to a bone model or to images corresponding to other structures, means a set of relevant coordinates in three-dimensional space. Thus, a three-dimensional model of a body portion may be a surface reconstruction of the relevant anatomical structures (such as bones), or relevant portions of those structures where less than the entire structure is relevant to the surgical procedure, or a selection of critical and/or noncritical points in space that may be used to define the surgical procedure. A three-dimensional model of a prothesis may be a surface reconstruction of the actual prothesis, or a selection of critical points on the prosthesis useful to determine required dimensions and geometry.)

In the preferred embodiment, the modeling means first uses two algorithms to define a set of edges in the image data, and to create active contours that fit those edges. The first algorithm is the Canny edge filter, which is well known in the art, and which is described in Canny, J., "A Computational Approach to Edge Detection," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, PAMI 8(6), pp. 679-698 (1986). First, as reflected by block 265, a slice is displayed on the visual display means 230. As reflected by block 270, the Canny edge filter then defines edges in the image data by comparing variations in the image data with a reference value that is preselected to correspond to the edge of an anatomical structure. Preferably, the variations in the image data are variations in brightness; however, other variations from which the Canny edge filter can define a set of edges may be used without departing from the instant invention. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the operator can adjust the reference value to adjust for imaging variations.

Turning now to FIGS. 5 and 6, the second algorithm is the "snake" algorithm, which also is well known in the art, and is described in Kass, M., Witkin, A., & Terzopoulos, D., "Active Contour Models," International Journal of Computer Vision, pp. 321-331 (1988). As reflected by block 280, the "snake" algorithm first forms a continuous boundary, called an active contour 290, which consists of a series of points 300 connected by straight lines 310. For the first slice of image data, the operator specifies the positions of these points on the image data using a pointer, such as a mouse. For each subsequent slice, the algorithm uses the points from the previous slice to define the initial position of the active contours 290. The algorithm then adjusts the sizes and shapes of the active contours 290 to fit the set of edges defined above. The active contours 290 are analogous to a closed loop of springs connected at these points 300. If a spring is near an edge in the image data, the snake algorithm moves the spring close to the edge, which also causes associated springs to move. This process continues until a best fit of the active contours 290 to the edges in the image data is obtained, as reflected by block 320.

Preferably, the snake algorithm uses two parameters to limit the movement of the active contours 290. The first parameter is a bending factor that limits how much the active contours 290 can curve in a small region. The lower the bending factor, the more the active contours 290 can curve in a small region. A high bending factor is used with poor quality image that has extraneous brightness variations so that the snake algorithm does not fit the active contours 290 to extraneous edges. The second parameter is a stretch factor, which is the resistance of the active contours 290 to having their sizes changed while their shapes remain constant. Stretching is used for changes from one slice in the image data to the next immediate slice, for which the shape in the image data will not change greatly from slice to slice, but its size will.

In the preferred embodiment, the planning software has defaults built in for the bending factor and the stretch factor. In a more preferred embodiment, the operator can adjust the defaults. Preferably, as reflected by block 325, the active contours 290 defined by the algorithm also may be adjusted by the operator to better fit and outline the edges of the anatomical structures.

Turning now to FIGS. 5 and 7, once a particular bone has been outlined, the modeling means, as reflected by block 330, uses the points 300 of the active contours 290 to create surface patches, which are three-dimensional surfaces defined by a third-order polynomial equation that uses the three-dimensional coordinates of the points 300 as input. In one embodiment, the surface patches are Bezier patches, which are well known in the art. The modeling means, as reflected by block 350, tessellates the surface patches (i.e., resurfaces them with polygons) to form polygonal meshes 360. (The intersections of the line segments that form the polygonal meshes 360 are vertices, one of which is used to define the varus/valgus correction.) These polygonal meshes 360 represent the surface of the bone, and together form a type of three-dimensional computer model of the anatomy. Although this method for creating a three-dimensional computer model is preferred, other methods may be used without departing from the present invention. The modeling means preferably is implemented in software. The modeling means also may be used to identify the relevant anatomical structures. In one such embodiment, the user highlights relevant anatomical structures directly on the image data using a pointer, such as a mouse. The three-dimensional computer model of the body preferably is displayed on the visual display means 230.

As an alternative to the modeling means just described, the invention may use commercially-available three-dimensional reconstruction software useful to create three-dimensional models from the image data. Such software includes Allegro (ISG, Toronto, Canada); Preview (Medical Media Systems, West Lebanon, N.H.); Omniview (3D Biomedical Imaging, Inc., Fairway, Kans.); Analyze (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.); Orthodoc (Integrated Surgical Systems, Sacramento, Calif.); and 3D Render View (Picker International, Cleveland, Ohio).

It also should be understood that the invention may employ, in place of the three-dimensional models of entire bones that have been described herein, models of the articular surfaces of the knee. Still other modeling techniques use only the three-dimensional coordinates of points defining the key structures (such as the joint centers, and the boundary points defining the proper size and pose of the prosthesis) in place of three-dimensional bone models. The use of such techniques in place of the computer bone models described in detail herein is well-known to skilled persons.

As next shown in FIGS. 8-9, the planning software identifies the anatomical features relevant to the surgery on the three-dimensional computer model of the body portion. For UKAs, the planning software identifies certain joint centers to determine optimal limb alignment: a hip center 370, a knee center 380, and an ankle center 390. In order to determine the hip center 370, as reflected by block 400, the operator is asked to identify at least four points on the perimeter of the femoral head 60 in the image data, as is reflected by block 410. Preferably, at least one of these points is in a different image slice from the others. These four points are used to define a sphere, as reflected by block 420. The center of this sphere defines the hip center 370, as reflected by block 430. The image data of the femoral head 60, the four points, and the sphere defined by the four points preferably are displayed on the visual display means 230. In other embodiments, operator interaction may be limited or eliminated entirely, so that the process of defining the hip center 370 is done automatically by planning software programmed to identify four points on the femoral head by locating selected landmarks that uniquely define the anatomical structure.

The steps used to find the knee center 380 are reflected by block 440. The knee center 380 is defined as the mid-point of a line connecting points located approximately at the center of each of the lateral and medial epicondyles of the femur 10 ("epicondyle points"), as reflected by block 443. In one embodiment, the operator visually identifies the epicondyle points directly on a CT image slice, as reflected by block 447, but an automated procedure for determining the knee center 380 in the three-dimensional computer model of the anatomy also could be used. The steps used to find the ankle center 390 are reflected by block 450. The ankle center 390 is determined by finding the midpoint of a line connecting points located approximately at the center of each of the medial and lateral malleoli ("malleoli points"), as reflected by block 453. In one embodiment, the operator visually identifies the malleoli points on an image slice, as reflected by block 457. This procedure also may be automated. The hip center 370, knee center 380, and ankle center 390 preferably are displayed on the visual display means 230.

Turning now to FIGS. 9-10, the joint center data obtained in the previous step are used to determine the femoral mechanical axis 460 and the tibial mechanical axis 470. The femoral mechanical axis 460 is the line defined by the hip center 370 and knee center 380. Similarly, the tibial mechanical axis 470 is the line defined by the knee center 380 and ankle center 390. The femoral mechanical axis 460 and the tibial mechanical axis 470 preferably are shown on the visual display means 230. The angle α between those axes 460 and 470 in the A/P plane represents the varus/valgus correction needed to correct limb misalignment.

The planning software then uses these axes 460 and 470 to determine the angular correction needed for proper limb alignment. For determining the desired varus/valgus correction, the operator identifies the condyle upon which the surgery will be performed, as reflected by block 480. Next, the planning software aligns the three-dimensional computer model of the body portion with a graphics coordinate system, as reflected by block 490, by first translating the model so that the knee center 380 lies at the origin of the coordinate system, as reflected by block 500. (The coordinate system is preferably the Cartesian coordinate system; however, other coordinate systems can be used without departing from the instant invention.) The planning software then rotates the model until the hip center 370 lies on a coordinate axis, as reflected by block 505; in one preferred embodiment, the Y-axis is used. The planning software next rotates the model about the selected coordinate axis until a plane formed by the hip center 370 and the epicondyles points lies in the coordinate plane formed using the selected coordinate axes (in the preferred embodiment, the Y-Z plane is used), as reflected by block 510. In this pose, the chosen axis corresponds to the femoral mechanical axis 460, the knee center 380 corresponds to the coordinate system origin, and the A/P plane corresponds to the plane formed by the epicondyles points and the hip center 370. The choices of the axes and the plane are arbitrary, so long as the anatomy is in a known pose within the graphics coordinate system. In the preferred embodiment, the Y-axis was chosen for the mechanical axis because it represents the vertical direction in the Open Inventor Coordinate System designed by Silicon Graphics, Inc., which is a standard coordinate system known in the art for such applications. Other coordinate axes may be chosen without departing from the instant invention.

After alignment is completed, as reflected by block 520, the planning software locates the most-distal point on the condyle opposite the condyle on which the surgery will be performed by finding the vertex on the three-dimensional computer model having the lowest value along the chosen axis on the computer model of the condyle. The planning software then defines a rotation axis as the line perpendicular to the A/P plane that passes through that most distal point, as reflected by block 530. The operator next enters the desired angular alignment and the planning software, as reflected by block 540, rotates the computer model of the tibia about the rotation axis so that the angle α between the femoral and tibial mechanical axes 460 and 470 is equal to the chosen value. In a preferred embodiment of the instant invention, the planning software has a default value (e.g., zero or such other value as desired by the user) for the desired angular correction. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, the planning software determines the desired angular alignment rather than being input by the operator. In another embodiment, a user skilled in the art can choose the point through which the axis of rotation is defined.

Once the proper angular correction has been determined, the system preferably identifies the proper size and/or pose of at least one prosthetic component that will allow the surgeon to implement the correction. The present invention preferably uses the geometry of generic unicompartmental prosthetic components designed to represent the salient features of commercially-available components; other prostheses can be used, however, without departing from the present invention. It is intended that the invention can be used with any commercially-available prosthesis, whether standard or custom-designed, and the structure of the prosthesis is not important except that data representing its size and configuration must be loaded into the planning software in order to provide accurate sizing and placement information and useful planning information.

As shown in FIGS. 11-14, UKAs employ two prosthetic components: a femoral component 550 and a tibial component 560. As shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, the femoral component 550 has a crescent-shaped profile. The outer, or articular, surface 570 is rounded in both the A/P plane and medial/lateral ("M/L") plane (the plane representing a side view of the body). The inner, or bone contact, surface 580 has three parts; distal 590, chamfer 600 and posterior 610. The distal contact surface 590 is curved in the M/L plane. A cylindrical post 620 extends straight up from the middle of this surface. The chamfer contact surface 600 extends up at an angle from the posterior portion of the distal surface 590 to the posterior contact surface 610, which is parallel to the post 620 on the distal surface 590. Both chamfer 600 and posterior 610 contact surfaces are flat.

Turning to FIGS. 13 and 14, the tibial component 560 is a flat, generally semi-circular element consisting of a tibial tray 630 and a tibial articular surface 640. The tibial tray 630, constructed of a bio-compatible metal, has a cylindrical post 650 extending down at an angle from the center of its inferior side. Its superior side has a raised lip around the edges into which the tibial articular surface 640 fits exactly. The tibial articular surface 640, constructed of bio-compatible plastic (e.g., polyethylene), has a concave surface that articulates with the femoral component 550. Other implant designs may be used without departing from the present invention.

In a preferred method for determining component size, as shown in FIG. 15, either the planning software or the operator identifies the bounding points of the condyle involved in the operation, as reflected by block 660. The bounding points are the most widely-spaced points along the edge of the condyle on an image slice. The image slice used is a slice near where the prosthetic components 550 and 560 will be installed, i.e., near the distal end of the femur 10 and the proximal end of the tibia 20. In an alternative embodiment, the bounding points are identified on an x-ray image, or sampled intraoperatively with a coordinate measuring machine ("CMM") 670 or other measuring device. Once the bounding points are found, as represented in block 680, the planning software compares the bounding points to prosthesis size data, contained preferably in a look-up table located in a component database, as reflected by block 685, stored in a second memory means 690 (which may be the same as the first memory means 220, described above, or different from the first memory means 220) accessible to the computer 210, as shown in FIG. 4, to determine the proper component size. As already noted, this data must be provided for each prosthesis with which the system will be used. In a preferred embodiment, the prosthesis size data includes three-dimensional images of the prosthesis.

In an alternative method for determining component size, the planning computer 210 displays on the visual display means 230 the three-dimensional computer model of the anatomy along with at least two component sizing templates, which are images of the prosthetic components 550 and 560 of different sizes. The operator superimposes each component sizing template on the three-dimensional computer model of the body, and selects the one which fits the three-dimensional computer model of the bone to a degree sufficient to accomplish the desired corrections.

In a less-preferred embodiment, the component size is determined by comparing templates corresponding to the prosthesis with two-dimensional images (e.g., X-rays) of the patient's anatomy. Such techniques are known and used conventionally, or may be used by placing computer equivalents of the templates on computer-displayed facsimiles of the two-dimensional images.

Turning now to FIG. 16, the operator next manually poses three-dimensional representations of the prosthetic components 550 and 560 (or, in other words, three-dimensional prosthesis models) on the three-dimensional computer models of the femur 10 and tibia 20, as reflected by block 700. The ability to pose the prosthetic components 550 and 560 preferably is constrained in order to increase the precision and ease of placement. Constraints that, individually or in combination, limit A/P translations, M/L translations and superior/inferior ("S/I") translations (movement up and down the length of the leg, or, in other words, movement perpendicular to the transverse plane), and permit only internal and external rotation (rotation about the mechanical axes of the leg) therefore are desirable. Thus, as a first possible constraint, the femoral and tibial prosthetic components 550 and 560 may be permitted to move only as a pair, rather than individually, and that may be fixed relative to each other in the proper orientation for full knee extension.

A second constraint that may be imposed requires that the inferior surface of the tibial tray 630 be kept perpendicular to the tibial mechanical axis 470. In other words, rotations in the A/P plane and M/L plane are not allowed.

A third constraint that may be imposed requires that A/P translation (movement perpendicular to the A/P plane) and M/L translation (movement perpendicular to the M/L plane) be limited by bounding boxes so that the prosthetic components 550 and 560 cannot be moved outside of the knee. A bounding box is a box formed by the most widely spaced points on the image data. In the instant invention, the bounding boxes are determined by the Silicon Graphics Open Inventor graphics library, but other programs may be used without departing from the instant invention.

A fourth constraint that may be placed on the operator's ability to move the prosthetic components 550 and 560 requires that the surface of each prosthetic component intersect the surface of the corresponding bone, to ensure sufficient contact for fixing the prosthesis to the bone.

A fifth constraint that may be imposed requires that the distal contact surface 590, the chamfer contact surface 600, and the posterior contact surface 610 of the femoral component 550 be at a constant maximum depth relative to the bone surface they will replace. This will ensure equal implant contact throughout the range of motion and prevent the ligaments from being too tight in extension.

Once the operator determines the optimal prosthetic component placement, the planning software determines the poses of the femoral and tibial cutting jigs, as reflected by block 730. Each prosthesis must be used with a corresponding instrumentation set particular to its design, reflected by block 735, so that there is a known relationship between the instrumentation and the prosthesis. Like prosthesis data, instrumentation data must be loaded into the planning software (e.g., from a database) to permit proper placement of the instrumentation, which enables precise resecting of the bones. The poses of instruments are related uniquely to the pose of the prosthesis so that once the prosthesis is placed on the bone in the three-dimensional computer body model, the placement of the instruments may be determined. From the placement of these instruments, the software determines the resections of the femur 10 and the tibia 20, as reflected by block 740. In one embodiment, the resections are reflected by relation to the three-dimensional computer model of the femur 10 and the tibia 20, and displayed on the visual display means 230.

In addition to a preoperative planning subsystem, the invention preferably also combines a surgical procedure subsystem. The surgical procedure subsystem allows the surgeon to implement the preoperative plan by accurately guiding the placement of the jigs on the patient's bones. The procedure subsystem, as shown in FIG. 17, first consists of a registration means 750, for registering the three-dimensional computer model of the body to the patient's femur 10 and tibia 20, connected to a procedure workstation 760, which is a computer 770 interfaced to a memory means 780 for storing image data. The memory means 780 is of any suitable form, such as electronic media, electronically erasable media, electromagnetic media, magnetic media, optical media, or magnetic-optical media. The computer 770 further has a visual display means 790 for visually displaying images generated in at least one process step, but preferably displays image generated in more than one process steps. The visual display means 790 is preferably a raster display means, but other visual display means 790 (such as vector display means) may be used without departing from the instant invention. The registration means 750 is a device that reports to the computer 770 the three-dimensional pose of a movable probe. Suitable registration means 750 include magnetic devices, acoustic devices, mechanical devices (such as a robot arm), or optical devices (such as a wand with LEDs that are sensed by external cameras). The registration means 750 also may be automated. One such embodiment uses a MR imaging machine that images the body portion on which the surgeon is operating and the instruments used in the operation several times a second, thereby providing the surgeon a real-time image of the body portion and the instruments. The MR imaging machine also automatically collects data points, and uses those points instead of manually collected data points to register the body portion and the instruments to the three-dimensional computer model.

In a preferred embodiment, the registration means 750 is a CMM 670 that provides to the computer 770 data regarding the pose of a portion of the CMM 670 relative to a fixed set of spatial coordinates. The CMM 670 must have at least three degrees of freedom; however, in the preferred embodiment, the CMM 670 is a six-degree-of-freedom mechanical arm with six joints and three link members. As shown in FIG. 18, the CMM 670 has a fixed end 800 and a free end 810. The CMM 670 includes at least one input device 820, such as a button, to signal the computer 770. In a preferred embodiment, however, the CMM 670 contains two buttons: a distal button 830 and a proximal button 840, to provide for multiple inputs without the need to release the CMM 670. The preferred CMM 670 is a Faro Metrecom CMM; however, other CMMs can be used without departing from the present invention.

The instant invention preferably uses the same computer made for the procedure subsystem as for the planning subsystem; however, other computers may be used without departing from the instant invention. In one embodiment, the computer 770 communicates with the CMM 670 through a standard RS-232 serial port 850; however, other methods of communication can be used without departing from the instant invention.

Turning now to FIG. 19, in the procedure subsystem, the memory means 780 containing the surgical plan data, reflected by block 855, is interfaced to the computer 770 and the data is loaded into the procedure software, as reflected by block 860. The surgical plan data preferably is created by the planning software, but it may be created by other means (including manually, or by other planning systems). Preferably, the surgical plan data comprises a three-dimensional computer model of the femur 10 and tibia 20 or the surfaces thereof relevant to the surgery, and data relating to at least one femoral prosthetic component 550 of defined size and pose relative to the femur 10 and at least one tibial prosthetic component 560 of defined size and pose relative to the tibia 20. The surgeon preferably reviews the plan to determine its accuracy, as reflected by block 863. Once the surgeon approves the plan, an incision is made on the patient's leg, as reflected by block 867. The knee is flexed to approximately 90 degrees and fixed in place with any conventional means for holding the leg. In one embodiment, the means for holding the leg is a leg holder consisting of a track mounted on a table with a slidable moving boot placed within the track. The boot is shaped so that it covers the back half of the patient's foot. The patient's foot is fixed into the boot and firmly strapped into place with either tape or bandages. The boot can move within the track in order to flex the knee, but also may be locked into place during surgery if so desired. Other means for holding the leg that allow the leg to be selectively moved or locked into place may be used without departing from the instant invention.

Once the leg is fixed in place, the femur 10 is registered. As discussed above, registration is the process of defining a geometric transform between the physical world and the three-dimensional computer model. During the registration process, data points are sampled by touching a pointer 870 attached to the CMM 670 to desired points on the patient's bone and signalling the computer 770 of the location of the CMM 670. In the current embodiment, the user signals the computer 770 by pressing a button 820 on the CMM 670, however, other signalling means may be used without departing from the instant invention. In the current embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 18 and 20, the pointer 870 has a cylindrical body 880 with a cone-shaped tip 890 at one end and a second end 900 that attaches to the free end 810 of the CMM 670. In the preferred embodiment, the pointer is removably attached to the CMM. In an alternative embodiment, a transdermal means 905 for registering points through the patient's skin without incision is attached to the free end 810 of the CMM 670. This transdermal means includes a percutaneous means, such as a needle, for registering points through the patient's skin, or may include an ultrasound or other device for probing the anatomy without incision.

Registration is a two-part process, beginning with a suggested pose registration and followed by a multi-point optimization. Suggested pose registration is used to define the approximate pose of the patient's bone. The procedure software contains predefined CMM poses relative to each bone. Turning now to FIG. 21, these poses are displayed, as reflected by block 910, and the surgeon is prompted to register the pose by aligning the CMM 670 with the pose displayed, as reflected by block 920, and signalling the computer 770 that the CMM 670 is in the displayed pose by pressing a signalling button 820 on the CMM 670, as reflected by block 930. By relating the predefined pose with the sampled pose, the procedure software can compute a rough registration transform, as reflected by block 940. For registration of the femur, the tip 890 of the pointer 870 is placed at the center of the condyle involved in the operation. The CMM 670 is then pointed parallel to the long axis of the femur 10, while the buttons 830 and 840 on the CMM 670 face anteriorly.

After suggested pose registration is complete, the computer preferably provides visual feedback on the visual display means 790 to inform the user of the accuracy of the registration. In the preferred embodiment, as reflected by block 950, a three-dimensional cursor is displayed on the visual display means 790. The surgeon roughly tests the success of the suggested pose registration by moving the pointer 870 around the surface of the femur 10. The suggested pose registration is adequate if the cursor does not significantly deviate from the surface of the three-dimensional computer model of the femur 10 as the pointer 870 moves about the surface of the femur 10. In practice, it is nearly impossible to achieve an exact match because this process is entirely dependent on the accuracy of the surgeon's estimations of the proper location of the CMM 670, and is therefore subject to human error. However, this approach can give a very good first approximation. Other methods of initial registration may be used that also give a good first approximation of registration, without departing from the instant invention.

Preferably, as shown in FIG. 22, the multi-point optimization process now is used to define the registration more accurately. First, as reflected by block 960, the surgeon, using the CMM 670, samples a number of points on the surface of the patient's femur 10 that are contained upon a surface of the three-dimensional computer model of the femur 10 that is displayed on the visual display means 790, as reflected by block 970. These points may be sampled from exposed bone, or percutaneously using the transdermal means 905. In a preferred embodiment, the user samples ten points; however, any number large enough to run an accurate optimization algorithm (such as that described by Besl and McKay and known as the Iterative Closest Point algorithm) can be used without departing from the present invention. As the points are sampled, a counter preferably is displayed on the computer indicating the number of points left to sample. If the surgeon errs, such as sampling a point off of the bone surface, the point preferably can be "erased" by pressing a signalling button 820 on the CMM 670. A spurious point also may be identified and deleted automatically by the procedure software, and eliminated from the multi-point optimization. The sampled points preferably are displayed on the visual display means 790.

After sampling, the procedure software relates the sampled points to points on the three-dimensional computer model of the body, to more accurately register the surgical plan data to the femur 10. In the preferred embodiment, as reflected by block 980, the planning software runs an optimization algorithm, which preferably is the Iterative Closest Point algorithm described in Besl, P. J. & McKay, N. D., "A Method for Registration of 3-D Shapes," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 14(2), pp. 239-256 (1992). In this algorithm, for each sampled point in a set S, the algorithm computes the distance to the surface of the three-dimensional computer model to create the set M, of the closest surface points. Next, a rotation R, and translation T, are found that minimize the mean square objective function, as reflected by block 985: ##EQU1## where Ns is the number of points in the set S. Then, the transformation R and T are applied to the sampled points, creating the set S'. If the change in mean square error is below some threshold, t, the algorithm terminates, as reflected by block 990. Otherwise it returns to the first step using the set S'. Other optimization algorithms may be used without departing from the instant invention.

The next step is to register the tibia 20. Tibial registration proceeds in the same manner as femoral registration; suggested pose registration followed by multi-point optimization. For tibial suggested pose registration, the tip 890 of the pointer 870 touches the center of the anterior edge of the tibial plateau 130. The CMM 670 is pointed within the plane of the tibial plateau 130 at the tibial spine 160. The buttons 830 and 840 on the CMM 670 are directed superiorly.

Other registration methods may be used without departing from the instant invention. One such method is fiducial-based registration, in which fiducials are placed in or on the patient's anatomy prior to imaging. Fiducials may be pins of appropriate size inserted into the patient's bones, or radio-opaque stickers attached to external anatomy. After the patient's anatomy has been imaged, the fiducials are located in the image data, and their poses recorded. During the surgery, the CMM 670 is used to locate the poses of the actual fiducials. At least three fiducials are required to completely define the pose of the patient's anatomy with respect to the computer model. Although, as noted above, an advantage of the invention is the ability to use pinless registration, the use of fiducials is not outside the scope of the invention.

Another embodiment uses a registration method in which at least three fiducials or anatomical landmarks are located on multiple two-dimensional images, such as X-rays, and correlated with respect to each other using well-known techniques to define a three-dimensional coordinate system. Still another registration method that may be used with the instant invention is contour matching (also known as curve-matching) registration. In contour matching registration, the operator samples a number of points from characteristic curves on the patient's anatomy using the CMM. Characteristic curves are curves that define the major shape of a surface. For example, one set of curves that may be used for the femur are curves over the sides and top of one of the condyles; however, other curves can be used without departing from the instant invention. A set of curves that may be used for the tibia are curves over the front of the tibial plateau and over the tibial tuberosity; however, again, other curves can be used without departing from the instant invention. In a preferred embodiment, ten to twenty points are sampled per curve; however, any number sufficient to define the shape of the curve may be used without departing from the instant invention. Polynomials or other mathematical functions are next fit to these data points to make smooth curves. These curves then are compared to curvature data obtained from the image data. The procedure software next refines the pose of the curves to better fit the curvature data by matching the curves in the image data to curves sampled from the patient. The process of matching curvature data to refine the pose is part of an iterative process similar to the multi-point optimization process described earlier. Iteration continues until the error falls below some threshold. This registration method requires the construction of a three-dimensional model of the surface being sampled for the purpose of comparing and correlating the sampled points with the computer model.

Following registration the CMM 670 is used to guide the femoral jigs, shown in FIGS. 23-26, into place on the surface of the patient's femur 10. Femoral resection employs the use of at least one femoral jig of defined size and pose relative to the femur 10, and having a defined relationship to the femoral prosthetic component 550 identified in the surgical plan data. In the preferred embodiment, femoral resection employs a femoral jig assembly consisting of a femoral contouring jig 1000 into which fits a femoral docking jig 1010. The docking jig 1010 preferably has a body 1020 shaped like a long box, with a flat front face 1030 to guide a long burr when making the femoral posterior cut. The docking jig 1010 also has a first aperture 1040 extending through the body 1020 to guide the drilling or burring of a post hole and for receiving a positioning device, which is the CMM 670 in the preferred embodiment. The docking jig 1010 further has two horizontal pin holes 1050 and 1060 that are used to attach it to the femoral contouring jig 1000 and both jigs to the CMM 670.

The contouring jig 1000 has a second aperture 1070 into which the docking jig 1010 fits exactly, and at least one surface for guiding a device used to resect the femur 10 (preferably a drill, saw and/or burr). In the preferred embodiment, the contouring jig 1000 has a curved top surface 1080 and an angled base 1090 that extends down from the top surface 1080 at an angle. The top surface 1080 is the distal cut guide surface, which guides a distal resection. The angled base 1090 is the chamfer cut guide surface, which guides a chamfer resection. The contouring jig 1000 has three pin outriggers, one in back 1100 and one on either side 1110 and 1120, through which pins may be placed in order to secure the contouring jig 1000 to the bone. The contouring jig 1000 further has four pin holes (only two of which are shown at 1130 and 1140) drilled horizontally through its body 1150, two on each side, which match the pin holes 1050 and 1060 in the docking jig 1010. In the preferred embodiment, the femoral jigs are made of stainless steel. However, any metal that may be sterilized, is rigid, and is not easily abraded, may be used.

As shown in FIG. 27, in the preferred embodiment, to attach the femoral jigs to the CMM 670, the surgeon removes the pointer 870 from the CMM 670 and replaces it with a CMM tool mount 1160. The CMM tool mount 1160 has a tip 1170 that fits into the first aperture 1040 of the docking jig 1010, and is removably attached to the free end 800 of the CMM 670. The CMM tool mount 1160 also has a pin hole corresponding to the pin hole 1060 on the docking jig 1010. Once the tool mount 1160 is attached to the CMM 670, the user attaches the docking jig 1010 and contouring jig 1000 to the tool mount 1160 by placing the tip 1170 in the first aperture 1040 of the docking jig 1010 and inserting a pin through the vertical holes in all three pieces. Other methods of attaching the femoral jigs to the CMM 670, such as magnetic coupling, vacuum coupling, pneumatic coupling, spring-loaded mechanical coupling, screws or bolts, may be used without departing from the instant invention.

Once the femoral jigs are in place on the CMM 670, the user may guide the femoral jigs into place on the femur 10 and loosely fix them to the bone. In the preferred embodiment, to prepare the femoral jigs for placement, the surgeon applies bone wax or a similar material to an inferior portion 1175 of the docking jig 1010. The wax serves as a loose fixative, aiding the stability of the jigs while they are pinned in place. Other methods of loosely fixing the femoral jigs while they are being pinned in place, such as spikes that temporarily hold the jigs onto the bone, may be used without departing from the instant invention. In another embodiment, a driver is removably attached to the CMM 670. The driver is aligned with and removably attached to the jigs so that the entire assembly can be posed by proper positioning of the CMM 670. Once the proper pose, as directed by the procedure software, is obtained, the driver is used to drive a screw through the femoral jigs into the femur 10 to hold the femoral jigs in place temporarily. After the femoral jigs are pinned into place, the screws are removed. In a similar embodiment, a pin driver, to which the femoral jigs attach, integrated with the CMM 670 is used to temporarily pin the femoral jigs in place. After the femoral jigs are permanently pinned in place, the temporary pins are removed. An alternative embodiment uses a "locking CMM" that has a mechanism that locks the CMM's joints when desired to hold the femoral jigs in place. In yet another embodiment, the arm of the CMM 670 is designed so that motors used to move and pose the CMM 670 can lock the joints in place.

Turning to FIG. 28, the surgeon begins jig placement by moving the femoral jigs onto the surface of the femur 10. As reflected by block 1180, a representation of the femoral jigs in both their proper poses on the bone surface and in their actual locations relative to the patient is displayed on the visual display means 790 so that the representation moves in correspondence with the movement of the femoral jigs. The surgeon then aligns the representation of the femoral jigs with the optimal jig placement by moving the CMM 670, as reflected by block 1190. The computer 770 preferably provides visual and/or aural feedback to indicate how close the surgeon is to accurately posing the jigs on the femur 10 according to the surgical plan. In a preferred embodiment, as reflected by block 1200, the computer 770 provides visual feedback by changing the color of the images of the femoral jigs as the femoral jigs are moved closer to their proper pose on the femur 10. In addition, as reflected by block 1210, the computer 770 preferably displays indicators, such as arrows, to indicate the direction of movement or rotation necessary to achieve alignment. When the correct placement has been achieved, a "stop" indicator preferably is displayed.

When the femoral jig assembly is in the correct pose, as reflected by block 1215, it is pinned into place. The surgeon places the pins first by drilling guide holes through the pin holes 1130 and 1140 in the femoral contouring jig 1000. The user then places three surgical pins into the pin holes 1130 and 1140 to anchor the femoral jigs. Steinman surgical pins preferably are used; however, other pins may be used without departing from the instant invention. With the pins in place, the CMM 670 may be removed from the docking jig 1010.

The surgeon now places the tibial jigs onto the tibia 20. Tibial resection employs at least one tibial jig 1220 of defined size and pose relative to the tibia 20, and having a defined relationship relative to the tibial prosthetic component 560 defined in the surgical plan data. In the preferred embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 29 and 30, tibial resection employs the use of a tibial jig 1220 having a flat horizontal surface 1230 and a flat vertical surface 1240 perpendicular to each other to guide a device used to resect the tibia 20 (preferably a long burr bit or saw). The tibial jig 1220 further has a docking hole 1250 for receiving a positioning device, which is the CMM tool mount 1160 attached to the CMM 670 in the preferred embodiment. The tibial jig 1220 also has two peg holes 1260 and 1270 in the horizontal surface 1230. In another embodiment, a tibial post hole guide also is used to resect the tibia. The tibial post hole guide is a tube mounted on a flat surface, through which a long narrow burr or drill is guided to make a post hole in the tibia 20. The tibial post hole guide further has two pegs extending perpendicular to its base, which correspond exactly to the peg holes 1260 and 1270 in the tibial jig 1220 where the tibial post hole guide is seated. The tibial jigs are made of the same material as the femoral jigs.

The tibial jig 1220 is attached to the CMM 670 in the same basic way as the femoral jigs. Preferably, a docking pin is inserted through the aligned holes of the CMM tool mount 1160 and the tibial jig's docking hole 1250; however, other methods of attaching the tibial jigs to the CMM 670 may be used without departing from the instant invention. Preferably, the user then places wax onto the contact surface of the tibial cutting jig 1220; however, other methods of temporarily attaching the tibial jigs to the tibia 20 may be used without departing from the instant invention. The tibial jig 1220 is aligned using the same procedure that was used for the femoral jigs, using visual and aural feedback. The pin holes are drilled and surgical pins are inserted to fix the tibial jig 1220 to the tibia 20. The user then removes the CMM 670.

Turning now to FIG. 31, the patient's knee is now ready for bone resections. Tibial resection is performed in three steps, as reflected by block 1280. The three tibial resections all use a long burr, saw, and/or drill, and proceed in the following order; horizontal and vertical resections followed by creating a post hole by drilling or burring. The horizontal resection is made along the horizontal surface 1230 of the tibial cutting guide 1220 with either a saw or a long burring device. Vertical resection proceeds in the same manner along the vertical surface 1240 of the tibial cutting guide 1220. In an alternative embodiment, the user then places the post hole guide by inserting the pegs on its body into the holes in the horizontal surface 1230 of the tibial cutting guide 1220. The user guides a drill or long burr through the tube to create the post hole.

As reflected by block 1290, femoral resection involves three different cuts. The posterior cut is made first with either a saw or long burr along the front face 1030 of the femoral docking jig 100. The user then inserts a drill or long burr through the first aperture 1040 to create the post hole. The distal and chamfer resections are made by guiding a collared burr along the distal and chamfer guide surfaces 1080 and 1090 of the contouring jig 1000. The depth of the burring is limited by the contact of the collar with the distal and chamfer guide surfaces 1080 and 1090 of the contouring jig 1000.

In the preferred embodiment, as shown in FIG. 32, the surgeon next determines how close the resections are to intended resections that were defined in the surgical plan. First, as reflected by block 1295, the surgeon uses the CMM 670 to sample characteristic corners of the resections; for the femoral resections, these corners are the medial and lateral corners of the chamfer/distal resections interface, and the medial and lateral corners of the chamfer/posterior cut interface; for the tibial resections, the characteristic corners are the anterior and posterior corners of the horizontal/vertical cut interface. The procedure software uses the characteristic corner data to construct a three-dimensional model the actual femoral and tibial resections, modeling the planes defined by the characteristic corners, as shown by block 1300. (The characteristic corners and the actual resections may be shown on the visual display means 790.) The procedure software compares the intended resections with the actual resections, as reflected by block 1310, and determines whether and to what extent there exist variations between the pose of the actual resections and the pose of the intended resections, as reflected by block 1320. The procedure software then displays these variations on the visual display means 790, as reflected by block 1330.

Turning now to FIG. 33, in the preferred embodiment, the procedure software also permits the surgeon to compare the intended placement of the prosthesis, as defined in the surgical plan, with the actual placement of the prosthesis as represented by trial components. As reflected by block 1340, the surgeon installs trial components that each have three or more known points defined on their surfaces (i.e., the three-dimensional locations of the points relative to the geometry of the prosthetic components are located in the procedure software). The surgeon then samples these points using the CMM 670, as reflected by block 1350. Next, as reflected by block 1360, the procedure software determines the pose of the actual femoral and tibial trial components from the sampled points. The procedure software then, as reflected by block 1370, compares the actual pose of the femoral and tibial prosthetic trial components with the intended pose of femoral and tibial prosthetic components 550 and 560, and determines whether and to what extent there are variations. The procedure software then displays these variations on the visual display means 790.

Turning now to FIG. 34, the next step is a trial reduction, as reflected by block 1375. The surgeon first selects the prosthetic components 550 and 560 recommended during the planning stage, as reflected by block 1380. The prosthetic components 550 and 560 then are inserted. The knee, with the prosthetic components 550 and 560 in place, is moved through its entire range of motion, and the stability and tension in the ligaments is tested, as reflected by block 1390. The thickness of the tibial articular surface 640 should be such that a maximal area of contact between the femoral articular surface 570 and tibial articular surface 640 exists, while not prohibiting a full range of motion.

Once the trial reduction is completed, and the surgeon is satisfied that the prosthetic components 550 and 560 properly fit, the prosthetic components 550 and 560 are cemented into place, and the incision closed in the usual manner, as reflected by block 1400. After the surgery is complete, the procedure computer 770 preferably displays on the visual display means 790 the amount of time the surgeon took to complete each step, and also may provide an inventory control for devices used during surgery, as reflected by block 1410.

The invention has several advantages over current mechanical instrumentation systems, surgical planning systems and computer-assisted surgical systems.

Mechanical instrumentation systems in use today rely on cutting jigs that align cuts using discrete metrics and visual means, which can introduce alignment errors. In addition, these systems require a large surgical exposure because the instrumentation is large, even for current UKA systems. The instrumentation is large because it needs to cover certain anatomical landmarks in order to align the cutting jigs.

The invention overcomes alignment problems by determining optimal alignment preoperatively and using computer guidance to help the surgeon achieve this alignment. The computer replaces large, complicated mechanical alignment systems, allowing smaller jigs to be used, and thus a smaller incision to be made. A smaller incision will result in a less invasive procedure, and will lead to a shorter rehabilitation time, thereby reducing costs, morbidity, and patient complaints.

Surgical planning systems have been introduced that help plan surgical procedures. Alignment of tools and prosthetic devices in relation to patient anatomy can be planned preoperatively using these systems, but many do not provide a means to implement the plan in the operating room. The invention not only allows detailed planning of a procedure, but also provides a method to implement the surgical plan.

The preoperative planning and intraoperative procedure systems of the instant invention provide also for better limb alignment and more accurate prosthetic component placement. This results in less prosthetic component wear and better prosthetic component fixation than is possible without these systems, thereby leading to longer lasting components requiring fewer revision surgeries, and better post-surgery joint functionality, thereby improving range of motion, knee function, and biomechanical performance. The instant invention also will help reduce revision surgeries.

Current computer-assisted surgical systems allow planning and implementation of a surgical procedure, but they suffer from additional problems. Most are expensive, require a specially trained technician for operation, and use pin-based registration. The invention is expected to be relatively inexpensive and easy-to-use by an orthopaedic surgeon. Also, it uses a shape-based registration algorithm that does not introduce any of the problems associated with pin-based registration, such as increased invasiveness and pain.

The present invention has been described with respect to one embodiment, which is not meant to and should not be construed to limit the invention. Those skilled in the art will understand that variations from the embodiments and conditions described herein may be made without departing from the invention as claimed in the appended claims.

Claims (58)

What is claimed is:
1. A method of performing surgery on a portion of a body with the goals of improving the accuracy of the surgery and reducing the risks associated with surgery, comprising the steps of:
loading into a computer surgical plan data stored in a memory means interfaced to the computer, the computer having a visual display means for visually displaying images generated in at least one process step, wherein the surgical plan data comprises a three-dimensional computer model of a body portion and data relating to at least one prosthesis of defined size and pose relative to the body portion;
registering the three-dimensional computer model to the body portion using a registration means for registering the model and body portion;
providing at least one surgical tool having a defined relationship relative to the prosthesis defined in the surgical plan data, the relationship defining a desired pose for the surgical tool relative to the body portion;
positioning the surgical tool relative to the body portion in the desired pose and performing the surgery.
2. The method of performing surgery of claim 1, wherein the memory means is selected from a group consisting of electronic media, electronically erasable media, electromagnetic media, magnetic media, optical media, and magnetic-optical media.
3. The method of performing surgery of claim 1, wherein the visual display means is selected from a group consisting of raster display means and vector display means.
4. The method or performing surgery of claim 1, wherein the three-dimensional computer model is registered to the body portion by displaying a three-dimensional representation of the registration means relative to the three-dimensional computer model on the visual display means, aligning the registration means relative to the body portion in the same relationship as shown in the display, and signalling the computer that the registration means is in the pose shown on the display means.
5. The method of performing surgery of claim 4, wherein the registration means is a coordinate measuring device that provides pose data relative to a fixed set of spatial coordinates to the computer.
6. The method of performing surgery of claim 5, wherein the coordinate measuring device has a fixed end and a free end, and further comprises a pointer attached at the free end.
7. The method of performing surgery of claim 6, wherein the pointer comprises a transdermal means for registering the body portion without incision.
8. The method of performing surgery of claim 7, wherein the transdermal means is a percutaneous means for registering the body portion without incision.
9. The method of performing surgery of claim 8, wherein the percutaneous means is a needle.
10. The method of performing surgery of claim 6, wherein the pointer is removably attached to the coordinate measuring device.
11. The method of performing surgery of claim 1, comprising further the step of providing visual feedback on the visual display means to inform a user of the accuracy of registration.
12. The method of performing surgery of claim 1, wherein the three-dimensional computer model is registered to the body portion by touching the body portion with the registration means; signalling the computer that the registration means is located at a point on the body portion to be sampled; and, relating the sampled points to points on the three-dimensional computer model of the body portion.
13. The method of performing surgery of claim 12, wherein the registration means comprises a transdermal means for sampling points on the body portion without incision.
14. The method of performing surgery of claim 13, wherein the transdermal means is a percutaneous means for sampling points on the body portion without incision.
15. The method of performing surgery of claim 14, wherein the percutaneous means is a needle.
16. The method of performing surgery of claim 12, wherein the computer displays on the visual display means the location of predetermined points on the body portion to be sampled.
17. The method of performing surgery of claim 16, wherein the sampled points are displayed on the visual display means.
18. The method of performing surgery of claim 12, wherein the sampled points are displayed on the visual display means.
19. The method of performing surgery of claim 1, wherein the step of positioning at least one of the surgical tools relative to the body portion comprises the steps of attaching the surgical tool to the registration means; displaying a three-dimensional representation of the registration means and the attached surgical tool on the visual display means so that the representation moves in correspondence with movement of the registration means and the surgical tool; displaying a representation of the attached surgical tool in a desired pose on the three-dimensional model of the body portion; positioning the surgical tool relative to the body portion using the registration means; and providing feedback to the user when the surgical tool is in the desired pose.
20. The method of performing surgery of claim 19, further comprising the step of performing at least one resection on the body portion, wherein the resection is performed using a burring device.
21. The method of performing surgery of claim 20, further comprising the step of comparing the resection to the intended resection defined in the surgical plan data.
22. The method of performing surgery of claim 21, wherein the step of comparing the resection to an intended resection comprises the steps of sampling characteristic corners of the resection, constructing the resection on the three-dimensional computer model of the body portion using the characteristic corners by finding the plane formed by the characteristic corners, constructing an intended resection from the surgical plan data on the three-dimensional computer model, comparing the resection with the intended resection by determining variations in the pose of the resections and the pose of the intended resection and displaying the variations on the visual display means.
23. The method of performing surgery of claim 22, wherein software is used to reconstruct the actual resections, to reconstruct the intended resection, to compare the intended resection to the actual resection, and to display the variations on the visual display means.
24. The method of performing surgery of claim 19, wherein feedback is provided to indicate the movement of the surgical tool towards the desired pose and away from the desired pose.
25. The method of performing surgery of claim 19, wherein feedback is audible.
26. The method of performing surgery of claim 19, wherein the feedback is visual.
27. The method of performing surgery of claim 25, wherein the feedback also is visual.
28. The method of performing surgery of claim 1, further comprising the step of performing at least one resection on the body portion using a means for resecting bone.
29. The method of performing surgery of claim 28, wherein the means for resecting bone is a burring device.
30. A method of performing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty surgery with the goals of improving the accuracy of the surgery and reducing the risks associated with surgery, comprising the steps of:
loading unicompartmental knee arthroplasty surgical plan data stored in a memory means into a computer interfaced to the memory means, the computer having a visual display means for visually displaying images generated in at least one process step, wherein the surgical plan data comprises a three-dimensional computer model of at least the femur and tibia, data relating to at least one femoral prosthetic component of defined size and pose relative to the femur, and data relating to at least one tibial prosthetic component of defined size and pose relative to the tibia;
registering the three-dimensional computer model to the femur and the tibia using a registration means for registering the model to the femur and the tibia;
providing at least one femoral jig having a defined relationship relative to the femoral prosthetic component defined in the surgical plan data, and providing at least one tibial jig having a defined relationship relative to the tibial prosthetic component defined in the surgical plan data;
positioning the femoral jig relative to the femur, and the tibial jig relative to the tibia, in the desired poses and performing the surgery.
31. The method of performing surgery of claim 30, wherein the memory means is selected from a group consisting of electronic media, electronically erasable media, electromagnetic media, magnetic media, optical media, and magnetic-optical media.
32. The method of performing surgery of claim 30, wherein the visual display means is selected from a group consisting of raster display means and vector display means.
33. The method of performing surgery of claim 30, wherein the step of registering the surgical plan data to the femur and the tibia using the registration means comprises the steps of selecting a first bone to be registered from either the femur or the tibia; displaying a three-dimensional computer representation of the registration means relative to the three-dimensional computer model of the selected bone on the visual display means; aligning the registration means relative to the selected bone as shown on the display means; signalling to the computer that the registration means is aligned as shown on the display means; and repeating the sequence of displaying, aligning and signalling for the other of the femur and the tibia.
34. The method of performing surgery of claim 33, wherein the registration means is a coordinate measuring device that provides pose data relative to a fixed set of spatial coordinates to the computer.
35. The method of performing surgery of claim 34, wherein the coordinate measuring device has a fixed end and a free end, further comprising a pointer attached at the free end.
36. The method of performing surgery of claim 35, wherein the pointer comprises a transdermal means for registering the body portion without incision.
37. The method of performing surgery of claim 36, wherein the transdermal means is a percutaneous means for registering the body portion without incision.
38. The method of performing surgery of claim 37, wherein said percutaneous means is a needle.
39. The method of performing surgery of claim 35, wherein the pointer is removably attached to the coordinate measuring device.
40. The method of performing surgery of claim 30, comprising further the step of providing visual feedback on the display means to inform a user of the accuracy of the registration.
41. The method of performing surgery of claim 30, wherein the three-dimensional computer model is registered to the femur and the tibia by selecting a bone to be sampled, the bone being one of the femur or the tibia; touching the registration means to points on the selected bone; signalling to the computer each point where the registration means touches the selected bone; relating the sampled points to points on the three-dimensional computer model; and repeating the steps of selecting, touching, signalling and relating for the other of the femur and the tibia.
42. The method of performing surgery of claim 41, wherein the registration means comprises a transdermal means for sampling points on the femur and the tibia without incision.
43. The method of performing surgery of claim 42, wherein the transdermal means is a percutaneous means for sampling points on the femur and the tibia without incision.
44. The method of performing surgery of claim 43, wherein the percutaneous means is a needle.
45. The method of performing surgery of claim 41, wherein the computer displays on the visual display means the location of the predetermined points on the body portion to be sampled.
46. The method of performing surgery of claim 45, wherein the sampled points are displayed on the visual display means.
47. The method of performing surgery of claim 41, wherein the sampled points are displayed on the visual display means.
48. The method of performing surgery of claim 30, wherein the step of positioning the femoral jig relative to the femur and the tibial jig relative to the tibia, comprises the steps of selecting a first jig to be positioned from either the femoral jig or the tibial jig; attaching the selected jig to the registration means; displaying a three-dimensional representation of the registration means and the attached selected jig on the visual display means so that the representation moves in correspondence with movement of the registration means and the selected jig; displaying a representation of the selected jig in a desired pose; positioning the selected jig relative to the bone corresponding to the selected jig using the registration means; providing feedback to the user when the selected jig is in the desired pose; and repeating the sequence of attaching displaying, positioning, and providing feedback for the other of the femoral jig and the tibial jig.
49. The method of performing surgery of claim 48, wherein feedback is provided to indicate the movement of the selected jig towards the desired pose and away from the desired pose.
50. The method of performing surgery of claim 48, wherein the feedback is audible.
51. The method of performing surgery of claim 50, wherein the feedback is also visual.
52. The method of performing surgery of claim 48, wherein the feedback is visual.
53. The method of performing surgery of claim 48, further comprising the steps of performing at least one resection on the femur, and performing at least one resection on the tibia using a means for resecting bone.
54. The method of performing surgery of claim 53, wherein the means for resecting bone is a burring device.
55. The method of performing surgery of claim 54, further comprising the steps of comparing the resection on the femur to an intended resection on the femur defined in the surgical plan data, and comparing the resection on the tibia to an intended resection on the tibia defined in the surgical plan data.
56. The method of performing surgery of claim 55, wherein the steps of comparing the resection on the femur to an intended resection on the femur, and comparing the resection of the tibia to an intended resection on the tibia, each comprises the steps of selecting a bone to be checked, sampling characteristic corners of the resection on that bone, constructing the resection on the three-dimensional computer model using the characteristic corners by finding the plane formed by the characteristic corners, constructing an intended resection from the surgical plan data on the three-dimensional computer model, comparing the intended resection with the actual resection by determining variations in the pose of the resections and the pose of the intended resection, displaying the variations on the visual display means, and repeating the steps of sampling, reconstructing, comparing, and displaying for the other of the femur and the tibia.
57. The method of performing surgery of claim 56 wherein software is used to reconstruct the actual resections, to reconstruct the intended resections, to compare the intended resections to the actual resections, and to display the variations on the visual display means.
58. The method of performing surgery of claim 30, further comprising the steps of performing at least one resection on the femur, and performing at least one resection on the tibia, wherein the resections are performed using a burring device.
US08870218 1995-12-26 1997-06-06 Computer-assisted surgical method Expired - Lifetime US5871018A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08578497 US5682886A (en) 1995-12-26 1995-12-26 Computer-assisted surgical system
US08870218 US5871018A (en) 1995-12-26 1997-06-06 Computer-assisted surgical method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08870218 US5871018A (en) 1995-12-26 1997-06-06 Computer-assisted surgical method

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08578497 Division US5682886A (en) 1995-12-26 1995-12-26 Computer-assisted surgical system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US5871018A true US5871018A (en) 1999-02-16

Family

ID=24313134

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08578497 Expired - Lifetime US5682886A (en) 1995-12-26 1995-12-26 Computer-assisted surgical system
US08870218 Expired - Lifetime US5871018A (en) 1995-12-26 1997-06-06 Computer-assisted surgical method

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08578497 Expired - Lifetime US5682886A (en) 1995-12-26 1995-12-26 Computer-assisted surgical system

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (2) US5682886A (en)
WO (1) WO1997023172A3 (en)

Cited By (411)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6077082A (en) * 1998-02-02 2000-06-20 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. (Ita) Personal patient simulation
US6167296A (en) * 1996-06-28 2000-12-26 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for volumetric image navigation
DE19936682C1 (en) * 1999-08-04 2001-05-10 Luis Schuster A process for producing an endoprosthesis as articular substitute for knee joints
US6282437B1 (en) 1998-08-12 2001-08-28 Neutar, Llc Body-mounted sensing system for stereotactic surgery
US6298262B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2001-10-02 Neutar, Llc Instrument guidance for stereotactic surgery
WO2001076490A1 (en) * 2000-04-10 2001-10-18 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Medical device for positioning objects
US6351662B1 (en) 1998-08-12 2002-02-26 Neutar L.L.C. Movable arm locator for stereotactic surgery
WO2002017798A1 (en) 2000-08-31 2002-03-07 Plus Endoprothetik Ag Method and device for determining a load axis of an extremity
FR2813780A1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2002-03-15 Biomet Merck France Procedure and instrument for determining theoretical articulation interline of knee joint for prosthesis
US6370418B1 (en) * 1997-03-18 2002-04-09 Franciscus Pieter Bernoski Device and method for measuring the position of a bone implant
US6385475B1 (en) * 1997-03-11 2002-05-07 Philippe Cinquin Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data of endoprosthetic parts
WO2002037935A2 (en) * 2000-10-23 2002-05-16 Krause Norman M Computer-aided orthopedic surgery
US20020080046A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2002-06-27 Derringer Byron Scott Apparatus and method for detecting objects located on an airport runway
US20020087274A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2002-07-04 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
WO2002061688A2 (en) * 2001-01-29 2002-08-08 The Acrobot Company Limited Modelling for surgery
WO2002062249A1 (en) * 2001-02-07 2002-08-15 Synthes Ag Chur Method for establishing a three-dimensional representation of bone x-ray images
WO2002067784A2 (en) * 2001-02-27 2002-09-06 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee
US20020137014A1 (en) * 2001-03-06 2002-09-26 Anderson James H. Simulation method for designing customized medical devices
US20020194023A1 (en) * 2001-06-14 2002-12-19 Turley Troy A. Online fracture management system and associated method
US6510334B1 (en) 2000-11-14 2003-01-21 Luis Schuster Method of producing an endoprosthesis as a joint substitute for a knee joint
US6514259B2 (en) * 2001-02-02 2003-02-04 Carnegie Mellon University Probe and associated system and method for facilitating planar osteotomy during arthoplasty
US20030035507A1 (en) * 2001-08-17 2003-02-20 Li-Yueh Hsu Computer-aided diagnosis system for thoracic computer tomography images
US6529765B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2003-03-04 Neutar L.L.C. Instrumented and actuated guidance fixture for sterotactic surgery
US20030055502A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-03-20 Philipp Lang Methods and compositions for articular resurfacing
US6546277B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2003-04-08 Neutar L.L.C. Instrument guidance system for spinal and other surgery
US20030069591A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2003-04-10 Carson Christopher Patrick Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US6553152B1 (en) 1996-07-10 2003-04-22 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for image registration
WO2003041566A2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2003-05-22 University Of British Columbia Methods and systems for intraoperative measurement of soft tissue constraints in computer aided total joint replacement surgery
US20030109780A1 (en) * 2001-06-07 2003-06-12 Inria Roquencourt Methods and apparatus for surgical planning
US6611630B1 (en) 1996-07-10 2003-08-26 Washington University Method and apparatus for automatic shape characterization
US6633686B1 (en) 1998-11-05 2003-10-14 Washington University Method and apparatus for image registration using large deformation diffeomorphisms on a sphere
WO2003061501A3 (en) * 2002-01-16 2003-10-16 Alain Richard Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US20030198389A1 (en) * 2002-04-10 2003-10-23 Lothar Wenzel Image pattern matching utilizing discrete curve matching with a mapping operator
US20030216669A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-11-20 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US20030220698A1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2003-11-27 Dana Mears Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US20030225415A1 (en) * 2002-01-18 2003-12-04 Alain Richard Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US20030236473A1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2003-12-25 Sylvie Dore High precision modeling of a body part using a 3D imaging system
US6676706B1 (en) 2000-04-26 2004-01-13 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US20040024311A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2004-02-05 Quaid Arthur E. System and method for haptic sculpting of physical objects
US6694057B1 (en) * 1999-01-27 2004-02-17 Washington University Method and apparatus for processing images with curves
US6701174B1 (en) 2000-04-07 2004-03-02 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided bone distraction
US20040059398A1 (en) * 2000-03-14 2004-03-25 Visx, Incorporated Generating scanning spot locations for laser eye surgery
US20040068187A1 (en) * 2000-04-07 2004-04-08 Krause Norman M. Computer-aided orthopedic surgery
US20040073211A1 (en) * 2002-04-05 2004-04-15 Ed Austin Orthopaedic fixation method and device with delivery and presentation features
US20040106861A1 (en) * 2002-12-03 2004-06-03 Francois Leitner Method of determining the position of the articular point of a joint
US20040106916A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2004-06-03 Z-Kat, Inc. Guidance system and method for surgical procedures with improved feedback
US20040106908A1 (en) * 2002-03-11 2004-06-03 Leise Walter F. Method of manufacturing soft convex adhesive wafer
US6754374B1 (en) 1998-12-16 2004-06-22 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for processing images with regions representing target objects
US20040122305A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-06-24 Grimm James E. Surgical instrument and method of positioning same
US20040133276A1 (en) * 2002-10-07 2004-07-08 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-Dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US20040147927A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-07-29 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US20040152955A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-05 Mcginley Shawn E. Guidance system for rotary surgical instrument
US20040153062A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-05 Mcginley Shawn E. Surgical navigation instrument useful in marking anatomical structures
US20040160440A1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-08-19 Karl Barth Method for surface-contouring of a three-dimensional image
US20040167390A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2004-08-26 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US20040167654A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Implant registration device for surgical navigation system
US20040168322A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-09-02 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Razor head having skin controlling means
US20040172044A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-09-02 Grimm James E. Surgical instrument and method of positioning same
US20040171930A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-09-02 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Guidance system for rotary surgical instrument
US20040204760A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2004-10-14 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US6816607B2 (en) * 2001-05-16 2004-11-09 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. System for modeling static and dynamic three dimensional anatomical structures by 3-D models
US20040230186A1 (en) * 2003-01-30 2004-11-18 Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung Trading As Carl Zeiss Apparatus for the treatment of body tissue
US20040240715A1 (en) * 2003-05-29 2004-12-02 Wicker Ryan B. Methods and systems for image-guided placement of implants
US20040267242A1 (en) * 2003-06-24 2004-12-30 Grimm James E. Detachable support arm for surgical navigation system reference array
US20050033108A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Sawyer Timothy E. Tumor treatment identification system
US20050041843A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-24 Sawyer Timothy E. Dynamic tumor treatment system
US20050043810A1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2005-02-24 Dana Mears Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US20050054917A1 (en) * 2002-09-26 2005-03-10 David Kitson Orthopaedic surgery planning
US20050075632A1 (en) * 2003-10-03 2005-04-07 Russell Thomas A. Surgical positioners
US20050084145A1 (en) * 1999-11-01 2005-04-21 Pelletier Jean P. Evaluating disease progression using magnetic resonance imaging
US20050085822A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2005-04-21 Thornberry Robert C. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US20050113659A1 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-05-26 Albert Pothier Device for data input for surgical navigation system
US20050109855A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2005-05-26 Mccombs Daniel Methods and apparatuses for providing a navigational array
US20050113846A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2005-05-26 Carson Christopher P. Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
US20050119783A1 (en) * 2002-05-03 2005-06-02 Carnegie Mellon University Methods and systems to control a cutting tool
US20050119639A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2005-06-02 Mccombs Daniel L. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US20050137713A1 (en) * 2003-12-17 2005-06-23 Bertram Morton Iii Anti-backout arthroscopic uni-compartmental prosthesis
US20050137584A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-06-23 Lemchen Marc S. Method and apparatus for providing facial rejuvenation treatments
US20050149050A1 (en) * 2002-05-21 2005-07-07 Jan Stifter Arrangement and method for the intra-operative determination of the position of a joint replacement implant
US20050159759A1 (en) * 2004-01-20 2005-07-21 Mark Harbaugh Systems and methods for performing minimally invasive incisions
US6925339B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2005-08-02 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Implant registration device for surgical navigation system
JP2005523766A (en) * 2002-04-30 2005-08-11 オルトソフト インコーポレイテッド Decision on the femoral cut in knee surgery
US20050182320A1 (en) * 2002-05-21 2005-08-18 Jan Stifter Arrangement for ascertaining function-determining geometric parameters of a joint of a vertebrate
US20050192575A1 (en) * 2004-02-20 2005-09-01 Pacheco Hector O. Method of improving pedicle screw placement in spinal surgery
US20050197569A1 (en) * 2004-01-22 2005-09-08 Mccombs Daniel Methods, systems, and apparatuses for providing patient-mounted surgical navigational sensors
US20050209605A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2005-09-22 Grimm James E Navigated orthopaedic guide and method
US20050209598A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-22 Grimm James E Navigated orthopaedic guide and method
US20050215888A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2005-09-29 Grimm James E Universal support arm and tracking array
US20050228404A1 (en) * 2004-04-12 2005-10-13 Dirk Vandevelde Surgical navigation system component automated imaging navigation and related processes
US20050228266A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Mccombs Daniel L Methods and Apparatuses for Providing a Reference Array Input Device
US20050234332A1 (en) * 2004-01-16 2005-10-20 Murphy Stephen B Method of computer-assisted ligament balancing and component placement in total knee arthroplasty
US20050234465A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-20 Mccombs Daniel L Guided saw with pins
US20050234461A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-10-20 Burdulis Albert G Jr Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US20050234466A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-20 Jody Stallings TLS adjustable block
US20050245808A1 (en) * 2004-04-21 2005-11-03 Carson Christopher P Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty
US20050256389A1 (en) * 2001-11-16 2005-11-17 Yoshio Koga Calculation method, calculation program and calculation system for information supporting arthroplasty
US20050267584A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-12-01 Burdulis Albert G Jr Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US20050267353A1 (en) * 2004-02-04 2005-12-01 Joel Marquart Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus and method
US20050279368A1 (en) * 2004-06-16 2005-12-22 Mccombs Daniel L Computer assisted surgery input/output systems and processes
WO2005122916A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2005-12-29 Zimmer Gmbh An imageless robotized device and method for surgical tool guidance
US6993192B1 (en) * 1997-11-26 2006-01-31 Cognex Corporation Fast high-accuracy multi-dimensional pattern inspection
US20060036162A1 (en) * 2004-02-02 2006-02-16 Ramin Shahidi Method and apparatus for guiding a medical instrument to a subsurface target site in a patient
US20060036257A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2006-02-16 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Tibial spacer blocks and femoral cutting guide
US20060052691A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2006-03-09 Hall Maleata Y Adjustable navigated tracking element mount
FR2875043A1 (en) * 2004-09-06 2006-03-10 Innothera Sa Lab Device for establishing a complete three-dimensional representation of a patient's limb from a reduced number of measurements taken at Member
US20060058638A1 (en) * 2004-09-14 2006-03-16 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and device for the diagnosis and treatment of aortic aneurysms
US7029477B2 (en) 2002-12-20 2006-04-18 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Surgical instrument and positioning method
WO2006048651A1 (en) * 2004-11-04 2006-05-11 The Acrobot Company Ltd Model-based positional estimation method
US20060122618A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2006-06-08 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Navigated cut guide locator
US20060142657A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2006-06-29 Mako Surgical Corporation Haptic guidance system and method
US20060155380A1 (en) * 2002-10-23 2006-07-13 Mako Surgical Corporation Modular femoral component for a total knee joint replacement for minimally invasive implantation
US20060161059A1 (en) * 2005-01-20 2006-07-20 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Variable geometry reference array
US20060161051A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2006-07-20 Lauralan Terrill-Grisoni Method of computer-assisted ligament balancing and component placement in total knee arthroplasty
US20060173293A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2006-08-03 Joel Marquart Method and apparatus for computer assistance with intramedullary nail procedure
US20060190011A1 (en) * 2004-12-02 2006-08-24 Michael Ries Systems and methods for providing a reference plane for mounting an acetabular cup during a computer-aided surgery
US20060195048A1 (en) * 2003-09-13 2006-08-31 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for determining the angle between the femur and the tibia
US20060195198A1 (en) * 2005-02-22 2006-08-31 Anthony James Interactive orthopaedic biomechanics system
US20060224088A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2006-10-05 Roche Martin W Body parameter detecting sensor and method for detecting body parameters
WO2006106335A1 (en) * 2005-04-06 2006-10-12 Depuy International Ltd Registration system and method
US20060235338A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2006-10-19 Hector Pacheco System and methods for improved access to vertebral bodies for kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, vertebral body biopsy or screw placement
US20060235538A1 (en) * 2005-04-13 2006-10-19 Tornier Surgical apparatus for implantation of a partial of total knee prosthesis
US20060241638A1 (en) * 2005-04-08 2006-10-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Anatomical landmark guide
US20060239577A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-10-26 Piatt Joseph H Process of using computer modeling, reconstructive modeling and simulation modeling for image guided reconstructive surgery
US20060247647A1 (en) * 2002-11-27 2006-11-02 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for achieving correct limb alignment in unicondylar knee arthroplasty
WO2006119387A2 (en) * 2005-05-02 2006-11-09 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for determining tibial rotation
US20060281063A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2006-12-14 Mcclain Lolita A Interactive Radiological sciences clinical training system
CN1295651C (en) * 2004-05-13 2007-01-17 上海交通大学 Composite calibration method of mold surface optical measurement system
US20070016009A1 (en) * 2005-06-27 2007-01-18 Lakin Ryan C Image guided tracking array and method
US20070016008A1 (en) * 2005-06-23 2007-01-18 Ryan Schoenefeld Selective gesturing input to a surgical navigation system
US20070032826A1 (en) * 2005-08-02 2007-02-08 Yitzhack Schwartz Standardization of catheter-based treatment for atrial fibrillation
US20070032906A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2007-02-08 Sutherland Garnette R Microsurgical robot system
US20070038059A1 (en) * 2005-07-07 2007-02-15 Garrett Sheffer Implant and instrument morphing
US20070038223A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2007-02-15 Joel Marquart Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus and method
US20070043285A1 (en) * 2005-08-02 2007-02-22 Yitzhack Schwartz Simulation of invasive procedures
US20070066917A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2007-03-22 Hodorek Robert A Method for simulating prosthetic implant selection and placement
US20070073306A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2007-03-29 Ryan Lakin Cutting block for surgical navigation
US20070073133A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-29 Schoenefeld Ryan J Virtual mouse for use in surgical navigation
US20070073137A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-29 Ryan Schoenefeld Virtual mouse for use in surgical navigation
US20070100462A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-05-03 Conformis, Inc Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US20070118055A1 (en) * 2005-11-04 2007-05-24 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for facilitating surgical procedures involving custom medical implants
US20070149977A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2007-06-28 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Surgical component positioner
US20070156066A1 (en) * 2006-01-03 2007-07-05 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Device for determining the shape of an anatomic surface
US20070173849A1 (en) * 2006-01-09 2007-07-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Adjustable surgical support base with integral hinge
US20070169782A1 (en) * 2002-02-11 2007-07-26 Crista Smothers Image-guided fracture reduction
US20070173850A1 (en) * 2006-01-10 2007-07-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Bone resection guide and method
US20070173946A1 (en) * 2000-01-14 2007-07-26 Bonutti Peter M Inlaid articular implant
US20070183668A1 (en) * 2003-07-22 2007-08-09 Jason Davis Methods for finding and characterizing a deformed pattern in an image
US20070198022A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-08-23 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20070203430A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-08-30 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Assessing Cartilage Loss
US20070203605A1 (en) * 2005-08-19 2007-08-30 Mark Melton System for biomedical implant creation and procurement
US20070226986A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2007-10-04 Ilwhan Park Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20070233141A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2007-10-04 Ilwhan Park Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20070239153A1 (en) * 2006-02-22 2007-10-11 Hodorek Robert A Computer assisted surgery system using alternative energy technology
US20070239409A1 (en) * 2006-04-08 2007-10-11 Millman Alan Method and system for interactive simulation of materials
US20070250169A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-10-25 Philipp Lang Joint arthroplasty devices formed in situ
US20070255288A1 (en) * 2006-03-17 2007-11-01 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Methods of predetermining the contour of a resected bone surface and assessing the fit of a prosthesis on the bone
US20070270718A1 (en) * 2005-04-13 2007-11-22 Tornier Surgical apparatus for implantation of a partial or total knee prosthesis
US20070276224A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-11-29 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Devising Treatment
US20070288030A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US20070287910A1 (en) * 2004-04-15 2007-12-13 Jody Stallings Quick Disconnect and Repositionable Reference Frame for Computer Assisted Surgery
US20070293936A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-12-20 Dobak John D Iii Systems and methods for creating customized endovascular stents and stent grafts
US20080009945A1 (en) * 2006-06-28 2008-01-10 Pacheco Hector O Apparatus and methods for templating and placement of artificial discs
US20080114370A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2008-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Alignment Guide For Multiple Incisions
US20080161815A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2008-07-03 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US20080163118A1 (en) * 2006-12-29 2008-07-03 Jason Wolf Representation of file relationships
US20080175464A1 (en) * 2007-01-16 2008-07-24 Optasia Medical, Ltd. Computer program products and methods for detection and tracking of rheumatoid arthritis
JP2008531163A (en) * 2005-03-01 2008-08-14 キングズ カレッジ ロンドン Surgery planning
US20080195216A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-08-14 Conformis, Inc. Implant Device and Method for Manufacture
US20080243127A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-10-02 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US20080249394A1 (en) * 2007-04-03 2008-10-09 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for improved rotational alignment in joint arthroplasty
US20080269906A1 (en) * 2007-03-06 2008-10-30 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Method and apparatus for preparing for a surgical procedure
US20080275452A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-06 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Cutting Guide
US20080287954A1 (en) * 2007-05-14 2008-11-20 Queen's University At Kingston Patient-specific surgical guidance tool and method of use
EP2002796A1 (en) * 2007-06-15 2008-12-17 BrainLAB AG Computer-assisted planning method for correcting changes to the shape of bones in joints
US20080319491A1 (en) * 2007-06-19 2008-12-25 Ryan Schoenefeld Patient-matched surgical component and methods of use
US20090005677A1 (en) * 2007-06-19 2009-01-01 Adam Jerome Weber Fiducial localization
US20090021475A1 (en) * 2007-07-20 2009-01-22 Wolfgang Steinle Method for displaying and/or processing image data of medical origin using gesture recognition
US20090024131A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-01-22 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific guides
US20090030429A1 (en) * 1997-09-19 2009-01-29 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Robotic apparatus
US20090048597A1 (en) * 2007-08-14 2009-02-19 Zimmer, Inc. Method of determining a contour of an anatomical structure and selecting an orthopaedic implant to replicate the anatomical structure
US20090110498A1 (en) * 2007-10-25 2009-04-30 Ilwhan Park Arthroplasty systems and devices, and related methods
CN100489873C (en) 2003-04-22 2009-05-20 伊诺托拉实验室联合股份公司 Device for assistance in the selection of a compression prosthesis and in adapting the compression prosthesis to the morphology of a limb
US20090131941A1 (en) * 2002-05-15 2009-05-21 Ilwhan Park Total joint arthroplasty system
US20090138020A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-05-28 Otismed Corporation Generating mri images usable for the creation of 3d bone models employed to make customized arthroplasty jigs
US20090157083A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-06-18 Ilwhan Park System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US20090163922A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-06-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Acetabular Guide And Method
US20090183740A1 (en) * 2008-01-21 2009-07-23 Garrett Sheffer Patella tracking method and apparatus for use in surgical navigation
US20090222016A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-09-03 Otismed Corporation Total hip replacement surgical guide tool
US20090222103A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Articular Implants Providing Lower Adjacent Cartilage Wear
US20090222014A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20090228113A1 (en) * 2008-03-05 2009-09-10 Comformis, Inc. Edge-Matched Articular Implant
US20090254367A1 (en) * 2007-04-17 2009-10-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and Apparatus for Manufacturing an Implant
US20090254093A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2009-10-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Alignment Guide
EP2111153A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2009-10-28 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Method and apparatus for coodinated display of anatomical and neuromonitoring information
US20090270868A1 (en) * 2008-04-29 2009-10-29 Otismed Corporation Generation of a computerized bone model representative of a pre-degenerated state and useable in the design and manufacture of arthroplasty devices
US20090274350A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US20090276045A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-11-05 Conformis, Inc. Devices and Methods for Treatment of Facet and Other Joints
EP2119409A1 (en) * 2008-05-15 2009-11-18 BrainLAB AG Joint reconstruction plan with model data
US7641661B2 (en) 2003-12-26 2010-01-05 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Adjustable resection guide
US20100042105A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2010-02-18 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US7681579B2 (en) 2005-08-02 2010-03-23 Biosense Webster, Inc. Guided procedures for treating atrial fibrillation
US20100087829A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2010-04-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Alignment Guide With Cutting Surface and Laser Indicator
US7708741B1 (en) 2001-08-28 2010-05-04 Marctec, Llc Method of preparing bones for knee replacement surgery
WO2010068213A1 (en) * 2008-12-11 2010-06-17 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning using areas representing cartilage
US20100152782A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2010-06-17 Biomet Manufactring Corp. Patient Specific High Tibia Osteotomy
US20100152741A1 (en) * 2008-12-16 2010-06-17 Otismed Corporation Unicompartmental customized arthroplasty cutting jigs and methods of making the same
US20100153081A1 (en) * 2008-12-11 2010-06-17 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning for multiple implant components using constraints
WO2010068212A1 (en) * 2008-12-11 2010-06-17 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning for multiple implant components using constraints
US7760923B2 (en) * 2005-03-24 2010-07-20 Optasia Medical Limited Method and system for characterization of knee joint morphology
US7780671B2 (en) 2006-01-23 2010-08-24 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Bone resection apparatus and method for knee surgery
WO2010096553A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Mechanical axis alignment using mri imaging
US7794467B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2010-09-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Adjustable surgical cutting systems
US20100249790A1 (en) * 2009-03-26 2010-09-30 Martin Roche System and method for soft tissue tensioning in extension and flexion
US20100249789A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Mick Rock Method for performing an orthopaedic surgical procedure
US20100249658A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Sherman Jason T Device and method for determining force of a knee joint
US20100256479A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2010-10-07 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US20100261998A1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2010-10-14 Stiehl James B Hip implant registration in computer assisted surgery
US20100274534A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-10-28 Conformis, Inc. Automated Systems for Manufacturing Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants and Instrumentation
US20100298894A1 (en) * 2006-02-06 2010-11-25 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific Joint Arthroplasty Devices for Ligament Repair
US20100326210A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Load sensing platform for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US20100331738A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Integrated sensor and interconnect for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US20100327880A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Pulsed waveguide sensing device and method for measuring a parameter
US20100331679A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Pulsed echo sensing device and method for an orthopedic joint
US20110004252A1 (en) * 2009-07-04 2011-01-06 Jordan Velikov Plate for the treatment of bone fractures
US20110015636A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-01-20 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Elbow Guides and Associated Methods
US20110029091A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-02-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Adapted and Improved Orthopedic Implants, Designs, and Related Tools
US20110071802A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-03-24 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110071645A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2011-03-24 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20110087332A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-04-14 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US7927338B2 (en) 2004-02-10 2011-04-19 Tornier Sas Surgical device for implanting a total hip prosthesis
US20110093086A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-04-21 Witt Tyler D Patient-Specific Hip Joint Devices
US20110092804A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-04-21 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Pre-Operative Planning
US7959635B1 (en) 2000-01-14 2011-06-14 Marctec, Llc. Limited incision total joint replacement methods
US20110139761A1 (en) * 2009-12-15 2011-06-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho (Kobe Steel, Ltd.) Flux-cored wire for stainless steel arc welding
US20110144760A1 (en) * 2004-01-05 2011-06-16 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific and Patient-Engineered Orthopedic Implants
US7967868B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2011-06-28 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant and associated method
US20110160736A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-06-30 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific femoral guide
US20110160616A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2011-06-30 Orthosensor System and method for orthopedic load and location sensing
US20110166578A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-07-07 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Alignment guides with patient-specific anchoring elements
US20110172672A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-07-14 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Instrument with transparent portion for use with patient-specific alignment guide
USD642263S1 (en) 2007-10-25 2011-07-26 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty jig blank
US20110190899A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-08-04 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific augments
US20110213221A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2011-09-01 Roche Martin W Method for Detecting Body Parameters
US20110213376A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2011-09-01 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Patient-Specific Osteotomy Devices and Methods
US20110218545A1 (en) * 2010-03-04 2011-09-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific computed tomography guides
US20110276145A1 (en) * 2000-03-17 2011-11-10 Roger Carignan Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8070752B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2011-12-06 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific alignment guide and inter-operative adjustment
US8081820B2 (en) 2003-07-22 2011-12-20 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation Method for partitioning a pattern into optimized sub-patterns
US20110313418A1 (en) * 2010-05-19 2011-12-22 Arkadijus Nikonovas Orthopedic fixation with imagery analysis
WO2011098895A3 (en) * 2010-02-12 2011-12-29 Universitat Pompeu Fabra Method for obtaining a three-dimensional reconstruction from one or more projective views and use thereof
US20120046668A1 (en) * 2010-08-23 2012-02-23 Bernard Gantes Robotic surgery system
US8157742B2 (en) 2010-08-12 2012-04-17 Heartflow, Inc. Method and system for patient-specific modeling of blood flow
US8160345B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-04-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8165659B2 (en) 2006-03-22 2012-04-24 Garrett Sheffer Modeling method and apparatus for use in surgical navigation
US8177788B2 (en) 2005-02-22 2012-05-15 Smith & Nephew, Inc. In-line milling system
US8200466B2 (en) 2008-07-21 2012-06-12 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for tuning patient-specific cardiovascular simulations
US8197489B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2012-06-12 Depuy Products, Inc. Knee ligament balancer
US8229222B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-07-24 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8249815B2 (en) 2010-08-12 2012-08-21 Heartflow, Inc. Method and system for patient-specific modeling of blood flow
US8265949B2 (en) 2007-09-27 2012-09-11 Depuy Products, Inc. Customized patient surgical plan
US20120230566A1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2012-09-13 Case Western Reserve University Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US8287522B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2012-10-16 Mako Surgical Corp. Method and apparatus for controlling a haptic device
US8343159B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-01-01 Depuy Products, Inc. Orthopaedic bone saw and method of use thereof
US8357111B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-01-22 Depuy Products, Inc. Method and system for designing patient-specific orthopaedic surgical instruments
FR2979815A1 (en) * 2011-09-14 2013-03-15 Anatomic A method of determining an outer surface of a femoral part of a knee prosthesis
US8407067B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-03-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US8437502B1 (en) 2004-09-25 2013-05-07 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation General pose refinement and tracking tool
US8460302B2 (en) 2006-12-18 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20130166254A1 (en) * 2011-12-21 2013-06-27 Zimmer, Inc. System and method for pre-operatively determining desired alignment of a knee joint
US8480754B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-07-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8521492B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2013-08-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tuning implants for increased performance
US8532807B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2013-09-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Pre-operative planning and manufacturing method for orthopedic procedure
US8535387B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-09-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific tools and implants
US8545509B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-10-01 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8548778B1 (en) 2012-05-14 2013-10-01 Heartflow, Inc. Method and system for providing information from a patient-specific model of blood flow
US8556830B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-10-15 Depuy Device and method for displaying joint force data
US8556983B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US8591516B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-11-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US8597210B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-12-03 Depuy (Ireland) System and method for displaying joint force data
US8597365B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2013-12-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pelvic implants for acetabular reconstruction
US8603180B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US8608749B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US8617171B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8623026B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2014-01-07 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools incorporating anatomical relief
US8668700B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2014-03-11 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific convertible guides
US8682052B2 (en) 2008-03-05 2014-03-25 Conformis, Inc. Implants for altering wear patterns of articular surfaces
US8715289B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2014-05-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific numerically controlled instrument
US8735773B2 (en) 2007-02-14 2014-05-27 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US8740817B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2014-06-03 Depuy (Ireland) Device and method for determining forces of a patient's joint
US8747439B2 (en) 2000-03-13 2014-06-10 P Tech, Llc Method of using ultrasonic vibration to secure body tissue with fastening element
US8764760B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2014-07-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific bone-cutting guidance instruments and methods
US8777875B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2014-07-15 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs having improved mating accuracy
US8786613B2 (en) 2006-04-08 2014-07-22 Alan Millman Method and system for interactive simulation of materials and models
US8792614B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2014-07-29 Matthew R. Witten System and method for radiation therapy treatment planning using a memetic optimization algorithm
US8808303B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2014-08-19 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US8808329B2 (en) 1998-02-06 2014-08-19 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Apparatus and method for securing a portion of a body
US8814902B2 (en) 2000-05-03 2014-08-26 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing body tissue
US8845699B2 (en) 1999-08-09 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing tissue
US8845687B2 (en) 1996-08-19 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Anchor for securing a suture
US8926530B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-01-06 Orthosensor Inc Orthopedic insert measuring system for having a sterilized cavity
US8934961B2 (en) 2007-05-18 2015-01-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Trackable diagnostic scope apparatus and methods of use
US8956364B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2015-02-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific partial knee guides and other instruments
US20150049929A1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2015-02-19 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US8979758B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2015-03-17 Orthosensor Inc Sensing module for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US9020788B2 (en) 1997-01-08 2015-04-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US9017334B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2015-04-28 Microport Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Patient specific surgical guide locator and mount
US9060788B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-06-23 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9066734B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2015-06-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac guides and associated methods
US9084618B2 (en) 2011-06-13 2015-07-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Drill guides for confirming alignment of patient-specific alignment guides
US9101394B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2015-08-11 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning using captured joint motion information
US9113971B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-08-25 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Femoral acetabular impingement guide
EP2184027A4 (en) * 2007-09-28 2015-08-26 Lexi Co Ltd Preoperative plan making device for artificial knee joint replacement and operation assisting tool
US9119655B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2015-09-01 Stryker Corporation Surgical manipulator capable of controlling a surgical instrument in multiple modes
US9173716B2 (en) 2011-11-08 2015-11-03 Mako Surgical Corporation Computer-aided planning with dual alpha angles in femoral acetabular impingement surgery
US9204977B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-12-08 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9220509B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2015-12-29 Blue Ortho Adjustable guide in computer assisted orthopaedic surgery
US9226694B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-01-05 Orthosensor Inc Small form factor medical sensor structure and method therefor
US9226796B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2016-01-05 Stryker Corporation Method for detecting a disturbance as an energy applicator of a surgical instrument traverses a cutting path
US20160008087A1 (en) * 2011-09-16 2016-01-14 Mako Surgical Corp. Systems and methods for measuring parameters in joint replacement surgery
US9237950B2 (en) 2012-02-02 2016-01-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Implant with patient-specific porous structure
US9241745B2 (en) 2011-03-07 2016-01-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoral version guide
US9259179B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2016-02-16 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic knee joint measurement system including energy harvesting and method therefor
US9275191B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2016-03-01 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9271675B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2016-03-01 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal joint stability detection and method therefor
US9271744B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2016-03-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific guide for partial acetabular socket replacement
US9289268B2 (en) 2007-06-19 2016-03-22 Accuray Incorporated Target location by tracking of imaging device
US9289163B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-03-22 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic component for monitoring synovial fluid and method
US9289253B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-03-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific shoulder guide
US9295497B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2016-03-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac and pedicle guides
US9301812B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-04-05 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Methods for patient-specific shoulder arthroplasty
US9332943B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-05-10 Orthosensor Inc Flexible surface parameter measurement system for the muscular-skeletal system
US9339278B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9345449B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-05-24 Orthosensor Inc Prosthetic component for monitoring joint health
US9345492B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-05-24 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded capacitor sensor system for medical applications and method
US9345551B2 (en) 2007-08-17 2016-05-24 Zimmer Inc. Implant design analysis suite
US9345552B2 (en) 2011-09-02 2016-05-24 Stryker Corporation Method of performing a minimally invasive procedure on a hip joint of a patient to relieve femoral acetabular impingement
US9351744B2 (en) 2007-05-14 2016-05-31 Queen's University At Kingston Patient-specific surgical guidance tool and method of use
US9351743B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-05-31 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guides
US9381011B2 (en) 2012-03-29 2016-07-05 Depuy (Ireland) Orthopedic surgical instrument for knee surgery
US9386994B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2016-07-12 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Patient-matched instruments
US9386993B2 (en) 2011-09-29 2016-07-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoroacetabular impingement instruments and methods
WO2016110816A1 (en) * 2015-01-09 2016-07-14 Azevedo Da Silva Sara Isabel Orthopedic surgery planning system
US9393028B2 (en) 2009-08-13 2016-07-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Device for the resection of bones, method for producing such a device, endoprosthesis suited for this purpose and method for producing such an endoprosthesis
US9402637B2 (en) 2012-10-11 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Customized arthroplasty cutting guides and surgical methods using the same
US9408616B2 (en) 2014-05-12 2016-08-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Humeral cut guide
US20160228191A1 (en) * 2013-09-24 2016-08-11 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Method of calculating a surgical intervention plan
US9451973B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-09-27 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific glenoid guide
US9462964B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-10-11 Orthosensor Inc Small form factor muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system
US9480534B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2016-11-01 Stryker Corporation Navigation system and method for removing a volume of tissue from a patient
US9486226B2 (en) 2012-04-18 2016-11-08 Conformis, Inc. Tibial guides, tools, and techniques for resecting the tibial plateau
US9492115B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-11-15 Orthosensor Inc. Sensored prosthetic component and method
US9498233B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-11-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc. Universal acetabular guide and associated hardware
US9517145B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Guide alignment system and method
US9545459B2 (en) 2012-03-31 2017-01-17 Depuy Ireland Unlimited Company Container for surgical instruments and system including same
US9554910B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2017-01-31 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide and implants
US9561040B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-02-07 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9579107B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2017-02-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Multi-point fit for patient specific guide
US9585597B2 (en) 2012-07-24 2017-03-07 Zimmer, Inc. Patient specific instrumentation with MEMS in surgery
US20170065350A1 (en) * 2015-08-11 2017-03-09 ITKR Software LLC Methods for facilitating individualized kinematically aligned knee replacements and devices thereof
US9592096B2 (en) 2011-11-30 2017-03-14 Medtech S.A. Robotic-assisted device for positioning a surgical instrument relative to the body of a patient
US9603665B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-03-28 Stryker Corporation Systems and methods for establishing virtual constraint boundaries
US9615840B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2017-04-11 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation System and method for association of a guiding aid with a patient tissue
US9622701B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2017-04-18 Orthosensor Inc Muscular-skeletal joint stability detection and method therefor
US9652591B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-05-16 Stryker Corporation System and method for arranging objects in an operating room in preparation for surgical procedures
US9649117B2 (en) 2009-02-24 2017-05-16 Microport Orthopedics Holdings, Inc. Orthopedic surgical guide
US9655727B2 (en) 2013-12-12 2017-05-23 Stryker Corporation Extended patellofemoral
US9659236B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2017-05-23 Cognex Corporation Semi-supervised method for training multiple pattern recognition and registration tool models
US9655628B2 (en) 2009-05-06 2017-05-23 Blue Ortho Reduced invasivity fixation system for trackers in computer assisted surgery
US9675471B2 (en) 2012-06-11 2017-06-13 Conformis, Inc. Devices, techniques and methods for assessing joint spacing, balancing soft tissues and obtaining desired kinematics for joint implant components
US9675382B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-06-13 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. External bone fixation device
US9675400B2 (en) 2011-04-19 2017-06-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific fracture fixation instrumentation and method
US9675461B2 (en) 2009-02-25 2017-06-13 Zimmer Inc. Deformable articulating templates
US9688023B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2017-06-27 H. David Dean Continuous digital light processing additive manufacturing of implants
US9693878B2 (en) 2009-11-17 2017-07-04 Queen's University At Kingston Patient-specific guide for acetabular cup placement
US9706948B2 (en) 2010-05-06 2017-07-18 Sachin Bhandari Inertial sensor based surgical navigation system for knee replacement surgery
US9717508B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2017-08-01 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation System of preoperative planning and provision of patient-specific surgical aids
US9741263B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2017-08-22 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation System of preoperative planning and provision of patient-specific surgical aids
US9750432B2 (en) 2010-08-04 2017-09-05 Medtech S.A. Method for the automated and assisted acquisition of anatomical surfaces
US9770238B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2017-09-26 P Tech, Llc Magnetic positioning apparatus
US9788861B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-10-17 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. External bone fixation device
US9795399B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2017-10-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US9801686B2 (en) 2003-03-06 2017-10-31 Mako Surgical Corp. Neural monitor-based dynamic haptics
US9820868B2 (en) 2015-03-30 2017-11-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for a pin apparatus
US9820818B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2017-11-21 Stryker Corporation System and method for controlling a surgical manipulator based on implant parameters
US9826994B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Adjustable glenoid pin insertion guide
US9826981B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Tangential fit of patient-specific guides
US20170340389A1 (en) * 2016-05-27 2017-11-30 Mako Surgical Corp. Preoperative planning and associated intraoperative registration for a surgical system
US9833245B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-12-05 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Tibial tubercule osteotomy
US9839390B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2017-12-12 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic component having a compliant surface
US9839438B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide with a reusable guide holder
US9839436B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9839434B2 (en) 2009-10-29 2017-12-12 Zimmer, Inc. Patient-specific mill guide
US9877735B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2018-01-30 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation System and method for assisting with attachment of a stock implant to a patient tissue
US9907659B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2018-03-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US9918740B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2018-03-20 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Backup surgical instrument system and method
US9921712B2 (en) 2010-12-29 2018-03-20 Mako Surgical Corp. System and method for providing substantially stable control of a surgical tool
US9924950B2 (en) 2013-09-25 2018-03-27 Zimmer, Inc. Patient specific instrumentation (PSI) for orthopedic surgery and systems and methods for using X-rays to produce same
US9943370B2 (en) 2013-01-30 2018-04-17 Conformis, Inc. Advanced methods and techniques for designing knee implant components
US9968376B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2018-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US9987148B2 (en) 2013-06-11 2018-06-05 Orthosoft Inc. Acetabular cup prosthesis positioning instrument and method
US10002227B2 (en) 2012-09-18 2018-06-19 Think Surgical, Inc. System and method for registration in orthopaedic applications
US10016241B2 (en) 2015-03-25 2018-07-10 Orthosoft Inc. Method and system for assisting implant placement in thin bones such as scapula
US10058338B2 (en) 2000-07-24 2018-08-28 Mazor Robotics Ltd. Miniature bone-attached surgical robot
US10064693B2 (en) 2010-01-14 2018-09-04 Brainlab Ag Controlling a surgical navigation system
US10070973B2 (en) 2012-03-31 2018-09-11 Depuy Ireland Unlimited Company Orthopaedic sensor module and system for determining joint forces of a patient's knee joint
US10098761B2 (en) 2012-03-31 2018-10-16 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. System and method for validating an orthopaedic surgical plan
US10105242B2 (en) 2011-09-07 2018-10-23 Depuy Ireland Unlimited Company Surgical instrument and method
US10124124B2 (en) 2013-06-11 2018-11-13 Zimmer, Inc. Computer assisted subchondral injection
US10130378B2 (en) 2011-05-11 2018-11-20 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Generating patient specific instruments for use as surgical aids
US10130478B2 (en) 2009-02-25 2018-11-20 Zimmer, Inc. Ethnic-specific orthopaedic implants and custom cutting jigs
US10149723B2 (en) 2015-11-25 2018-12-11 Heartflow, Inc. Method and system for image processing and patient-specific modeling of blood flow

Families Citing this family (245)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2652928B1 (en) 1989-10-05 1994-07-29 Diadix Sa interactive system for local intervention inside a region of a non-homogeneous structure.
US6978166B2 (en) 1994-10-07 2005-12-20 Saint Louis University System for use in displaying images of a body part
DE69133548D1 (en) 1990-10-19 2006-11-02 Univ St Louis A system for displaying a location in the body of a patient
US6347240B1 (en) 1990-10-19 2002-02-12 St. Louis University System and method for use in displaying images of a body part
US5603318A (en) 1992-04-21 1997-02-18 University Of Utah Research Foundation Apparatus and method for photogrammetric surgical localization
DE69318304T2 (en) 1992-08-14 1998-08-20 British Telecomm tracking system
DE9422172U1 (en) 1993-04-26 1998-09-17 Univ St Louis Indication of the position of a surgical probe
US20020045812A1 (en) * 1996-02-01 2002-04-18 Shlomo Ben-Haim Implantable sensor for determining position coordinates
US8062377B2 (en) 2001-03-05 2011-11-22 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for knee arthroplasty
US6695848B2 (en) * 1994-09-02 2004-02-24 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods for femoral and tibial resection
US8603095B2 (en) 1994-09-02 2013-12-10 Puget Bio Ventures LLC Apparatuses for femoral and tibial resection
DE69531994T2 (en) 1994-09-15 2004-07-22 OEC Medical Systems, Inc., Boston The position detection system by means of a on a patient's head mounted reference unit for use in the medical field
US5592939A (en) 1995-06-14 1997-01-14 Martinelli; Michael A. Method and system for navigating a catheter probe
US6256529B1 (en) 1995-07-26 2001-07-03 Burdette Medical Systems, Inc. Virtual reality 3D visualization for surgical procedures
US6314310B1 (en) 1997-02-14 2001-11-06 Biosense, Inc. X-ray guided surgical location system with extended mapping volume
US6167145A (en) 1996-03-29 2000-12-26 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Bone navigation system
US6335617B1 (en) 1996-05-06 2002-01-01 Biosense, Inc. Method and apparatus for calibrating a magnetic field generator
USRE40176E1 (en) * 1996-05-15 2008-03-25 Northwestern University Apparatus and method for planning a stereotactic surgical procedure using coordinated fluoroscopy
US6408107B1 (en) 1996-07-10 2002-06-18 Michael I. Miller Rapid convolution based large deformation image matching via landmark and volume imagery
US6296613B1 (en) 1997-08-22 2001-10-02 Synthes (U.S.A.) 3D ultrasound recording device
US6106301A (en) * 1996-09-04 2000-08-22 Ht Medical Systems, Inc. Interventional radiology interface apparatus and method
US6929481B1 (en) 1996-09-04 2005-08-16 Immersion Medical, Inc. Interface device and method for interfacing instruments to medical procedure simulation systems
US7815436B2 (en) 1996-09-04 2010-10-19 Immersion Corporation Surgical simulation interface device and method
US5926782A (en) * 1996-11-12 1999-07-20 Faro Technologies Inc Convertible three dimensional coordinate measuring machine
EP1016030A1 (en) * 1997-02-13 2000-07-05 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. Method and system for registering the position of a surgical system with a preoperative bone image
US5880976A (en) * 1997-02-21 1999-03-09 Carnegie Mellon University Apparatus and method for facilitating the implantation of artificial components in joints
US6205411B1 (en) 1997-02-21 2001-03-20 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-assisted surgery planner and intra-operative guidance system
US6226548B1 (en) 1997-09-24 2001-05-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation
US6373240B1 (en) 1998-10-15 2002-04-16 Biosense, Inc. Metal immune system for tracking spatial coordinates of an object in the presence of a perturbed energy field
US6147480A (en) * 1997-10-23 2000-11-14 Biosense, Inc. Detection of metal disturbance
CA2308636C (en) 1997-11-05 2007-10-09 Synthes (U.S.A.) Virtual representation of a bone or a bone joint
US6226418B1 (en) 1997-11-07 2001-05-01 Washington University Rapid convolution based large deformation image matching via landmark and volume imagery
US6161080A (en) * 1997-11-17 2000-12-12 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Three dimensional multibody modeling of anatomical joints
US6021343A (en) 1997-11-20 2000-02-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies Image guided awl/tap/screwdriver
US6348058B1 (en) * 1997-12-12 2002-02-19 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Image guided spinal surgery guide, system, and method for use thereof
US6223066B1 (en) 1998-01-21 2001-04-24 Biosense, Inc. Optical position sensors
US6470302B1 (en) 1998-01-28 2002-10-22 Immersion Medical, Inc. Interface device and method for interfacing instruments to vascular access simulation systems
GB2349730B (en) 1998-01-28 2003-04-09 Ht Medical Systems Inc Interface device and method for interfacing instruments to medical procedure simulation system
US6236878B1 (en) * 1998-05-22 2001-05-22 Charles A. Taylor Method for predictive modeling for planning medical interventions and simulating physiological conditions
EP1079756B1 (en) 1998-05-28 2004-08-04 Orthosoft, Inc. Interactive computer-assisted surgical system
DK1089669T3 (en) 1998-06-22 2008-06-30 Ao Technology Ag Fiduciel matching by means of the screw fiduciel
US6118845A (en) 1998-06-29 2000-09-12 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. System and methods for the reduction and elimination of image artifacts in the calibration of X-ray imagers
US6477400B1 (en) * 1998-08-20 2002-11-05 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Fluoroscopic image guided orthopaedic surgery system with intraoperative registration
US6482182B1 (en) 1998-09-03 2002-11-19 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Anchoring system for a brain lead
US9289153B2 (en) * 1998-09-14 2016-03-22 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Joint and cartilage diagnosis, assessment and modeling
US6033415A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-03-07 Integrated Surgical Systems System and method for performing image directed robotic orthopaedic procedures without a fiducial reference system
WO2000021442B1 (en) 1998-10-09 2000-06-08 Surgical Navigation Tech Image guided vertebral distractor
US6430434B1 (en) 1998-12-14 2002-08-06 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. Method for determining the location and orientation of a bone for computer-assisted orthopedic procedures using intraoperatively attached markers
US6322567B1 (en) 1998-12-14 2001-11-27 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. Bone motion tracking system
US6285902B1 (en) * 1999-02-10 2001-09-04 Surgical Insights, Inc. Computer assisted targeting device for use in orthopaedic surgery
US6692447B1 (en) * 1999-02-16 2004-02-17 Frederic Picard Optimizing alignment of an appendicular
US6368331B1 (en) * 1999-02-22 2002-04-09 Vtarget Ltd. Method and system for guiding a diagnostic or therapeutic instrument towards a target region inside the patient's body
US7575550B1 (en) 1999-03-11 2009-08-18 Biosense, Inc. Position sensing based on ultrasound emission
US7558616B2 (en) 1999-03-11 2009-07-07 Biosense, Inc. Guidance of invasive medical procedures using implantable tags
US7174201B2 (en) * 1999-03-11 2007-02-06 Biosense, Inc. Position sensing system with integral location pad and position display
US7549960B2 (en) * 1999-03-11 2009-06-23 Biosense, Inc. Implantable and insertable passive tags
US7590441B2 (en) 1999-03-11 2009-09-15 Biosense, Inc. Invasive medical device with position sensing and display
WO2000054687A1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2000-09-21 Synthes Ag Chur Imaging and planning device for ligament graft placement
US6470207B1 (en) 1999-03-23 2002-10-22 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Navigational guidance via computer-assisted fluoroscopic imaging
EP1171780A1 (en) 1999-04-20 2002-01-16 Synthes Ag Device for the percutaneous attainment of 3d-coordinates on the surface of a human or animal organ
US6491699B1 (en) 1999-04-20 2002-12-10 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Instrument guidance method and system for image guided surgery
JP3537362B2 (en) * 1999-10-12 2004-06-14 ファナック株式会社 Graphic display apparatus for a robot system
US8644907B2 (en) 1999-10-28 2014-02-04 Medtronic Navigaton, Inc. Method and apparatus for surgical navigation
US6499488B1 (en) 1999-10-28 2002-12-31 Winchester Development Associates Surgical sensor
US6474341B1 (en) 1999-10-28 2002-11-05 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Surgical communication and power system
US6381485B1 (en) 1999-10-28 2002-04-30 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Registration of human anatomy integrated for electromagnetic localization
US6493573B1 (en) 1999-10-28 2002-12-10 Winchester Development Associates Method and system for navigating a catheter probe in the presence of field-influencing objects
US6235038B1 (en) 1999-10-28 2001-05-22 Medtronic Surgical Navigation Technologies System for translation of electromagnetic and optical localization systems
US6662148B1 (en) * 2000-01-28 2003-12-09 International Business Machines Corporation Computation of shapes of three-dimensional linkage structures based on optimization techniques
WO2001064124A1 (en) 2000-03-01 2001-09-07 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Multiple cannula image guided tool for image guided procedures
US6535756B1 (en) 2000-04-07 2003-03-18 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Trajectory storage apparatus and method for surgical navigation system
US7713305B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2010-05-11 Arthrosurface, Inc. Articular surface implant
US7618462B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2009-11-17 Arthrosurface Incorporated System and method for joint resurface repair
US8177841B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2012-05-15 Arthrosurface Inc. System and method for joint resurface repair
US7678151B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2010-03-16 Ek Steven W System and method for joint resurface repair
US6610067B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2003-08-26 Arthrosurface, Incorporated System and method for joint resurface repair
US6520964B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2003-02-18 Std Manufacturing, Inc. System and method for joint resurface repair
US8388624B2 (en) 2003-02-24 2013-03-05 Arthrosurface Incorporated Trochlear resurfacing system and method
US7085400B1 (en) 2000-06-14 2006-08-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. System and method for image based sensor calibration
JP2004507288A (en) 2000-07-06 2004-03-11 ジンテーズ アクチエンゲゼルシャフト クールSynthes Aktiengesellschaft Hit detection method and the hit detection device
US6484118B1 (en) 2000-07-20 2002-11-19 Biosense, Inc. Electromagnetic position single axis system
ES2216789T3 (en) 2000-09-26 2004-11-01 Brainlab Ag System for assisted navigation guidance elements on a body.
EP1190676B1 (en) 2000-09-26 2003-08-13 BrainLAB AG Device for determining the position of a cutting guide
US7548865B2 (en) * 2000-10-20 2009-06-16 Arthrex, Inc. Method of selling procedure specific allografts and associated instrumentation
US6785409B1 (en) * 2000-10-24 2004-08-31 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Segmentation method and apparatus for medical images using diffusion propagation, pixel classification, and mathematical morphology
WO2002036018A1 (en) * 2000-11-03 2002-05-10 Synthes Ag Chur Determination of deformation of surgical tools
FR2816200A1 (en) 2000-11-06 2002-05-10 Praxim Determination of the position of a knee prosthesis
US6917827B2 (en) * 2000-11-17 2005-07-12 Ge Medical Systems Global Technology Company, Llc Enhanced graphic features for computer assisted surgery system
GB0101990D0 (en) * 2001-01-25 2001-03-14 Finsbury Dev Ltd Surgical system
US20040181149A1 (en) 2001-02-07 2004-09-16 Ulrich Langlotz Device and method for intraoperative navigation
US6636757B1 (en) 2001-06-04 2003-10-21 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for electromagnetic navigation of a surgical probe near a metal object
WO2003012724A9 (en) * 2001-07-27 2003-09-04 Virtualscopics Llc System and method for quantitative assessment of joint diseases and the change over time of joint diseases
US7383073B1 (en) 2001-10-16 2008-06-03 Z-Kat Inc. Digital minimally invasive surgery system
FR2831794B1 (en) * 2001-11-05 2004-02-13 Depuy France A method of selecting knee prosthesis elements and device for its implementation
WO2003039370A1 (en) 2001-11-05 2003-05-15 Computerized Medical Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for registration, guidance, and targeting of external beam radiation therapy
WO2003053244B1 (en) * 2001-12-11 2003-10-16 Ecole Technologie Superieure Method of calibration for the representation of knee kinematics and harness for use therewith
US20030153978A1 (en) * 2002-02-08 2003-08-14 Whiteside Biomechanics, Inc. Apparatus and method of ligament balancing and component fit check in total knee arthroplasty
US20030210812A1 (en) * 2002-02-26 2003-11-13 Ali Khamene Apparatus and method for surgical navigation
US6947786B2 (en) 2002-02-28 2005-09-20 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for perspective inversion
JP2003271749A (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-09-26 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Surgical operation assistance system
US9155544B2 (en) * 2002-03-20 2015-10-13 P Tech, Llc Robotic systems and methods
US6990368B2 (en) 2002-04-04 2006-01-24 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for virtual digital subtraction angiography
US7998062B2 (en) 2004-03-29 2011-08-16 Superdimension, Ltd. Endoscope structures and techniques for navigating to a target in branched structure
US7187800B2 (en) 2002-08-02 2007-03-06 Computerized Medical Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for image segmentation using Jensen-Shannon divergence and Jensen-Renyi divergence
US7736368B2 (en) * 2002-08-23 2010-06-15 Orthosoft Inc. Surgical universal positioning block and tool guide
US20040039396A1 (en) * 2002-08-23 2004-02-26 Orthosoft Inc. Universal positioning block
WO2004017842A3 (en) * 2002-08-23 2004-06-24 Orthosoft Inc Surgical universal positioning block and tool guide
ES2224007T3 (en) * 2002-09-24 2005-03-01 Brainlab Ag Device and method for determining the angle of opening of a joint.
WO2004041097A1 (en) * 2002-11-05 2004-05-21 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and device for determining the position of a knee-joint endoprosthesis
US7697972B2 (en) 2002-11-19 2010-04-13 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Navigation system for cardiac therapies
US7599730B2 (en) 2002-11-19 2009-10-06 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Navigation system for cardiac therapies
US7945309B2 (en) 2002-11-22 2011-05-17 Biosense, Inc. Dynamic metal immunity
US7901408B2 (en) 2002-12-03 2011-03-08 Arthrosurface, Inc. System and method for retrograde procedure
US7163541B2 (en) 2002-12-03 2007-01-16 Arthrosurface Incorporated Tibial resurfacing system
US7951163B2 (en) 2003-11-20 2011-05-31 Arthrosurface, Inc. Retrograde excision system and apparatus
US7828853B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2010-11-09 Arthrosurface, Inc. Articular surface implant and delivery system
EP1765201A4 (en) 2004-06-28 2013-01-23 Arthrosurface Inc System for articular surface replacement
CA2511216C (en) 2002-12-20 2011-02-01 Smith & Nephew, Inc. High performance knee prostheses
US7542791B2 (en) 2003-01-30 2009-06-02 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for preplanning a surgical procedure
US7660623B2 (en) 2003-01-30 2010-02-09 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Six degree of freedom alignment display for medical procedures
EP1697874B8 (en) * 2003-02-04 2012-03-14 Mako Surgical Corp. Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus
EP1667574A4 (en) * 2003-02-04 2008-03-12 Z Kat Inc System and method for providing computer assistance with spinal fixation procedures
US20050267354A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2005-12-01 Joel Marquart System and method for providing computer assistance with spinal fixation procedures
WO2004070577A3 (en) * 2003-02-04 2006-01-12 Z Kat Inc Interactive computer-assisted surgery system and method
US7974680B2 (en) * 2003-05-29 2011-07-05 Biosense, Inc. Hysteresis assessment for metal immunity
US7433728B2 (en) 2003-05-29 2008-10-07 Biosense, Inc. Dynamic metal immunity by hysteresis
US7104997B2 (en) * 2003-06-19 2006-09-12 Lionberger Jr David R Cutting guide apparatus and surgical method for use in knee arthroplasty
US7321228B2 (en) * 2003-07-31 2008-01-22 Biosense Webster, Inc. Detection of metal disturbance in a magnetic tracking system
US7313430B2 (en) 2003-08-28 2007-12-25 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing stereotactic surgery
US20050065617A1 (en) * 2003-09-05 2005-03-24 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis System and method of performing ball and socket joint arthroscopy
EP1667749B1 (en) 2003-09-15 2009-08-05 Super Dimension Ltd. System of accessories for use with bronchoscopes
EP2316328B1 (en) 2003-09-15 2012-05-09 Super Dimension Ltd. Wrap-around holding device for use with bronchoscopes
US7835778B2 (en) 2003-10-16 2010-11-16 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for surgical navigation of a multiple piece construct for implantation
US8239001B2 (en) 2003-10-17 2012-08-07 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for surgical navigation
US7366562B2 (en) 2003-10-17 2008-04-29 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for surgical navigation
US7840253B2 (en) 2003-10-17 2010-11-23 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for surgical navigation
US7392076B2 (en) * 2003-11-04 2008-06-24 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co. Kg System and method of registering image data to intra-operatively digitized landmarks
JP2007512108A (en) 2003-11-20 2007-05-17 アースロサーフィス・インコーポレーテッド Degeneracy specific delivery of surface re-forming device
US8548822B2 (en) * 2003-12-19 2013-10-01 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co., Kg Reactive workflow system and method
US8021368B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2011-09-20 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for improved cutting tools for resection
US8114083B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2012-02-14 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for improved drilling and milling tools for resection
US7815645B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2010-10-19 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for pinplasty bone resection
US7857814B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2010-12-28 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for minimally invasive arthroplasty
US20060030854A1 (en) 2004-02-02 2006-02-09 Haines Timothy G Methods and apparatus for wireplasty bone resection
US8764725B2 (en) 2004-02-09 2014-07-01 Covidien Lp Directional anchoring mechanism, method and applications thereof
US20060030855A1 (en) 2004-03-08 2006-02-09 Haines Timothy G Methods and apparatus for improved profile based resection
US7641660B2 (en) 2004-03-08 2010-01-05 Biomet Manufacturing Corporation Method, apparatus, and system for image guided bone cutting
US20050203539A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-15 Grimm James E. Navigated stemmed orthopaedic implant inserter
US7505030B2 (en) * 2004-03-18 2009-03-17 Immersion Medical, Inc. Medical device and procedure simulation
US7567834B2 (en) 2004-05-03 2009-07-28 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for implantation between two vertebral bodies
US7776055B2 (en) * 2004-07-19 2010-08-17 General Electric Company System and method for tracking progress of insertion of a rod in a bone
US8007448B2 (en) * 2004-10-08 2011-08-30 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co. Kg. System and method for performing arthroplasty of a joint and tracking a plumb line plane
US7792343B2 (en) * 2004-11-17 2010-09-07 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Elastic image registration functionality
DE102005012696A1 (en) 2005-03-18 2006-09-21 Siemens Ag Medical examination/treatment system e.g. electro-physiological mapping/ablation system, has computer for evaluating acquired parameter so that parameter is output as acoustic signal, whose property is adjusted based on evaluated parameter
WO2006106419A3 (en) * 2005-04-07 2006-12-07 Stephane Lavallee Robotic guide assembly for use in computer-aided surgery
WO2007010330A1 (en) 2005-07-15 2007-01-25 Gulhivair Holding Sa Device and method for a computer-assisted internal bone digitising for orthopaedic surgery and traumatology
US7835784B2 (en) 2005-09-21 2010-11-16 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame
US20070179626A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-08-02 De La Barrera Jose L M Functional joint arthroplasty method
US9168102B2 (en) 2006-01-18 2015-10-27 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for providing a container to a sterile environment
US20090068617A1 (en) * 2006-03-03 2009-03-12 Lauren Mark D Method Of Designing Dental Devices Using Four-Dimensional Data
US8078255B2 (en) * 2006-03-29 2011-12-13 University Of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc. Virtual surgical systems and methods
US8112292B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-02-07 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for optimizing a therapy
GB0610079D0 (en) * 2006-05-22 2006-06-28 Finsbury Dev Ltd Method & system
US8560047B2 (en) * 2006-06-16 2013-10-15 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Method and apparatus for computer aided surgery
US8565853B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2013-10-22 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Simulated bone or tissue manipulation
ES2622412T3 (en) * 2006-09-06 2017-07-06 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Implants with transition surfaces
US8660635B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2014-02-25 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for optimizing a computer assisted surgical procedure
WO2008073404A3 (en) 2006-12-11 2008-08-21 Arthrosurface Inc Retrograde resection apparatus and method
US8214016B2 (en) * 2006-12-12 2012-07-03 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine System and method for determining an optimal type and position of an implant
US7909610B1 (en) 2006-12-21 2011-03-22 Amato Craniofacial Engineering, LLC Computer-aided system of orthopedic surgery
EP2031531A3 (en) * 2007-07-20 2009-04-29 BrainLAB AG Integrated medical technical display system
US8915922B2 (en) 2007-09-13 2014-12-23 Zsigmond Szanto Method of planning and performing a spherical osteotomy using the 3-dimensional center of rotation of angulation (CORA)
WO2009035670A3 (en) * 2007-09-13 2009-05-28 Zsigmond Szanto Spherical osteotomy device and method
US8905920B2 (en) 2007-09-27 2014-12-09 Covidien Lp Bronchoscope adapter and method
US8702712B2 (en) * 2007-12-06 2014-04-22 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for determining the mechanical axis of a femur
US10070903B2 (en) * 2008-01-09 2018-09-11 Stryker European Holdings I, Llc Stereotactic computer assisted surgery method and system
EP2262448A4 (en) 2008-03-03 2014-03-26 Arthrosurface Inc Bone resurfacing system and method
JP2009219794A (en) * 2008-03-18 2009-10-01 Olympus Medical Systems Corp Ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
US9575140B2 (en) 2008-04-03 2017-02-21 Covidien Lp Magnetic interference detection system and method
US8549888B2 (en) 2008-04-04 2013-10-08 Nuvasive, Inc. System and device for designing and forming a surgical implant
WO2009147671A1 (en) 2008-06-03 2009-12-10 Superdimension Ltd. Feature-based registration method
US8218847B2 (en) 2008-06-06 2012-07-10 Superdimension, Ltd. Hybrid registration method
US20120130376A1 (en) 2008-06-25 2012-05-24 Small Bone Innovations, Inc. Surgical instrumentation and methods of use for implanting a prosthesis
US8932207B2 (en) 2008-07-10 2015-01-13 Covidien Lp Integrated multi-functional endoscopic tool
JP5302595B2 (en) * 2008-08-06 2013-10-02 株式会社日立ハイテクノロジーズ Tilted observation method and observation device
US8165658B2 (en) 2008-09-26 2012-04-24 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for positioning a guide relative to a base
US8160326B2 (en) * 2008-10-08 2012-04-17 Fujifilm Medical Systems Usa, Inc. Method and system for surgical modeling
US8160325B2 (en) 2008-10-08 2012-04-17 Fujifilm Medical Systems Usa, Inc. Method and system for surgical planning
US8428688B2 (en) * 2008-11-10 2013-04-23 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Automatic femur segmentation and condyle line detection in 3D MR scans for alignment of high resolution MR
US9033958B2 (en) * 2008-11-11 2015-05-19 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine Surgical robotic system
US8175681B2 (en) 2008-12-16 2012-05-08 Medtronic Navigation Inc. Combination of electromagnetic and electropotential localization
GB2466818B (en) * 2009-01-09 2014-08-13 Inst Cancer Genetics And Informatics Optimizing the initialization and convergence of active contours for segmentation of cell nuclei in histological sections
JP5726850B2 (en) 2009-03-20 2015-06-03 ザ ジョンズ ホプキンス ユニバーシティ Method and system for quantifying the technical skills
EP2415019A1 (en) * 2009-04-03 2012-02-08 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Interactive iterative closest point algorithm for organ segmentation
US8611984B2 (en) 2009-04-08 2013-12-17 Covidien Lp Locatable catheter
WO2010121246A1 (en) 2009-04-17 2010-10-21 Arthrosurface Incorporated Glenoid resurfacing system and method
US9662126B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2017-05-30 Arthrosurface Incorporated Glenoid resurfacing system and method
US8794977B2 (en) * 2009-04-29 2014-08-05 Lifemodeler, Inc. Implant training system
US9104791B2 (en) * 2009-05-28 2015-08-11 Immersion Corporation Systems and methods for editing a model of a physical system for a simulation
WO2010144405A3 (en) 2009-06-08 2011-03-03 Surgivision, Inc. Mri-guided surgical systems with proximity alerts
EP2442718B1 (en) 2009-06-16 2018-04-25 MRI Interventions, Inc. Mri-guided devices and mri-guided interventional systems that can track and generate dynamic visualizations of the devices in near real time
US8494613B2 (en) 2009-08-31 2013-07-23 Medtronic, Inc. Combination localization system
US8494614B2 (en) 2009-08-31 2013-07-23 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Combination localization system
US8860757B2 (en) * 2009-12-14 2014-10-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Visualization guided ACL localization system
US20110213379A1 (en) * 2010-03-01 2011-09-01 Stryker Trauma Gmbh Computer assisted surgery system
US20120330135A1 (en) * 2010-03-03 2012-12-27 Manuel Millahn Method for enabling medical navigation with minimised invasiveness
US8974459B1 (en) 2010-05-21 2015-03-10 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Natural alignment knee instruments
WO2012014036A3 (en) * 2010-06-16 2013-01-31 A2 Surgical Method for determining bone resection on a deformed bone surface from few parameters
US8908937B2 (en) 2010-07-08 2014-12-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and device for digital image templating
JP5564149B2 (en) 2010-07-16 2014-07-30 ストライカー トラウマ ゲーエムベーハー Surgical targeting system and method
CN103402462B (en) 2010-08-12 2016-09-07 史密夫和内修有限公司 The structure for fixing the orthopedic implant
WO2012021858A3 (en) * 2010-08-13 2012-08-09 Mason James Bettenga Implant alignment
US8917290B2 (en) 2011-01-31 2014-12-23 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Digital image templating
WO2012134737A1 (en) * 2011-03-07 2012-10-04 Zsigmond Szanto Method of planning and performing a spherical osteotomy using the 3-dimensional center of rotation of angulation (cora)
US9066716B2 (en) 2011-03-30 2015-06-30 Arthrosurface Incorporated Suture coil and suture sheath for tissue repair
US9220510B2 (en) 2011-06-15 2015-12-29 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine System and method for bone preparation for an implant
EP2720631A4 (en) 2011-06-16 2015-06-24 Smith & Nephew Inc Surgical alignment using references
US9498231B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2016-11-22 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US10105149B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-10-23 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US9408686B1 (en) 2012-01-20 2016-08-09 Conformis, Inc. Devices, systems and methods for manufacturing orthopedic implants
EP2624211A1 (en) * 2012-02-06 2013-08-07 Samsung Medison Co., Ltd. Image processing apparatus and method
US9468448B2 (en) 2012-07-03 2016-10-18 Arthrosurface Incorporated System and method for joint resurfacing and repair
JP6123061B2 (en) * 2012-08-10 2017-05-10 アルスロデザイン株式会社 Guide instrument placement error detection device
US9008757B2 (en) 2012-09-26 2015-04-14 Stryker Corporation Navigation system including optical and non-optical sensors
US10039606B2 (en) 2012-09-27 2018-08-07 Stryker European Holdings I, Llc Rotational position determination
US9646229B2 (en) * 2012-09-28 2017-05-09 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Method and system for bone segmentation and landmark detection for joint replacement surgery
US9387083B2 (en) 2013-01-30 2016-07-12 Conformis, Inc. Acquiring and utilizing kinematic information for patient-adapted implants, tools and surgical procedures
US9204937B2 (en) * 2013-02-19 2015-12-08 Stryker Trauma Gmbh Software for use with deformity correction
US20160296289A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2016-10-13 Concepto Llc Custom matched joint prosthesis replacement
KR20150126838A (en) 2013-03-15 2015-11-13 스트리커 코포레이션 End effector of a surgical robotic manipulator
US9492200B2 (en) 2013-04-16 2016-11-15 Arthrosurface Incorporated Suture system and method
US9427336B2 (en) * 2013-08-23 2016-08-30 Stryker Corporation Intraoperative dynamic trialing
US9848922B2 (en) 2013-10-09 2017-12-26 Nuvasive, Inc. Systems and methods for performing spine surgery
CA2941017A1 (en) * 2014-02-28 2015-09-03 Blue Belt Technologies, Inc. System and methods for positioning bone cut guide
EP3110345A4 (en) 2014-02-28 2017-11-22 Blue Belt Technologies, Inc. System and methods for positioning bone cut guide
US9931219B2 (en) 2014-03-07 2018-04-03 Arthrosurface Incorporated Implant and anchor assembly
KR101570856B1 (en) * 2014-05-16 2015-11-24 큐렉소 주식회사 Method for detecting bone position and apparatus using the method
CN106232010A (en) * 2014-07-02 2016-12-14 柯惠有限合伙公司 System and method for detecting trachea
US9913669B1 (en) 2014-10-17 2018-03-13 Nuvasive, Inc. Systems and methods for performing spine surgery
US20160220391A1 (en) * 2015-02-02 2016-08-04 Orthosoft Inc. Leg length calculation in computer-assisted surgery
KR101705199B1 (en) * 2015-05-12 2017-02-09 주식회사 코어라인소프트 System and method for simulation of repair operation of anterior cruciate ligament using medical images
US10058393B2 (en) 2015-10-21 2018-08-28 P Tech, Llc Systems and methods for navigation and visualization
US10004564B1 (en) 2016-01-06 2018-06-26 Paul Beck Accurate radiographic calibration using multiple images
US10010372B1 (en) 2016-01-06 2018-07-03 Paul Beck Marker Positioning Apparatus
US10136952B2 (en) * 2016-06-16 2018-11-27 Zimmer, Inc. Soft tissue balancing in articular surgery

Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4436684A (en) * 1982-06-03 1984-03-13 Contour Med Partners, Ltd. Method of forming implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery
US4821213A (en) * 1986-12-19 1989-04-11 General Electric Co. System for the simultaneous display of two or more internal surfaces within a solid object
US4822365A (en) * 1986-05-30 1989-04-18 Walker Peter S Method of design of human joint prosthesis
US4841975A (en) * 1987-04-15 1989-06-27 Cemax, Inc. Preoperative planning of bone cuts and joint replacement using radiant energy scan imaging
US4882679A (en) * 1987-11-27 1989-11-21 Picker International, Inc. System to reformat images for three-dimensional display
US4936862A (en) * 1986-05-30 1990-06-26 Walker Peter S Method of designing and manufacturing a human joint prosthesis
US4979949A (en) * 1988-04-26 1990-12-25 The Board Of Regents Of The University Of Washington Robot-aided system for surgery
US5007936A (en) * 1988-02-18 1991-04-16 Cemax, Inc. Surgical method for hip joint replacement
US5086401A (en) * 1990-05-11 1992-02-04 International Business Machines Corporation Image-directed robotic system for precise robotic surgery including redundant consistency checking
US5099846A (en) * 1988-12-23 1992-03-31 Hardy Tyrone L Method and apparatus for video presentation from a variety of scanner imaging sources
US5230623A (en) * 1991-12-10 1993-07-27 Radionics, Inc. Operating pointer with interactive computergraphics
US5305203A (en) * 1988-02-01 1994-04-19 Faro Medical Technologies Inc. Computer-aided surgery apparatus
US5383454A (en) * 1990-10-19 1995-01-24 St. Louis University System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head

Patent Citations (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4436684A (en) * 1982-06-03 1984-03-13 Contour Med Partners, Ltd. Method of forming implantable prostheses for reconstructive surgery
US4436684B1 (en) * 1982-06-03 1988-05-31
US4822365A (en) * 1986-05-30 1989-04-18 Walker Peter S Method of design of human joint prosthesis
US4936862A (en) * 1986-05-30 1990-06-26 Walker Peter S Method of designing and manufacturing a human joint prosthesis
US4821213A (en) * 1986-12-19 1989-04-11 General Electric Co. System for the simultaneous display of two or more internal surfaces within a solid object
US4841975A (en) * 1987-04-15 1989-06-27 Cemax, Inc. Preoperative planning of bone cuts and joint replacement using radiant energy scan imaging
US4882679A (en) * 1987-11-27 1989-11-21 Picker International, Inc. System to reformat images for three-dimensional display
US5305203A (en) * 1988-02-01 1994-04-19 Faro Medical Technologies Inc. Computer-aided surgery apparatus
US5007936A (en) * 1988-02-18 1991-04-16 Cemax, Inc. Surgical method for hip joint replacement
US4979949A (en) * 1988-04-26 1990-12-25 The Board Of Regents Of The University Of Washington Robot-aided system for surgery
US5154717A (en) * 1988-04-26 1992-10-13 The Board Of Regents Of The University Of Washington Robot-aided system for surgery
US5236432A (en) * 1988-04-26 1993-08-17 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Washington Robot-aided system for surgery
US5099846A (en) * 1988-12-23 1992-03-31 Hardy Tyrone L Method and apparatus for video presentation from a variety of scanner imaging sources
US5086401A (en) * 1990-05-11 1992-02-04 International Business Machines Corporation Image-directed robotic system for precise robotic surgery including redundant consistency checking
US5299288A (en) * 1990-05-11 1994-03-29 International Business Machines Corporation Image-directed robotic system for precise robotic surgery including redundant consistency checking
US5383454A (en) * 1990-10-19 1995-01-24 St. Louis University System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head
US5383454B1 (en) * 1990-10-19 1996-12-31 Univ St Louis System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head
US5230623A (en) * 1991-12-10 1993-07-27 Radionics, Inc. Operating pointer with interactive computergraphics

Non-Patent Citations (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Besl, P.J., & McKay, N.D., "A Method of Registration of 3-D Shapes," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 239-256 (Feb. 1992).
Besl, P.J., & McKay, N.D., A Method of Registration of 3 D Shapes, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 239 256 (Feb. 1992). *
Canny, J., "A Computational Approach to Edge Detection" IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI 8, No. 6, pp. 679-698 (Sep. 1986).
Canny, J., A Computational Approach to Edge Detection IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI 8, No. 6, pp. 679 698 (Sep. 1986). *
Caponetti, L. & Fanelli, A., "Computer-Aided Simulation for Bone surgery," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 13, No. 6, pp. 86-91 (Nov. 1993).
Caponetti, L. & Fanelli, A., Computer Aided Simulation for Bone surgery, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 13, No. 6, pp. 86 91 (Nov. 1993). *
Fada, M., Wang, T., Marcacci, M., Martelli, S., Dario, P., Marcenaro, G. Nanetti, M., Paggetti, C., Visani, A., & Zaffagnini, S., "Computer-Assisted Knee Arthroplasty at Rizzoli Institutes," MRCAS, vol. 1, Sessions I-III, pp. 26-30 (1994).
Fada, M., Wang, T., Marcacci, M., Martelli, S., Dario, P., Marcenaro, G. Nanetti, M., Paggetti, C., Visani, A., & Zaffagnini, S., Computer Assisted Knee Arthroplasty at Rizzoli Institutes, MRCAS, vol. 1, Sessions I III, pp. 26 30 (1994). *
Finlay, P.A., "OrthoSista™ An Active Surgical Localiser for Assisting Orthopaedic Fracture Fixation," Proceeding from the Second Annual International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, pp. 203-207 (Nov. 4-7, 1995).
Finlay, P.A., OrthoSista An Active Surgical Localiser for Assisting Orthopaedic Fracture Fixation, Proceeding from the Second Annual International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, pp. 203 207 (Nov. 4 7, 1995). *
Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc., 829 West Stadium Lane, Sacramento, California, 95834, "Robodoc" Surgical Assistant System.
Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc., 829 West Stadium Lane, Sacramento, California, 95834, Robodoc Surgical Assistant System. *
ISG Technologies Inc., 6509 Airport Road, Toronto, Ontario Canada, 14V 157 14161, "Technical Specifications: The Viewing Wand".
ISG Technologies Inc., 6509 Airport Road, Toronto, Ontario Canada, 14V 157 14161, Technical Specifications: The Viewing Wand . *
Kass, M., Witkin, A., & Terzopoulos, D., "Active Contour Models," International Journal of Computer Vision, pp. 321-331 (1988).
Kass, M., Witkin, A., & Terzopoulos, D., Active Contour Models, International Journal of Computer Vision, pp. 321 331 (1988). *
Kienzle, T., Stulberg, S., Peshkin, M. Quiad, A., Lea, J., Goswami, A. & Wu, C., "Total Knee Replacement," I.E.E.E. Engineering in Medicine & Biology 14, No. 3, pp. 301-306 (May/Jun. 1995).
Kienzle, T., Stulberg, S., Peshkin, M. Quiad, A., Lea, J., Goswami, A. & Wu, C., Total Knee Replacement, I.E.E.E. Engineering in Medicine & Biology 14, No. 3, pp. 301 306 (May/Jun. 1995). *
Lea, J.T. Mills, A., Peshkin, M.A., Watkins, D., Kienzle III, T.C., & Stulberg, S.D., "Registration and Immobilization for Robot-Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery," Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assited Surgery, MRCAS, vol. 1, Sessions I-III, pp. 63-68 (1994).
Lea, J.T. Mills, A., Peshkin, M.A., Watkins, D., Kienzle III, T.C., & Stulberg, S.D., Registration and Immobilization for Robot Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assited Surgery, MRCAS, vol. 1, Sessions I III, pp. 63 68 (1994). *
Phillips, R., Viant, W.J., Mohsen, A.M.M.A., Griffiths, J.G., Bell, M.A., Cain, T.J., Sherman, K.P., & Karpinski, M.R.K., "Image Guided Orthopaedic Surgery Design and Analysis," accepted for publication, IEE Transactions on Robotics Control (Mar. 1996).
Phillips, R., Viant, W.J., Mohsen, A.M.M.A., Griffiths, J.G., Bell, M.A., Cain, T.J., Sherman, K.P., & Karpinski, M.R.K., Image Guided Orthopaedic Surgery Design and Analysis, accepted for publication, IEE Transactions on Robotics Control (Mar. 1996). *
Picker International, Inc. World Headquarters, 595 Miner Road, Cleveland, Ohio, 44143, "ViewPoint" Workstation for Image-Guided Surgery: Product Data.
Picker International, Inc. World Headquarters, 595 Miner Road, Cleveland, Ohio, 44143, ViewPoint Workstation for Image Guided Surgery: Product Data. *
Potaminos, P., Davies, B.L., & Hibberd, R.D., "Intra-Operative Imaging Guidance for Keyhole Surgery Methodology and Calibration," Proceedings of the International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer-Assisted Surgery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 98-104 (Sep. 1994).
Potaminos, P., Davies, B.L., & Hibberd, R.D., Intra Operative Imaging Guidance for Keyhole Surgery Methodology and Calibration, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 98 104 (Sep. 1994). *
Santos Munne, J.J., Peshkin, M.A., Mirkovic, S., Stulberg, S.D., & Kiezle III, T.C., A Stereotactic/Robotic System for Pedicle Screw Placement, Interactive Technology and the New Paradigm for Healthcare Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality III, San Diego, CA, pp. 326 333 (Jan. 1995). *
Santos-Munne, J.J., Peshkin, M.A., Mirkovic, S., Stulberg, S.D., & Kiezle III, T.C., "A Stereotactic/Robotic System for Pedicle Screw Placement," Interactive Technology and the New Paradigm for Healthcare--Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality III, San Diego, CA, pp. 326-333 (Jan. 1995).

Cited By (1018)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6167296A (en) * 1996-06-28 2000-12-26 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for volumetric image navigation
US6591130B2 (en) 1996-06-28 2003-07-08 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method of image-enhanced endoscopy at a patient site
US20030032878A1 (en) * 1996-06-28 2003-02-13 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method and apparatus for volumetric image navigation
US7844320B2 (en) 1996-06-28 2010-11-30 Ramin Shahidi Method and apparatus for volumetric image navigation
US6553152B1 (en) 1996-07-10 2003-04-22 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for image registration
US6611630B1 (en) 1996-07-10 2003-08-26 Washington University Method and apparatus for automatic shape characterization
US8845687B2 (en) 1996-08-19 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Anchor for securing a suture
US9020788B2 (en) 1997-01-08 2015-04-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20020095083A1 (en) * 1997-03-11 2002-07-18 Philippe Cinquin Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data of endoprosthetic parts
US7033360B2 (en) 1997-03-11 2006-04-25 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data endoprosthetic parts
US20040181144A1 (en) * 1997-03-11 2004-09-16 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data of endoprosthetic parts
US6385475B1 (en) * 1997-03-11 2002-05-07 Philippe Cinquin Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data of endoprosthetic parts
US6915150B2 (en) 1997-03-11 2005-07-05 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data of endoprosthetic parts
US6370418B1 (en) * 1997-03-18 2002-04-09 Franciscus Pieter Bernoski Device and method for measuring the position of a bone implant
US20090030429A1 (en) * 1997-09-19 2009-01-29 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Robotic apparatus
US6993192B1 (en) * 1997-11-26 2006-01-31 Cognex Corporation Fast high-accuracy multi-dimensional pattern inspection
US6077082A (en) * 1998-02-02 2000-06-20 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. (Ita) Personal patient simulation
US8808329B2 (en) 1998-02-06 2014-08-19 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Apparatus and method for securing a portion of a body
US6298262B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2001-10-02 Neutar, Llc Instrument guidance for stereotactic surgery
US6529765B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2003-03-04 Neutar L.L.C. Instrumented and actuated guidance fixture for sterotactic surgery
US6546277B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2003-04-08 Neutar L.L.C. Instrument guidance system for spinal and other surgery
US20030187351A1 (en) * 1998-04-21 2003-10-02 Neutar L.L.C., A Maine Corporation Instrument guidance system for spinal and other surgery
US8270748B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-09-18 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8254695B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-08-28 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8335380B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-12-18 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8249362B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-08-21 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8244041B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-08-14 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8867847B2 (en) 1998-07-13 2014-10-21 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8363942B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2013-01-29 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8229222B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-07-24 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8331673B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-12-11 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8363972B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2013-01-29 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8363956B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2013-01-29 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8295613B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-10-23 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8320675B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-11-27 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US8265395B1 (en) 1998-07-13 2012-09-11 Cognex Corporation Method for fast, robust, multi-dimensional pattern recognition
US6351662B1 (en) 1998-08-12 2002-02-26 Neutar L.L.C. Movable arm locator for stereotactic surgery
US6282437B1 (en) 1998-08-12 2001-08-28 Neutar, Llc Body-mounted sensing system for stereotactic surgery
US8112142B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-02-07 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
USRE43282E1 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-03-27 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US8862202B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2014-10-14 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
US20040167390A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2004-08-26 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US20070203430A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-08-30 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Assessing Cartilage Loss
US9286686B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2016-03-15 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and assessing cartilage loss
US20080015433A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2008-01-17 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Devising Treatment
US20020087274A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2002-07-04 Alexander Eugene J. Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
US7881768B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2011-02-01 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US8036729B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2011-10-11 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US8306601B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-11-06 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US8265730B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2012-09-11 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and preventing damage
US8369926B2 (en) 1998-09-14 2013-02-05 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
US20070276224A1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-11-29 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the Condition of a Joint and Devising Treatment
US6633686B1 (en) 1998-11-05 2003-10-14 Washington University Method and apparatus for image registration using large deformation diffeomorphisms on a sphere
US6754374B1 (en) 1998-12-16 2004-06-22 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for processing images with regions representing target objects
US6694057B1 (en) * 1999-01-27 2004-02-17 Washington University Method and apparatus for processing images with curves
DE19936682C1 (en) * 1999-08-04 2001-05-10 Luis Schuster A process for producing an endoprosthesis as articular substitute for knee joints
US8845699B2 (en) 1999-08-09 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing tissue
US9626756B2 (en) * 1999-08-11 2017-04-18 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US8781557B2 (en) * 1999-08-11 2014-07-15 Osteoplastics, Llc Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US9275191B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2016-03-01 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US20150049929A1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2015-02-19 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US20120230566A1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2012-09-13 Case Western Reserve University Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US9330206B2 (en) * 1999-08-11 2016-05-03 Osteoplastics Llc Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US9672617B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2017-06-06 Osteoplastics, Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US20150032421A1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2015-01-29 Osteoplastics Llc Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US10068671B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2018-09-04 Osteoplastics, Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9292920B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2016-03-22 Osteoplastics, Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9208558B2 (en) * 1999-08-11 2015-12-08 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US9672302B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2017-06-06 Osteoplastics, Llc Producing a three-dimensional model of an implant
US20050084145A1 (en) * 1999-11-01 2005-04-21 Pelletier Jean P. Evaluating disease progression using magnetic resonance imaging
US7828852B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2010-11-09 Marctec, Llc. Inlaid articular implant
US9101443B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2015-08-11 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Methods for robotic arthroplasty
US8784495B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2014-07-22 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Segmental knee arthroplasty
US7749229B1 (en) 2000-01-14 2010-07-06 Marctec, Llc Total knee arthroplasty through shortened incision
US8133229B1 (en) 2000-01-14 2012-03-13 Marctec, Llc. Knee arthroplasty method
US8425522B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2013-04-23 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Joint replacement method
US20070173946A1 (en) * 2000-01-14 2007-07-26 Bonutti Peter M Inlaid articular implant
US7931690B1 (en) * 2000-01-14 2011-04-26 Marctec, Llc Method of resurfacing an articular surface of a bone
US20100312350A1 (en) * 2000-01-14 2010-12-09 Bonutti Peter M Segmental knee arthroplasty
US7806896B1 (en) 2000-01-14 2010-10-05 Marctec, Llc Knee arthroplasty method
US9795394B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2017-10-24 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method for placing implant using robotic system
US8632552B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2014-01-21 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of preparing a femur and tibia in knee arthroplasty
US7959635B1 (en) 2000-01-14 2011-06-14 Marctec, Llc. Limited incision total joint replacement methods
US7837736B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2010-11-23 Marctec, Llc Minimally invasive surgical systems and methods
US9192459B2 (en) 2000-01-14 2015-11-24 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of performing total knee arthroplasty
US8747439B2 (en) 2000-03-13 2014-06-10 P Tech, Llc Method of using ultrasonic vibration to secure body tissue with fastening element
US20040059398A1 (en) * 2000-03-14 2004-03-25 Visx, Incorporated Generating scanning spot locations for laser eye surgery
US7008415B2 (en) * 2000-03-14 2006-03-07 Visx, Inc. Generating scanning spot locations for laser eye surgery
US8936601B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2015-01-20 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8936602B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2015-01-20 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US9393032B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2016-07-19 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US20110276145A1 (en) * 2000-03-17 2011-11-10 Roger Carignan Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8419741B2 (en) 2000-03-17 2013-04-16 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8961529B2 (en) 2000-03-17 2015-02-24 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US8771281B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2014-07-08 Kinamed, Inc. Marking template for installing a custom replacement device for resurfacing a femur and associated installation method
US7837621B2 (en) 2000-04-07 2010-11-23 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided bone distraction
US6701174B1 (en) 2000-04-07 2004-03-02 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided bone distraction
US20040068187A1 (en) * 2000-04-07 2004-04-08 Krause Norman M. Computer-aided orthopedic surgery
WO2001076490A1 (en) * 2000-04-10 2001-10-18 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Medical device for positioning objects
US20030220698A1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2003-11-27 Dana Mears Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US6860903B2 (en) 2000-04-26 2005-03-01 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US7833275B2 (en) 2000-04-26 2010-11-16 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US6676706B1 (en) 2000-04-26 2004-01-13 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US6991656B2 (en) 2000-04-26 2006-01-31 Dana Mears Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US7780673B2 (en) 2000-04-26 2010-08-24 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US20070213833A1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2007-09-13 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US20050043810A1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2005-02-24 Dana Mears Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US6953480B2 (en) 2000-04-26 2005-10-11 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US20050177172A1 (en) * 2000-04-26 2005-08-11 Acker Dean M. Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty
US8814902B2 (en) 2000-05-03 2014-08-26 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing body tissue
US10058338B2 (en) 2000-07-24 2018-08-28 Mazor Robotics Ltd. Miniature bone-attached surgical robot
US20060089657A1 (en) * 2000-08-31 2006-04-27 Holger Broers Method and apparatus for finding the position of a mechanical axis of a limb
US20040054442A1 (en) * 2000-08-31 2004-03-18 Holger Broers Method and device for determining a load axis of an extremity
WO2002017798A1 (en) 2000-08-31 2002-03-07 Plus Endoprothetik Ag Method and device for determining a load axis of an extremity
US7611520B2 (en) 2000-08-31 2009-11-03 Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics Ag Method and apparatus for finding the position of a mechanical axis of a limb
US6928742B2 (en) 2000-08-31 2005-08-16 Plus Orthopedics Ag Method and apparatus for finding the position of a mechanical axis of a limb
FR2813780A1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2002-03-15 Biomet Merck France Procedure and instrument for determining theoretical articulation interline of knee joint for prosthesis
WO2002037935A3 (en) * 2000-10-23 2003-07-17 Norman M Krause Computer-aided orthopedic surgery
US6711432B1 (en) 2000-10-23 2004-03-23 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided orthopedic surgery
WO2002037935A2 (en) * 2000-10-23 2002-05-16 Krause Norman M Computer-aided orthopedic surgery
US20030236473A1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2003-12-25 Sylvie Dore High precision modeling of a body part using a 3D imaging system
US7636459B2 (en) 2000-10-31 2009-12-22 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (C.N.R.S.) High precision modeling of a body part using a 3D imaging system
US6510334B1 (en) 2000-11-14 2003-01-21 Luis Schuster Method of producing an endoprosthesis as a joint substitute for a knee joint
US7148815B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2006-12-12 Byron Scott Derringer Apparatus and method for detecting objects located on an airport runway
US20020080046A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2002-06-27 Derringer Byron Scott Apparatus and method for detecting objects located on an airport runway
WO2002061688A2 (en) * 2001-01-29 2002-08-08 The Acrobot Company Limited Modelling for surgery
US20040102866A1 (en) * 2001-01-29 2004-05-27 Harris Simon James Modelling for surgery
WO2002061688A3 (en) * 2001-01-29 2003-10-16 Acrobot Company Ltd Modelling for surgery
US6514259B2 (en) * 2001-02-02 2003-02-04 Carnegie Mellon University Probe and associated system and method for facilitating planar osteotomy during arthoplasty
US7117027B2 (en) 2001-02-07 2006-10-03 Synthes (Usa) Method for establishing a three-dimensional representation of a bone from image data
US20040111024A1 (en) * 2001-02-07 2004-06-10 Guoyan Zheng Method for establishing a three-dimensional representation of a bone from image data
WO2002062249A1 (en) * 2001-02-07 2002-08-15 Synthes Ag Chur Method for establishing a three-dimensional representation of bone x-ray images
US20020198451A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2002-12-26 Carson Christopher P. Surgical navigation systems and processes for high tibial osteotomy
US20020147455A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2002-10-10 Carson Christopher P. Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
WO2002067783A2 (en) * 2001-02-27 2002-09-06 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US20030069591A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2003-04-10 Carson Christopher Patrick Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US20050234468A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2005-10-20 Carson Christopher P Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US20110071528A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2011-03-24 Carson Christopher P Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
WO2002067784A2 (en) * 2001-02-27 2002-09-06 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee
US20070123912A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2007-05-31 Carson Christopher P Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
US20110071530A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2011-03-24 Carson Christopher P Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US6827723B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2004-12-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
WO2002067783A3 (en) * 2001-02-27 2003-04-24 Christopher P Carson Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US20110071531A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2011-03-24 Carson Christopher P Systems using imaging data to facilitate surgical procedures
WO2002067784A3 (en) * 2001-02-27 2003-02-13 Christopher P Carson Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee
US6923817B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2005-08-02 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US20050113846A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2005-05-26 Carson Christopher P. Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
US20020168618A1 (en) * 2001-03-06 2002-11-14 Johns Hopkins University School Of Medicine Simulation system for image-guided medical procedures
WO2002086797A1 (en) * 2001-03-06 2002-10-31 The John Hopkins University School Of Medicine Simulation method for designing customized medical devices
US7371067B2 (en) 2001-03-06 2008-05-13 The Johns Hopkins University School Of Medicine Simulation method for designing customized medical devices
US20020137014A1 (en) * 2001-03-06 2002-09-26 Anderson James H. Simulation method for designing customized medical devices
US6816607B2 (en) * 2001-05-16 2004-11-09 Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. System for modeling static and dynamic three dimensional anatomical structures by 3-D models
US8122582B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-02-28 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US20130103363A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2013-04-25 Conformis, Inc. Methods and Compositions for Articular Repair
US20030216669A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-11-20 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US20110071581A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-03-24 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US20130110471A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2013-05-02 Conformis, Inc. Methods and Compositions for Articular Repair
US9186161B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-11-17 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US8439926B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-05-14 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9579110B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-02-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9913723B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2018-03-13 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US9603711B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-03-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US9216025B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-12-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8460304B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-06-11 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9125672B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-09-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8377129B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-02-19 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9125673B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-09-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20100168754A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-07-01 Conformis, Inc. Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US8480754B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-07-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20100160917A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-06-24 Conformis, Inc. Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US8529630B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-09-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8366771B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-02-05 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US8545569B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US9107679B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-08-18 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9107680B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-08-18 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20110066193A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-03-17 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US9084617B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-07-21 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9072531B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-07-07 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9066728B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-06-30 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US8551099B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US8551103B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8551169B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9055953B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-06-16 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US7717956B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2010-05-18 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices formed in situ
US9023050B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-05-05 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US8062302B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-11-22 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US20110087332A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-04-14 Ray Bojarski Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8551102B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2013-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8556907B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8556906B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8556983B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US20070100462A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-05-03 Conformis, Inc Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US8998915B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-04-07 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9495483B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-11-15 Conformis, Inc. Automated Systems for manufacturing patient-specific orthopedic implants and instrumentation
US8561278B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9186254B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-11-17 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US8974539B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-03-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8562618B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9775680B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-10-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20030055502A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-03-20 Philipp Lang Methods and compositions for articular resurfacing
US8066708B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-11-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8951260B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-02-10 Conformis, Inc. Surgical cutting guide
US8568480B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-29 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20090312805A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-12-17 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US20070198022A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-08-23 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US8083745B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-12-27 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US8951259B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-02-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20130023884A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2013-01-24 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8945230B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-02-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US20050267584A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-12-01 Burdulis Albert G Jr Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US20100274534A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-10-28 Conformis, Inc. Automated Systems for Manufacturing Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants and Instrumentation
US9439767B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-09-13 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20070250169A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2007-10-25 Philipp Lang Joint arthroplasty devices formed in situ
US7534263B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2009-05-19 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US8926706B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2015-01-06 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8105330B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-01-31 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9700971B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-07-11 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US20090306676A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-12-10 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8562611B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-22 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8906107B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-12-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US8882847B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-11-11 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
US7618451B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2009-11-17 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing total and partial joint arthroplasty
US8568479B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-29 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20050234461A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2005-10-20 Burdulis Albert G Jr Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US9295482B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-03-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20090276045A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-11-05 Conformis, Inc. Devices and Methods for Treatment of Facet and Other Joints
US9308091B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-04-12 Conformis, Inc. Devices and methods for treatment of facet and other joints
US8585708B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-11-19 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8343218B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2013-01-01 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US9333085B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-05-10 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US9877790B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2018-01-30 Conformis, Inc. Tibial implant and systems with variable slope
US8617172B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-12-31 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20100281678A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-11-11 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools Facilitating Increased Accuracy, Speed and Simplicity in Performing Joint Arthroplasty
US8617242B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-12-31 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US8337507B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2012-12-25 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8234097B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-07-31 Conformis, Inc. Automated systems for manufacturing patient-specific orthopedic implants and instrumentation
US20090222103A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Articular Implants Providing Lower Adjacent Cartilage Wear
US8337501B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-12-25 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20080195216A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-08-14 Conformis, Inc. Implant Device and Method for Manufacture
US20080243127A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-10-02 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US9358018B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-06-07 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20040204760A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2004-10-14 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US8641716B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-02-04 Conformis, Inc. Joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US8657827B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-02-25 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US20080275452A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-06 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Cutting Guide
US20080281328A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-11-13 Conformis, Inc. Surgical Tools for Arthroplasty
US8690945B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-04-08 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
US9387079B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2016-07-12 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20100305574A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US8768028B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2014-07-01 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US7468075B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-12-23 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US20100305708A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Knee Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US20100305573A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20100329530A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2010-12-30 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Knee Joint Arthroplasty Devices
US20090222014A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-09-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US7981158B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2011-07-19 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20030109780A1 (en) * 2001-06-07 2003-06-12 Inria Roquencourt Methods and apparatus for surgical planning
US9532838B2 (en) 2001-06-07 2017-01-03 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for surgical planning
US7607440B2 (en) 2001-06-07 2009-10-27 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for surgical planning
US20070293734A1 (en) * 2001-06-07 2007-12-20 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for surgical planning
US8571710B2 (en) 2001-06-07 2013-10-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for surgical planning
US8170716B2 (en) 2001-06-07 2012-05-01 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for surgical planning
US20020194023A1 (en) * 2001-06-14 2002-12-19 Turley Troy A. Online fracture management system and associated method
US6795521B2 (en) 2001-08-17 2004-09-21 Deus Technologies Llc Computer-aided diagnosis system for thoracic computer tomography images
US20030035507A1 (en) * 2001-08-17 2003-02-20 Li-Yueh Hsu Computer-aided diagnosis system for thoracic computer tomography images
WO2003017187A1 (en) * 2001-08-17 2003-02-27 Deus Technologies, Llc Computer-aided diagnosis system for thoracic computer tomography images
US8858557B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2014-10-14 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of preparing a femur and tibia in knee arthroplasty
US7708741B1 (en) 2001-08-28 2010-05-04 Marctec, Llc Method of preparing bones for knee replacement surgery
US8840629B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2014-09-23 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Robotic arthroplasty system including navigation
US9060797B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2015-06-23 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of preparing a femur and tibia in knee arthroplasty
US8834490B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2014-09-16 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method for robotic arthroplasty using navigation
US9763683B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2017-09-19 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method for performing surgical procedures using optical cutting guides
US8641726B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2014-02-04 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method for robotic arthroplasty using navigation
US8623030B2 (en) 2001-08-28 2014-01-07 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Robotic arthroplasty system including navigation
WO2003041566A3 (en) * 2001-11-14 2004-02-26 Antony J Hodgson Methods and systems for intraoperative measurement of soft tissue constraints in computer aided total joint replacement surgery
WO2003041566A2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2003-05-22 University Of British Columbia Methods and systems for intraoperative measurement of soft tissue constraints in computer aided total joint replacement surgery
US20050256389A1 (en) * 2001-11-16 2005-11-17 Yoshio Koga Calculation method, calculation program and calculation system for information supporting arthroplasty
US9770238B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2017-09-26 P Tech, Llc Magnetic positioning apparatus
US20100172557A1 (en) * 2002-01-16 2010-07-08 Alain Richard Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
WO2003061501A3 (en) * 2002-01-16 2003-10-16 Alain Richard Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US20030225415A1 (en) * 2002-01-18 2003-12-04 Alain Richard Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US7715602B2 (en) 2002-01-18 2010-05-11 Orthosoft Inc. Method and apparatus for reconstructing bone surfaces during surgery
US20070169782A1 (en) * 2002-02-11 2007-07-26 Crista Smothers Image-guided fracture reduction
US9636185B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2017-05-02 Mako Surgical Corp. System and method for performing surgical procedure using drill guide and robotic device operable in multiple modes
US10058392B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2018-08-28 Mako Surgical Corp. Neural monitor-based dynamic boundaries
US20040106916A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2004-06-03 Z-Kat, Inc. Guidance system and method for surgical procedures with improved feedback
US8095200B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2012-01-10 Mako Surgical Corp. System and method for using a haptic device as an input device
US20060142657A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2006-06-29 Mako Surgical Corporation Haptic guidance system and method
US8571628B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2013-10-29 Mako Surgical Corp. Apparatus and method for haptic rendering
US7747311B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2010-06-29 Mako Surgical Corp. System and method for interactive haptic positioning of a medical device
US8911499B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2014-12-16 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance method
US8391954B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2013-03-05 Mako Surgical Corp. System and method for interactive haptic positioning of a medical device
US20040034283A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2004-02-19 Quaid Arthur E. System and method for interactive haptic positioning of a medical device
US20040024311A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2004-02-05 Quaid Arthur E. System and method for haptic sculpting of physical objects
US8010180B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2011-08-30 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance system and method
US20090000626A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2009-01-01 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance system and method
US9775682B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2017-10-03 Mako Surgical Corp. Teleoperation system with visual indicator and method of use during surgical procedures
US20090012532A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2009-01-08 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance system and method
US7206626B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2007-04-17 Z-Kat, Inc. System and method for haptic sculpting of physical objects
US7206627B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2007-04-17 Z-Kat, Inc. System and method for intra-operative haptic planning of a medical procedure
US9002426B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2015-04-07 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance system and method
US20090000627A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2009-01-01 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance system and method
US20040034302A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2004-02-19 Abovitz Rony A. System and method for intra-operative haptic planning of a medical procedure
US7831292B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2010-11-09 Mako Surgical Corp. Guidance system and method for surgical procedures with improved feedback
US20100137882A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2010-06-03 Z-Kat, Inc. System and method for interactive haptic positioning of a medical device
US9775681B2 (en) 2002-03-06 2017-10-03 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance system and method
US20040034282A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2004-02-19 Quaid Arthur E. System and method for using a haptic device as an input device
US20090012531A1 (en) * 2002-03-06 2009-01-08 Mako Surgical Corp. Haptic guidance system and method
US20040106908A1 (en) * 2002-03-11 2004-06-03 Leise Walter F. Method of manufacturing soft convex adhesive wafer
US20040073211A1 (en) * 2002-04-05 2004-04-15 Ed Austin Orthopaedic fixation method and device with delivery and presentation features
US7139432B2 (en) * 2002-04-10 2006-11-21 National Instruments Corporation Image pattern matching utilizing discrete curve matching with a mapping operator
US20030198389A1 (en) * 2002-04-10 2003-10-23 Lothar Wenzel Image pattern matching utilizing discrete curve matching with a mapping operator
US20060015120A1 (en) * 2002-04-30 2006-01-19 Alain Richard Determining femoral cuts in knee surgery
JP2005523766A (en) * 2002-04-30 2005-08-11 オルトソフト インコーポレイテッド Decision on the femoral cut in knee surgery
JP2010264277A (en) * 2002-04-30 2010-11-25 Orthosoft Inc Determining femoral cuts in knee surgery
US8257360B2 (en) 2002-04-30 2012-09-04 Orthosoft Inc. Determining femoral cuts in knee surgery
US20050119783A1 (en) * 2002-05-03 2005-06-02 Carnegie Mellon University Methods and systems to control a cutting tool
US8801720B2 (en) 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
US8801719B2 (en) 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
US20090131941A1 (en) * 2002-05-15 2009-05-21 Ilwhan Park Total joint arthroplasty system
US20050149050A1 (en) * 2002-05-21 2005-07-07 Jan Stifter Arrangement and method for the intra-operative determination of the position of a joint replacement implant
US20050182320A1 (en) * 2002-05-21 2005-08-18 Jan Stifter Arrangement for ascertaining function-determining geometric parameters of a joint of a vertebrate
US8396598B2 (en) 2002-08-13 2013-03-12 Neuroarm Surgical Ltd. Microsurgical robot system
US20080004632A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2008-01-03 Sutherland Garnette R Microsurgical robot system
US20080161830A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2008-07-03 Garnette Roy Sutherland Microsurgical Robot System
US20070032906A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2007-02-08 Sutherland Garnette R Microsurgical robot system
US20100063630A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2010-03-11 Garnette Roy Sutherland Microsurgical robot system
US20080161677A1 (en) * 2002-08-13 2008-07-03 Garnette Roy Sutherland Methods Relating to Microsurgical Robot System
US9220567B2 (en) 2002-08-13 2015-12-29 Neuroarm Surgical Ltd. Microsurgical robot system
US8041459B2 (en) 2002-08-13 2011-10-18 Neuroarm Surgical Ltd. Methods relating to microsurgical robot system
US8170717B2 (en) 2002-08-13 2012-05-01 Neuroarm Surgical Ltd. Microsurgical robot system
US8005571B2 (en) 2002-08-13 2011-08-23 Neuroarm Surgical Ltd. Microsurgical robot system
US7388972B2 (en) * 2002-09-26 2008-06-17 Meridian Technique Limited Orthopaedic surgery planning
US20050054917A1 (en) * 2002-09-26 2005-03-10 David Kitson Orthopaedic surgery planning
US20040133276A1 (en) * 2002-10-07 2004-07-08 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-Dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US8709089B2 (en) * 2002-10-07 2014-04-29 Conformis, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US7799077B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2010-09-21 Conformis, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with 3-dimensional geometry matching the articular surfaces
US20110066245A1 (en) * 2002-10-07 2011-03-17 Conformis, Inc. Minimally Invasive Joint Implant with 3-Dimensional Geometry Matching the Articular Surfaces
US20060155380A1 (en) * 2002-10-23 2006-07-13 Mako Surgical Corporation Modular femoral component for a total knee joint replacement for minimally invasive implantation
US7799084B2 (en) 2002-10-23 2010-09-21 Mako Surgical Corp. Modular femoral component for a total knee joint replacement for minimally invasive implantation
US20040147927A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-07-29 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US8932363B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2015-01-13 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US7796791B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2010-09-14 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US8077950B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2011-12-13 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US8634617B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2014-01-21 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US8965088B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2015-02-24 Conformis, Inc. Methods for determining meniscal size and shape and for devising treatment
US20100303317A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2010-12-02 Conformis, Inc. Methods for Determining Meniscal Size and Shape and for Devising Treatment
US20040160440A1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-08-19 Karl Barth Method for surface-contouring of a three-dimensional image
US7376254B2 (en) * 2002-11-25 2008-05-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for surface-contouring of a three-dimensional image
US8454616B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2013-06-04 Zimmer, Inc. Method and apparatus for achieving correct limb alignment in unicondylar knee arthroplasty
US20060247647A1 (en) * 2002-11-27 2006-11-02 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for achieving correct limb alignment in unicondylar knee arthroplasty
US7842039B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2010-11-30 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for achieving correct limb alignment in unicondylar knee arthroplasty
US20060282023A1 (en) * 2002-12-03 2006-12-14 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method of determining the position of the articular point of a joint
US20040106861A1 (en) * 2002-12-03 2004-06-03 Francois Leitner Method of determining the position of the articular point of a joint
US7209776B2 (en) 2002-12-03 2007-04-24 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method of determining the position of the articular point of a joint
US7780677B2 (en) 2002-12-03 2010-08-24 Aesculap Ag Method of determining the position of the articular point of a joint
US20070282347A9 (en) * 2002-12-20 2007-12-06 Grimm James E Navigated orthopaedic guide and method
US20040172044A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-09-02 Grimm James E. Surgical instrument and method of positioning same
US20050209605A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2005-09-22 Grimm James E Navigated orthopaedic guide and method
US20040122305A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-06-24 Grimm James E. Surgical instrument and method of positioning same
US7029477B2 (en) 2002-12-20 2006-04-18 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Surgical instrument and positioning method
US20060149276A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2006-07-06 Grimm James E Surgical instrument and positioning method
US20040230186A1 (en) * 2003-01-30 2004-11-18 Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung Trading As Carl Zeiss Apparatus for the treatment of body tissue
US7335223B2 (en) * 2003-01-30 2008-02-26 Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung Apparatus for the treatment of body tissue
US20040153062A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-05 Mcginley Shawn E. Surgical navigation instrument useful in marking anatomical structures
US20040152955A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-05 Mcginley Shawn E. Guidance system for rotary surgical instrument
US20040171930A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-09-02 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Guidance system for rotary surgical instrument
US20070038223A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2007-02-15 Joel Marquart Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus and method
US20040167654A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Implant registration device for surgical navigation system
US20040168322A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-09-02 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Razor head having skin controlling means
US6925339B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2005-08-02 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Implant registration device for surgical navigation system
US7458977B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2008-12-02 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Surgical navigation instrument useful in marking anatomical structures
US6988009B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2006-01-17 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Implant registration device for surgical navigation system
US20060173293A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2006-08-03 Joel Marquart Method and apparatus for computer assistance with intramedullary nail procedure
US20060241416A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2006-10-26 Joel Marquart Method and apparatus for computer assistance with intramedullary nail procedure
US9801686B2 (en) 2003-03-06 2017-10-31 Mako Surgical Corp. Neural monitor-based dynamic haptics
CN100489873C (en) 2003-04-22 2009-05-20 伊诺托拉实验室联合股份公司 Device for assistance in the selection of a compression prosthesis and in adapting the compression prosthesis to the morphology of a limb
US20040240715A1 (en) * 2003-05-29 2004-12-02 Wicker Ryan B. Methods and systems for image-guided placement of implants
US7194120B2 (en) 2003-05-29 2007-03-20 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Methods and systems for image-guided placement of implants
US6932823B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2005-08-23 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Detachable support arm for surgical navigation system reference array
US20040267242A1 (en) * 2003-06-24 2004-12-30 Grimm James E. Detachable support arm for surgical navigation system reference array
US20070183668A1 (en) * 2003-07-22 2007-08-09 Jason Davis Methods for finding and characterizing a deformed pattern in an image
US9147252B2 (en) 2003-07-22 2015-09-29 Cognex Technology And Investment Llc Method for partitioning a pattern into optimized sub-patterns
US8081820B2 (en) 2003-07-22 2011-12-20 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation Method for partitioning a pattern into optimized sub-patterns
US8345979B2 (en) 2003-07-22 2013-01-01 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation Methods for finding and characterizing a deformed pattern in an image
US20050033108A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-10 Sawyer Timothy E. Tumor treatment identification system
US8055323B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2011-11-08 Imquant, Inc. Stereotactic system and method for defining a tumor treatment region
US7343030B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2008-03-11 Imquant, Inc. Dynamic tumor treatment system
US20050041843A1 (en) * 2003-08-05 2005-02-24 Sawyer Timothy E. Dynamic tumor treatment system
US20060195048A1 (en) * 2003-09-13 2006-08-31 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for determining the angle between the femur and the tibia
US20050075632A1 (en) * 2003-10-03 2005-04-07 Russell Thomas A. Surgical positioners
US7862570B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2011-01-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical positioners
US8491597B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2013-07-23 Smith & Nephew, Inc. (partial interest) Surgical positioners
US7764985B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2010-07-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US20050085822A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2005-04-21 Thornberry Robert C. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US20100249581A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2010-09-30 Mccombs Daniel L Surgical Navigation System Component Fault Interfaces and Related Processes
US20050119639A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2005-06-02 Mccombs Daniel L. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US7794467B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2010-09-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Adjustable surgical cutting systems
US20110238073A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US9241724B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-01-26 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9241725B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-01-26 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9295481B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-03-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9375222B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-06-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9113921B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2015-08-25 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9308005B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-04-12 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
WO2005051240A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2005-06-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee joint arthroplasty devices
CN102805677B (en) * 2003-11-25 2015-11-25 康复米斯公司 Selectively forming apparatus patient's knee
US20050109855A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2005-05-26 Mccombs Daniel Methods and apparatuses for providing a navigational array
JP2007514470A (en) * 2003-11-25 2007-06-07 コンフォーミス・インコーポレイテッドConforMIS, Inc. Selectable knee arthroplasty device for each patient
US20110230888A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-22 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110218584A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-08 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110218539A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-08 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US9314256B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-04-19 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20110213368A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110213373A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110213377A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110213430A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110213374A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110213429A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110213428A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US9381025B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-07-05 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20110213427A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US20110213431A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2011-09-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient Selectable Joint Arthroplasty Devices and Surgical Tools
US9408615B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2016-08-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20050113659A1 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-05-26 Albert Pothier Device for data input for surgical navigation system
US8808375B2 (en) 2003-12-17 2014-08-19 Surgenco, Llc Anti-backout arthroscopic uni-compartmental prosthesis
US20050137713A1 (en) * 2003-12-17 2005-06-23 Bertram Morton Iii Anti-backout arthroscopic uni-compartmental prosthesis
US20050137584A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-06-23 Lemchen Marc S. Method and apparatus for providing facial rejuvenation treatments
US7083611B2 (en) * 2003-12-19 2006-08-01 Marc S. Lemchen Method and apparatus for providing facial rejuvenation treatments
US7641661B2 (en) 2003-12-26 2010-01-05 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Adjustable resection guide
US10085839B2 (en) 2004-01-05 2018-10-02 Conformis, Inc. Patient-specific and patient-engineered orthopedic implants
US20110144760A1 (en) * 2004-01-05 2011-06-16 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific and Patient-Engineered Orthopedic Implants
US20050234332A1 (en) * 2004-01-16 2005-10-20 Murphy Stephen B Method of computer-assisted ligament balancing and component placement in total knee arthroplasty
US20050159759A1 (en) * 2004-01-20 2005-07-21 Mark Harbaugh Systems and methods for performing minimally invasive incisions
US20050197569A1 (en) * 2004-01-22 2005-09-08 Mccombs Daniel Methods, systems, and apparatuses for providing patient-mounted surgical navigational sensors
US20060036162A1 (en) * 2004-02-02 2006-02-16 Ramin Shahidi Method and apparatus for guiding a medical instrument to a subsurface target site in a patient
US20050267353A1 (en) * 2004-02-04 2005-12-01 Joel Marquart Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus and method
US7927338B2 (en) 2004-02-10 2011-04-19 Tornier Sas Surgical device for implanting a total hip prosthesis
US20050192575A1 (en) * 2004-02-20 2005-09-01 Pacheco Hector O. Method of improving pedicle screw placement in spinal surgery
US20070276397A1 (en) * 2004-02-20 2007-11-29 Pacheco Hector O Method for improving pedicles screw placement in spinal surgery
US9044252B2 (en) 2004-02-20 2015-06-02 Leucadia 6, Llc Method for improving pedicles screw placement in spinal surgery
US7235076B2 (en) 2004-02-20 2007-06-26 Pacheco Hector O Method of improving pedicle screw placement in spinal surgery
US20050215888A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2005-09-29 Grimm James E Universal support arm and tracking array
US20060052691A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2006-03-09 Hall Maleata Y Adjustable navigated tracking element mount
US20050209598A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-22 Grimm James E Navigated orthopaedic guide and method
US20060122618A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2006-06-08 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Navigated cut guide locator
US8114086B2 (en) 2004-03-08 2012-02-14 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Navigated cut guide locator
US20070073306A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2007-03-29 Ryan Lakin Cutting block for surgical navigation
US7993341B2 (en) 2004-03-08 2011-08-09 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Navigated orthopaedic guide and method
US20050228266A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Mccombs Daniel L Methods and Apparatuses for Providing a Reference Array Input Device
US20050234466A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-20 Jody Stallings TLS adjustable block
US20050234465A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-20 Mccombs Daniel L Guided saw with pins
US20050228404A1 (en) * 2004-04-12 2005-10-13 Dirk Vandevelde Surgical navigation system component automated imaging navigation and related processes
US20070287910A1 (en) * 2004-04-15 2007-12-13 Jody Stallings Quick Disconnect and Repositionable Reference Frame for Computer Assisted Surgery
US8109942B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2012-02-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty
US20050245808A1 (en) * 2004-04-21 2005-11-03 Carson Christopher P Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty
CN1295651C (en) * 2004-05-13 2007-01-17 上海交通大学 Composite calibration method of mold surface optical measurement system
JP4724711B2 (en) * 2004-06-15 2011-07-13 ジンマー ゲゼルシャフト ミット ベシュレンクテル ハフツング Robotized apparatus and method does not use the image to induce tool for surgery
US20070156157A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2007-07-05 Zimmer Gmbh Imageless robotized device and method for surgical tool guidance
WO2005122916A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2005-12-29 Zimmer Gmbh An imageless robotized device and method for surgical tool guidance
JP2008502396A (en) * 2004-06-15 2008-01-31 ジマーゲーエムベーハー Robotized apparatus and method does not use the image to induce tool for surgery
US20050279368A1 (en) * 2004-06-16 2005-12-22 Mccombs Daniel L Computer assisted surgery input/output systems and processes
US8167888B2 (en) 2004-08-06 2012-05-01 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Tibial spacer blocks and femoral cutting guide
US20060036257A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2006-02-16 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Tibial spacer blocks and femoral cutting guide
US7617072B2 (en) * 2004-09-06 2009-11-10 Laboratoires Innothera Device for creating a full three-dimensional representation of a limb of a patient from a reduced number of measurements taken from said limb
FR2875043A1 (en) * 2004-09-06 2006-03-10 Innothera Sa Lab Device for establishing a complete three-dimensional representation of a patient's limb from a reduced number of measurements taken at Member
US20080270069A1 (en) * 2004-09-06 2008-10-30 Francois Cros Device for Creating a Full Three-Dimensional Representation of a Limb of a Patient From a Reduced Number of Measurements Taken From Said Limb
CN101040301B (en) 2004-09-06 2011-06-08 伊诺托拉实验室联合股份公司 Device for creating a full three-dimensional representation of a limb of a patient from a reduced number of measurements taken from saidlimb
WO2006027490A1 (en) * 2004-09-06 2006-03-16 Laboratoires Innothera, (Sas) Device for creating a full three-dimensional representation of a limb of a patient from a reduced number of measurements taken from said limb
US20060058638A1 (en) * 2004-09-14 2006-03-16 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and device for the diagnosis and treatment of aortic aneurysms
US8437502B1 (en) 2004-09-25 2013-05-07 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation General pose refinement and tracking tool
WO2006048651A1 (en) * 2004-11-04 2006-05-11 The Acrobot Company Ltd Model-based positional estimation method
US20110166832A1 (en) * 2004-11-04 2011-07-07 The Acrobot Company Ltd Model-based positional estimation method
US20090089026A1 (en) * 2004-11-04 2009-04-02 New Loom House Model-based positional estimation method
US8744819B2 (en) * 2004-11-04 2014-06-03 Mako Surgical Corp. Model-based positional estimation method
US20060190011A1 (en) * 2004-12-02 2006-08-24 Michael Ries Systems and methods for providing a reference plane for mounting an acetabular cup during a computer-aided surgery
US20060161051A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2006-07-20 Lauralan Terrill-Grisoni Method of computer-assisted ligament balancing and component placement in total knee arthroplasty
US20060161059A1 (en) * 2005-01-20 2006-07-20 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Variable geometry reference array
US8055487B2 (en) 2005-02-22 2011-11-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Interactive orthopaedic biomechanics system
US8177788B2 (en) 2005-02-22 2012-05-15 Smith & Nephew, Inc. In-line milling system
US20060195198A1 (en) * 2005-02-22 2006-08-31 Anthony James Interactive orthopaedic biomechanics system
JP2008531163A (en) * 2005-03-01 2008-08-14 キングズ カレッジ ロンドン Surgery planning
US20100100132A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2010-04-22 Leucadia 6, Llc System and methods for improved access to vertebral bodies for kyphoplasty, vertebroplsaty, vertebral body biopsy or screw placement
US20060235338A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2006-10-19 Hector Pacheco System and methods for improved access to vertebral bodies for kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, vertebral body biopsy or screw placement
US8167884B2 (en) 2005-03-07 2012-05-01 Leucadia 6, Llc System and methods for improved access to vertebral bodies for kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, vertebral body biopsy or screw placement
US8214014B2 (en) 2005-03-07 2012-07-03 Leucadia 6, Llc System and methods for improved access to vertebral bodies for kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, vertebral body biopsy or screw placement
US7623902B2 (en) 2005-03-07 2009-11-24 Leucadia 6, Llc System and methods for improved access to vertebral bodies for kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, vertebral body biopsy or screw placement
US20060239577A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-10-26 Piatt Joseph H Process of using computer modeling, reconstructive modeling and simulation modeling for image guided reconstructive surgery
US20100272332A1 (en) * 2005-03-24 2010-10-28 Kevin Walker Method and System for Characterization of Knee Joint Morphology
US7760923B2 (en) * 2005-03-24 2010-07-20 Optasia Medical Limited Method and system for characterization of knee joint morphology
US7929745B2 (en) * 2005-03-24 2011-04-19 Optasia Medical Limited Method and system for characterization of knee joint morphology
US20110124981A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2011-05-26 Roche Martin W Method for Detecting Body Parameters
US8372147B2 (en) 2005-03-29 2013-02-12 Martin W. Roche Method for detecting body parameters
US8372153B2 (en) 2005-03-29 2013-02-12 Martin W. Roche Method for detecting body parameters
US20110118565A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2011-05-19 Roche Martin W Method for Detecting Body Parameters
US20110118567A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2011-05-19 Roche Martin W Method for Detecting Body Parameters
US20110118566A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2011-05-19 Roche Martin W Method for Detecting Body Parameters
US20110213221A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2011-09-01 Roche Martin W Method for Detecting Body Parameters
US8444654B2 (en) 2005-03-29 2013-05-21 Martin W. Roche Method for detecting body parameters
US7918887B2 (en) 2005-03-29 2011-04-05 Roche Martin W Body parameter detecting sensor and method for detecting body parameters
US20060224088A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2006-10-05 Roche Martin W Body parameter detecting sensor and method for detecting body parameters
US8449556B2 (en) 2005-03-29 2013-05-28 Martin W. Roche Method for detecting body parameters
US9451919B2 (en) 2005-03-29 2016-09-27 Orthosensor Inc. Method for detecting body parameters
US8761859B2 (en) 2005-03-29 2014-06-24 Martin W. Roche Method for detecting body parameters
WO2006106335A1 (en) * 2005-04-06 2006-10-12 Depuy International Ltd Registration system and method
US20080255442A1 (en) * 2005-04-06 2008-10-16 Alan Ashby Registration system and method
US20060241638A1 (en) * 2005-04-08 2006-10-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Anatomical landmark guide
US8282685B2 (en) * 2005-04-13 2012-10-09 Tornier Sas Surgical apparatus for implantation of a partial of total knee prosthesis
US8002839B2 (en) 2005-04-13 2011-08-23 Tornier Sas Surgical apparatus for implantation of a partial or total knee prosthesis
US20060235538A1 (en) * 2005-04-13 2006-10-19 Tornier Surgical apparatus for implantation of a partial of total knee prosthesis
US20070270718A1 (en) * 2005-04-13 2007-11-22 Tornier Surgical apparatus for implantation of a partial or total knee prosthesis
WO2006119387A3 (en) * 2005-05-02 2007-01-18 Daniel L Mccombs System and method for determining tibial rotation
JP2008539885A (en) * 2005-05-02 2008-11-20 スミス アンド ネフュー インコーポレーテッド System and method for determining the rotation of the tibial
WO2006119387A2 (en) * 2005-05-02 2006-11-09 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for determining tibial rotation
US20060281063A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2006-12-14 Mcclain Lolita A Interactive Radiological sciences clinical training system
US20070016008A1 (en) * 2005-06-23 2007-01-18 Ryan Schoenefeld Selective gesturing input to a surgical navigation system
US7840256B2 (en) 2005-06-27 2010-11-23 Biomet Manufacturing Corporation Image guided tracking array and method
US20070016009A1 (en) * 2005-06-27 2007-01-18 Lakin Ryan C Image guided tracking array and method
US20070038059A1 (en) * 2005-07-07 2007-02-15 Garrett Sheffer Implant and instrument morphing
US8583220B2 (en) 2005-08-02 2013-11-12 Biosense Webster, Inc. Standardization of catheter-based treatment for atrial fibrillation
US7681579B2 (en) 2005-08-02 2010-03-23 Biosense Webster, Inc. Guided procedures for treating atrial fibrillation
US20070032826A1 (en) * 2005-08-02 2007-02-08 Yitzhack Schwartz Standardization of catheter-based treatment for atrial fibrillation
US7877128B2 (en) * 2005-08-02 2011-01-25 Biosense Webster, Inc. Simulation of invasive procedures
US20070043285A1 (en) * 2005-08-02 2007-02-22 Yitzhack Schwartz Simulation of invasive procedures
US7983777B2 (en) 2005-08-19 2011-07-19 Mark Melton System for biomedical implant creation and procurement
US20070203605A1 (en) * 2005-08-19 2007-08-30 Mark Melton System for biomedical implant creation and procurement
US20100332197A1 (en) * 2005-08-19 2010-12-30 Mark Melton System for biomedical implant creation and procurement
US20070073137A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-29 Ryan Schoenefeld Virtual mouse for use in surgical navigation
US20070073133A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-29 Schoenefeld Ryan J Virtual mouse for use in surgical navigation
US7643862B2 (en) 2005-09-15 2010-01-05 Biomet Manufacturing Corporation Virtual mouse for use in surgical navigation
US20070066917A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2007-03-22 Hodorek Robert A Method for simulating prosthetic implant selection and placement
US20110092978A1 (en) * 2005-11-04 2011-04-21 Mccombs Daniel L Systems and methods for facilitating surgical procedures involving custom medical implants
US20070118055A1 (en) * 2005-11-04 2007-05-24 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for facilitating surgical procedures involving custom medical implants
US20070149977A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2007-06-28 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Surgical component positioner
US20070156066A1 (en) * 2006-01-03 2007-07-05 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Device for determining the shape of an anatomic surface
US7520880B2 (en) 2006-01-09 2009-04-21 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Adjustable surgical support base with integral hinge
US20070173849A1 (en) * 2006-01-09 2007-07-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Adjustable surgical support base with integral hinge
US20070173850A1 (en) * 2006-01-10 2007-07-26 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Bone resection guide and method
US7744600B2 (en) 2006-01-10 2010-06-29 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Bone resection guide and method
US20100286699A1 (en) * 2006-01-23 2010-11-11 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Bone resection apparatus and method for knee surgery
US7780671B2 (en) 2006-01-23 2010-08-24 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Bone resection apparatus and method for knee surgery
US8500740B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2013-08-06 Conformis, Inc. Patient-specific joint arthroplasty devices for ligament repair
US9326780B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2016-05-03 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools incorporating anatomical relief
US9308053B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2016-04-12 Conformis, Inc. Patient-specific joint arthroplasty devices for ligament repair
US8623026B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2014-01-07 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools incorporating anatomical relief
US9220517B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2015-12-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US9220516B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2015-12-29 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
US20100298894A1 (en) * 2006-02-06 2010-11-25 Conformis, Inc. Patient-Specific Joint Arthroplasty Devices for Ligament Repair
US20070233141A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2007-10-04 Ilwhan Park Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US9017336B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2015-04-28 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US9808262B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2017-11-07 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20070226986A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2007-10-04 Ilwhan Park Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20070239153A1 (en) * 2006-02-22 2007-10-11 Hodorek Robert A Computer assisted surgery system using alternative energy technology
US8377066B2 (en) * 2006-02-27 2013-02-19 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US9539013B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-01-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US20110190899A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-08-04 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific augments
US9918740B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2018-03-20 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Backup surgical instrument system and method
US20110166578A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-07-07 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Alignment guides with patient-specific anchoring elements
US8568487B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-10-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific hip joint devices
US8133234B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-03-13 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific acetabular guide and method
US20090024131A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-01-22 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific guides
US8603180B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US9339278B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9345548B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pre-operative planning
US8608749B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US8900244B2 (en) * 2006-02-27 2014-12-02 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide and method
US9173661B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-11-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific alignment guide with cutting surface and laser indicator
US9700329B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-07-11 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US8608748B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific guides
US20120109138A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2012-05-03 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific acetabular guide and method
US20110015636A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-01-20 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Elbow Guides and Associated Methods
US8864769B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2014-10-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Alignment guides with patient-specific anchoring elements
US20130131681A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2013-05-23 Biomet Manufacturing Corporation Patient-Specific Elbow Guides And Associated Methods
US8070752B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2011-12-06 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific alignment guide and inter-operative adjustment
US9522010B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-12-20 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US20110160736A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-06-30 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific femoral guide
US9113971B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-08-25 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Femoral acetabular impingement guide
US8535387B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-09-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific tools and implants
US20090163922A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2009-06-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Acetabular Guide And Method
US9913734B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2018-03-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US9005297B2 (en) * 2006-02-27 2015-04-14 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US20110172672A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-07-14 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Instrument with transparent portion for use with patient-specific alignment guide
US8282646B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-10-09 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US20100087829A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2010-04-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Alignment Guide With Cutting Surface and Laser Indicator
US9480580B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-11-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US20080161815A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2008-07-03 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US9662216B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-05-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific hip joint devices
US9480490B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-11-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific guides
US8241293B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-08-14 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific high tibia osteotomy
US20100152782A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2010-06-17 Biomet Manufactring Corp. Patient Specific High Tibia Osteotomy
US20110092804A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-04-21 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Pre-Operative Planning
US8828087B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2014-09-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific high tibia osteotomy
US9662127B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2017-05-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9289253B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-03-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific shoulder guide
US20110093086A1 (en) * 2006-02-27 2011-04-21 Witt Tyler D Patient-Specific Hip Joint Devices
US8591516B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-11-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US9504579B2 (en) 2006-03-17 2016-11-29 Zimmer, Inc. Methods of predetermining the contour of a resected bone surface and assessing the fit of a prosthesis on the bone
US8231634B2 (en) 2006-03-17 2012-07-31 Zimmer, Inc. Methods of predetermining the contour of a resected bone surface and assessing the fit of a prosthesis on the bone
US20070255288A1 (en) * 2006-03-17 2007-11-01 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Methods of predetermining the contour of a resected bone surface and assessing the fit of a prosthesis on the bone
US8165659B2 (en) 2006-03-22 2012-04-24 Garrett Sheffer Modeling method and apparatus for use in surgical navigation
US20070239409A1 (en) * 2006-04-08 2007-10-11 Millman Alan Method and system for interactive simulation of materials
US8786613B2 (en) 2006-04-08 2014-07-22 Alan Millman Method and system for interactive simulation of materials and models
US8395626B2 (en) 2006-04-08 2013-03-12 Alan Millman Method and system for interactive simulation of materials
US20070293936A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-12-20 Dobak John D Iii Systems and methods for creating customized endovascular stents and stent grafts
US9492237B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2016-11-15 Mako Surgical Corp. Method and apparatus for controlling a haptic device
US8287522B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2012-10-16 Mako Surgical Corp. Method and apparatus for controlling a haptic device
US10028789B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2018-07-24 Mako Surgical Corp. Method and apparatus for controlling a haptic device
US9724165B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2017-08-08 Mako Surgical Corp. System and method for verifying calibration of a surgical device
US9795399B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2017-10-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US8979936B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2015-03-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-modified implant
US20080114370A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2008-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Alignment Guide For Multiple Incisions
US8858561B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2014-10-14 Blomet Manufacturing, LLC Patient-specific alignment guide
US8092465B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2012-01-10 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US20090254093A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2009-10-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-Specific Alignment Guide
US8398646B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2013-03-19 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US8298237B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2012-10-30 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific alignment guide for multiple incisions
US20070288030A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient Specific Knee Alignment Guide And Associated Method
US9993344B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2018-06-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-modified implant
US9861387B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2018-01-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US7491180B2 (en) 2006-06-28 2009-02-17 Pacheco Hector O Apparatus and methods for templating and placement of artificial discs
US20080009945A1 (en) * 2006-06-28 2008-01-10 Pacheco Hector O Apparatus and methods for templating and placement of artificial discs
US8460302B2 (en) 2006-12-18 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20080163118A1 (en) * 2006-12-29 2008-07-03 Jason Wolf Representation of file relationships
US20080175464A1 (en) * 2007-01-16 2008-07-24 Optasia Medical, Ltd. Computer program products and methods for detection and tracking of rheumatoid arthritis
US8126242B2 (en) 2007-01-16 2012-02-28 Optasia Medical Limited Computer program products and methods for detection and tracking of rheumatoid arthritis
EP2111153A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2009-10-28 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Method and apparatus for coodinated display of anatomical and neuromonitoring information
US8735773B2 (en) 2007-02-14 2014-05-27 Conformis, Inc. Implant device and method for manufacture
US8731885B2 (en) * 2007-03-06 2014-05-20 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Method and apparatus for preparing for a surgical procedure
US20080269906A1 (en) * 2007-03-06 2008-10-30 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Method and apparatus for preparing for a surgical procedure
US8380471B2 (en) * 2007-03-06 2013-02-19 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Method and apparatus for preparing for a surgical procedure
US20120022657A1 (en) * 2007-03-06 2012-01-26 Iannotti Joseph P Method and apparatus for preparing for a surgical procedure
US8014984B2 (en) * 2007-03-06 2011-09-06 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Method and apparatus for preparing for a surgical procedure
US20080249394A1 (en) * 2007-04-03 2008-10-09 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for improved rotational alignment in joint arthroplasty
US7967868B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2011-06-28 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant and associated method
US8473305B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-06-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US9907659B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2018-03-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US8407067B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-03-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US20110184526A1 (en) * 2007-04-17 2011-07-28 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant
US20090254367A1 (en) * 2007-04-17 2009-10-08 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and Apparatus for Manufacturing an Implant
US8486150B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-07-16 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant
US9913692B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2018-03-13 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning using captured joint motion information
US10064685B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2018-09-04 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning for multiple implant components using constraints
US9827051B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2017-11-28 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning using captured joint motion information
US9101394B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2015-08-11 Mako Surgical Corp. Implant planning using captured joint motion information
US8444651B2 (en) 2007-05-14 2013-05-21 Queen's University At Kingston Patient-specific surgical guidance tool and method of use
US9351744B2 (en) 2007-05-14 2016-05-31 Queen's University At Kingston Patient-specific surgical guidance tool and method of use