US20090277103A1 - Building, in particular a dwelling, and method of erecting it - Google Patents

Building, in particular a dwelling, and method of erecting it Download PDF

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Publication number
US20090277103A1
US20090277103A1 US12/310,943 US31094307A US2009277103A1 US 20090277103 A1 US20090277103 A1 US 20090277103A1 US 31094307 A US31094307 A US 31094307A US 2009277103 A1 US2009277103 A1 US 2009277103A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
column
gable
frame
facade
columns
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Abandoned
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US12/310,943
Inventor
Jean-Francois De Jaham
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SIMPEX ANTILLES Sarl
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SIMPEX ANTILLES Sarl
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Priority to FR0653715 priority Critical
Priority to FR0653715A priority patent/FR2905710A1/en
Application filed by SIMPEX ANTILLES Sarl filed Critical SIMPEX ANTILLES Sarl
Priority to PCT/FR2007/051915 priority patent/WO2008031989A2/en
Assigned to SIMPEX ANTILLES S.A.R.L. reassignment SIMPEX ANTILLES S.A.R.L. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: DE JAHAM, JEAN-FRANCOIS
Publication of US20090277103A1 publication Critical patent/US20090277103A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • E04B1/2604Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B2001/268Connection to foundations

Abstract

A building having a structure fastened to the ground comprises walls structured by means of facade and gable frames fastened between columns. The roof is formed by a structure comprising rafters and purlins. The purlins and the rafters respectively rest on a column and are held laterally in place between two vertical members each belonging to a frame. Prefabricated panels fastened to the frames and to the columns complete the closure of the walls and roof. The whole structure is self-stable and self-braced.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a building, in particular for use as a private home or office. It also relates to a method of assembly. The invention concerns in particular buildings in the category of lightweight homes permitting a simplified and rapid construction.
  • The invention preferably concerns those buildings with a basic structure mainly constructed of wood but they can also be constructed of metal beams.
  • The problems encountered by these buildings are of several types.
  • Firstly, these buildings quite often do not present the same robustness which is obtained when constructing a traditional home using materials which are not only heavy but also more time consuming in their use (cement, breeze blocks, iron bars.)
  • Another problem arises during construction due to the number of people required for the assembly of the structure and the cost of labor required by the very nature of the assemblies which are necessary to the solidarity of the construction.
  • The bracing of the structure and consequently the resistance to harsh weather conditions is also a problem for these lightweight homes. To this effect, it is quite often necessary to initially put together the four walls and then the roof so that the structure is self-stable and correctly braced. The weight of the roof frame and the roof is distributed over all the walls. The solidarity of the structure essentially depends therefore on the quality of the liaison between the walls and the ground, between the walls themselves and on the liaison between the walls and the various elements making up the roof frame and the roof.
  • Thus, during severe meteorological conditions, for example very high winds in tropical latitudes, the roof and its framework are primarily affected and in particular the joints with the walls with, in extreme cases, a roof being blown apart from the walls. During earth tremors or more simply earth motions, it is the walls which are primarily required to further support the weight of the roof with a risk therefore of a roof crushing the walls when their bracing will be no longer adequate.
  • The present invention proposes a solution to all of these problems through means of a structure which is assembled from easily transportable modular elements and through means of a system of assembly which permits the erection of a self-supporting structure, braced and moreover rendering the structure of the walls completely connected to those of the roof frame and therefore the roof.
  • This structure, thus assembled, fixed to the ground, receives in a second stage, prefabricated cladding panels providing the acoustic and thermal insulation necessary for the building.
  • Moreover, most of these elements being suitable for pre-assembly in the workshop, the on-site assembly of the building is rapid, being able to be carried out by a smaller workforce, in the extreme by one person, resulting in reduced costs.
  • The invention ensures that a bracing of all the elements constituting the structure of the walls is connected to those of the roof frame. The rigidity thus conferred to the whole building comes closer to that which is obtained in the case of a traditional home.
  • The building in the invention uses primarily columns, facade and gable frames, purlins, rafters and, preferably fixing wall and/or column shoes to solve this problem.
  • According to the invention, the simple and efficient bracing is obtained by placing the rafters and or the purlins above the columns, between the frames which are themselves fixed to the columns.
  • The object of the invention is therefore a building with, in preference over a floor, walls comprising of one or several frames linked on both sides to columns and a roof formed by a structure comprising one or several purlins and or rafters, characterised in that one purlin and or one rafter sits respectively on one column and are held in place laterally between two vertical members, fixed on the column and each belonging to a frame.
  • The object of the invention is also a method of assembling a building with, in preference over a floor, walls comprising of one or several frames linked on both sides to columns and a roof formed by a structure comprising one or several purlins and or rafters, characterised in that, in this order:
      • the gable and facade columns are erected one after another, each one fixed to the ground by a fixing shoe,
      • the gable and facade frames are put next to each other and fixed to the columns,
      • a ridge purlin is placed on two central columns of the gables and between two gable frame vertical members,
      • rafters are placed against the ridge purlin, over a facade column and between the vertical members of the facade frames.
  • The invention will be more easily understood when reading the following description and studying the accompanying drawings. These are only presented as an indication and are not limitative to the invention.
  • FIG. 1: represents a general view of the building in the invention.
  • FIG. 2: represents a gable view of the structure in the invention having a ridge purlin.
  • FIGS. 3 and 4: represent respectively in profile and in cross-section views of the process of assembling the frames and columns using nuts and threaded rods.
  • FIG. 1 represents a building according to the invention. This building comprises columns 1 between which sit the facade frames 2. Rafters 3 suspended from a ridge 4 purlin are placed on the columns 1.
  • A facade frame 2, comprises a lower 5 member, an upper 6 member and, possibly, intermediate cross beams 7. These intermediate cross beams 7 are placed at regular intervals between each of the two vertical 8 members of the facade 2 frame. The fixing of the cross beams 7 onto the vertical members is done, for example, using the tenon and mortise technique. The cross beams 7 are designed to rigidify and to brace the facade 2 frames as well as the frames on the gable of the building.
  • A rafter 3 is fixed according to various techniques: on the ridge 4 purlin, or directly through a socket joint or lying on a sag bar 4.1 or connected in a metallic fitting fixed and screwed against the ridge 4 purlin.
  • This rafter end fixed on to the ridge 4 purlin is bevelled in order to give the rafters 3 the same slope as the roof.
  • Thus, it is according to this same cross angle that a summit 9 of a column 1 receiving the second end of the rafter 3 will also be bevelled in order that the underside of the rafter 3 rests on its summit 9 while giving it the desired roof slope.
  • The beveling of the summit 9 of a facade column can also be done in advance in the workshop, based on the slope of the roof covering.
  • A facade frame 2 is fixed, along its two vertical 8 members, between two facade columns. Thus the width (lp) corresponding with the column 1 section according to a parallel axe of the rafter and perpendicular to the ridge purlin corresponds, according to the same axe, to the width (lc) corresponding with a vertical member of the facade 2 frame. It is however possible, according to one variation, to have a width (lc) of the vertical 8 member of the frame 2 smaller than that (lp) of the column, this, for example, in order to leave room for the width of a cladding and therefore leave the facade of a column on view in the form of half-timbering. But according to another variation, this vertical 8 member of the column 2 can have a width greater to that (lp) of the column.
  • A column 1, being set on the ground, is preferably kept firmly in place using a shoe 10, for example metallic, itself solidly set in the ground or in the floor of the building. This makes it easy to erect each column 1 before these are themselves fixed to a frame 2. A fixing 10 shoe also prevents direct contact between the column and the ground and consequently prevents damp from rising.
  • In the same way, the facade frames 2 as well as the gable frames 12 do not sit directly on the ground but on a piece 11 of wood sandwiched equally between two facade 1 columns or between two gable 14 columns.
  • This piece 11 has a thickness (e) noticeably equal to that of the fixing shoe 10 of a column and is, in the same way, set and screwed into the ground. The width of this piece 11 is noticeably identical to that of the columns 1 and 14. This piece 11 also serves to prevent rising damp in the structure of the facade frame 2 in particular through its lower member but also to absorb, in part, any eventual ground constraints.
  • Each rafter 3 is supported by a column 1, a vertical 8 member of a facade 2 frame is fixed along the lateral part of this same column 1. A vertical 8 member of a second facade 2 frame is fixed on the second lateral part of the column 1 opposite to the first and also parallel to the longitudinal axe of the rafter 3. The respective surfaces 6.1 and 8.1 of the upperside of the upper 6 member and the upperside of the vertical 8 member of each frame is therefore flush with the upperside of 3.1 of the rafter. The rafter 3 is therefore held laterally between the two members 8.
  • FIG. 2 shows the summit of a gable of the building in the invention. On this figure, two gable 12 frames have one of their members fixed respectively on one of the two faces of a central 13 column on which the ridge 4 purlin is sitting. The plane of these faces is angled in accordance with the longitudinal axe of the ridge purlin. The second vertical (8) member of each of the two gable (12) frames is fixed respectively on a gable 14 column.
  • The upper 15 member of each of the two gable 12 frames follows a slope identical to that of the roof structure. This member presents a surface defined by its length and its width facing towards the ground and a surface according to its length and its thickness parallel to the gable. The width (lm) of this member 15 is identical to the width (lc) of a gable frame 12 vertical 8 member and in preference to the width of the surface of the gable 14 column perpendicular to the gable surface.
  • The intersection of the vertical 8 member of a gable frame 12 and its upper 15 member placed and fixed against the side of the ridge 4 purlin, comes to an end, in preference, at the summit of this same ridge 4 purlin. Thus the complete height H of the ridge purlin sitting on the central 13 column is completely framed and held laterally between two vertical 8 members each belonging to a gable frame 12.
  • It is possible in one variation of the invention that this upper end of a gable frame 12 could not come to an end at the summit of the ridge purlin but, for example, at two thirds of the way in order to leave sufficient room for the thickness of prefabricated panels used for the final roof covering. This space can also make it possible to place an additional rafter 3 covering the whole upperside of a gable, that is the upperside of the upper 15 members of the frames as well as the upperside of the gable columns 14. This additional rafter thus increases the rigidity of the gable.
  • According to the invention, the width of the central 13 column in the gable surface is identical to the thickness (e) of the ridge 4 purlin. According to a variation similar to that given for the facade 2 frames, a width (lc) of a gable frame vertical 8 member can be smaller than the width of a gable 14 column, width situated in a surface perpendicular to the gable surface and on which the gable 12 frame is fixed.
  • Therefore, a space corresponding to the thickness of a possible cladding panel for gable frames can be left thus leaving visible, once in place, the width of a gable 14 column in the surface of the gable, like half-timbering on the gable. In this case, the surface of the cladding panel is noticeably flush to the visible surface of the column 14 on the external gable face of the building.
  • The surfaces respectively corresponding to the upperside of an upper 15 member and the vertical 8 member of the gable frame 12, the upperside 3.1 of a rafter 3 and the summit 14.1 of a gable column 14 are flush and sloped according to the slope of the roof.
  • In order that, the prefabricated panels are fixed, for example screwed from above or fixed with fixing brackets from underneath, on the rafters 3 and other upper 6 and 15 members respectively of the frame 2 and 12 in order to form the roof. The gable and facade frames are pre-assembled and include two vertical members 8, a lower horizontal 5 member and an upper member 6, 15. Horizontal cross beams 7 are assembled between the two vertical 8 members. These cross beams 7 are designed to improve the rigidity of the frame.
  • The columns 1, 13 and 14 are designed to transfer the entire weight of the roof to the ground, this, bearing the weight of the purlins 4, the rafters 3 or other carrying elements forming the roof frame.
  • The structure of the building does not require foundations. The columns are firstly erected and then fixed to metallic shoes 10, themselves solidly fastened in the ground or the floor. These columns 1, 13 and 14 are, initially, by means of the shoes 10, easily erected around the periphery of the building according to, in one simplified example, two gables and two facades. It is nonetheless possible to design buildings which include more than two gables or facades.
  • The positioning of a column in relation to another takes into account both the desired distance between two rafters 3 concerning the columns 1 on a facade, or the distance between two purlins 4 for the columns 14 on a gable as well as the size of the frames 2 and 12 positioned respectively between two columns 1 and two columns 14.
  • The size of the frames 2 and 12 depends on the rigidity desired depending on the section of their vertical 8 and horizontal 5 members, and their possible cross beams 7. They also depend on the desired dimensions of the openings on the inside of these same frames 2 and 12 for positioning doors and windows.
  • If the simplicity and speed of assembly depends mainly on elements such as prefabricated gable 12 and facade 2 frames, the robustness of the building as well as its bracing are ensured thanks to the notion of supporting, both the ridge 4 purlin and or the intermediate 4 purlins and the rafters 3 on the columns 1, 13 and 14 and holding in place each of these elements laterally between two vertical members 8 each belonging to a frame 2, 12 fixed on both sides to a column 1, 13 and 14.
  • The two gable 12 frames surrounding the ridge 4 purlin are thus connected to each other and to the column 13 of the central gable. In the same manner, a second gable 12 frame is also fixed on each side of the two sections of the roof between the second and third gable 14 column which also has an upper 6 member aligned with the slope of the first gable frame. In doing this, the second gable 14 column and all the following ones have their upper surface 14.1 bevelled and angled according to the slope of the roof.
  • In the same manner, the bolted threads 16 along a column 1, 13 and 14 connect the vertical 8 members erected on each side of this column. Thus the two gables of the building are assembled bearing the ridge 4 purlin.
  • By proceeding thus, the intermediary 4 purlins can be positioned between the ridge 4 purlin and a facade in order to provide support for the longest rafters 3 and thus avoid a buckling effect on the slope of the roof.
  • To these ends, each intermediary 4 purlin is placed on a non-bevelled gable column 14. The summit of the intermediate purlin is therefore bevelled according to the slope of the roof.
  • In preference, in order to increase the rigidity of a gable or facade frame and also the entire structure of the building, high, low and intermediate cross beams are positioned between the two vertical 8 members of a frame 2 and 12 so that once the structure of the facades and gables is in place, one or several transversal lines noticeably form at a same height around the periphery of the building. A line can be broken by the presence of a door or window type opening.
  • The structure of the building thus designed provides a structure which is self-supporting and self-bracing conferring a high degree of rigidity to the assembled structure.
  • Assembly is however simple and rapid, since the defining walls of the building (gables and facades) are assembled before the placing and fixing of the ridge 4 purlin and all the primary rafters 3.
  • The frames 2 and 12 are easily erected by setting them on their base on the ground thus permitting their easy handling and simplified positioning when they are fixed along the columns of the building's construction.
  • Finally, cladding is applied to the walls of the building depending on the desired character of the building. This cladding is placed on the various frames and is screwed into both the profile of the four members and the cross beams.
  • The structure being self-supporting, the cladding composed of prefabricated panels does not bear the weight of the roof frame and the roof.
  • The panels being prefabricated according to their dimensions sometimes require additional calpinage. These panels are of a sandwich structure having a first hardboard layer approximately 13 mm followed by an insulator such as polyurethane or polystyrene or rockwool which provide thermal and sound insulation. Finally, a third layer also of approximately 13 mm also composed of hardboard closes this same panel. The roof frame can also have a traditional tile or slate calpinage.
  • Depending on the dimension of the building and therefore on the height of the gable frames, the cross beams are in preference positioned at identical distances.
  • The fixing of the four members forming a frame 2 and 12 as well as the possible fixing of cross beams on the two vertical 8 members can be done in a traditional manner with, for example, screws but also, and in preference, by tenon and mortise.
  • This latter possibility, as well as conferring a great rigidity to the frame, also makes it easier to absorb any possible constraints without there being hard points inside the wood which could weaken an element.
  • It should be noted that for relatively small structures, by simply disconnecting the metallic shoes 10 from the ground it is possible to move the building, the respective roof and wall structures of which are completely connected, from one location to another, on large trucks for example.
  • FIGS. 3 and 4 show a method of assembly used for linking the vertical members of the frames to the columns as well as to the rafters 3 and purlins 4.
  • Threaded rods 16 with bolt heads are used for this with a section, indicative, of approximately 8 to 12 mm. The bolt heads being possibly round or square, screwed on both sides of the parts being assembled, the associated rods 16 going through each of the same parts.
  • The bolted rods 16 going through each of the vertical 8 members belonging to a gable 12 frame and through the purlin 4. The next ones are placed all along the column 14, through the column and the two vertical 8 members each belonging to a specific gable 12 frame.
  • In the same manner, at the summit of a facade frame 2, a first rod 16 goes through the vertical 8 member of this same facade frame, the rafter 3 sitting on the column 1 receiving the frame 2 and finally the second vertical 8 member of a second facade frame 2 placed on the other side of the column 1 and the rafter 3.
  • The bolt heads thus screwed on each end of the rod 16, against the face of each vertical 8 member facing the inside of the frame 2, sandwich the assembly together.
  • The structure of the roof frame is thus completely connected to the structure of the walls of the building faced with both vertical constraints, for example a very high wind presenting the risk of a roof being torn off, and horizontal constraints, for example the effects of soil shear.
  • The method of fixing is the same for the rods 16 placed below the first rod with the exception that they do not go through the rafter 3 supported on the column.
  • As an indication, the space between two bolt heads along a vertical 8 member is approximately 20 to 30 cm.
  • In preference, where the bolt head of a rod 16 is tightened onto a vertical 8 member, the member 8 is bevelled to prevent the bolt head from sitting proud of the surface of this same member 8.
  • In the same manner, a bolt fixed on a corner column, that is at the joint between a facade and a gable, also has two bevels in its thickness for receiving the rod 16 bolt heads enabling the vertical 8 member to be fixed to a facade frame 2 on one side and this to a gable frame 12 on the other.
  • FIG. 4 shows the profile 17 of cladding applied both on the surfaces of the columns on the facade side and gable side as well as on the facade and gable frames.
  • These claddings are for example fixed by means of screws through the columns 1, 13 and 14 and vertical 8 members of the frames. This cladding consists of hardboard panels or sandwich type panels as previously described. These panels allowing the application all over the walls of the building of coverings such as, for example, render or paint.
  • The floor of the building consists of a covering fixed to the ground, for example a tiled floor or a wooden parquet floor.
  • A simple cement screed laid on the ground and in the dimensions of the base of the structure onto which are directly fixed metallic shoes 10 and brackets 11 at the base of the frames 2 and 12 is sufficient in itself.
  • Door and window frames are positioned directly between the vertical 8 members cutting out the cross beams 7.
  • According to a preferred mode of embodiment, the material used for the construction of frames, purlins and rafters is wood with exotic varieties such as teak, jatoba and takamaka or pine varieties such as treated class 4 Landes pine.
  • In one variation, these elements can be made from metal elements such as interlocking tubes connected, for example with screws and nuts.
      • The method of assembling the structure of the building is in the following order:
        • erect the gable 14 and facade 1 columns one after another, each one fixed to the ground by a fixing shoe 10,
        • put together and fix the gable 12 frames and the facade 2 frames to the columns 1,
        • place a ridge 4 purlin on two central 13 columns of the gables and between two gable frame 12 vertical 8 members,
        • place the rafters 3 against the ridge 4 purlin, above a facade 1 column and between the vertical 8 members of facade frames 2.
  • In preference, the placing of the first columns 1 and or 14 and respectively the first frames 2 and or 12 are done at an angle of the building for better stability and from the shortest frames towards the highest to simplify the placing and fixing of these.

Claims (9)

1-8. (canceled)
9. A building, comprising:
a plurality of columns;
walls over a floor, each wall comprising one or more frames linked on both sides to said plurality of columns; and
a roof having a slope and formed by a structure comprising at least one purlin or rafter, wherein each rafter sits on a column which has a summit bevelled in accordance with said slope of said roof; and
wherein said each rafter is held in place laterally between two vertical members, and fixed on said column, said each rafter being associated with a frame comprising two vertical members, a lower horizontal member, an upper member and intermediate horizontal cross beams, said upper member of said frame substantially following an angle corresponding to said slope of said roof.
10. The building of claim 1, wherein said structure comprises a purlin sitting on a column, said purlin is held in place laterally between two vertical members and fixed on said column, and said purlin is associated with a frame comprising said two vertical members, said lower horizontal member, said upper member and horizontal intermediate cross beams, said upper member of said frame substantially following said angle corresponding to said slope of said roof.
11. The building of claim 1, wherein said plurality of columns includes a central gable column having a side corresponding to a section of said central gable column and said structure comprises a ridge purlin; and wherein a width of said side is substantially identical to a thickness (e) of said ridge purlin.
12. The building of claim 1, wherein said plurality of columns includes a facade column having a side corresponding to a section of said facade column and said structure comprises a rafter; and wherein a width (ec) of said rafter is substantially identical to a width of said side of said facade column.
13. The building of claim 1, wherein said one or more frames comprises either a gable frame or a facade frame; and wherein said at least one purlin rafter is substantially or partially inserted between said two vertical members belonging to said gable frame or said at least one rafter is substantially or partially inserted between said two vertical members associated with said facade frame.
14. The building of claim 1, further comprising a fixing shoe for fixing said column to the ground.
15. The building of claim 1, wherein said plurality of columns comprises a gable column having an upperside; and wherein surfaces of said upperside of said gable column, an upper side of said at least one rafter, a vertical member and said upper member of said frame are flush with respect to each other.
16. A method for assembling a building comprising walls over a floor, each wall comprising one or more frames linked on both sides to columns to said plurality of columns and a roof formed by a structure comprising at least one purlin or rafter, the method comprising the steps in the following order:
erecting gable and facade columns one after another, each column being fixed to the ground by a fixing shoe;
constructing gable and facade frames and fixing said gable and facade frames to said columns;
positioning a ridge purlin on two central columns of a gable frame and between two vertical members of said gable frame; and
positioning a rafter against said ridge purlin, above a facade column and between two vertical members of a facade frame.
US12/310,943 2006-09-13 2007-09-12 Building, in particular a dwelling, and method of erecting it Abandoned US20090277103A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0653715 2006-09-13
FR0653715A FR2905710A1 (en) 2006-09-13 2006-09-13 Building edifice and method, in particular housing
PCT/FR2007/051915 WO2008031989A2 (en) 2006-09-13 2007-09-12 Building, in particular a dwelling, with frames and columns and method of erecting it

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EP (1) EP2061936B1 (en)
CA (1) CA2663156A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2905710A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2008031989A2 (en)

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WO2008031989A3 (en) 2008-05-08
FR2905710A1 (en) 2008-03-14
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EP2061936A2 (en) 2009-05-27
EP2061936B1 (en) 2013-07-17

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